The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (Vol. II)
Washington Irving

Part 9 out of 10

Juan Fernandez, a fine young man, about twenty-one years of age, and who,
his father informed me, was at present studying French and mathematics. He
was well mounted on a spirited gray horse, and dressed in the Andalusian
style, with the little round hat and jacket. He sat his horse gracefully,
and managed him well. I was pleased with the frank and easy terms on which
Don Juan appeared to live with his children. This I was inclined to think
his favorite son, as I understood he was the only one that partook of the
old gentleman's fondness for the chase, and that accompanied him in his
hunting excursions.

A dinner had been prepared for us at the hacienda, by the wife of the
capitaz, or overseer, who, with her husband, seemed to be well pleased
with this visit from Don Juan, and to be confident of receiving a pleasant
answer from the good-humored old gentleman whenever they addressed him.
The dinner was served up about two o'clock, and was a most agreeable meal.
The fruits and wines were from the estate, and were excellent; the rest of
the provisions were from Moguer, for the adjacent village of Palos is too
poor to furnish any thing. A gentle breeze from the sea played through the
hall, and tempered the summer heat. Indeed I do not know when I have seen
a more enviable spot than this country retreat of the Pinzons. Its
situation on a breezy hill, at no great distance from the sea, and in a
southern climate, produces a happy temperature, neither hot in summer nor
cold in winter. It commands a beautiful prospect, and is surrounded by
natural luxuries. The country abounds with game, the adjacent river
affords abundant sport in fishing, both by day and night, and delightful
excursions for those fond of sailing. During the busy seasons of rural
life, and especially at the joyous period of vintage, the family pass some
time here, accompanied by numerous guests, at which times, Don Juan
assured me, there was no lack of amusements, both by land and water.

When we had dined, and taken the siesta, or afternoon nap, according to
the Spanish custom in summer time, we set out on our return to Moguer,
visiting the village of Palos in the way. Don Gabriel had been sent in
advance to procure the keys of the village church, and to apprise the
curate of our wish to inspect the archives. The village consists
principally of two streets of low whitewashed houses. Many of the
inhabitants have very dark complexions, betraying a mixture of African

On entering the village, we repaired to the lowly mansion of the curate. I
had hoped to find him some such personage as the curate in Don Quixote,
possessed of shrewdness and information in his limited sphere, and that I
might gain some anecdotes from him concerning the parish, its worthies,
its antiquities, and its historical events. Perhaps I might have done so
at any other time, but, unfortunately, the curate was something of a
sportsman, and had heard of some game among the neighboring hills. We met
him just sallying forth from his house, and, I must confess, his
appearance was picturesque. He was a short, broad, sturdy little man, and
had doffed his cassock and broad clerical beaver, for a short jacket and a
little round Andalusian hat; he had his gun in hand, and was on the point
of mounting a donkey which had been led forth by an ancient withered
handmaid. Fearful of being detained from his foray, he accosted my
companion the moment he came in sight. "God preserve you, Senor Don Juan!
I have received your message, and have but one answer to make. The
archives have all been destroyed. We have no trace of any thing you seek
for--nothing--nothing. Don Rafael has the keys of the church. You can
examine it at your leisure--Adios, caballero!" With these words the
galliard little curate mounted his donkey, thumped his ribs with the butt
end of his gun, and trotted off to the hills.

In our way to the church we passed by the ruins of what had once been a
fair and spacious dwelling, greatly superior to the other houses of the
village. This, Don Juan informed me, was an old family possession, but
since they had removed from Palos it had fallen to decay for want of a
tenant. It was probably the family residence of Martin Alonzo or Vicente
Yafiez Pinzon, in the time of Columbus.

We now arrived at the Church of St. George, in the porch of which Columbus
first proclaimed to the inhabitants of Palos the order of the sovereigns,
that they should furnish him with ships for his great voyage of discovery.
This edifice has lately been thoroughly repaired, and, being of solid
mason-work, promises to stand for ages, a monument of the discoverers. It
stands outside of the village, on the brow of a hill, looking along a
little valley toward the river. The remains of a Moorish arch prove it to
have been a mosque in former times; just above it, on the crest of the
hill, is the ruin of a Moorish castle.

I paused in the porch, and endeavored to recall the interesting scene that
had taken place there, when Columbus, accompanied by the zealous friar
Juan Perez, caused the public notary to read the royal order in presence
of the astonished alcaldes, regidors, and alguazils; but it is difficult
to conceive the consternation that must have been struck into so remote a
little community, by this sudden apparition of an entire stranger among
them, bearing a command that they should put their persons and ships at
his disposal, and sail with him away into the unknown wilderness of the

The interior of the church has nothing remarkable, excepting a wooden
image of St. George vanquishing the Dragon, which is erected over the high
altar, and is the admiration of the good people of Palos, who bear it
about the streets in grand procession on the anniversary of the saint.
This group existed in the time of Columbus, and now flourishes in
renovated youth and splendor, having been newly painted and gilded, and
the countenance of the saint rendered peculiarly blooming and lustrous.

Having finished the examination of the church, we resumed our seats in the
calesa and returned to Moguer. One thing only remained to fulfill the
object of my pilgrimage. This was to visit the chapel of the Convent of
Santa Clara. When Columbus was in danger of being lost in a tempest on his
way home from his great voyage of discovery, he made a vow, that, should
he be spared, he would watch and pray one whole night in this chapel; a
vow which he doubtless fulfilled immediately after his arrival.

My kind and attentive friend, Don Juan, conducted me to the convent. It is
the wealthiest in Moguer, and belongs to a sisterhood of Franciscan nuns.
The chapel is large, and ornamented with some degree of richness,
particularly the part about the high altar, which, is embellished by
magnificent monuments of the brave family of the Puerto Carreros, the
ancient lords of Moguer, and renowned in Moorish warfare. The alabaster
effigies of distinguished warriors of that house, and of their wives and
sisters, lie side by side, with folded hands, on tombs immediately before
the altar, while others recline in deep niches on either side. The night
had closed in by the time I entered the church, which made the scene more
impressive. A few votive lamps shed a dim light about the interior; their
beams were feebly reflected by the gilded work of the high altar, and the
frames of the surrounding paintings, and rested upon the marble figures of
the warriors and dames lying in the monumental repose of ages. The solemn
pile must have presented much the same appearance when the pious
discoverer performed his vigil, kneeling before this very altar, and
praying and watching throughout the night, and pouring forth heartfelt
praises for having been spared to accomplish his sublime discovery.

I had now completed the main purpose of my journey, having visited the
various places connected with the story of Columbus. It was highly
gratifying to find some of them so little changed though so great a space
of time had intervened; but in this quiet nook of Spain, so far removed
from the main thoroughfares, the lapse of time produces but few violent
revolutions. Nothing, however, had surprised and gratified me more than
the contiuued stability of the Pinzon family. On the morning after my
excursion to Palos, chance gave me an opportunity of seeing something of
the interior of most of their households. Having a curiosity to visit the
remains of a Moorish castle, once the citadel of Moguer, Don Fernandez
undertook to show me a tower which served as a magazine of wine to one of
the Pinzon family. In seeking for the key we were sent from house to house
of nearly the whole connection. All appeared to be living in that golden
mean equally removed from the wants and superfluities of life, and all to
be happily interwoven by kind and cordial habits of intimacy. We found the
females of the family generally seated in the patios, or central courts of
their dwellings, beneath the shade of awnings and among shrubs and
flowers. Here the Andalusian ladies are accustomed to pass their mornings
at work, surrounded by their handmaids, in the primitive, or rather
oriental style. In the porches of some of the houses I observed the
coat-of-arms granted to the family by Charles V, hung up like a picture in
a frame. Over the door of Don Luis, the naval officer, it was carved on an
escutcheon of stone, and colored. I had gathered many particulars of the
family also from conversation with Don Juan, and from the family legend
lent me by Don Luis. From all that I could learn, it would appear that the
lapse of nearly three centuries and a half has made but little change in
the condition of the Pinzons. From generation to generation they have
retained the same fair standing and reputable name throughout the
neighborhood, filling offices of public trust and dignity, and possessing
great influence over their fellow-citizens by their good sense and good
conduct. How rare is it to see such an instance of stability of fortune in
this fluctuating world, and how truly honorable is this hereditary
respectability, which has been secured by no titles nor entails, but
perpetuated merely by the innate worth of the race! I declare to you that
the most illustrious descents of mere titled rank could never command the
sincere respect and cordial regard with which I contemplated this stanch
and enduring family, which for three centuries and a half has stood merely
upon its virtues.

