The Life and Death of Mr. Badman
John Bunyan

Part 3 out of 5

Secondly, After this, let him consider, {98b} how, and by what
means he was brought into such a condition, that he could not pay
his just debts. To wit, whether it was by his own remisness in his
Calling, by living too high in Dyet or Apparel, by lending too
ravishingly that which was none of his own, to his loss; or whether
by the immediate hand and Judgment of God.

If by searching, he findes, that this is come upon him through
remisness in his Calling, Extravagancies in his Family, or the
like; let him labour for a sence of his sin and wickedness, {98c}
for he has sinned against the Lord: First, in his being slothfull
in business, and in not providing, to wit, of is own, by the sweat
of his brows, or other honest ways, for those of his own house.
{98d} And secondly in being lavishing in Dyet and Apparel in the
Family, or in lending to others that which was none of his own.
This cannot be done with good conscience: it is both against
reason and nature, and therefore must be a sin against God. I say
therefore, if thus this debtor hath done, if ever he would live
quietly in conscience, and comfortably in his condition for the
future, let him humble himself before God, and repent of this his
wickedness. For he that is slothfull in his work, is brother to
him that is a great waster. {98e} To be slothfull and a waster
too, is to be as it were a double sinner.

But again, as this man should enquire into these things, so he
should also into this. How came I into this way of dealing in
which I have now miscarried? is it a way that my Parents brought me
up in, put me Apprentice to, or that by providence I was first
thrust into? or is it a way into which I have twisted my self, as
not being contented with my first lot, that by God and my Parents I
was cast into? This ought duly to be considered. {98f} And if
upon search, a man shall find that he is out of the place and
Calling into which he was put by his Parents, or the Providence of
God, and has miscarried in a new way, that through pride and
dislike of his first state he as chose rather to embrace; his
miscarriage is his sin, the fruit of his Pride, and a token of the
Judgment of God upon him for his leaving of his first state. And
for this he ought, as for the former, to be humble and penitent
before the Lord.

But if by search, he finds, that his poverty came by none of these;
if by honest search, he finds it so, and can say with good
conscience, I went not out of my place and state in which God by
his providence had put me; but have abode with God in the calling
wherein I was called, and have wrought hard, and fared meanly, been
civilly apparelled, and have not directly, nor indirectly made away
with my Creditors goods: Then has his fall come upon him by the
immediate hand of God, whether by visible or invisible wayes. For
sometimes it comes by visible wayes, to wit, by Fire, by Thieves,
by loss of Cattel, or the wickedness of sinful dealers, &c. And
sometimes by means invisible, and then no man knows how; we only
see things are going, but cannot see by what way they go. Well,
Now suppose that a man, by an immediate hand of God is brought to a
morsel of Bread, what must he do now?

I answer: His surest way is still to think, that this is the fruit
of some sin, though possibly not sin in the management of his
calling, yet of some other sin. God casteth away the substance of
the wicked. Therefore let him still humble himself before his God,
because his hand is upon him, and say, What sin is this, for which
this hand of God is upon me? and let him be diligent to find it
out, for some sin is the cause of this Judgment; for God doth not
willingly afflict nor grieve the children of men. Either the heart
is too much set upon the world, or Religion is too much neglected
in thy Family, or some thing. There is a Snake in the grass, a
Worm in the gourd; some sin in thy bosom, for the sake of which God
doth thus deal with thee.

Thirdly, This thus done, let that man again consider thus with
himself: Perhaps God is now changing of my Condition and state in
the world; he has let me live in fashion, in fulness, and abundance
of worldly glory, and I did not to his glory improve, as I should,
that his good dispensation to me. {100a} But when I lived in full
and fat pasture, I did there lift up the heel: Therefore he will
now turn me into hard Commons, that with leanness, and hunger, and
meanness, and want, I may spend the rest of my days. But let him
do this without murmering, and repining; let him do it in a godly
manner, submitting himself to the Judgment of God. Let the rich
rejoyce in that he is made low. {100b}

This is duty, and it may be priviledg to those that are under this
hand of God. And for thy encouragement to this hard work, (for
this is a hard work) consider of these four things. {100c}

1. This is right lying down under Gods hand, and the way to be
exalted in Gods time: when God would have Job embrace the
Dunghill, he embraces it, and says, The Lord giveth, and the Lord
hath taken away, blessed be the name of the Lord. {100d}

2. Consider, That there are blessings also that attend a low
condition, more than all the world are aware of. A poor condition
has preventing mercy attending of it. The poor, because they are
poor, are not capable of sinning against God as the rich man does.

3. The Poor can more clearly see himself preserved by the
providence of God than the rich, for he trusteth in the abundance
of his riches. {100e}

4. It may be God has made thee poor, because he would make thee
rich. Hearken my beloved brethren, hath not God chosen the poor of
this world, rich in Faith, and heirs of a Kingdom which God hath
promised to them that love him? {100f}

I am perswaded, if men upon whom this hand of God is, would thus
quietly lye down, and humble themselves under it, they would find
more peace, yea, more blessing of God attending them in it, than
the most of men are aware of. But this is an hard Chapter, and
therefore I do not expect that many should either read it with
pleasure, or desire to take my counsel.

Having thus spoken to the Broken man, with reference to his own
self; I will now speak to him as he stands related to his

In the next place therefore, let him fall upon the most {101a}
honest way of dealing with his Creditors, and that I think must be

First, Let him timely make them acquainted with his condition, and
also do to them these three things.

1. Let him heartily, and unfeignedly ask them forgiveness for the
wrong that he has done them.

2. Let him proffer them all, and the whole all that ever he has in
the world; let him hide nothing, let him strip himself to his
raiment for them; let him not keep a Ring, a Spoon, or any thing
from them.

3. If none of these two will satisfie them, let him proffer them
his Body, to be at their dispose, to wit, either to abide
imprisonment their pleasure, or to be at their service, till by
labour and travel he hath made them such amends as they in reason
think fit, (only reserving something for the succour of his poor
and distressed Family out of his labour, which in Reason, and
Conscience, and Nature, he is bound also to take care of:) Thus
shall he make them what amends he is able, for the Wrong that he
hath done them in wasting and spending of their Estates.

By thus doing, he submits himself to Gods rod, commits himself to
the dispose of his Providence; yea, by thus doing, he casteth the
lot of his present and future condition into the lap of his
Creditors, and leaves the whole dispose thereof to the Lord, {101b}
even as he shall order and incline their hearts to do with him.
And let that be either to forgive him; or to take that which he
hath for satisfaction; or to lay his body under affliction, this
way or that, according to Law; can he, I say, thus leave the whole
dispose to God, let the issue be what it will, that man shall have
peace in his mind afterward. And the comforts of that state,
(which will be comforts that attend Equity, Justice, and Duty,)
will be more unto him, because more according to Godliness, than
can be the comforts that are the fruits of Injustice, Fraudulency,
and Deceit. Besides, this is the way to engage God to favour him
by the sentence of his Creditors; (for He can entreat them to use
him kindly,) and he will do it when his ways are pleasing in his
sight: When a mans ways please the Lord, his enemies shall be at
peace with him; {102a} And surely, for a man to seek to make
restitution for wrongs done, to the utmost of his power, by what he
is, has, and enjoys in this world, is the best way, in that
capacity, and with reference to that thing, that a man can at this
time be found active in.

But he that doth otherwise, abides in his sin, refuses to be
disposed of by the Providence of God, chuseth an high Estate,
though not attained in Gods way; when Gods Will is, that he should
descend into a low one: yea, he desperately saith in his heart and
actions, I will be mine own chooser, and that in mine own way,
whatever happens or follows thereupon.

Atten. You have said well, in my mind. But suppose now, that Mr.
Badman was here, could he not object as to what you have said,
saying, Go and teach your Brethren, that are Professors, this
lesson, for they, as I am, are guilty of Breaking; yea I am apt to
think, of that which you call my Knavish way of breaking; to wit,
of breaking before they have need to break. But if not so, yet
they are guilty of neglect in their Calling, {102b} of living
higher, both in Fare and Apparrel, than their Trade or Income will
maintain. Besides, that they do break, all the world very well
knowes, and that they have the art to plead for a composition, is
very well known to men; and that it is usual with them, to hide
their Linnen, their Plate, their Jewels, and ('tis to be thought,
sometimes Money and Goods besides,) is as common as four eggs a
penny. And thus they beguile men, debauch their consciences, sin
against their Profession, and make, 'tis to be feared, their lusts
in all this, and the fulfilling of them, their end. I say, if Mr.
Badman was here to object thus unto you, what would be your reply?

Wise. What! Why I would say, I hope no Good man, no man of good
conscience, no man that either feareth God, regardeth the credit of
Religion, the peace of Gods people, or the salvation of his own
soul, will do thus.

Professors, such perhaps there may be, and who, upon earth can help
it? Jades there be of all colours. {103a} If men will profess,
and make their profession a stalking-Horse to beguile their
neighbours of their estates, as Mr. Badman himself did, when he
beguiled her that now is with sorrow his wife, who can help it?
The Churches of old were pestered with such, and therefore no
marvel if these perilous difficult times be so. But mark how the
Apostle words it: Nay do wrong and defraud, and that your
Brethren: Know you not, that the unrighteous shall not inherit the
Kingdom of God? Be not deceived, neither Fornicator, nor
Idolaters, nor Adulterers, nor Effeminate, nor abusers of
themselves with Mankind, nor Thieves, nor Covetous, nor Drunkards,
nor Revilers, nor Extortioners, shall inherit the Kingdom of God.

None of these shall be saved in this state, nor shall profession
deliver them from the censure of the Godly, when they shall be
manifest such to be. But their profession we cannot help: How can
we help it, if men should ascribe to themselves the title of Holy
ones, Godly ones, Zealous ones, Self-denying ones, or any other
such glorious title? and while they thus call themselves, they
should be the veryest Rogues for all evil, sin, and villany
imaginable, who could help it? True, they are a scandal to
Religion, a grief to the honest hearted, an offence to the world,
and a stumbling stone to the weak, and these offences have come, do
come, and will come, do what all the world can; but wo be to them
through whom they come; {103c} let such professors therefore
disowned by all true Christians, and let them be reckoned among
those base men of the world which by such actions they most
resemble: They are Mr. Badmans Kindred.

For {103d} they are a shame to Religion, I say these slithy, rob-
Shop, pick-pocket men, they are a shame to Religion, and religious
men should be ashamed of them. God puts such an one among the
Fools of the world, therefore let not Christians put them among
those that are wise for heaven. As the Partridge sitteth on eggs,
and hatcheth them not, so he that getteth riches and not by right,
shall leave them in the midst of his dayes, and at his end shall be
a fool. {103e} And the man under consideration is one of these,
and therefore must look to fall by this Judgment.

A professor! and practice such villianies as these! such an one is
not worthy to bear that name any longer. We may say to such as the
Prophet spake to their like, to wit, to the rebellious that were in
the house of Israel. Goe ye, serve every man his Idols:- If ye
will not hearken to the Law and Testament of God, to lead your
lives thereafter: but pollute Gods holy name no more with your
Gifts, and with your Idols. {104a}

Goe professors, Goe; leave off profession, unless you will lead
your lives according to your profession. Better never profess,
than to make profession a stalking-horse to sin, Deceit, to the
Devil, and Hell.