As I was to set off on my return to Seville before two o'clock, I partook
of a farewell repast at the house of Don Juan, between twelve and one, and
then took leave of his household with sincere regret. The good old
gentleman, with the courtesy, or rather the cordiality, of a true
Spaniard, accompanied me to the posada, to see me off. I had dispensed but
little money in the posada--thanks to the hospitality of the Pinzons--yet
the Spanish pride of my host and hostess seemed pleased that I had
preferred their humble chamber, and the scanty bed they had provided me,
to the spacious mansion of Don Juan; and when I expressed my thanks for
their kindness and attention, and regaled mine host with a few choice
segars, the heart of the poor man was overcome. He seized me by both hands
and gave me a parting benediction, and then ran after the calasero, to
enjoin him to take particular care of me during my journey.

Taking a hearty leave of my excellent friend Don Juan, who had been
unremitting in his attentions to me to the last moment, I now set off on
my wayfaring, gratified to the utmost with my visit, and full of kind and
grateful feelings towards Moguer and its hospitable inhabitants.



Acuna, Don Alonzo de, summons Columbus to give an account of himself, on
his return from the New World.

Address of an Indian of Cuba to Columbus.

Adelantado, title of, given to Christopher Columbus, confirmed by the

Adrian de Moxica.

Admiral, the, a title granted to Columbus and his descendants.

Africa, essay on the navigation of, by the ancients.

Aguado, Juan, recommended to the Spanish Government by Columbus; appointed
commissioner to inquire into the conduct of Columbus; arrives at Isabella;
his insolent behavior; his interview with Columbus: the Caciques having
preferred complaints against Columbus, he determines on returning to

Alexander VI., pope, character of; famous bulls of, relative to the New
World; letter of Columbus to.

Aliaco, Pedro, work of, referred to, note.

Alligators, found in great numbers at Puerto Bello.

All Saints, discovery of the bay of.

Alonzo, Don, heir-apparent of Portugal, his marriage with the princess

Alpha and Omega, the extreme point of Cuba.

Alva, duke of, Don Diego Columbus marries his daughter; he assists in
obtaining justice for his son-in-law.

Alvaro, Don, de Portugal, attack upon, in the royal tent.

Amazons, an island of supposed; warlike women of the Caribbee islands.
Amazons, river of, discovered by Vicente Pinzon.

Amber, specimens of, among the mountains of Cibao.

Anacaona, wife to Caonabo, retires with her brother Behechio, after the
great battle of the Vega; composes legendary ballads; her admiration of
the Spaniards; counsels her brother to conciliate the friendship of the
Spaniards; her reception of the Adelantado; her wonder and delight at
seeing a Spanish ship; her grief at the departure of the Adelantado; her
conduct in respect to her daughter and Guevara; her admiration of the
Spaniards turned into detestation; receives a visit from Ovando; is
seized; carried in chains to St. Domingo; and ignominiously hanged; her
fine character.

Anana, or the pine-apple, first met with.

Angel, Luis de St., his remonstrance with the queen relative to the
project of Columbus; succeeds.

Antigua, island of, discovered.

Antilles, the, discovered; taken possession of.

Apparitions, ideas of the Haytiens in respect to.

Appendix, containing illustrations and documents.

Arana, Diego de, left in charge of Hispaniola, during the first absence of
Columbus, history of the disaster which occurred to him after the
departure of Columbus.

Arano, Pedro de, commander of one of Columbus's ships on his third voyage.

Areytos, or ballads, of the Haytiens.

Aristizabal, Don Gabriel de, solicits the removal of the remains of

Arriaga, Luis de, is shut up within the walls of Magdalena.

Astrolabe, the, applied to navigation.

Atalantis, Plato's observations on.

Audience, royal, court of, established.

Augustine, St., his arguments against the existence of Antipodes.

Augustine, St., Cape of, discovered by Pinzon.

Aurea Cheraonesus, the place whence Solomon is supposed to have had gold.

Azores, the, when discovered; arrival at by Columbus on his return from
his first voyage.


Babeque, a supposed island, Columbus goes in search of.

Bahama Islands, discovery of; cruise among the.

Ballads of the Haytiens.

Ballester, Miguel, his conduct during the conspiracy of Roldan; receives a
letter from Columbus; his character; interview with Roman; second
interview: sends advice to the admiral; is besieged in the fortress of
Conception; sails for Spain.

Barbas, Las, islands of, discovered.

Barrantes, Garcia de, sails for Spain.

Barros, Joam de, his account of Columbus's proposition to John II. king of

Basil, St., his description of Paradise.

Bastides, Rodrigo, of Seville, explores the coast of Terra Firma.

Baza, surrender of.

Beata, Cape, sailors of Columbus climb the rock of.

Behem, Martin, his planisphere; an account of; the assertion relative to
his having discovered the western world previous to Columbus considered.

Behechio assists Caonabo, and kills one of the wives of Guacanagari; the
only Cacique who does not sue for peace; receives a visit from Bartholomew
Columbus; his reception of him; consents to pay tribute; invites the
Adelantado to come and receive it; his astonishment at visiting a Spanish

Bolen, river of, discovered; abounds in fish; Columbus commences a
settlement on its banks.

Bell of Isabella, the superstitious ideas of the Haytiens in respect to

Belvis, Pablo, sent to Hayti in the place of Fermin Cedo.

Berahoma, condemned to death for having violated the wife of the Cacique
of the Vega; is pardoned.

Bernaldez, Andres, a short account of his life and writings.

Bernardo of Valentia, his conspiracy at Jamaica.

Bloodhounds, first use of in the New World; employed by Columbus in his
wars with the Haytiens.

Bobadilla, Don Francisco de, charged with a commission to Hispaniola to
inquire into the conduct of Columbus; his character; instructions with
which he is charged; sails; arrives at St. Domingo; his judgment formed
before he leaves his ship; assumes power on landing; storms the fortress
of St. Domingo; assumes the government before he investigates the conduct
of Columbus; seizes his arms, gold, secret papers, etc.; summons Columbus
to appear before him; his baseness in collecting evidence; puts Don Diego
in chains; also Columbus; his fears in respect to the Adelantado; puts him
in irons; his mal-administration; a saying of his; superseded in his
government by Ovando; sails for Spain and is lost, with all his crew, in a
violent hurricane.

Boca del Sierpe.

Borgonon, Juan, labors to convert the Haytiens.

Boyle, Bernardo, friar, appointed apostolical vicar for the New World; his
advice to Columbus in respect to Guacanagari; confirms the accounts sent
home by Columbus; consecrates the first church at Isabella; his character
and conduct; his hatred of Columbus; encourages the misconduct of
Margarite; forms the plan of seizing Bartholomew Columbus's ships and
returning to Spain; sees sail; his accusations of Columbus at the court of

Brandan, St., imaginary island of.

Brazils, the, discovered by Vicente Pinzon; a part discovered and taken
possession of for the Portuguese crown by Cabral.

Breviesca, Ximeno de, a worthless hireling; his conduct and punishment.

Bucklers, used by the natives of Trinidad. Bull of Partition issued by
Pope Martin V.; relative to the New World, issued by Pope Alexander VI..

---- of Demarcation.

Burgos, the court held at.

Butios, the priests of the Haytiens.

Butterflies, clouds of, seen on the southern coast of Cuba.


Cabot, Sebastian, discovers Labrador, supposed to be the first that
visited the main-land of the New World.

Cabral, Pedro Alvarez de, discovers part of the Brazils, and takes
possession of it in the name of the king of Portugal. Cabron, Cape, or
Capo del Enamorado.

Cacao, first known to the Spaniards.

Caciques, seizure of fourteen, in the night, by Bartholomew Columbus and
his officers.

Canaries, an optical delusion seen by the people of the; arrival of
Columbus at, in his first voyage.

Canoes, capable of containing 150 persons, seen at Puerto Santo; large
size of those at Jamaica.

Caonabo, character and conduct of; takes the fortress at La Navidad; and
massacres the Spaniards; assembles his warriors; Columbus leaves
directions with Margarite to surprise; besieges Ojeda; gives up the siege
and retires; forms a plan of exterminating the Spaniards; invades the
territories of Guacanagari; character of; is visited by Ojeda, with a
design to entrap him; agrees to wait upon Columbus, and sets forward; is
taken by stratagem; is chained; his conduct when in the presence of
Columbus; embarks for Spain; a Guadaloupe woman falls in love with him;
dies on the voyage.

Carocol, Island of.

Cariari, transactions at.

Caribbee Islands, discovered.

Caribs, character of the; origin of; cruelty to.

Caravajal, Don Garcia Lopez de, his embassy to Portugal.

Carvajal, Alonzo de, commander of one of Columbus's ships, on his third
voyage; arrives at Hispaniola; volunteers to endeavor to bring the rebels
of Xavagua to obedience; his ship strikes on a sand-bank; arrives at St.
Domingo by land; suspicions entertained against him; takes a letter from
the admiral to Roldan; takes propositions from Roldan to the admiral;
another interview with Boldan; appointed factor to Columbus; his evidence
relative to the discovery of the coast of Paria by Columbus.

Carracks, description of.

Casas, Las, his character of Don Diego Columbus; his observations
relative to Hayti; his account of two Spaniards; his picture of the
consequences of the administration of Ovando; his account of a combat
between one Indian and two mounted cavaliers; is present at a battle in
Higuey; his remark on the cold reception of Columbus by the king; his
remark in respect to the injustice of Ferdinand; an account of; his zeal
in behalf of the slaves; his dubious expedient to lessen the quantum of
human misery; character of his General History of the Indies.

Castaneda, Juan de, his disgraceful reception of Columbus on his return
from the New World; cause of his conduct.

Catalina, a Carib, her admiration of Guacanagari; proposes to her
captive companions an attempt to regain their liberty; escapes by

Catalina, a female Cacique, falls in love with Miguel Diaz; imparts to
him a knowledge of the gold mines of Hayna.

Cathay, accounts of Marco Polo in respect to; of Sir John Mandeville.

Catherine, St., discovery of.

Cavern, near Cape Francois, description of.

Caymans, islands of.

Cedo, Fermin, his opinion in respect to the gold found in Hispaniola;
Belvis sent in Ms place.

Ceuta, the bishop of, his arguments against the proposition of Columbus;
proposes to the council to keep Columbus in suspense, and in the mean time
to send a ship in the route proposed; this advice acted upon; and fails.

Chanca, Dr., confirms the accounts sent home by Columbus.

Charles VIII., king of France, his kindness to Bartholomew Columbus.

Charles V. succeeds his grandfather, Ferdinand; recognizes the innocence
of Don Diego Columbus; acknowledges the right of Don Diego to exercise the
office of viceroy; his orders in respect to the claims of Don Diego's
widow; his ordinances relative to the slave trade.

Charlevoix, his description of the sea of the Antilles, Chaufepic, Jacques
George, a passage from, in respect to the Coloinbos.

Chvistoval, St., fortress of, erected by Bartholomew Columbus;
mountains of.

Cibao, Columbus's expedition to the mountains of; meaning of the word
Cibao; Luxan's description of the mountains of.

Ciguayens, a warlike Indian tribe, account of.

Cintra, rock of, arrival at, by Columbus, on his return from the New

Cipango (or Japan), Marco Polo's account of.

Cities, island of the seven.

Cladera, Don Christoval, his refutation of a letter written by M. Otto, to
Dr. Franklin.

Colon, Diego, acts as interpreter; his speech to the natives of Cuba;
marries the daughter of the Cacique Guarionex.

Colombo, the old Genoese admiral, conveys the king of Portugal to the
Mediterranean coast of France.

Colombo, the younger (nephew of the old admiral), a famous corsair.

----, Balthazar, of Cuccaro, loses his cause in respect to the heirship of

----, Juan, commander of one of Columbus's ships on his third voyage.

Colombos, the navigators, an account of; capture of the Venetian galleys.

Columbus, Bartholomew, accompanies Bartholomew Diaz along the coast of
Africa; an account of his proceedings; arrives at Valladolid; sent to
assist his brother with three ships; character of; is invested by
Columbus with the title and authority of Adelantado; attends his brother
in his expedition against the Indians of the Vega; goes to the mines of
Ilayna; is invested with the command on the return of Columbus to Spain;
takes Porras prisoner; sails to meet his brother; account of his
administration during the absence of Columbus; sends 300 Indians to Spain
to be sold as slaves; erects the fortress of San Domingo; pays a visit to
Behechio; his reception; demands a tribute; establishes a chain of
military posts; causes several Indians who had broken some Christian
images, etc., to be burnt; marches against the Caciques, who had formed a
conspiracy against the Spaniards; causes them to be seized; pardons most
of them; again visits Behechio to receive the tribute of cotton; his skill
in government; a conspiracy formed against him by Roldan; narrowly escapes
assassination; repairs to the Vega in relief of Fort Conception; his
interview with Roldan; is shut up in Fort Conception; relieved by the
arrival of Coronal; publishes an amnesty to all who return to their duty;
marches against Guarionex, who has rebelled; his campaign in the mountains
of Ciguay; releases the wife of one of the Caciques whom he had taken with
Mayobanex; favorable consequences of this; his vigorous proceedings
against the rebels engaged in the conspiracy of Guevara and Moxica; is put
in irons by Bobadilla; accompanies Columbus on his fourth voyage; waits on
the governor of Ercilla; takes possession of Cape Honduras in the name of
the sovereigns of Castile; lands at Cariari; forms a plan to seize
Quibian; does so, with his wives and children; Quibian escapes; and
attacks in return; is finally compelled to remove the settlement to
another place; is in great danger; compelled to embark with his brother
and all his men; sets sail from St. Domingo for Spain with his brother;
proceeds to court to urge the justice of the king; accompanies his brother
to court; goes to represent his brother on the arrival of the new king
and queen of Castile; is sent out to St. Domingo by Ferdinand to admonish
his nephew, Don Diego; is presented with the property and government of
Mona for life, etc.; dies at St. Domingo; his character.