The ground and rules of Religion allow not any such thing: Receive
us, says the Apostle, we have wronged no man, we have corrupted no
man, we have defrauded no man. {104b} Intimating, that those that
are guilty of wronging, corrupting or defrauding of any, should not
be admitted to the fellowship of Saints, no nor into the common
catalogue of Brethren with them.

Nor can men with all their Rhetorick, and Eloquent speaking prove
themselves fit for the Kingdom of Heaven, or men of good conscience
on earth. {104c} O that godly plea of Samuel: Behold here I am,
says he, witness against me, before the Lord, and before his
Anointed, whose Oxe have I taken, or whose Ass have I taken, or
whom have I defrauded, whom have I oppressed, {104d} &c? This was
to do like a man of good conscience indeed. And in this his
Appeal, he was so justified in the consciencies of the whole
Congregation, that they could not but with one voice, as with one
mouth, break out joyntly and say, Thou hast not defrauded us, nor
oppressed us. {104e}

A Professor, and defraud, away with him! a Professor should not owe
any man any thing, but love. A professor should provide things,
not of other mens, but of his own, of his own honest getting, and
that not onely in the sight of God, but of all men; that he may
adorn the Doctrine if God our Saviour in all things.

Atten. But {105a} suppose God should blow upon a Professor in his
Estate, and Calling, and he should be run out before he is aware,
must he be accounted to be like Mr. Badman, and lie under the same
reproach as he?

Wise. No: {105b} If he hath dutifully done what he could to avoid
it. It is possible for a Ship to sink at sea, notwithstanding the
most faithfull endeavour of the most skilful Pilot under Heaven.
And thus, as I suppose, it was with the Prophet that left his wife
in debt to the hazarding the slavery of her children by the
Creditors. {105c} He was no profuse man, nor one that was given to
defraud, for the Text says he feared God; yet, as I said, he was
run out more than she could pay.

If God would blow upon a man, who can help it? and he will do so
sometimes, {105d} because he will change dispensations with men,
and because he will trye their Graces. {105e} Yea, also because he
will overthrow the wicked with his Judgments; and all these things
are seen in Job. But then the consideration of this, should bid
men have a care that they be honest, lest this comes upon them for
their sin: It should also bid them beware of launching further
into the world, than in an honest way by ordinary means they can
Godlily make their retreat; for the further in, the greater fall.
It should also teach them, to begg of God his blessing upon their
endeavours, their honest and lawfull endeavours. And it should put
them upon a diligent looking to their steps, that if in their going
they should hear the Ice crack, they may timely goe back again.

These things considered, and duely put in practice, if God will
blow upon a man, then let him be content, and with Job embrace the
dunghill; let him give unto all their dues, and not fight against
the Providence of God, (but humble himself rather under his mighty
hand,) which comes to strip him naked and bare: for he that doth
otherwise, fights against God; and declares that he is a stranger
to that of Paul; I know both how to be abased, and I know how to
abound; every where, in all things, I am instructed both to be
full, and to be hungry, both to abound, and to suffer need. {105f}

Atten. But Mr. Badman would not, I believe, have put this
difference 'twixt things feigned, and those that fall of necessity.

Wise. If he will not, God will, Conscience will; and that not
thine own only, but the Consciences of all those that have seen the
way, and that have known the truth of the condition of such an one.

Atten. Well: Let us at this time leave this matter, and return
again to Mr. Badman.

Wise. With all my heart will I proceed to give you a relation of
what is yet behind of his Life, in order to our discourse of his

Atten. But pray do it with as much brevity as you can.

Wise. Why? are you a weary of my relating of things?

Atten. No. But it pleases me to hear a great deal in few words.

Wise. I profess not my self an artist that way, but yet as briefly
as I can, I will pass through what of his Life is behind; and again
I shall begin with his fraudulent dealing (as before I have shewed
with his Creditors, so now) with his Customers, and those that he
had otherwise to deal withall.

He dealt by deceitfull Weights and Measures. {106a} He kept
weights to buy by, and weights to sell by; measures to buy by, and
measures to sell by: those he bought by were too big, those he
sold by were too little.

Besides, he could use a thing called slight of hand, if he had to
do with other mens weights and measures, and by that means make
them whether he did buy or sell, yea though his Customer or Chapman
looked on, turn to his own advantage.

Moreover, he had the art to misreckon men in their Accounts whether
by weight, or measure, or money, and would often do it to his
worldly advantage, and their loss: What say you to Mr. Badman now?

And if a question was made of his faithfull dealing, he had his
servants ready, that to his purpose he had brought up, that would
avouch and swear to his Book, or word: this was Mr. Badmans
practice; What think you of Mr. Badman now?

Atten. Think! Why I can think no other but that he was a man left
to himself, a naughty man; for these, as his other, were naughty
things; if the tree, as indeed it may, ought to be judged, what it
is by its fruits; then Mr. Badman must needs be a bad Tree. But
pray, for my further satisfaction, shew me now by the Word of God,
evil of this his practice: and first of his using false Weights
and Measures.

Wise. The evil of that! why the evil of that appears to every eye:
the Heathens, that live like Beasts and Bruits in many things, do
abominate and abhorr such wickedness as this. Let a man but look
upon these things as he goes by, and he shall see enough in them
from the light of nature to make him loath so base a practice;
although Mr. Badman loved it.

Atten. But shew me something out of the Word against it, will you?

Wise. I will willingly do it. And first we will look into the Old
Testament: {107a} You shall, saith God there, do no
unrighteousness in Judgment, in mete-yard, in weights or in
measures, a just Ballance, a just Weight, a just Ephah, and a just
Hin shall you have. {107b} This is the Law of God, and that which
all men according to the Law of the land ought to obey. So again:
Ye shall have just Ballances, and a just Ephah, &c. {107c}

Now having shewed you the Law, I will also shew you how God takes
swerving therefrom. A false Ballance is not good; a false Ballance
is an abomination to the Lord. {107d} Some have just Weights but
false Ballances, and by vertue of those false Ballances, by their
just Weights, they deceive the Countrey: {107e} Wherefore, God
first of all commands that the Ballance be made Just: A just
Ballance shalt thou have. Else they may be, yea are, decievers,
notwithstanding their just weights.

Now, having commanded that men have a just Ballance, and testifying
that a false one is an abomination to the Lord, he proceedeth also
unto weight and measure.

Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great and a small;
{107f} that is one to buy by, and another to sell by, as Mr. Badman
had. Thou shalt not have in thy house divers measures, a great and
a small, (and these had Mr. Badman also) but thou shalt have a
perfect and a just weight; a perfect and a just measure shalt thou
have, that thy days may be lengthened in the land which the Lord
thy God giveth thee. For all that do such things, (that is, that
use false Weights and Measures) and all that do unrighteously are
abomination to the Lord. See now both how plentiful, and how
punctual the Scripture is in this matter. But perhaps it may be
objected, that all this is old Law, and therefore hath nothing to
do with us under the New Testament. (Not that I think you,
neighbour, will object thus:) Well, to this foolish objection, let
us make an Answer. First, he that makes this objection, if he doth
it to overthrow the authority of those Texts, {108a} discovereth
that himself is first cousen to Mr. Badman: For a Just man is
willing to speak reverently of those commands. That man therefore
hath, I doubt, but little conscience, if any at all that is good,
that thus objecteth against the Text: but let us look into the New
Testament, and there we shall see how Christ confirmeth the same:
Where he commandeth that men make to others good measure, including
also that they make good weight; telling such that doe thus, or
those that do it not, that they may be encouraged to do it; Good
measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, shall men
give into your bosom; for with the same measure that ye mete
withall, it shall be measured to you again: {108b} To wit, both
from God and man. For as God will shew his indignation against the
false man, by taking away even that he hath, so he will deliver up
the false man to the Oppressor, and the Extortioner shall catch
from him, as well as he hath catched from his neighbour; therefore
another Scripture saith, When thou shalt cease to deal
treacherously, they shall deal treacherously with thee. That the
New Testament also, hath an inspection into mens Trading, yea even
with their weights and measures, is evident from these general
exhortations. {108c} Defraud not; lye not one to another; let no
man goe beyond his brother in any matter, for God is the avenger of
all such: whatsoever you do, do it heartily, as unto the Lord,
doing all in his name, to his glory; and the like. All these
injunctions and commandments do respect our life and conversation
among men, with reference to our dealing, trading, and so
consequently they forbid false, deceitful, yea all doings that are

Having thus in a word or two shewed you, that these things are bad;
I will next, for the conviction of those that use them, shew you,
where God saith they are to be found. {109a}

1. They are not to be found in the house of the good and godly
man, for he, as his God, abhorrs them; but they are to be found in
the house of evil doers, {109b} such as Mr. Badmans is. Are there,
saith the Prophet, yet the treasures of wickedness in the house of
the wicked, and the scant measure that is abomination? {109c} Are
they there yet, notwithstanding Gods forbidding, notwithstanding
Gods tokens of anger against those that do such things? O how loth
is a wicked man to let goe a sweet, a gainful sin, when he hath
hold of it! They hold fast deceit, they refuse to let it goe.

2. These deceitful Weights and Measures are not to be found in the
house of the Mercifull, but in the house of the Cruel; in the house
of them that love to oppress. {109d} The Ballances of deceit are
in his hand, he loveth to oppress. {109e} He is given to
oppression and cruelty, therefore he useth such wicked things in
his calling. Yea he is a very cheat, and as was hinted before,
concerning Mr. Badmans breaking, so I say now, concerning his using
these deceitful weights and measures, it is as bad, as base, as to
take a purse, or pick a pocket; for it is a plain robbery, it takes
away from a man that which is his own, even the price of his money.

3. The deceitful Weights and Measures are not to be found in the
house of such as relieve the belly, and that cover the loyns of the
poor, but of such as indeed would swallow them up. {109f} Hear ye
this, ye that swallow up the needy, and that make the poor of the
land to fail, saying, When will the new Moon be gone that we may
sell corn, and the Sabbath that we may set forth Wheat, making the
Ephah small and the Sheckle great, (making the Measure small, and
the Price great) and falsifying the Ballances by deceit, that ye
may buy the poor for silver, and the needy for a pair of shooes,
and sell the refuse of the Wheat. The Lord hath sworn by the
excellencie of Jacob, surely I will not forget any of their works.
{109g} So detestable and vile a thing is this in the sight of God.

4. God abominates the thoughts of calling of those that use false
weights and measures, by any other term than, that they be Impure
ones {110a} or the like: Shall I count them pure (saith he) with
the bag of deceitful weights? {110b} no by no means, they are
impure ones, their hands are defiled, deceitful gain is in their
houses, they have gotten what they have by coveting an evil
Covetousness, and therefore must and shall be counted among the
impure, among the wicked of the world.

Thus you see how full and plain the Word of God is, against this
sin, and them that use it. And therefore Mr. Badman, for that he
used by these things thus to rook and cheat his neighbours, is
rightly rejected from having his Name in, and among the catalogue
of the godly.