Columbus, Christopher, account of his birth, parentage, and education;
early life of; his first voyage; engages in the service of Reinier, king
of Naples; alters the point of the compass of his ship to deceive his
discontented crew; engaged in the Mediterranean and the Levant; said to be
appointed captain of several Genoese ships in the service of Louis XI.;
his gallant conduct when sailing with Colombo the younger; goes to Lisbon,
where he takes up his residence; picture of his person; early character;
becomes enamored of Dona Felipa Monis de Palestrello, whom he marries;
becomes possessed of his father-in-law's charts, journals, etc.; removes
to the island of Porto Santo; becomes acquainted with Pedro Correo, a
navigator of note; is animated with a wish to make discoveries; grounds on
which he founds his belief of the existence of undiscovered countries in
the West; correspondence of Columbus with Paulo Toscanelli: makes a voyage
to the north of Europe; the astrolabe having been applied to navigation,
Columbus proposes a voyage of discovery to John II. king of Portugal; this
proposition is referred to a junto charged with all matters relating to
maritime discovery; who regard the project as visionary; the king then
refers it to his council; by whom it is condemned; a ship is secretly sent
in the direction proposed, but returns: Columbus's indignation; loses his
wife; quits Portugal; goes to Genoa and proposes his project to the
government; it is rejected; supposed by some to have carried his plan to
Venice; visits his father; arrives in Spain, and requests a little bread
and water at a convent of Franciscan friars; the prior detains him as a
guest; and invites Garcia Fernandez to meet him; gives him letters of
introduction to Fernando de Talavera, queen Isabella's confessor; sets out
for Cordova; arrives there; finds it impossible to obtain a hearing; the
queen's confessor regards his plan as impossible; maintains himself by
designing maps and charts; is received into the house of Alonzo de
Quintanilla; introduced to the archbishop of Toledo; who gives him an
attentive hearing; becomes his friend and procures him an audience of the
king; who desires the prior of Prado to assemble astronomers, etc. to hold
conference with him; Columbus appears before the assembly at Salamanca;
arguments against his theory; his reply; the subject experiences
procrastination and neglect; is compelled to follow the movements of the
court; his plan recommended by the marchioness of Moya; receives an
invitation to return to Portugal from John II.; receives a favorable
letter from Henry VII. of England; distinguishes himself in the campaign
of 1489, and is impressed deeply with the arrival and message of two
friars from the soldan of Egypt relative to the Holy Land; determines to
devote the profits arising from his intended discovery to the purpose of
rescuing the holy sepulchre from the hands of the infidels; council of
learned men again convened; who pronounce the scheme vain and impossible;
receives a message from the sovereigns; has an audience of the sovereigns:
leaves Seville in disgust; forms a connection with Beatrix Enriquez;
applies to the duke of Medina Sidonia, who rejects his plan; applies to
the duke of Medina Celi, who is prevented from acceding to his plan from a
fear of the court; returns to the convent of La Rabida; Alonzo Pinzon
offers to pay his expenses in a renewed application to the court; returns
at the desire of the queen; witnesses the surrender of Granada to the
Spanish arms; negotiation with persons appointed by the sovereigns; his
propositions are considered extravagant; are pronounced inadmissible;
lower terms are offered him, which he rejects; the negotiation broken off;
quits Santa Fe; Luis de St. Angel reasons with the queen; who at last
consents; a messenger dispatched to recall Columbus; he returns to Santa
Fe; arrangement with the Spanish sovereigns; his son appointed page to
prince Juan; he returns to La Rabida; preparations at the Port of Palos,
and apprehensions there relative to the expedition; not a vessel can be
procured; they are at last furnished; Columbus hoists his flag; sails;
prologue to his voyage; an account of the map he had prepared previous to
sailing; difficulties begin to arise; arrives at the Canaries; comes in
sight of Mount Teneriffe; arrives at Gomera; the news which reached him
there; alarm of his sailors on losing all sight of land; begins to keep
two reckonings; falls in with part of a mast; notices a variation of the
needle; his opinion relative to that phenomenon; they are visited by two
birds; terrors of the seamen; sees large patches of weeds; his situation
becomes more critical; part of his crew determine, should he refuse to
return, to throw him into the sea; false appearance of land; his crew
become exceedingly clamorous; the assertion that he capitulated with them
disproved; his address to the crew; sees a light; land discovered; the
reward for land adjudged to him; lands on the island of St. Salvador;
which he takes possession of in the name of the Castilian sovereigns; the
surprise of the natives: gold first discovered; reconnoitres the island;
takes seven of the inhabitants to teach them Spanish that they might
become interpreters; discovers Santa Maria de la Conception; discovers
Exuma; discovers Isabella; hears of two islands called Cuba and Bohio:
sails in search of the former; discovers it; takes formal possession;
sends two Spaniards up the country; coasts along the shore; return of the
Spaniards with their report; goes in search of the supposed island of
Babeque; discovers an archipelago, to which he gives the name of the
King's Garden; desertion of Alonzo Pinzon; discovers St. Catherine, in
which he finds stones veined with gold; specimen of his style in
description; reaches what be supposes to be the eastern extremity of Asia;
discovers Hispaniola; its transcendent appearance; enters a harbor, to
which he gives the name of St. Nicholas; a female brought to him who wore
an ornament of gold in her nose; coasts along the shores; is visited by a
Cacique; receives a message from Guacanagari; his ship strikes upon a
sand-bank in the night; some of his crew desert in a boat; the ship
becomes a wreck, and he takes refuge on board a caravel; receives
assistance from Guacanagari; transactions with the natives; is invited to
the residence of Guacanagari; his affectionate reception of him; his
people desire to have permission to remain in the island; he forms the
plan of a colony and the design of constructing a fortress; and of
returning to Spain for reinforcements; entertained in the most hospitable
manner by Guacanagari; who procures for him a great quantity of gold
previous to his departure; his address to the people; gives a feast to the
chieftains; sails; coasts towards the eastern end of Hispaniola: meets
with Pinzon; Pinzon's apology; account of the Ciguayens; the first native
blood shed by the whites; account of the return voyage; encounters violent
storms; the crew draw lots who shall perform pilgrimages; two lots fall to
the admiral; vows made; commits an account of his voyage in a barrel to
the sea; land discovered; which proves to be the Azores; transactions at
St. Mary's; receives supplies and a message from the governor; attempted
performance of the vow made during the storm; the seamen taken prisoners
by the rabble, headed by the governor; the governor's disgraceful conduct;
seamen liberated; cause of the governor's conduct; violent gales; lots for
pilgrimages again cast; arrives off Cintra, in Portugal; writes to the
sovereigns and the king of Portugal; is summoned by a Portuguese admiral
to give an account of himself; effect of his return at Lisbon; receives an
invitation from the king of Portugal; interview with the king; jealousy of
the king excited; a proposition to the king by some of his courtiers to
assassinate Columbus and take advantage of his discoveries; rejected by
the king; disgraceful plot of the king to rob Spain of the newly-
discovered possessions; his interview with the queen of Portugal; enters
the harbor of Palos; account of his reception there; arrival of Pinzon;
receives an invitation from the sovereigns at Barcelona; his reception on
the road; is received in a magnificent manner by the courtiers; and the
sovereigns; his vow in respect to the holy sepulchre; the manner in which
his discoveries were received throughout Europe; a coat of arms given him;
the manner in which he receives the honors paid to him; preparations for a
second voyage; agreement made with the sovereigns; powers with which he is
invested; takes leave of the sovereigns at Barcelona; arrives at Seville;
prepares for the voyage; ideas of Columbus and the people relative to the
New World; insolence of Juan de Soria; conduct of Fonseca: departure on
his second voyage; anchors at Gornera; gives sealed instructions to the
commander of each vessel; sees a swallow; encounters a storm; sees the
lights of St. Elmo; discovers the Caribbee Islands; takes possession of
them; discovers Guadaloupe; transactions there; cruises among the
Caribbees; arrives at Hispaniola; at the gulf of Samana; anchors at Monte
Christi; arrives at La Navidad; is visited by a cousin of the Cacique;
learns a disaster which had occurred at the fortress; visits Guacanagari:
abandons La Navidad: founds the city of Isabella at Monte Christi; falls
sick; sends Alonzo de Ojeda to explore the interior of the island;
dispatches twelve ships to Spain; requests fresh supplies; recommends
Pedro Margarite and Juan Aguado to the patronage of the government;
recommends a curious plan in respect to an exchange of Caribs for live
stock; recommendation of Columbus in respect to the Caribs; his conduct in
respect to Diaz's mutiny; consequences; sets out on an expedition to the
mountains of Cibao; erects a fortress of wood among the mountains; returns
to Isabella; receives unpleasant intelligence from Pedro Margarite;
sickness in the colony; puts his people on short allowance, Sol; offends
the Hidalgos, by making them share the common labors of the colony;
distributes his forces in the interior; gives the command of them to Pedro
Margarite; his instructions to that officer; instructs Margarite to
surprise and secure Caonabo; his conduct in respect to Haytien thieves;
sails for Cuba; visits La Navidad; arrives at St. Nicholas; lands at
Guantanamo; anchors at St. Jago; sails in search of Bubeque; discovers
Jamaica; received in a hostile manner: takes possession of the island;
amicable intercourse with the natives; returns to Cuba; lands at Cabo de
la Cruz; encounters a storm; becomes engaged in a most difficult
navigation; discovers an archipelago, to which he gives the name of the
Queen's Gardens; hears of a province called Mangon, which greatly excites
his attention; coasts along the southern side of Cuba; encounters a
dangerous navigation in A white pea; sends parties to explore the interior
of the country; deceives himself in respect to what he wishes; fancies he
has arrived on that part of Asia which is beyond the boundaries of the Old
World, laid down by Ptolemy; anticipates returning to Spain by the Aurea
Chersonesus, Taprobana, the Straits of Babelmandel, and the Red Sea, or
the Coast of Africa; returns along the southern coast of Cuba, in the
assurance that Cuba was the extremity of the Asiatic continent; discovers
the island of Evangelista; his ship runs aground; sails along the province
of Ornofay: erects crosses in conspicuous situations to denote his
discoveries; is addressed by an Indian; takes an Indian with him: his ship
leaks; reaches Santa Cruz; coasts along the south side of Jamaica; his