Atten. But I am perswaded, that the using of these things, and the
doing by them thus deceitfully, is not counted so great an evil by

Wise. Whether it be counted an evil or a vertue, by men, it
mattereth not; you see by the Scriptures, the Judgment of God upon
it. It was not counted an evil by Mr. Badman, nor is it by any
that still are treading in his steps. But, I say, 'tis no matter
how men esteem of things, let us adhere to the Judgment of God.
And the rather, because when we our selves have done weighing and
measuring to others, then God will weigh and measure both us and
our actions. And when he doth so, as he will do shortly, then wo
be to him to whom, and of whose actions it shall be thus said by
him: Tekel, Thou art weighed in the Ballances, and art found
wanting. {110c} God will then recompense their evil of deceiving
upon their own head, when he shall shut them out of his presence,
favour, and kingdom, for ever and ever.

Atten. But 'tis a wonder, that since Mr. Badmans common practice
was to do thus, that some one or more did not find him out, and
blame him for this his wickedness.

Wise. For the generality of people, he went away clever with his
Knavery. For what with his Ballance, his false Ballance, and good
weight, and what with his slight of hand to boot, he beguiled,
sometimes a little, and sometimes more, most that he had to deal
with: Besides, those that use this naughty trade, are either such
as blind men with a shew of Religion, or by hectoring the buyer out
by words. I must confess Mr. Badman was not so arch at the first;
{111a} that is, to do it by shew of Religion; for now he began to
grow threadbare, (though some of his brethren are arch enough this
way, yea and of his sisters too, for I told you at first that there
was a great many of them, and of them good:) but for hectoring, for
swearing, for lying, if these things would make weight and measure,
they should not be wanting to Mr. Badmans Customers.

Atten. Then it seem he kept good Weights, and a bad Ballance; well
that was better than that both should be bad.

Wise. Not at all. There lay the depth of his deceit: {111b} For
if any at any time found fault, that he used them hardly, and that
they wanted their weight of things; he would reply: Why did you
not see them weighed? will you not believe your own eyes: If you
question my weights, pray carry them whether you will, I will
maintain them to be good and just. The same he would say of his
scales. So he blinded all, by his Ballance.

Atten. This is cunning indeed: but as you say, there must be also
something done or said, to blind therewith, and this I perceive Mr.
Badman had.

Wise. Yes. He had many ways to blind, but he was never clever at
it, by making a shew of Religion, (though he cheated his wife
therewith:) for he was, especially by those that dwelt near him,
too well known to do that, though he would bungle at it as well as
he could. But there are some that are arch villains this way; they
shall to view live a whole life Religiously, and yet shall be
guilty of these most horrible sins: And yet Religion in it self is
never the worse, nor yet the true professors of it. But as Luther
says, In the name of God begins all mischief. For Hypocrites have
no other way to bring their evils to maturity, but by using and
mixing the Name of God and Religion therewith. {112b} Thus they
become whited Walls; {112a} for by this white, the white of
Religion, the dirt of their actions is hid. Thus also they become
graves that appear not, and they that goe over them, (that have to
do with them) are not aware of them, but suffer themselves to be
deluded by them. Yea, if there shall, as there will sometimes,
rise a doubt in the heart of the buyer about the weight and measure
he should have, why, he suffereth his very sences to be also
deluded, by recalling of his Chapmans Religion to mind, and thinks
verily that not his good chapman but himself is out; for he dreams
not that his chapman can deceive. But if the buyer shall find it
out, and shall make it apparent, that he is beguiled; then shall he
be healed by having amends made, and perhaps fault shall be laid
upon servants, &c. and so Master Cheat shall stand for a right
honest man in the eye of his Customer, though the next time he
shall pick his pocket again.

Some {112c} plead Custom for their Cheat, as if that could acquit
them before the Tribunal of God: And others say, it came to them
for so much, and therefore another must take it for so much, though
there is wanting both as to weight and measure: but in all these
things there are Juggles; or if not, such must know, {112d} That
that which is altogether just, they must doe. Suppose that I be
cheated my self with a brass half-Crown, must I therefore cheat
another therewith? if this be bad in the whole, it is also bad in
the parts. Therefore however thou are dealt withall in thy buying,
yet thou must deal justly in selling, or thou sinnest against thy
soul, and art become as Mr. Badman. And know, that a pretence to
custom is nothing worth. 'Tis not custom, but good conscience that
will help at Gods Tribunal.

Atten. But I am perswaded, that that which is gotten by men this
way, doth them but little good.

Wise. I am of your mind for that, but this is not considered by
those thus minded. For if they can get it, though they get, as we
say, the Devil and all, by their getting, yet they are content, and
count that their getting is much.

Little good! Why do you think they consider that? No: no more
than they consider what they shall doe in the Judgment, at the day
of God Almighty, for their wrong getting of what they get, and that
is just nothing at all. {113a}

But to give you a more direct answer. This kind of getting, is so
far off from doing them little good, that it doth them no good at
all; because thereby they lose their own souls; What shall it
profit a man if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own
soul? {113b} He loseth then, he loseth greatly that getteth after
this fashion. This is the man that is penny-wise, and pound-
foolish; this is he that loseth his good Sheep for a halfpennyworth
of tarr; that loseth a soul for a little of the world. And then
what doth he get thereby, but loss and dammage? {113c} Thus he
getteth, or rather loseth about the world to come: But what doth
he get in this world, more than travel and sorrow vexation of
spirit, and disappointment? Men aim at blessedness in getting, I
mean, at temporal blessedness; but the man that thus getteth, shall
not have that. For though an Inheritance after this manner may be
hastily gotten at the beginning, yet the end thereof shall not be
blessed. They gather it indeed, and think to keep it too, but what
says Solomon? God casteth it away. The Lord will not suffer the
soul of the righteous to famish, but he casteth away the substance
of the wicked.

The time, as I said, that they do enjoy it, it shall doe them no
good at all; but long to be sure they must not have it. For God
will either take it away in their life time, or else in the
generation following, according to that of Job: He, the wicked,
may prepare it, but the just shall put it on, and the innocent
shall divide the silver. {113d}

Consider that also that is written in the Proverbs: A good man
leaveth an Inheritance to his childrens children, and the wealth of
the sinner is laid up for the just. {113e} What then doth he get
thereby, that getteth by dishonest means? why he getteth Sin and
Wrath, Hell and Damnation: and now tell me how much he doth get.

This, I say, is his getting; so that as David says, we may be bold
to say too: I beheld the wicked in great prosperity, and presently
I cursed his habitation: for it cannot prosper with him. Fluster
and huff, and make a doe for a while he may, but God hath
determined that both he and it shall melt like grease, and any
observing man may see it so. Behold, the unrighteous man in a way
of Injustice getteth much, and loadeth himself with thick Clay, but
anon it withereth, it decayeth, and even he, or the Generation
following decline, and return to beggery.

And this Mr. Badman, notwithstanding his cunning and crafty tricks
to get money, did dye, no body can tell whether worth a farthing or

Atten. He had all the bad tricks, I think, that it was possible
for a man to have, to get money; one would think that he should a
been rich.

Wise. You reckon too fast, if you count these all his bad tricks
to get money: For he had more besides. {114a}

If his customers were in his Books (as it should goe hard but he
would have them there; at least, if he thought he could make any
advantage of them,) then, then would he be sure to impose upon them
his worst, even very bad Comodity, yet set down for it the price
that the best was sold at: like those that sold the Refuse Wheat,
or the worst of the wheat; making the Sheckle great, {114b} yet
hoisting up the price: This was Mr. Badmans way. He {114c} would
sell goods that cost him not the best price by far, for as much as
he sold the best of all for. He had also a trick to mingle his
comodity, that that which was bad might goe off with the less

Besides, if his customers at any time paid him money, let them look
to themselves, and to their Acquitances, for he would usually
attempt to call for that payment again, specially if he thought
that there was hopes of making a prize thereby, and then to be sure
if they could not produce good and sufficient ground of the
payment, a hundred to one but they payed it again. Sometimes the
honest Chapman would appeal to his servants for proof of the
payment of money, but they were trained up by him to say after his
mind, right or wrong: so that, relief that way, he could get none.

Atten. It is a bad, yea an abominable thing for a man to have such
servants. For by such means a poor customer may be undone and not
know how to help himself. Alas! if the master be so
unconscionable, as I perceive Mr. Badman was, to call for his money
twice, and if his servant will swear that it is a due debt, where
is any help for such a man? he must sink, there is no remedy.

Wise. This is very bad, but this has been a practice, and that
hundreds of years agoe. But what saith the Word of God? I will
punish all those that leap upon the threshold, which fill their
masters houses with violence and deceit. {115a} {115b}

Mr. Badman also had this art; could he get a man at advantage, that
is, if his chapman durst not go from him, or if the comodity he
wanted could not for the present be conveniently had elsewhere;
Then let him look to himself, he would surely make his purse-
strings crack; he would exact upon him without any pity or

Atten. That was Extortion, was it not? I pray let me hear your
Judgment of Extortion, what it is, and when committed?

Wise. Extortion {115c} is a screwing from men more than by the Law
of God or men is right; and it is committed sometimes by them in
Office, about Fees, Rewards, and the like: but 'tis most commonly
committed by men of Trade, who without all conscience, when they
have the advantage, will make a prey of their neighbour. And thus
was Mr. Badman an Extortioner; for although he did not exact, and
force away, as Bailifs and Clarks have used to doe; yet he had his
opportunities, and such cruelty to make use of them, that he would
often, in his way, be Extorting, and forcing of money out of his
Neighbours pocket. For every man that makes a prey of his
advantage upon his neighbours necessities, to force from him more
than in reason and conscience, according to the present prizes of
things such comodity is worth; may very well be called an
Extortioner, and Judged for one that hath No inheritance in the
Kingdom of God. {115d}

Atten. Well, this Badman was a sad wretch.

Wise. Thus you have often said before. But now we are in
discourse of this, give me leave a little to goe on. We have a
great many people in the Countrey too that live all their dayes in
the practice, and so under the guilt of Extortion: people, alas!
that think scorn to be so accounted.

As for Example: {116a} There is a poor body that dwells, we will
suppose, so many miles from the Market; and this man wants a Bushel
of Grist, a pound of Butter, or a Cheese for himself, his wife and
poor children: But dwelling so far from the Market, if he goes
thither, he shall lose his dayes work, which will be eight pence or
ten pence dammage to him, and that is something to a poor man. So
he goeth to one of his Masters or Dames for what he wanteth, and
asks them to help him with such a thing: Yes, say they, you may
have it; but withall they will give him a gripe, perhaps make him
pay as much (or more) for it at home, as they can get when they
have carryed it five miles to a Market, yea and that too for the
Refuse of their Commodity. But in this the Women are especially
faulty, in the sale of their Butter and Cheese, &c. Now this is a
kind of Extortion, it is a making a prey of the necessity of the
poor, it is a grinding of their faces, a buying and selling of

But above all, your {116b} Hucksters, that buy up the poor mans
Victuals by whole-sale, and sell it to him again for unreasonable
gains, by retale, and as we call it, by piece meal; they are got
into a way, after a stingeing rate, to play their game upon such by
Extortion: I mean such who buy up Butter, Cheese, Eggs, Bacon, &c.
by whole sale, and sell it again (as they call it) by penny worths,
two penny worths, a half penny worth, or the like, to the poor, all
the week after the market is past.