ship visited by a Cacique and his whole family; who offer to accompany him
to Spain to do homage to the king and queen; he evades this offer; coasts
along the south side of Hispaniola; makes an error in reckoning; arrives
at Mona; is suddenly deprived of all his faculties; arrives at Isabella;
is joined by his brother Bartholomew; invests him with the title and
authority of Adelantado; is visited by Guacanagari, who informs him of a
league formed against him by the Haytien Caciques; his measures to restore
the quiet of the island; wins over Guarionex, and prevails upon him to
give his daughter in, marriage to Diego Colon; builds Fort, Conception in
the territories of Guarionex; Caonabo is delivered into his hands by
Ojeda; he puts him in chains; his interview with him; his anxiety relieved
by the arrival of Antonio de Torres; sends home specimens of gold, plants,
etc., and five hundred Indian prisoners to be sold as slaves; undertakes
an expedition against the Indians of the Vega; a battle ensues; the
Indians defeated; makes a military tour through various parts of the
island, and reduces is to obedience; imposes a tribute; refuses the offer
of Guarionex to cultivate grain, instead of paying in gold; erects forts;
the natives having destroyed the crops, are hunted and compelled to return
to their labors; account of the intrigues against Columbus in the court of
Spain; charges brought against him; his popularity declines in
consequence; measures taken in Spain; Aguado arrives at Isabella to
collect information relative to the state of the colony; his dignified
conduct at his first interview with Aguado; the Caciques prefer complaints
against him: he resolves on returning to Spain; a violent hurricane occurs
previous to his departure, which sinks six caravels; pleased with the
discovery of the gold mines of Hayna; orders a fort to be erected; invests
his brother with the command; fails for Spain; arrives at Guadaloupe; his
politic conduct there; leaves Guadaloupe: a famine on board the ships; his
magnanimous conduct; arrives in Spain.; his representation of things;
writes instructions for ibe conduct of Bartholomew; invited to court;
favorably received; proposes a third voyage of discovery; the king
promises him ships; delays and their causes; refuses the title of duke or
marquess, and a grant of lands in Hispaniola; terms on winch he was to
sail: honors bestowed upon him; his respect and love for Genoa; makes his
will; odium thrown upon his enterprises; plan to which he was compelled to
resort to procure men for his third voyage; in consequence of delays, he
almost resolves to give up all further enterprise; chastises a minion of
Fonseca; consequences of this chastisement; sets sail; his opinion in
respect to a continent in the Southern Ocean; arrives at Gomera; retakes a
Spanish ship; is seized with a fit of the gout; arrives among the Cape de
Verde Islands: sees the island Bel Fuego; arrives under the line; the heat
becomes intolerable, and he alters his course; discovers Trinidad;
discovers Terra Firma; steers along the coast of Trinidad; difficulty in
respect to a rapid current; enters the Gulf of Paria; suffers from a
complaint in the eyes; discovers the islands of Margarita and Cubagua;
exchanges plates, etc., for pearls; his complaint in the eyes increases;
arrives at Hispaniola; his brother soils to meet him; his constitution
seems to give way; his speculations relative to the coast of Paria; polar
star augmentation; doubts the received theory of the earth; accounts for
variation of the needle; difference of climate, etc.; arrives at San
Domingo; state of his health, on arriving at Hispaniola; state of the
colony; negotiates with the rebels; offers free passage to all who desire
to return to Spain; offers a pardon to Roldan, which is received with
contempt; writes to Spain an account of the rebellion, etc., and requires
a judge and some missionaries to be sent out: writes a conciliating letter
to Roldan; interviews with Roldan; issues a proclamation of pardon;
receives proposals, which he accedes to; goes on a tour to visit the
various stations; receives a cold letter from the sovereigns, written by
Fonseca; the former arrangement with Roldan not having been carried into
effect, enters into a second; grants lands to Roldan's followers;
considers Hispaniola in the light of a conquered country; reduces the
natives to the condition of villains or vassals: grants lands to Roldan;
determines on returning to Spain; but is prevented by circumstances;
writes to the sovereigns, entreating them to inquire into the truth of the
late transactions; requests that his son, Diego, might be sent out to him;
sends Roldan to Alonzo de Ojeda, who has arrived on the western coast on a
voyage of discovery; his indignation at the breach of prerogative implied
by this voyage; hears of a conspiracy entered into against him by Guevara
and Moxica; seizes Moxica; and orders him to be flung headlong from the
battlements of Fort Conception; vigorous proceedings against the rebels;
beneficial consequences; visionary fancy at night; representations at
court against him; his sons insulted at Granada; the queen is offended at
his pertinacity in making slaves of those taken in warfare; and consents
to the sending out a commission to investigate his conduct; Bobadilla is
sent out; and arrives at St. Domingo; his judgment formed before he leaves
his ship; he seizes upon the government before he investigates the conduct
of Columbus; Columbus is summoned to appear before Bobadilla; goes to St.
Domingo without guards or retinue, and is put in irons and confined in the
fortress; his magnanimity; charges against him; jubilee of miscreants on
his degradation; his colloquy with Villejo, previous to their sailing;
sails; arrives at Cadiz; sensation in Spain on his arrival in irons; sends
a letter to Dona Juana de la Torre, with an account of his treatment;
indignation of the sovereigns at reading this account; is invited to
court; his gracious reception there; his emotion; is promised a full
restitution of his privileges and dignities; disappointed in receiving
them; causes; his interests ordered to be respected in Hispaniola by
Ovando; remembers his vow to furnish an army wherewith to recover the Holy
Sepulchre; endeavors to incite the sovereigns to the enterprise; forms a
plan for a fourth voyage, which is to eclipse all former ones; writes to
Pope Alexander VII.; manuscript copy of, note; takes measures to secure
his fame by placing it under the guardianship of his native country; sails
from Cadiz; arrives at Ercilla; at the Grand Canary; at St. Domingo;
requests permission to shelter in the harbor, as he apprehends a storm;
his request refused; a violent hurricane soon after sweeps the sea, in
which he and his property are preserved, and several of his bitterest
enemies overwhelmed; encounters another storm; discovers Guanaga; a
Cacique eomes on board his ship with a multitude of articles, the produce
of the country; selects some to send them to Spain; is within two days'
sail of Yucatan; natives different from any he had yet seen; voyages along
the coast of Honduras; encounters violent storms of thunder and lightning;
voyage along the Mosquito shore; passes a cluster of islands, to which he
gives the name of Limonares; comes to an island, to which he gives the
name of La Huerta, or the Garden; transactions at Cariari; voyage along
Costa Rica; speculations concerning the isthmus of Veragua; discovery of
Puerto Bello; discovery of El Retrete; disorders of his men at this port,
and the consequences; relinquishes the further prosecution of his voyage
eastward; returns to Puerto Bello; encounters a furious tempest; is near
being drowned by a water-spout; returns to Veragua; regards gold as one of
the mystic treasures, note; is nearly being wrecked in port; gives his
name to the mountains of Veragua; sends his brother to explore the
country; which appears to be impregnated with gold; believes that he has
reached one of the most favored ports of the Asiatic continent; commences
a settlement on the river Belen; determines on returning to Spain for
reinforcements; is stopped by discovering a conspiracy of the natives;
sends his brother to surprise Quibian; who is seized; and afterwards
escapes; disasters at the settlement stop his sailing; some of his
prisoners escape, and others destroy themselves; his anxiety produces
delirium; is comforted by a vision; the settlement is abandoned, and the
Spaniards embark for Spain; departure from the coast of Veragua; sails for
Hispaniola; arrives at Puerto Bello: at the entrance of the Gulf of
Darien; at the Queen's Gardens; encounters another violent tempest;
arrives at Cape Cruz; at Jamaica; runs his ships on shore; arranges with
the natives for supplies of provisions; his conversation with Diego Mendez
to induce him to go in a canoe to St. Domingo; Mendez offers to go;
Columbus writes to Ovando for a ship to take him and his crew to
Hispaniola; writes to the sovereigns; Mendez embarks; the Porras engage in
a mutiny; the mutiny becomes general; is confined by the gout; rushes out
to quell the mutiny, but is borne back to the cabin by the few who remain
faithful; the mutineers embark on board ten Indian canoes; provisions
become exceedingly scarce; employs a stratagem to obtain supplies from the
natives; another conspiracy is formed; arrival of Diego de Escobar from
Hispaniola on a mission from the governor, promising that a ship shall
soon be sent to his relief; overtures of the admiral to the mutineers; not
accepted; they send a petition for pardon; it is granted; two ships arrive
from Hispaniola; departure of Columbus; arrives at Beata; anchors in the
harbor of St. Domingo; is enthusiastically received by the people; is
grieved at the desolation he sees everywhere around him; finds that his
interests had been disregarded; sets sail for Spain; encounters several
tempests; anchors in the barbor of St. Luear; finds all his affairs in
confusion; is compelled to live by borrowing; writes to King Ferdinand;
but, receiving unsatisfactory replies, would have set out for Seville, but
is prevented by his infirmities: death of Queen Isabella; is left to the
justice of Ferdinand; employs Vespucci; goes with his brother to court,
then held at Segovia; is received in a very cold manner; Don Diego de Deza
is appointed arbitrator between the king and the admiral; his claims are
referred to the Junta de Descargos; is confined with a violent attack of
the gout; petitions the king that his son Diego may be appointed, in his
place, to the government of which lie bad been so long deprived; his
petition remains unattended to; writes to the new king and queen of
Castile; who promise a speedy and prosperous termination to his suit; his
last illness; writes a testamentary codicil on the blank page of a little
breviary; writes a final codicil; receives the sacrament; dies; his
burial; his remains removed to Hispaniola, disinterred and conveyed to the
Havana; epitaph; observations on his character; his remains removed with
great ceremony to Cuba; reflections thereon; historical account of his
descendants; an important lawsuit relative to the beirship (in the female
line) to the family titles and property; decided in favor of Don Nuno
Golves do Portugallo; an account of his lineage; an account of his
birthplace; an account of the ships he used; an examination of his route
in the first voyage; the effect of the travels of Marco Polo on his mind;
his belief in the imaginary island of St. Brandan; an account of the
earliest narratives of his first and second voyages; his ideas relative to
the situation of the terrestrial paradise; his will; his signature.