These, though I will not condemn them all, do, many of them, bite
and pinch the poor by this kind of evil dealing. These destroy the
poor because he is poor, and that is a grievous sin. He that
oppresseth the poor to increase his riches, and that giveth to the
rich, shall surely come to want. {116c} Therefore he saith again,
Rob not the poor because he is poor, neither oppress the afflicted
in the gate; for the Lord will plead their cause, and spoil the
soul of them that spoile them.

Oh that he that gripeth and grindeth the face of the poor, would
take notice of these two Scriptures! Here is threatned the
destruction of the Estate, yea and of the Soul too, of them that
oppress the poor. Their Soul we shall better see where, and in
what condition that is in, when the day of Doom is come; but for
the Estates of such, they usually quickly moulter; and that
sometimes all men, and sometimes no man knows how.

Besides, these are Usurers, yea they take usury for victuals, which
thing the Lord has forbidden. {117a} And because they cannot so
well do it on the Market-day, therefore they do it, as I said, when
the market is over; for then the poor falls into their mouths, and
are necessitated to have, as they can, for their need, and they are
resolved they shall pay soundly for it. Perhaps some will find
fault for my medling thus with other folks matters, and for my thus
prying into the secrets of their iniquity. But to such I would
say, since such actions are evil, 'tis time they were hissed out of
the world. For all that doe such things, offend against God, wrong
their neighbour, and like Mr. Badman doe provoke God to Judgment.
God knows, there is abundance of deceit in the world!

Wise. Deceit! Aie, but I have not told you the thousandth part of
it; nor is it my business now to rake to the bottom of that
dunghill: what would you say, if I should anatomize some of those
vile wretches called Pawn-Brokers, that lend Money and Goods to
poor people, who are by necessity forced to such an inconvenience;
and will make, by one trick or other, the Interest of what they so
lend, amount to thirty, forty, yea sometimes fifty pound by the
year; nothwithstanding the Principal is secured by a sufficient
pawn; which they will keep too at last, if they can find any shift
to cheat the wretched borrower.

Atten. Say! Why such Miscreants are the pest and Vermin of the
Common-Wealth, not fit for the society of men; but methinks by some
of those things you Discoursed before, you seem to import that it
is not lawful for a man to make the best of his own.

Wise. If by making the best, you mean, to sell for as much as by
hook or crook he can get for his comodity; then I say, it is not
lawful. And if I should say the contrary, I should justifie Mr.
Badman and all the rest of that Gang: but that I never shall doe,
for the Word of God condemns them. But that it is not lawful for a
man at all times, to sell his commodity for as much as he can, I
prove by these reasons. {118a}

First, If it be lawful for me alway to sell my commodity as dear,
or for as much as I can, then 'tis lawful for me to lay aside in my
dealing with others, good conscience, to them, and to God: but it
is not lawful for me, in my dealing with others, to lay aside good
conscience, &c. Therefore it is not lawful for me always to sell
my commodity as dear, or for as much as I can.

That {118b} it is not lawful to lay aside good conscience in our
dealings, has already been proved in the former part of our
discourse: but that a man must lay it aside that will sell his
commodity always as dear or for as much as he can, is plainly
manifest thus.

1. He that will (as is mentioned afore) sell his commodity as dear
as he can, must sometimes make a prey of the ignorance of his
chapman: {118c} but that he cannot doe with a good conscience (for
that is to overreach, and to goe beyond my chapman, and is
forbidden, 1 Thess. 4. 6.) Therefore he that will sell his
commodity, as afore, as dear, or for as much as he can, must of
necessity lay aside good conscience.

2. He that will sell his commodity always as dear as he can, must
needs, sometimes make a prey of his neighbours necessity; {118d}
but that he cannot doe with a good conscience, (for that is to goe
beyond and defraud his neighbour, contrary to 1 Thess. 4. 6.)
Therefore he that will sell his commodity, as afore, as dear, or
for as much as he can, must needs cast off and lay aside a good

3. He that will (as afore) sell his commodity as dear, or for as
much as he can, must, if need be, make a prey of his neighbours
fondness; but that a man cannot doe with a good conscience, {119a}
(for that is still a going beyond him, contrary to 1 Thess. 4. 6.)
Therefore, he that will sell his commodity as dear, or for as much
as he can, must needs cast off, and lay aside good conscience.

The same also may be said for buying; no man may always buy as
cheap as he can, but must also use good conscience in buying;
{119b} The which he can by no means use and keep, if he buyes
always as cheap as he can, and that for the reasons urged before.
For such will make a prey of the ignorance, necessity, and fondness
of their chapman, the which they cannot doe with a good consceince.

When Abraham would buy a Burying-place of the Sons of Heth, thus he
said unto them. Intreat for me to Ephron the son of Zohar, that he
may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, in the end his
field. For as much as it is worth shall he give it me. Gen. 23.
8, 9. {110c} He would not have it under foot, he scorned it, he
abhored it: It stood not with his Religion, Credit, nor
Conscience. So also when David, would buy a field of Ornon the
Jebusite: Thus he said unto him: Grant me the place the
threshing-floor, that I may build an Altar there unto the Lord.
Thou shalt give it me for the full price. {119d} He also, as
Abraham, made conscience of this kind of dealing: he would not lie
at catch to go beyond, no not the Jebusite, but will give him his
full price for his field. For he knew that there was wickedness,
as in selling too dear so in buying too cheap, therefore he would
not do it.

There ought therefore to be good conscience used, as in selling, so
in buying; for 'tis also unlawful for a man to goe beyond or to
defraud his neighbour in buying; yea 'tis unlawful to doe it in any
matter, and God will plentifully avenge that wrong: as I also
before have forewarned and testified. See also the {119e} text in
the margent. But,

Secondly, if it be lawful for me always to sell my commodity as
dear, or for as much as I can, then it is lawful for me to deal
with my neighbour without the use of {120a} charity: but it is not
lawful for me to lay aside, or to deal with my neighbour without
the use of charity, therefore it is not lawful for me always to
sell my commodity to my neighbour for as much as I can. A man in
dealing should as really design his Neighbours good, profit, and
advantage, as his own: For this is to exercise Charity in his

That I should thus use, or exercise charity towards my Neighbour in
my buying and selling, &c. with him, is evident from the general
command: [Let all your things be done in charity:] {120b} But
that a man cannot live in the exercise of charity, that selleth, as
afore, as dear, or that buyeth as cheap as he can, is evident by
these reasons.

1. He that sells his commodity as dear, or for as much money
(always) as he can, seeks himself, and himself only; (but charity
seeketh not her own, nor her own only {120c}:) So then, he that
seeks himself, and himself onely, as he that sells (as afore) as
dear as he can, does; maketh not use of, nor doth he exercise
charity, in his so dealing.

2. He that selleth his commodity (always) for as much as he can
get, hardeneth his heart against all reasonable entreaties of the
buyer. But he that doth so, cannot exercise charity in his
dealing; therefore it is not lawful for a man to sell his
commodity, as afore, as dear as he can.

Thirdly, If it be lawful for me to sell my commodity, as afore, as
dear as I can, then there can be no sin in my Trading, how
unreasonably soever I manage my calling, whether by Lying,
Swearing, Cursing, Cheating; for all this is but to sell my
commodity as dear as I can: but that there is sin in these, is
evident, therefore I may not sell my commodity always as dear as I
can. {120d} {120e}

Fourthly, He that sells, as afore, as dear as he can, offereth
violence to the law of Nature: {121b} for that saith, Doe unto all
men, even as ye would that they should doe unto you. {121a} Now,
was the Seller a Buyer, he would not that he of whom he buyes,
should sell him always as dear as he can; therefore he should not
sell so himself, when it is his lot to sell, and others to buy of

Fifthly, He that selleth, as afore, as dear as he can, makes use of
that instruction, that God hath not given to others, but sealed up
in his hand, {121c} to abuse his Law, and to wrong his neighbour
withall: which indeed is contrary to God. {121d} God hath given
thee more skill, more knowledge and understanding in thy commodity
than he hath given to him that would buy of thee. But what! canst
thou think, that God has given thee this, that thou mightest
thereby make a prey of thy neighbour? that thou mightest thereby
goe beyond and beguile thy neighbour? No, verily; but he hath
given thee it, for his help; that thou mightest in this, be eyes to
the blind, and save thy neighbour from that dammage, that his
ignorance, or necessity, or fondness would betray him into the
hands of.

Sixthly, In all that a man does, he should have an eye to the glory
of God, {121f} but that he cannot have that sells his commodity
always for as much as he can, for the reasons urged before.

Seventhly, All that a man does, he should doe in the Name of the
Lord Jesus Christ; {121g} that is, as being commanded, and
authorized to doe it by him: but he that selleth always as dear as
he can, cannot so much as pretend to this, without horrid
blaspheming of that Name, because commanded by him to doe

Eightly, and lastly, In all that a man does, he should have an eye
to the day of Judgment, and to the consideration of how his actions
will be esteemed of in that day. {121h} Therefore there is not any
man can or ought to sell always as dear as he can: unless he will,
yea he must say, in so doing, I will run the hazard of the tryal of
that day,

If thou sell ought unto thy neighbour, or buyest ought of thy
neighbour, ye shall not oppress one another. {122a}

Atten. But why doe you put in those cautionary words? They must
not sell [always] as dear, nor buy [always] as cheap as they can:
doe you not thereby intimate that a man may sometimes do so?

Wise. I doe indeed intimate that somtimes the seller may sell as
dear, and the buyer buy as cheap as he can; but this is allowable
only in these cases: When he that sells is a Knave, and lays aside
all good conscience in selling; or when the buyer is a Knave, and
layes aside all good conscience in buying. If the buyer therefore
lights of a Knave, or if the seller lights of a Knave, then let
them look to themselves: but yet so, as not to lay aside
conscience, because he that thou dearest with doth so: but how
vile or base soever the chapman is, do thou keep thy commodity at a
reasonable price: or if thou buyest, offer reasonable gain for the
thing thou wouldest have: and if this will not do with the buyer
or seller, then seek thee a more honest chapman: If thou
objectest, But I have not skil to know when a pennyworth is before
me: Get some that have more skill than thy self in that affair,
and let them in that matter dispose of thy money. But if there
were no Knaves in the world, these objections need not be made.

And thus, my very good neighbour, have I given you a few of my
reasons, why a man that hath it, should not always sell too dear,
nor buy as cheap as he can: but should use good Conscience to God,
and Charity to his Neighbour in both.

Atten. But were some men here, to hear you, I believe they would
laugh you to scorn.

Wise. I question not that at all, for so, {122b} Mr. Badman used
to doe, when any man told him of his faults: he used to think
himself wiser than any, and would count, as I have hinted before,
that he was not arrived to a manly spirit that did stick or boggle
at any wickedness. But let Mr. Badman and his fellowes laugh, I
will bear it, and still give them good counsel. But I will
remember also, for my further relief and comfort, that thus they
that were covetous of old, served the Son of God himself. It is
their time to laugh now, that they may mourn in time to come.
{122c} And, I say again, when they have laughed out their laugh;
He that useth not good conscience to God, and charity to his
neighbour, in buying and selling, dwells next dore to an Infidel,
and is near of kin to Mr. Badman.

Atten. Well, but what will you say to this question? {123a} (you
know that there is no settled price set by God upon any Commodity
that is bought or sold under the Sun; but all things that we buy
and sell, do ebbe and flow, as to price, like the Tide:) How
(then) shall a man of a tender conscience doe, neither to wrong the
seller, buyer, nor himself, in buying and selling of commodities?