Columbus, Don Diego, character of; intrusted with the command of the ships
during the expedition of Columbus to the mountains of Cibao; made
president of the junta; reproves Pedro Margarito for his irregularities;
the Hidalgos form a faction against him during the absence of his brother;
returns to Isabella; a conspiracy formed against him by Roldan; left in
command at St. Domingo, during the tour of Columbus; his conduct on the
arrival of Bobadilla; seized by order of Bobadilla, thrown in irons, and
confined on board of a caravel.

----, Don Diego (son to Christopher), appointed page to Queen Isabella:
embarks with his father on his second expedition; left in charge of his
father's interests in Spain; his ingratitude to Mendez, and falsification
of his promise; his character; succeeds to the rights of his father, as
viceroy and governor of the New World; urges the king to give him those
rights; commences a process against the king before the council of the
Indies; the defence set up: the suit lasts several years; becomes enamored
of Dona Maria Toledo; a decision, in respect to part of his claim, raises
him to great wealth; marries Dona Maria, niece to the Duke of Aiva;
through this connection he obtains the dignities and powers enjoyed by
Nicolas de Ovando; embarks for Hispaniola; keeps up great state; becomes
embroiled with some of his father's enemies; the court of royal audience
established as a check upon him; opposes the repartimientos; his virtues
make him unpopular, subjugates and settles the island of Cuba without the
loss of a single man; sails for Spain to vindicate his conduct; is well
received; the death of Ferdinand; obtains a recognition of his innocence
of all charges against him from Charles V.: and has his right acknowledged
to exercise the office of viceroy and governor in all places discovered by
his father; sails for St. Domingo, where he arrives; difficulties he has
to encounter; African slaves having been introduced and most cruelly used,
they revolt; are subdued; is accused of usurping too much power; receives
in consequence a severe letter from the council of the Indies; and is
desired to repair to court to vindicate himself; sails, lands, and appears
before the court at Victoria; clears himself; prosecutes his claims,
follows the court from city to city; is attacked by a slow fever; dies;
his family.

Columbus, Fernando (son to Christopher), accompanies his father on his
fourth voyage; his father's encomium on him; embarks for Hispaniola with
Don Diego; an account of him; writes a history of his father.

----, Don Luis (son to Don Diego), prosecutes the claims of his father and
grandfather; compromises all claims for two titles and a pension; dies.

Commerce, despotic influence of the Spanish crown in respect to.

Compass, the, brought into more general use.

Conception, Santa Maria de la, discovery of.

---- Fort, erected by Columbus; present state of, note.

Contradictions, the coast of.

Convicts who had accompanied Columbus, conduct of, in Hispaniola.

Copper hatchets seen among the Indians of Guanaca.

Coral found in Veragua.

Cormorants, large nights of, seen on the south coast of Cuba.

Coronel, Pedro Fernandez, sails for Hayti with two ships; arrives at St.
Domingo with supplies; is sent to persuade Roldan to return to his duty.

Correo, Pedro, a navigator of note, with whom Columbus becomes acquainted.

Cortez, Hernando, conduct of Fonseca to.

Costa Rica, Columbus sails along the.

Cotabanama, Cacique of Higuey; massacres eight Spaniards; Ovando marches
against him; sues for peace; visits the Spanish camp; another war ensues;
cruelty to his tribe; takes shelter with his wife and children in a large
cavern; his rencounter with Juan Lopez; is overpowered and chained; sent
to St. Domingo and hanged.

Cotton, where first seen in the Western hemisphere; seen in large
quantities in Cuba; tribute of.

Cranes, flocks of large, seen in Cuba.

Creation, ideas in respect to the, entertained by the Haytiens.

Crocodiles found at El Betrete similar to those of the Nile.

Crosses erected by Columbus to denote his discoveries. Crusade to
recover the holy sepulchre proposed by Columbus.

Cruz, Cabo de la, so named by Columbus.

Cuba, island of, Columbus bears of; sails in quest of it; discovery of;
description of its appearance: hurricanes seldom known in; belief of the
inhabitants in a future state; Columbus revisits the consts of; natives
of; Columbus coasts along the southern side; natives; subjugated and
settled by Don Diego Columbus; the remains of Columbus removed to.
Cubagua, Isle of, discovery of; natives; pearl fisheries on the coast of,
established. Cubiga, a village in Veragua where the country of gold was
supposed to terminate.

Cucumbers first seen in Hayti.

Currency, principles on which the sums mentioned in this work have been
reduced to modern currency.


Dances of the Haytiens.

Darien, Gulf of.

Dead and dying, manner of treating the, by the Haytiens.

Delphin, island of.

Deluge, universal, ideas entertained by the Haytiens in respect to.

Deza, Diego de, character of; coincides with Columbus at the council of
Salamanca; assists him with his purse; made archbishop of Seville; is
chosen arbitrator between the king and Columbus.

Diaz, Bartholomew, account of his discoveries.

----, Miguel, his romantic history; discovers the gold mines of Hayna;
commands the fortress of St. Domingo at the time Bobadilla arrives; his
conduct on being desired to give up his prisoners.

----, de Pisa, mutiny of; confined on board one of the ships.

Disaster, river of.

Discovery, progress of, under prince Henry of Portugal.

Dogs, dumb, found at Santa Marta.

Domingo, San, foundation of the city of.

Dominica, island of, discovered.

Doves, stock, presented to Columbus by the natives of Cuba.

Drogeo, a vast country, fabled to have been discovered by some fishermen
of Friseland.

Drum, a species of, used by the Haytiens.

Dying, manner of treating the.


Ear, coast of the.

Eden, garden of, speculation of Columbus in respect to.

Egg, anecdote of the.

Egypt, soldan of, his message to Ferdinand.

Elmo, St., electrical lights seen by Columbus.

Enchanters, the natives of Cariari taken to be.

Enriqueis, Beatrix, her connnection with Columbus; Columbus's legacy to,

Escobar, Diego de, arrives at Jamaica on a mission to Columbus from the
governor of Hispaniola; returns to his ship immediately.

----, Rodrigo de, chief notary to Columbus's first expedition.

Escobedo, Rodrigo de, his conduct after the departure of Columbus; death

Espinal, Antonio de, the first prelate sent to the New World.

Esquibel, Juan de, employed against the natives of Higuey; his atrocious
conduct to his prisoners; causes the natives to be hunted like wild beasts.

Estotiland, a supposed island on the coast of North America, said to have
been discovered by some fishermen of Friseland.

Eudoxus, remarks on his voyage. Evangelista, island of, discovered by

Exuma, discovery of; named Fernandina by Columbus.


Farol, Cape, at Jamaica.

Ferdinand, king of Aragon and Castile, character of; engagements of, on
the arrival of Columbus at Cordova; lays siege to the city of Loxa; grants
an audience to Columbus; desires the prior of Prado to assemble men of
science to consider his plan; attempt to assassinate him; takes Malaga;
forms an alliance with Henry VII. of England; one of the rival kings of
Granada surrenders his pretensions; receives a message from the soldan of
Egypt; his message to Columbus on learning the unfavorable decision of the
council; refers his plan to persons of confidence; his reluctance to the
plan after the queen has consented; his joy on learning the success of
Columbus; his reception of him; prepares a second expedition; his
negotiations with John II. in respect to the new discoveries; listens to
the charges against Columbus; his conduct; his reception of Columbus on
his second return; lays the foundation of the power of Charles V.;
promises Columbus to furnish him with ships for a third voyage;
disappointed that his newly-discovered possessions have not become a
source of profit; assaulted by the clamors of ruffians who had returned
from Hispaniola; his ingratitude to Columbus becomes evident; listens to
the rebels who had been permitted to return to Spain: sends out a
commission to inquire into the conduct of Columbus; reprobates the conduct
pursued against Columbus, and invites him to court; promises to restore
him to all his rights and privileges; his jealousy awakened at the
discoveries of the English and Portuguese. 131; his ingratitude to
Columbus; listens to the project of Columbus for a fourth voyage; his
ingratitude more evinced on the return of Columbus from his last voyage;
erects a monument over Columbus; his conduct to Don Diego Columbus's son;
consents that Don Diego should commence a process against him before the
council of the Indies; the defence set up; separates the Isthmus of Darien
into two great provinces; death.

Fernandez, Garcia, physician of Palos, his account of Columbus at the gate
of the convent on his first arrival in Spain; testimony of, relative to

Ferrer, Jayme, an eminent lapidary, substance of his letter to Columbus,

Festival, religious, of a Haytien Cacique, description of.

Fiesco, Bartholomew, embarks with Mendez from Jamaica to Hispaniola;
attends the last moments of Columbus.

Fish, curious.

Fishing, curious method of.

Fonseca, Juan Rodriguez de, appointed superintendent of Indian affairs;
his character; his difference with Columbus; impedes the affairs of
Columbus; writes a cold letter to Columbus, by order of the sovereigns;
shows Columbus's letter to Alonzo de Ojeda; his baseness fully displayed;
supposed to have instigated the violent measures of Bobadilla; throws
impediments in the way of Columbus's fourth voyage; supposed to have been
the cause of Ovando's disgrace; by order of Ferdinand, establishes a
court, called the Royal Audience; becomes interested in continuing the
slave trade; his opposition to Las Casas; an account of; character of; his
conduct to Cortez; accused of having fomented a conspiracy to assassinate

Fountain of pure water in the sea, note.

Franciscans, the order first introduced into the New World.

Fuego, del, island of, seen by Columbus.


Galleys, Venetian, capture of, by Colombo the younger.

Gama, Vasquez de, doubles the Cape of Good Hope, and opens a new road for
the trade of the East.

Garcia de Barrantee, his conduct during the conspiracy of Boldan.

Gardens, the, coast so called.

---- King's islands.

---- Queen's, islands of.

---- the Hesperian, observations in respect to.

Gato, Paulo, a species of monkey.

Genoa, Columbus shows great respect to.

Gentlemen, the pass of, a road so called.

Geraldini, Alexandria and Antonio, warmly enter into the views of
Columbus; they introduce him to the archbishop of Toledo.

Gold (Western), discovered first in St. Salvador; specimens of virgin ore
found in the interior of Hispaniola; particles found in the streams; and

----, tribute of.

---- mine discovered in Hayti; a solid mass of, which weighed 3600
castellanos: superstitious notions in respect to, note: gathered from the
roots of the trees in Veragua.

Golden river, arrival at, in second voyage.

Gods of the Haytiens.

Goinarn, Fernando Lopez de, examination of his chargo relative to a
pilot's having died in the house of Columbus.

Gorvalan explores part of the interior of Hispaniola; returns to Spain

Gourds introduced into Hayti.

Gracias a Dios, cape of.

Granada, discovery of.

Grape-vines, very luxuriant, found in Cuba.

Greenland, assertions relative to its discovery by the Scandinavians.

Granada, surrender of.

Guadaloupe, island of, discovered; houses, furniture, etc. of the natives;
supposed to be cannibals; description of the island; Columbus revisits it;
women of.

Guacanagari, Cacique of Hispaniola, sends a message to Columbus, receives
the Spaniards with great courtesy; sheds tears on learning the shipwreck
of Columbus; his assistance; and kindness; invites Columbus to his
residence; manners of; hospitality; procures a great quantity of gold for
the Admiral previous to his departure for Spain; sends his cousin to greet
Columbus on his second arrival; his suspicious conduct during the disaster
at La Navidad; visits Columbus's ships; admires a captive Carib woman; his
flight into the interior; his mysterious conduct continued; refuses to
partake in the plan formed by Caonabo, of exterminating the Spaniards;
incurs the hostility of his fellow Caciques; visits Columbus during his
sickness, and informs him of a league formed against him: assists Columbus
in his expedition against the Indians of the Vega: is present at a battle;
incurs the hatred of all the Caciques; is nevertheless compelled to pay
tribute; takes refuge in the mountains and dies in misery; his character.

Guana, regarded with disgust by the Spaniards; they conquer their

Guanaja, discovery of.

Guaora, Cacique, hunted like a wild beast, and afterwards hanged.

Guarionex, Cacique of the royal Vega; visits Columbus, and is prevailed on
to give his daughter to Diego Colon, the interpreter; permits Columbus to
build a fortress; character of; submits to the domination of the
Spaniards; compelled to pay tribute; offers to cultivate grain; refused;
learns the Pater-noster, Ave-Maria, etc.: relapses, and the cause of it;
becomes incensed at several Indians being burnt for destroying some
images; takes arms; conspires to assassinate the Spaniards; is seized; is
pardoned; enters into a conspiracy with Roldan against the Adelantado;
puts a Cacique to death; flies to the mountains of Ciguay; is compelled to
retire into the most desolate places; is seized and taken in chains to
Fort Conception; lost in a hurricane.

Guatiguana, a Cacique of Hayti, puts ten Spaniards to death, and sets fire
to a house.

Guevara, Don Hernando de, falls in love with Higuamota; is seized in the
dwelling of Anacaona; and sent to San Domingo.

Gulf stream.

Gutierrez, Pedro, his conduct after the departure of Columbus; death of.


Hamacs, used by the natives of Exuma.

Hanno, remarks on the Periplus of.

Haro, Bernaldo de, his evidence relative to the discovery of the coast of
Paria by Columbus.

Hatchets of iron, said to be found at Guadaloupe.

Hawk's bells, delight of the Haytiens on wearing.

Hayna, mines of, discovered.

Henry, prince of Portugal, progress of discovery under; account of;
considers Africa to be circumnavigable; conceives the idea of turning the
trade of the East; establishes a naval college at Sagres; death.

Henry VII. of England, writes a favorable letter to Columbus.

Herbs, European, introduced in Hispaniola.

Herrera, Antonio de, a short account of his life and writings; Vossius's
eulogium on.

Herrera, Don Lepo de, his mission to the court of Lisbon.

Hayti (see Hispaniola), discovery of.

Haytiens, description of their manners, customs, religion, etc.; their
character; defeated in the battle of the Vega; subjugated; a tribute
imposed upon them; their despair; they enter into an association to
destroy the crops; the evils fall upon themselves.

Hidalgos, compelled at Hayti to share the common labors of the settlement;
character of the; form a faction against Diego Columbus, during the
absence of his brother.

Higuamota, daughter of Caonabo, falls in love with Don Hernando de

Higuanama, a female Cacique, hanged by order of Ovando.

Higuey, domain of: character of its inhabitants; Ovando's war with the
natives; martial character of the people; multitudes of them destroyed;
sue for peace; again revolt; and slaughter their tyrants;
situation of their towns; are defeated and compelled to conceal themselves
in the fastnesses; are hunted like wild beasts.

Hipparchus, error of, in respect of Africa, and India. Hispaniola,
discovery of; cause of its being so called; description of the
inhabitants; of the country; transactions with the natives; form of
government; alarm created by a discharge of cannon; general description
of; domains into which it was divided; made the metropolis of the New
World: thought to have been the ancient Ophir; an account of the numbers
of the natives who perished, victims to the avarice of the whites; ceded
to the French. 317. Honduras, cape of, discovered by Columbus.;

Honey and wax found at Guadaloupe.

Horses, fear of the Haytiens of; terror inspired by them at the battle of
the Vega; a remarkable one which moved in curvets to the music of a viol.

Huelva, Alonzo Sanchez de, the pilot, fabled to have died in the house of

Huerta, La, delightful island of, H. 167; inhabitauts of.

Humboldt, his account of the present condition of the southern side of
Cuba; account of the route of Columbus, note.

Hurricanes, seldom known in Cuba; a violent one in Hayti; reflections of
the Haytiens previous to it.


Iceland, Columbus supposed to have visited; assertions relative to its
discovery by the Scandinavians.

Impressment resorted to on Columbus's third voyage.

Indians, six taken from the New World; arrival of in Spain; are baptized;
an Indian, of Jamaica, desires Columbus to take him to Spain.

Iron, a pan of, seen at Guadaloupe.

Isabella, discovery of the island of.

----, princess, marriage of, with the heir-apparent of Portugal.

----, queen of Aragon and Castile, character of; engagements of, on the
arrival of Columbus in Spain: repairs to the seat of war in Granada;
thence to Gallicia and Salamanca; an attempt to assassinate her; Columbus
recommended to her by the marchioness of Moya; her ability in military
affairs; receives a letter from the prior of La Rabida; invites Columbus
to court; Luis de St. Angel reasons with her; signifies her assent;
declares her resolution to pawn her jewels to defray the expenses; her
enthusiasm in the cause; her motives; her joy at learning the success of
Columbus; her reception of him; her zeal for the welfare of the Indians;
her anxiety in respect to the conversion of the Haytiens; humanely
prevents the Haytien slaves from being sold to slavery; orders them to be
sent back to Hayti; enters into the views of Columbus in respect to a
third voyage; her humane directions; death of her son, Prince Juan; makes
Columbus's two sons her pages; begins to doubt the conduct of Columbus;
offended at his pertinacity in making slaves of the Indians taken in war;
orders all those sent to Spain to be restored to their country and
friends; consents to the sending out a commission to investigate his
conduct; filled with sympathy and indignation on reading Columbus's letter
to Dona de la Torre; invites him to court; is moved to tears at beholding
him; her concern for the welfare of the Indians; listens with complacency
to the proposition of Columbus for a fourth voyage; receives the news of
the sanguinary acts of Ovando with horror and indignation; exacts a
promise from the king that he shall be superseded in the government;
causes of the melancholy under which she labored; her death; and character.