Wise. This Question is thought to be frivolous by all that are of
Mr. Badmans way; 'tis also difficult in it self: yet I will
endeavour to shape you an Answer, {123b} and that first to the
matter of the question; to wit, How a Tradesman should, in Trading,
keep a good conscience; (A buyer or seller either.) Secondly, How
he should prepare himself to this work, and live in the practice of

For the first: He {123c} must observe what hath been said before,
to wit, he must have conscience to God, charity to his neighbour;
and I will add, much moderation in dealing. Let him therefore keep
within the bounds of the affirmative of those eight reasons that
before were urged to prove, that men ought not in their Dealing,
but to do Justly and mercifully 'twixt man and man; and then there
will be no great fear of wronging the seller, buyer, or himself.

But particularly to prepare, or instruct a man to this work:

1. Let the Tradesman or others consider, that there is not that in
great Gettings, and in abundance, which the most of men do suppose:
For all that a man has over and above what serves for his present
necessity and supply, serves only to feed the lusts of the eye.
For what good is there to the owners thereof, save the beholding of
them with their eyes? {123d} Men also, many times, in getting of
riches, get therewith a snare to their soul: {123e} But few get
good by getting of them. But this consideration, Mr. Badman could
not abide.

2. Consider, that the getting of wealth dishonestly (as he does,
that getteth it without good conscience and charity to his
neighbour,) is a great offender against God. Hence he says, I have
smitten mine hands at thy dishonest gain, which thou hast made.
{124a} It is a manner of speech that shews anger in the very
making of mention of the Crime. Therefore,

3. Consider, that a little honestly gotten, though it may yield
thee but a dinner of herbs at a time, will yield more peace
therewith, than will a stalled Ox, ill gotten. Better is a little
with righteousness, than great revenues without right. {124b}

4. Be thou confident, that Gods eyes are upon all thy wayes, and
that he pondereth all thy goings, and also that he marks them,
writes them down, and seals them up in a bag, against the time to
come. {124c}

5. Be thou sure that thou remembrest, that thou knowest not the
day of thy death. Remember also, that when death comes, God will
give thy substance, for the which thou hast laboured, and for the
which perhaps thou hast hazarded thy soul, to one, thou knowest not
who, nor whether he shall be a wise man or a fool. And then, what
profit hath he that laboureth for the wind? {124d}

Besides, thou shalt have nothing that thou mayest so much as carry
away in thine hand. Guilt shall goe with thee, if thou hast got it
dishonestly, and they also to whom thou shalt leave it, shall
receive it to their hurt.

These things duly considered, and made use of by thee to the
preparing of thy heart to thy calling of buying or selling; I come
in the next place to shew thee how thou shouldest live in the
practick part of this art. Art thou to buy or sell?

1. If thou sellest, do not commend; if thou buyest, do not
dispraise, any otherwise, but to give the thing that thou hast to
do with, its just value and worth; for thou canst not do otherwise
knowingly, but of a covetous and wicked mind. Wherefore else are
comodities over-valued by the Seller, and also under-valued by the
Buyer. It is naught, it is naught, says the buyer, but when he
hath got his bargain he boasteth thereof. {124e} What hath this
man done now but lyed in the dispraising of his bargain? and why
did he dispraise it, but of a covetous mind, to wrong and beguile
the seller?

2. Art thou a seller, and do things grow dear? set not thy hand to
help, or hold them up higher; this cannot be done without
wickedness neither; for this is a making of the sheckle great:
{125a} Art thou a buyer, and do things grow dear? use no cunning or
deceitful language to pull them down: for that cannot be done but
wickedly too. What then shall we do? will you say. Why I answer:
Leave things to the providence of God, and do thou with moderation
submit to his hand. But since, when they are growing dear, the
hand that upholds the price, is, for the time, more strong than
that which would pull it down; That being the hand of the seller,
who loveth to have it dear, specially if it shall rise in his hand:
therefore I say, do thou take heed, and have not a hand in it. The
which thou mayest have to thine own and thy neighbours hurt, these
three ways:

1. By crying out scarcity, scarcity, beyond the truth and state of
things: especially take heed of doing of this by way of a
prognostick for time to come. 'Twas for {125b} this for which he
was trodden to death in the gate of Samaria, that you read of in
the book of Kings. This sin has a double evil in it. 1. It
belieth the present blessing of God amongst us: and, 2. It
undervalueth the riches of his goodness, which can make all good
things to abound towards us.

2. This wicked thing may be done by hoarding up, when the hunger
and Necessity of the poor calls for it. Now that God may shew his
dislike against this, he doth, as it were, license the people to
curse such an hoarder up. He that withholdeth corn, the people
shall curse him, but blessing shall be upon the head of him that
selleth it. {125c}

3. But if things will rise, do thou be grieved; Be also moderate
in all thy sellings, and be sure let the poor have a pennyworth,
and sell thy Corn to those in necessity: {125d} Which then thou
wilt do, when thou shewest mercy to the poor in thy selling to him,
and when thou for his sake, because he is poor, undersellest the
market. This is to buy and sell with good conscience: thy buyer
thou wrongest not, thy Conscience thou wrongest not, thy self thou
wrongest not, for God will surely recompense thee.

I have spoken concerning Corn, but thy duty is, to let thy
moderation in all things be known unto all men, the Lord is at
hand. {125e}

Atten. Well, Sir, now I have heard enough of Mr. Badmans
naughtiness, pray now proceed to his Death.

Wise. Why Sir, the Sun is not so low, we have yet three hours to

Atten. Nay; I am not in any great hast, but I thought you had even
now done with his Life.

Wise. Done! no, I have yet much more to say.

Atten. Then he has much more wickedness than I thought he had.

Wise. That may be. But let us proceed: This Mr. Badman, added to
all his wickedness this, He was a very proud man, a Very proud man.
{126a} He was exceeding proud and haughty in mind; He looked, that
what he said, ought not, must not be contradicted or opposed. He
counted himself as wise as the wisest in the Countrey, as good as
the best, and as beautiful as he that had most of it. He took
great delight in praising of himself, and as much in the praises
that others gave him. He could not abide that any should think
themselves above him, or that their wit or personage should by
others be set before his. {126b} He had scarce a fellowly carriage
for his equals. But for those that were of an inferior ranck, he
would look over them in great contempt. And if at any time he had
any remote occasion of having to do with them, he would shew great
height, and a very domineering spirit. So that in this it may be
said that Solomon gave a characteristical note of him, when he
said: Proud and haughty scorner is his name, who dealeth in proud
wrath. {126c} He never thought his Dyet well enough dressed, his
Cloathes fine enough made, or his Praise enough refined.

Atten. This Pride, is a sin that sticks as close to nature I
think, as most sins. There is Uncleanness and Pride, I know not of
any two gross sins that stick closer to men then they. They have,
as I may call it, an interest in Nature; it likes them because they
most suit its lusts and fancies: and therefore no marvel though
Mr. Badman was tainted with pride, since he had so wickedly given
up himself to work all iniquity with greediness.

Wise. You say right; Pride, is a sin that sticks close to Nature,
{126d} and is one of the first follies wherein it shews it self to
be polluted. For even in Childhood, even in little children, Pride
will first of all shew it self; it is a hasty, an early appearance
of the sin of the soul. It, as I may say, is that corruption that
strives for predominancy in the heart, and therefore usually comes
out first. But though children are so incident to it, yet methinks
those of more years, should be ashamed thereof. I might at the
first have begun with Mr. Badmans Pride, only I think it is not the
Pride in Infancy, that begins to make a difference betwixt one and
another, as did, and do those wherewith I began my relation of his
life: therefore I passed it over, but now, since he had no more
consideration of himself, and of his vile and sinful state, but to
be proud when come to years; I have taken the occasion in this
place to make mention of his pride.

Atten. But pray, if you can remember them, tell me of some places
of Scripture that speak against pride. I the rather desire this,
because that pride is now a reigning sin, and I happen sometimes to
fall into the company of them that in my conscience are proud, very
much, and I have a mind also to tell them of their sin; now when I
tell them of it, unless I bring Gods word too, I doubt they will
laugh me to scorn.

Wise. Laugh you to scorn! the Proud man will laugh you to scorn,
bring to him what Text you can, except God shall smite him in his
conscience by the Word: Mr. Badman did use to serve them so that
did use to tell him of his: and besides, when you have said what
you can, they will tell you they are not proud, and that you are
rather the proud man, else you would not judge, nor so malapertly
meddle with other mens matters as you do. Nevertheless, since you
desire it, I will mention two or three texts: They are these.
Pride and arrogancy do I hate. A mans pride shall bring him low.
And he shall bring down their pride. And all the proud, and all
that do wickedly shall be as stubble, and the day that comes shall
burn them up. {127a} This last, is a dreadful Text; it is enough
to make a proud man shake: God, saith he, will make the proud ones
as stubble; that is, as fuel for the fire, and the day that cometh
shall be like a burning oven, and that day shall burn them up,
saith the Lord. But Mr. Badman could never abide to hear pride
spoken against, nor that any should say of him, He is a proud man.

Atten. What should be the reason of that?

Wise. He did not tell me the reason; but I suppose it to be that
which is common to all vile persons. They love this Vice, but care
not to bear its name. {128a} The Drunkard loves the sin, but loves
not to be called a drunkard. The Thief loveth to steal, but cannot
abide to be called a thief, the whore loveth to commit uncleanness,
but loveth not to be called a Whore; And so Mr. Badman loved to be
proud, but could not abide to be called a proud man. The sweet of
sin, is desirable to polluted and corrupted man, but the name
thereof, is a blot in his Scutcheon.

Atten. 'Tis true that you have said: but pray how many sorts of
pride are there?

Wise. There are two sorts of Pride; {128b} Pride of Spirit, and
Pride of Body. The first of these is thus made mention of in the
Scriptures. Every one that is proud in heart is abomination to the
Lord. {128c} A high look, and a proud heart, and the plowing of
the wicked is sin. The patient in spirit is better than the proud
in spirit. Bodily pride these Scriptures mention. In that day the
Lord shall take away the bravery of their tinckling ornaments about
their feet, and their cauls, and their round tires like the Moon,
the chains, and the bracelets, and the mufflers, the bonnets, and
the ornaments of the legs, and the headbands, and the tablets, and
the ear-rings, the rings, and the Nose-jewels: {128d} The
changable suits of Apparell, and the mantles, and the wimples, and
the crisping pins, the glasses, and the fine linnen, and the hoods
and the vails. By these expressions it is evident that there is
Pride of Body, as well as Pride of Spirit, and that both are sin,
and so abominable to the Lord. But these Texts Mr. Badman could
never abide to read, they were to him as Micaiah was to Ahab, they
never spake good of him, but evil.

Atten. I suppose that it was not Mr. Badmans case alone even to
maligne those Texts that speak against their vices: For I believe,
that most ungodly men, (where the Scriptures are) have a secret
antipathy against those words of God that do most plainly and fully
rebuke them for their sins. {128e}

Wise. That is out of doubt, and by that antipathy, they shew, that
sin and Satan are more welcome to them than are the wholesome
instructions of life and godliness.

Atten. Well, but not to goe off from our discourse of Mr. Badman.
You say he was proud: but will you shew me now some symptoms of
one that is proud?

Wise. Yes, that I will: And first I will shew you some symptoms
of Pride of Heart. {129a} Pride of heart, is seen by outward
things, as Pride of Body in general, is a sign of pride of heart;
for all proud gestures of the body flow from Pride of heart:
therefore Solomon saith; There is a generation, O how lofty are
their eyes, and their eye-lids are lifted up: {129b} And again;
There is that exalteth their gate, their going. {129c} Now these
lofty eyes, and this exalting of the gate, is a sign of a Proud
heart: for both these actions come from the heart: for out of the
heart comes Pride, in all the visible appearances of it. {129d}
But more particularly:

1. Heart Pride is discovered {129e} by a stretched out Neck, and
by mincing as they go. For the wicked, the Proud, have a proud
Neck, a proud Foot, a proud Tongue, by which this their going is
exalted. This is that which makes them look scornfully, speak
ruggedly, and carry it huffingly among their Neighbours.

2. A proud heart, is a persecuting one: The wicked through his
pride doth persecute the poor. {129f}

3. A prayerless man is a proud man. {129g}

4. A contentious man is a proud man. {129h}

5. The disdainful man is a proud man. {129i}

6. The man that oppresses his neighbour is a proud man. {129j}

7. He that hearkeneth not to Gods Word with reverence and fear, is
a proud man. {129k}

8. And he that calls the proud happy, is, be sure, a proud man.
All these are proud in heart, and this their pride of heart doth
thus discover it self. {129l} {129m}

As to bodily {129n} pride, it is discovered, that is, something of
it, by all the particulars mentioned before; for though they are
said to be symptoms of pride of heart, yet they are symptoms of
that pride, by their shewing of themselves in the Body. You know
diseases that are within, are seen oft-times by outward and visible
Signs, yet by them very signs even the outside is defiled also. So
all those visible signs of heart-pride, are signs of bodily pride
also. But to come to more outward signs: The putting on of Gold,
and Pearls, and costly array; the pleating of the hair, the
following of fashions, the seeking by gestures to imitate the
proud, either by speech, looks, dresses, goings, or other fools
baubles, (of which at this time the world is full) all these, and
many more, are signs, as of a proud heart, so of bodily pride also.

But Mr. Badman would not allow, by any means, that this should be
called Pride, {130c} but rather neatness, handsomness, comeliness,
cleanliness, &c. neither would he allow that following of fashions
was any thing else, but because he would not be proud, singular,
and esteemed fantastical by his neighbours.

Atten. But I have been told, that when some have been rebuked for
their pride, they have turned it again upon the brotherhood of
those by whom they have been rebuked: saying, Physician heal thy
Friends, look at home, among your Brotherhood, even among the
wisest of you, and see if you your selves be clear, even you
professors: for who is prouder than you professors? scarcesly the
Devil himself.

Wise. My heart akes at this answer, because there is too much
cause for it. {130d} This very Answer would Mr. Badman give his
wife, when she (as she would sometimes) reproved him for his pride:
We shall have, says he, great amendments in living now, for the
Devil is turned a corrector of vice: For no sin reigneth more in
the world, quoth he, than pride among professors. And who can
contradict him? let us give the Devil his due, the thing is too
apparent for any man to deny.

And I doubt not but the same answer is ready in the mouths of Mr.
Badmans friends; for they may and do see pride display it self in
the Apparel and carriages of professors; one may say, almost as
much, as among any people in the Land, the more is the pity. Ay,
and I fear that even their Extravagancies in this, hath hardened
the heart of many a one, as I perceive it did somewhat the heart of
Mr. Badman himself.

For mine own part, I have seen many my self, and those Church-
members too, so deckt and bedaubed with their Fangles and Toyes,
and that when they have been at the solemn Appointments of God, in
the way of his Worship, that I have wondred with what face such
painted persons could sit in the place where they were without
swounding. But certainly the holiness of God, and also the
pollution of themselves by sin, must needs be very far out of the
minds of such people, what profession soever they make.

I have read of an Whores forehead, {131a} and I have read of
christian-shamefacedness; I have read of costly array, and of that
which becometh women professing Godliness, with good works; {131b}
{131c} but if I might speak, I know what I know, and could say, and
yet do no wrong, that which would make some professors stink in
their places; {131d} but now I forbear.

Atten. Sir, you seem to be greatly concerned at this, but what I
shall say more? it is whispered, that some good Ministers have
countenanced their people in their light and wanton Apparrel, yea
have pleaded for their Gold, and Pearls, and costly array, &c.

Wise. I know not what they have pleaded for, but 'tis easily seen
that they tolerate, or at least wise, wink and connive at such
things, both in their Wives and Children. And so from the Prophets
of Jerusalem is profaneness gone forth into all the land. {131e}
And when the hand of the Rulers are chief in a trespass, who can
keep their people from being drowned in that trespass?

Atten. This is a lamentation, and must stand for a lamentation.

Wise. So it is, and so it must. And I will add, it is a shame, it
is a reproach, it is a stumbling-block to the blind; {131f} for
though men be as blind as Mr. Badman himself, yet they can see the
foolish lightness that must needs be the bottom of all these apish
and wanton extravagancies. But many have their excuses ready; to
wit, their Parents, their Husbands, and their breeding calls for
it, and the like: yea, the examples of good people prompt them to
it: but all these will be but the Spiders webb, when the thunder
of the Word of the great God shall rattle from Heaven against them,
as it will at Death or Judgment; but I wish it might do it before.
But alas! these excuses are but bare pretences, these proud ones
love to have it so. I once talked with a Maid, by way of reproof,
for her fond and gaudy garment. But she told me, {132a} The Tailor
would make it so: when alas, poor proud Girle, she gave order to
the Taylor so to make it. Many make Parents, and Husbands, and
Taylors, &c. the Blind to others, but their naughty hearts, and
their giving of way thereto, that is the original cause of all
these evils.

Atten. Now you are speaking of the cause of pride, pray shew me
yet further why pride is now so much in request? {132b}

Wise. I will shew you what I think are the reasons of it.

1. The first is, {132c} Because such persons are led by their own
hearts, rather than by the Word of God. I told you before, that
the original fountain of pride is the heart. For out of the heart
comes pride; it is therefore because they are led by their hearts,
which naturally tends to lift them up in pride. This pride of
heart, tempts them, and by its deceits overcometh them; {132d} yea
it doth put a bewitching vertue into their Peacocks feathers, and
then they are swallowed up with the vanity of them.

2. Another reason why professors are so proud, (for those we are
talking of now) is because they are more apt to take example of
those that are of the World, than they are to take example of those
that are Saints indeed. Pride is of the world. For all that is of
the world, the lusts of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the
pride of life, are not of the Father but of the world. {132e} Of
the world therefore Professors learn to be proud. But they should
not take them for example. It will be objected, No, nor your
saints neither, for you are as proud as others: Well, let them
take shame that are guilty. But when I say, professors should take
example for their life by those that are saints indeed, I mean as
Peter says: They should take example of those that were in old
time, the saints; for saints of old time were the best, therefore
to these he directeth us for our pattern. Let the wives
conversation be chast, and also coupled with fear. Whose adorning,
saith Peter, let it not be that outward adorning, of pleating the
hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of Apparel: but let
it be the hidden man of the heart, in that which is not
corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is
in the sight of God of great price. For after this manner, in the
old time, the holy women also who trusted in God, adorned
themselves, being in subjection to their own husbands. {132f}

3. Another reason is, {133a} Because they have forgotten the
pollution of their Nature. For the remembrance of that, must needs
keep us humble, and being kept humble, we shall be at a distance
from pride. The proud and the humble are set in opposition; (God
resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble.) And can it
be imagined, that a sensible Christian should be a proud one; sence
of baseness tends to lay us low, not to lift us up with pride; not
with pride of Heart, nor pride of Life: But when a man begins to
forget what he is, then he, if ever, begins to be proud.

Methinks it is one of the most senceless and ridiculous things in
the world, that a man should be proud of that which is given him on
purpose to cover the shame of his nakedness with.

4. Persons that are proud, have gotten God and his Holiness out of
their sight. {133b} If God was before them, as he is behind their
back; And if they saw him in his holiness, as he sees them in their
sins and shame, they would take but little pleasure in their apish
Knacks. The Holiness of God makes the Angels cover their faces,
crumbles Christians, when they behold it, into dust and ashes:
{133c} and as his Majesty is, such is his Word; Therefore they
abuse it, that bring it to countenance pride.

Lastly, {133d} But what can be the end of those that are proud, in
the decking of themselves after their antick manner? why are they
for going with their Bulls-foretops, with their naked shoulders,
and Paps hanging out like a Cows bag? why are they for painting
their faces, for stretching out their necks, and for putting of
themselves into all the Formalities which proud Fancy leads them
to? Is it because they would honour God? because they would adorn
the Gospel? because they would beautifie Religion, and make sinners
to fall in love with their own salvation? No, no. It is rather to
please their lusts, to satisfie their wild and extravagant fancies;
and I wish none doth it to stir up lust in others, to the end they
may commit uncleanness with them. I believe, whatever is their
end, this is one of the great designes of the Devil: and I believe
also, that Satan has drawn more into the sin of uncleanness, by the
spangling shew of fine cloaths, than he could possibly have drawn
unto it, without them. I wonder what it was, that of old was
called the Attire of an Harlot: certainly it could not be more
bewitching and tempting than are the garments of many professors
this day.

Atten. I like what you say very well, and I wish that all the
proud Dames in England that profess, were within the reach and
sound of your words.

Wise. What I have said, I believe is true, but as for the proud
Dames in England that profess, they have Moses and the Prophets,
and if they will not hear them, how then can we hope that they
should recieve good by such a dull sounding Ramshorn as I am?
However, I have said my mind, and now if you will, we will proceed
to some other of Mr. Badmans doings.

Atten. No: pray before you shew me any thing else of Mr. Badman,
shew me yet more particularly the evil effects of this sin of

Wise. With all my heart, I will answer your request. {134a}

1. {134b} Then: 'Tis pride that makes poor Man so like the Devil
in Hell, that he cannot in it be known to be the Image and
similitude of God. The Angels when they became Devils, 'twas
through their being lifted or puffed up with pride. 'Tis pride
also that lifteth or puffeth up the heart of the sinner, and so
makes him to bear the very image of the Devil.

2. {134c} Pride makes a man so odious in the sight of God, that he
shall not, must not come nigh his Majesty. Though the Lord be
high, yet hath he respect to the lowly, but the proud he knows afar
off. Pride sets God and the Soul at a distrance; pride will not
let a man come nigh God, nor God will not let a proud man come nigh
unto him: Now this is a dreadful thing.

3. {134d} As pride sets, so it keeps God and the Soul at a
distance. God resisteth the proud; resists, that is, he opposes
him, he thrusts him from him, he contemneth his person and all his
performances. Come in to Gods Ordinances, the proud man may; but
come into his presence, have communion with him, or blessing from
him, he shall not. For the high God doth resist him. {135a}

4. {135b} The Word saith, that The Lord will destroy the House of
the proud. He will destroy his House; it may be understood, he
will destroy him and his. So he destroyed proud Pharaoh, so he
destroyed proud Corah, and many others.

5. {135c} Pride, where it comes, and is entertained, is a certain
forerunner of some Judgment that is not far behind. When pride
goes before, shame and destruction will follow after. When pride
cometh, then cometh shame. Pride goeth before destruction, and a
haughty spirit before a fall.

6. {135d} Persisting in pride makes the condition of a poor man as
remediless as is that of the Devils themselves.

And this I fear was Mr. Badmans condition, and that was the reason
that he died so as he did; as I shall shew you anon.

But what need I thus talk of the particular actions, or rather
prodigious sins of Mr. Badman, when his whole Life and all his
actions, went as it were to the making up one massie body of sin?
{135e} Instead of believing that there was a God, his Mouth, his
Life and Actions declared, that he believed no such thing. His
transgression said within my heart, that there was no fear of God
before his eyes. {135f} {135g} Instead of honouring of God, and of
giving glory to him for any of his Mercies, or under any of his
good Providences towards him (for God is good to all, and lets his
Sun shine, and his Rain fall upon the unthankful and unholy,) he
would ascribe the glory to other causes. If they were Mercies, he
would ascribe them (if the open face of the providence did not give
him the lye) to his own wit, labour, care, industry, cunning, or
the like: if they were Crosses, he would ascribe them, or count
them the offspring of Fortune, ill Luck, Chance, the ill
mannagement of matters, the ill will of neighbours, or to his wifes
being Religious, and spending, as he called it, too much time in
Reading, Praying, or the like. It was not in his way to
acknowledge God, (that is, graciously) or his hand in things. But,
as the Prophet saith; Let favour be skewed to the wicked, yet will
he not learn righteousness. {136a} And again, They returned not to
him that smote them, nor did they seek the Lord of hosts. {136b}
This was Mr. Badmans temper, neither Mercies nor Judgment would
make him seek the Lord. Nay, as another Scripture sayes, he would
not see the works of God, nor regard the operations of his hands
either in mercies or in Judgments. {136c} But further, when by
Providence he has been cast under the best Means for his soul,
(for, as was shewed before, he having had a good master, and before
him a good father, and after all a good wife, and being sometimes
upon a Journey, and cast under the hearing of a good Sermon, as he
would sometimes for novelties sake go to hear a good Preacher;) he
was always without heart to make use thereof: In this land of
righteousness he would deal unjustly, and would not behold the
majesty of the Lord.

Instead of reverencing the Word, {136g} when he heard it preached,
read, or discoursed of, he would sleep, talk of other Business, or
else object against the authority, harmony, and wisdom of the
Scriptures. Saying, How do you know them to be the Word of God?
how do you know that these sayings are true? The Scriptures, he
would say, were as a Nose of Wax, and a man may turn them
whithersoever he lists: one Scripture says one thing, and another
sayes the quite contrary; Besides, they make mention of a thousand
imposibilities; they are the cause of all dissensions and discords
that are in the Land: Therefore you may (would he say) still think
what you will, but in my mind they are best at ease that have least
to do with them.

Instead of loving and honouring of them that did bear in their
Foreheads the Name, and in their Lives the Image of Christ, they
should be his Song, {136h} the matter of his Jests, and the objects
of his slanders. He would either make a mock at their sober
deportment, their gracious language, quiet behaviour, or else
desperately swear that they did all in deceit and hypocrisie. He
would endeavour to render godly men as odious and contemptable as
he could; any lyes that were made by any, to their disgrace, those
he would avouch for truth, and would not endure to be controlled.
He was much like those that the prophet speaks of, that would sit
and slander his mothers son; {137a} yea, he would speak
reproachfully of his wife, though his conscience told him, and many
would testifie, that she was a very vertuous woman. He would also
raise slanders of his wives friends himself, affirming that their
doctrine tended to lasciviousness, and that in their assemblies
they acted and did unbeseeming men and women, that they committed
uncleanness, &c. He was much like those that affirmed the Apostle
should say, Let us do evil that good may come: {137b} Or like
those of whom it is thus written: Report, say they, and we will
report it. {137c} And if he could get any thing by the end that
had scandal in it, if it did but touch professors, how falsely
soever reported; Oh! then he would glory, laugh, and be glad, and
lay it upon the whole party: Saying, Hang them Rogues, there is
not a barrel better Herring of all the holy Brotherhood of them:
Like to like, quoth the Devil to the Collier, this is your precise
Crew. And then he would send all home with a curse.

Atten. If those that make profession of Religion be wise, Mr.
Badmans watchings and words will make them the more wary and
careful in all things.

Wise. You say true. For when we see men do watch for our halting,
and rejoyce to see us stumble and fall, it should make us so much
abundance the more careful. {137d}

I do think it was as delightful to Mr. Badman to hear, raise, and
tell lies, and lying stories of them that fear the Lord, as it was
for him to go to bed when a weary. But we will at this time let
these things pass. For as he was in these things bad enough, so he
added to these, many more the like.

He was an {137e} angry, wrathfull, envious man, a man that knew not
what meekness or gentleness meant, nor did he desire to learn. His
natural temper was to be surly, huffie, and rugged, and worse; and
he so gave way to his temper, as to this, that it brought him to be
furious and outrageous in all things, specially against goodness it
self, and against other things too, when he was displeased. {138a}

Atten. Solomon saith, He is a fool that rageth.

Wise. He doth so; and sayes moreover, That anger rests in the
bosom of fools. {138b} And truly, if it be a sign of a Fool to
have anger rest in his bosom, then was Mr. Badman, notwithstanding
the conceit that he had of his own abilities, a Fool of no small

Atten. Fools are mostly most wise in their own eyes.

Wise. True. But I was a saying, that if it be a sign that a man
is a Fool, when Anger rests in his bosom; Then what is it a sign
of, think you, when Malice and Envy rests there? For to my
knowledge Mr. Badman was as malicious and as envious a man as
commonly you can hear of.

Atten. Certainly, malice and envy flow {138c} from pride and
arrogancy, and they again from ignorance, and ignorance from the
Devil; And I thought, that since you spake of the pride of Mr.
Badman before, we should have something of these before we had

Wise. Envy flows from Ignorance indeed. And this Mr. Badman was
so envious an one, where he set against, that he would swell with
it, as a Toad, as we say, swells with poyson. He whom he maligned,
might at any time even read envy in his face wherever he met with
him, or in whatever he had to do with him.

His envy was so rank and strong, that if it at any time turned its
head against a man, it would hardly ever be pulled in again: He
would watch over that man to do him mischief, as the Cat watches
over the Mouse to destroy it; yea, he would wait seven years, but
he would have an opportunity to hurt him, and when he had it, he
would make him feel the weight of his Envy.

Envy is a devilish thing, the Scripture intimates that none can
stand before it. A stone is heavy, and the sand weighty, but a
fools wrath is heavier than them both. Wrath is cruel, and anger
is outrageous, but who can stand before envy? {138d} {138e}

This Envy, for the foulness of it, is reckoned {138f} among the
foulest Villanies that are, as adultery, murder, drunkenness,
revellings, witchcrafts, heresies, seditions, &c. Yea, it is so
malignant a corruption, that it rots the very bones of him in whom
it dwells. A sound heart is life to the flesh, but envy the
rottenness of the bones. {139a}

Atten. This Envy is the very Father and Mother of a great many
hideous and prodigious wickednesses: I say, it is the very {139b}
Father and Mother of them; it both besets them, and also nourishes
them up, till they come to their cursed maturity in the bosom of
him that entertains them.

Wise. You have given it a very right description, in calling of it
the Father and Mother of a great many other prodigious
wickednesses: for it is so venomous and vile a thing, that it puts
the whole course of Nature out of order, and makes it fit for
nothing but confusion, and a hold for every evil thing. For where
envy and strife is, there is confusion, and every evil work. {139c}
Wherefore, I say, you have rightly called it, The very Father and
Mother of a great many other sins. And now for our further
edification, I will reckon up some of the births of Envy.

1. Envy, as I told you before, it rotteth the very bones of him
that entertains it. And,

2. As you have also hinted, it is heavier than a Stone, than Sand;
yea, and I will add, It falls like a Mill-stone upon the head.

3. It kills him that throws it, and him at whom it is thrown.
Envy slayeth the silly one. {139e} That is, him in whom it
resides, and him who is its object.

4. 'Twas that also that slew Jesus Christ himself; for his
adversaries persecuted him through their envy. {139f} {139g}

5. Envy was that by vertue of which Joseph was sold by his
Brethren into Egypt: {139h}

6. 'Tis envy that hath the hand in making of variance among Gods
Saints. {139i}

7. 'Tis envy in the hearts of Sinners, that stirres them up to
thrust Gods Ministers out of their coasts.

8. What shall I say? 'Tis envy that is the very Nursery of
whisperings, debates, backbitings, slanders, reproaches, murders,

'Tis not possible to repeat all the particular fruits of this
sinfull root. Therefore, it is no marvel that Mr. Badman was such
an ill natured man, for the great roots of all manner of wickedness
were in him, unmortified, unmaimed, untouched.

Atten. But it is {140a} a rare case, even this of Mr. Badman, that
he should never in all his life be touched with remorse for his
ill-spent life.

Wise. Remorse, I cannot say he ever had, if by remorse you mean
repentance for his evils. Yet twice I remember he was under some
trouble of mind about his condition: {140b} Once when he broke his
legg as he came home drunk from the Ale-house; and another time
when he fell sick, and thought he should die: Besides these two
times, I do not remember any more.

Atten. Did he break his legg then?

Wise. Yes: Once, as he came home drunk from the Ale-house.

Atten. Pray how did he break it?

Wise. Why upon a time he was at an Ale-house, that wicked house,
about two or three miles from home, and having there drank hard the
greatest part of the day, when night was come, he would stay no
longer, but calls for his horse, gets up, and like a Madman (as
drunken persons usually ride) away he goes, as hard as horse could
lay legs to the ground. Thus he rid, till coming to a dirty place,
where his horse flouncing in, fell, threw his master, and with his
fall broke his legg: so there he lay. {140c} But you would not
think how he {140d} swore at first. But after a while, he comeing
to himself, and feeling by his pain, and the uselesness of his
legg, what case he was in, and also fearing that this bout might be
his death; he began to crie out after the manner of such; {140e}
Lord help me, Lord have mercy upon me, good God deliver me, and the
like. So there he lay, till some came by, who took him up, carried
him home, where he lay for some time, before he could go abroad

Atten. And then, you say, he called upon God.

Wise. He cryed out in his pain, and would say, O God, and O Lord,
help me: but whether it was that his sin might be pardoned, and
his soul saved, or whether to be rid of his pain, I will not
positively determine; though I fear it was but for the last; {141a}
because, when his pain was gone, and he had got hopes of mending,
even before he could go abroad, he cast off prayer, and began his
old game; to wit, to be as bad as he was before. He then would
send for his old companions; his Sluts also would come to his house
to see him, and with them he would be, as well as he could for his
lame leg, as vicious as they could be for their hearts.

Atten. 'Twas a wonder he did not break his neck.

Wise. His neck had gone instead of his leg, but that God was long-
suffering towards him; he had deserved it ten thousand times over.
There have been many, as I have heard, and as I have hinted to you
before, that have taken their Horses when drunk, as he; but they
have gone from the pot to the grave; for they have broken their
necks 'twixt the Ale-house and home. One hard by us {141b} also
drunk himself dead; he drank, and dyed in his drink.

Atten. 'Tis a sad thing to dye drunk.

Wise. So it is: But yet I wonder that no more do so. For
considering the heinousness of that sin, and with how many other
sins it is accompanied, {141c} as with oaths, blasphemies, lyes,
revellings, whoreings, brawlings, &c. it is a wonder to me, that
any that live in that sin should escape such a blow from heaven
that should tumble them into their graves. Besides, when I
consider also how, when they are as drunk as beasts, they, without
all fear of danger, will ride like Bedlams and mad men, even as if
they did dare God to meddle with them if he durst, for their being
drunk: I say, I wonder that he doth not withdraw his protecting
providences from them, and leave them to those Dangers and
Destructions that by their sin they have deserved, and that by
their Bedlam madness they would rush themselves into: only I
consider again, that he has appointed a day wherein he will reckon
with them, {141d} and doth also commonly make Examples of some, to
shew that he takes notice of their sin, abhorrs their way, and will
count with them for it at the set time.

Atten. It is worthy of our remark, to take notice how God, to shew
his dislike of the sins of men, strikes some of them down with a
blow; as the breaking of Mr. Badmans legg, for doubtless that was a
stroak from heaven.

Wise. It is worth our remark indeed. It was an open stroak, it
fell upon him while he was in the height of his sin: And it looks
much like to that in Job; Therefore he knoweth their works, and
overturneth them in the night, so that they are destroyed. He
striketh them as wicked men in the open sight of others: {142a} Or
as the Margent reads it, in the place of beholders. He layes them
with his stroak in the place of beholders. There was {142b} Mr.
Badman laid, his stroak was taken notice of by every one: his
broken legg was at this time the Town-talk. Mr. Badman has broken
his legg, sayes one: How did he break it? sayes another: As he
came home drunk from such an Ale-house, said a third; A Judgment of
God upon him, said a fourth. This his sin, his shame, and
punishment, are all made conspicuous to all that are about him. I
will here tell you another story or two.

I have read in Mr. Clark's Looking-glass for Sinners; {142c} That
upon a time, a certain drunken fellow boasted in his Cups, that
there was neither Heaven nor Hell; also he said, He believed, that
man had no Soul, and that for his own part, he would sell his soul
to any that would buy it. Then did one of his companions buy it of
him for a cup of Wine; and presently the Devil in mans shape bought
it of that man again at the same price; and so in the presence of
them all laid hold on this Soul-seller, and carried him away
through the Air, so that he was never more heard of.

In pag. 148, he tells us also: That there was one at Salisbury, in
the midst of his health drinking and carousing in a Tavern; and he
drank a health to the Devil, saying, That if the Devil would not
come and pledge him, he would not believe that there was either God
or Devil. Whereupon his companions stricken with fear, hastened
out of the room: and presently after, hearing a hideous noise, and
smelling a stinking savour, the Vintner ran up into the chamber;
and coming in, he missed his Guest, and found the window broken,
the Iron barr in it bowed, and all bloody: But the man was never
heard of afterwards.

Again, in pag. 149. he tells us of a Bailiff of Hedly: Who upon a
Lords Day being drunk at Melford, got upon his horse, to ride
through the streets, saying, That his horse would carry him to the
Devil: and presently his horse threw him, and broke his neck.
These things are worse than the breaking of Mr. Badmans Leg, and
should be a caution to all of his friends that are living, lest
they also fall by their sin into these sad Judgements of God.

But, as I said, Mr. Badman quickly forgot all, his conscience was
choaked, before his legg was healed. And therefore, before he was
well of the fruit of one sin, he tempts God to send another
Judgment to seize upon him: And so he did quickly after. For not
many months after his legg was well, he had a very dangerous fit of
sickness, insomuch that now he began to think he must dye in very
deed. {143a}

Atten. Well, and what did he think and do then?

Wise. He thought he must go to Hell; this I know, for he could not
forbear but say so. {143b} To my best remembrance, he lay crying
out all one night for fear, and at times he would so tremble, that
he would make the very bed shake under him. {143c} But, Oh! how
the thoughts of Death, of Hell-fire, and of eternal Judgment, did
then wrack his conscience. Fear might be seen in his face, and in
his tossings to and fro: It might also be heard in his words, and
be understood by his heavy groans. He would often cry, I am
undone, I am undone; my vile life has undone me.

Atten. Then his former atheistical thoughts and principles, were
too weak now to support him from the fears of eternal damnation.

Wise. Aie! they were too weak indeed. They may serve to stifle
conscience, when a man is in the midst of his prosperity, and to
harden the heart against all good counsel when a man is left of
God, and given up to his reprobate mind: {143d} But alas,
atheistical thoughts, Notions and Opinions, must shrink and melt
away, when God sends, yea comes with sickness to visit the soul of
such a sinner for his sin. There was a man dwelt about 12 miles
off from us, that had so trained up himself in his atheistical
Notions, that at last he attempted to write a book against Jesus
Christ, and against the divine Authority of the Scriptures. (But I
think it was not printed:) Well, after many days God struck him
with sickness, whereof he dyed. So, being sick, and musing upon
his former doings, the Book that he had written came into his mind,
and with it such a sence of his evil in writing of it, that it tore
his Conscience as a Lyon would tare a Kid. He lay therefore upon
his death-bed in sad case, {144a} and much affliction of
conscience: some of my friends also went to see him; and as they
were in his chamber one day, he hastily called for Pen Ink and
Paper, which when it was given him, he took it and writ to this
purpose. I, {144b} such an one, in such a Town, must goe to Hell-
fire, for writing a Book against Jesus Christ, and against the Holy
Scriptures: And would also have leaped out of the window of his
house to have killed himself, but was by them prevented of that:
so he dyed in his bed, such a death as it was. 'Twill be well if
others take warning by him.

Atten. This is a remarkable story.

Wise. 'Tis as true as remarkable; I had it from them that I dare
believe, who also themselves were eye and ear witnesses; and also
that catcht him in their arms, and saved him when he would have
leaped out of his chamber-window, to have destroyed himself.

Atten. Well, you have told me what were Mr. Badmans thoughts (now,
being sick) of his condition; pray tell me also what he then did
when he was sick?

Wise. Did! he did many things, which I am sure he never thought to
have done, and which, to be sure, was not looked for of his wife
and children.

In this fit of sickness, his Thoughts were quite altered about his
wife; I say his Thoughts, so far as could be judged by his words
and carriages to her. {144c} For now she was his good wife, his
godly wife, his honest wife, his duck, and dear, and all. Now he
told her, that she had the best of it, she having a good Life to
stand by her, while his debaucheries and ungodly Life did always
stare him in the face. Now he told her, the counsel that she often
gave him, was good; though he was so bad as not to take it.

Now he would hear her talk to him, and he would lie sighing by her
while she so did. Now he would bid her pray for him, that he might
be delivered from Hell. {145a}

He would also now consent, that some of her good Ministers might
come to him to comfort him; and he would seem to shew them kindness
when they came, for he would treat them kindly with words, and
hearken diligently to what they said, only he did not care that
they should talk much of his ill spent life, because his conscience
was clogged with that already; he cared not now to see his old
companions, the thoughts of them was a torment to him: and now he
would speak kindly to that child of his that took after its mothers
steps, though he could not at all abide it before.

He also desired the prayers of good people, that God of his mercy
would spare him a little longer, promising that if God would but
let him recover this once, what a new, what a penitent man he would
be toward God, and what a loving husband he would be to his wife:
what liberty he would give her, yea how he would goe with her
himself to hear her Ministers, and how they should go hand in hand
in the way to heaven together.

Atten. Here was a fine shew of things; I'le warrant you, his wife
was glad for this.

Wise. His wife! Aie, and a many good people besides: it was
noysed all over the Town, {145b} what a great change there was
wrought upon Mr. Badman; how sorry he was for his sins, how he
began to love his wife, how he desired good men should pray to God
to spare him; and what promises he now made to God in his sickness,
that if ever he should raise him from his sick bed to health again,
what a new penitent man he would be towards God, and what a loving
husband to his good wife.

Well, ministers prayed, and good people rejoyced, thinking verily
that they now had gotten a man from the Devil; nay, some of the
weaker sort did not stick to say that God had began a work of Grace
in his heart; and his wife, poor woman, {145c} you cannot think how
apt she was to believe it so; she rejoyced, and she hoped as she
would have it. But, alas! alas! in little time things all proved

After he had kept his Bed a while, his distemper began to abate,
and he to feel himself better, so he in little time was so finely
mended, that he could walk about the house, and also obtained a
very fine stomach to his food: {146a} and now did his wife and her
good friends stand gaping, to see Mr. Badman fulfill his promise of
becoming new towards God, and loving to his wife: but the contrary
only shewed it self. For so soon as ever he had hopes of mending,
and found that his strength began to renew, his trouble began to
goe off his heart, and he grew as great a stranger to his frights
and fears, as if he had never had them.

But verily, I am apt to think, that one reason of his no more
regarding, or remembring of his sick-bed fears, and of being no
better for them, was, some words that the Doctor that supplied him
with Physick said to him when he was mending. For as soon as Mr.
Badman began to mend, the Doctor comes and sits him down by him in
his house, and there fell into discourse with him about the nature
of his disease; and among other things they talked of Badmans
trouble, and how he would cry out, tremble, and express his fears
of going to Hell when his sickness lay pretty hard upon him. To
which the Doctor replyed: {146b} That those fears and Out-cries
did arise from the height of his distemper, for that disease was
often attended with lightness of the head, by reason the sick party
could not sleep, and for that the vapours disturbed the brain: But
you see Sir, quoth he, that so soon as you got sleep and betook
your self to rest, you quickly mended, and your head settled, and
so those frenzies left you.

And was it so indeed, thought Mr. Badman; was my troubles, only the
effects of my distemper, and because ill vapours got up into my
brain? Then surely, since my Physician was my Saviour, my Lust
again shall be my God. So he never minded Religion more, but
betook him again to the world, his lusts and wicked companions:
And there was an end of Mr. Badmans Conversion.

Atten. I thought, (as you told me of him) that this would be the
result of the whole; for I discerned by your relating of things,
that the true symptoms of conversion were wanting in him, and that
those that appeared to be any thing like them, were only such as
the reprobates may have.

Wise. You say right, for there wanted in him, when he was most
sensible, a sence of the pollution of his Nature; he only had guilt
for his sinful actions, the which Cain, and Pharaoh, and Saul, and
Judas, those reprobates, have had before him. {147a}

Besides, the great things that he desired, were, to be delivered
from going to Hell, (and who would willingly?) and that his life
might be lengthened in this world. We find not by all that he said
or did, that Jesus Christ the Saviour was desired by him, from a
sence of his need of his Righteousness to cloath him, and of his
Spirit to sanctifie him. {147b}

His own strength was whole in him, he saw nothing of the treachery
of his own heart; for had he, he would never have been so free to
make promises to God of amendment. He would rather have been
afraid, that if he had mended, he should have turned with the dog
to his vomit, and have begged prayers of Saints, and assistance
from heaven upon that account, that he might have been kept from
doing so.

'Tis true he did beg prayers of good people, and so did Pharaoh of
Moses and Aaron, and Simon Magus of Simon Peter. {147c}


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