Jamaica discovered by Columbus; the natives receive Columbus in a hostile
manner; Columbus takes possession of it; amicable intercourse with the
natives; their character; their canoes; subjugated by Don Diego.

----, Cacique of, visits Columbus, and oifers to go and do homage to the
king and queen of Spain; this offer evaded by Columbus.

Japan (Cipango), Marco Polo's account of it.

Jasper, specimens found among the mountains of Cibao.

Jerez, Rodrigo de, sent up the island of Cuba by Columbus; account of his

Jews not allowed to establish themselves in the colonies, or undertake
voyages of discovery.

John of Anjou, an account of his expedition against Naples.

---- II. king of Portugal, the passion for maritime discovery revives
under; sends missions in quest of Prester John; receives a proposition of
a voyage of discovery from Columbus; refers it to a junto and his council,
who report it to be visionary; consents to use an unwarrantable stratagem;
desires to renew the negotiation with Columbus; who refuses and quits
Portugal; invites Columbus to Portugal, and promises protection; invites
Columbus on his return from the New World; his jealousy excited; his
armament; his negotiations with Ferdinand in respect to the new
discoveries; his idea in respect to a continent in the southern ocean.

Josephus, his opinion relative to the gold used in the temple of

Juan, prince, his nuptials; his death.

Juana, queen of Castile, arrival of; promises a prosperous termination to
the suit of Columbus.

Junta de Descargos, the claims of Columbus referred to the.


Kings, Moorish, of Granada, one of them surrenders hie pretensions to
Ferdinand; the other surrenders Granada.

Kircher, Athanasius, his opinion relative to the travels of Marco Polo.


Labrador, discovered by Sebastian Cabot.

Lactantius, passage quoted from, to prove the impossibility of their being

Lapis lazuli, specimens found among the mountains of Cibao.

Ledesma, Pedro, his gallant conduct; involves himself in Porra's mutiny,
and receives a multitude of wounds; is assassinated.

Lepe, Diego de, discovers more of the southern continent than any voyager
of his day. Lineage of Christopher Columbus, an account of.

Lombards, the extent of their trade.

Lopez, Juan, his rencontre with Cotabanaina.

Lots for Pilgrimages, drawing of.

Luxan, Juan de, hie excursion among the mountains of Cibao.


Macham, his discovery of Madeira; an account of his adventures.

Madeira, an account of the discovery of the island of.

Magellan, electrical lights seen during his voyage on the masts of ships.

Maguana, domain of, an account of.

Mahogany, canoes made of.

Maize, cultivated in Ilayti.

Maladies of the Spaniards in Hayti,330.

Malaga, eiege and capture of.

Maldonado, Don Alonzo, appointed Alguazil-mayor in the place of Roldan, in

Maldonado, Melchor, visits Guacanagari; proceeds along the coast.

Malte-Brun, his conjecture relative to Columbus considered.

Man, origin of, according to the Haytiens.

Manicaotex, succeeds Caonabo; commands in a battle; is conquered and sues
for peace; compelled to pay half a calabash of gold every three months;
assembly of the Caciques at his house to prefer complaints against

Mandeville, Sir John, a short account of his travels; held in great
authority by Columbus.

Mangon, a province of Cuba.

Map, Paulo Toscanelli's, used by Columbus on hia first voyage.

Maps, a great improvement made in.

Marble, masses of, found among the mountains of Cibao.

Marcolini, his account of Estotiland and Drogeo.

Margarita, island of, discovery of.

of Austria, her nuptials with prince Juan.

Margnrite, Pedro, recommended to a command by Columbus; made commander of
the fortress of St. Thomas; sends an account of the conduct of his colony,
etc.; is invested with the command of the forces; disregards his
instructions; his misconduct during the absence of Columbus; is censured
by Diego Columbus; forms a plan of returning to Spain; sets sail; his
accusations of Columbus at Madrid.

Marque, Diego, missed at Guadaloupe; his return; is placed under arrest.

Maria, Santa, discovery of.

Marien, domain, account of.

Martin V., Pope, concedes to the crown of Portugal all the lands it might
discover from Cape Bajador to the Indies.

Marta, Santa, discovery of.

Martin, San, island of, discovered.

Martyr, Peter, his account of Cuba; his description of the natives of
Hispaniola; sent to the soldan of Egypt to make arrangements for the
conservation of the holy sepulchre: short account of his life and
writings; passages from his letters relative to Columbus; his character of
Amerigo Vespucci.

Marigalante, island of, discovery of.

Mateo, Juan, a Haytien converted to Christianity.

Mauro, constructs a celebrated map, note.

Mayobanex, Cacique of the Cignayens; Guarionex flies to him for refuge;
his answer to the Adelantado, when desired to give up Guarionex; is
deserted in his need; compelled to fly; is seized with his wife and

Medina Celi, duke of, entertains Columbus; application of Columbus to;
writes to the queen.

----, Sidonia, duke of, application of Columbus to; plan rejected.

Melons introduced into Hayti.

Mendez, Diego, his bold conduct at Veragua; his reward; his meritorious
conduct at Jamaica; his conversation with Columbus; undertakes to go in a
canoe to St. Domingo; departs with one Spaniard and six Indians; narrowly
escapes being murdered by the Indians of the coast and returns; account of
his voyage; sails for Spain; his subsequent history, note. Mendoza, Pedro
Gonzalez de. See Toledo, Archbishop of. Meneses, Don Pedro de, his answer
to the bishop of Ceuta in respect to the propriety of maritime

Mermaids, three supposed, seen by Columbus.

Mexiatrillo, Rodrigo, commands the soldiery at the massacre of Xaragua.
ii. 264.

Misa, Rio de la, so called from mass performed on its banks.

Monis de Palestrello, Dona Felipa, her marriage with Columbus.

Monte Christi, description of; Columbus founds the city of Isabella.

Montserrat, discovery of.

Moors, war against the.

----, none permitted to establish themselves in the colonies or go on
voyages of discovery.

Morales, Francisco, his evidence relative to the discovery of the coast of
Paria by Columbus.

Mother-of-pearl found on the coast of Paria.

Moxica, Adrian de, conspiracy of; meditates the death of the Admiral and
Roldan; is seized; and flung headlong froin the battlements of Fort

Moya, marchioness of, becomes a friend to Columbus; and recommends his
suit to the queen; also.

Mulatas, islands of, discovered.

Mules, the employment of, under the saddle, prohibited in Spain.

Music of the Haytiens.

Musicians sent to Hayti to enliven the spirits of the colony.


Names, exchanging, an Indian league of fraternity.

Navarrete, his opinion relative to the island first discovered by

Navasa, island of; fountain near.

Navidad, La, or the Nativity, construction of the fortress of; disasters
at the fortress; abandoned by Columbus.

Needle, variation of the, first noticed; inclines a whole point;
Columbus's speculation in respect to.

Negroes of Africa introduced into Hispaniola; their first revolt.

Negotiations, diplomatic, between the courts of Spain and Portugal, with
respect to the new discoveries.

Newfoundland, assertions relative to the discovery of, by the

Nicholas, St., harbor of.

Nicuesa, Diego de, appointed governor of Golden Castile.

Nino, Pedro Alonzo, sails for Hayti; arrives at Cadiz from Hispaniola,
with a number of Indian prisoners.

Noya, Juan de, his escape by diving.


Ocean, line of demarkation of the, between Spain and Portugal.

Oderigo, documents in the possession of the family of, relative to

Ojeda, Don Alonzo de, goes in search of Diego Marque, at Guadaloupe; his
expedition to explore the interior of Iliwpaniola; sallies from Isabella;
character of; his conduct in respect to some Haytien thieves; character
of; is besieged by Caonabo; anecdote of; undertakes to seize Caonabo, and
deliver him alive into the hands of Columbus; visits him; offers him the
bell of Isabella; his stratagem to take him off; conquers in an engagement
with a brother of Caonabo; his conduct at the battle of the Vega; arrives
at the western part of Hispaniola on a voyage of discovery; cause of his
voyage; his manoeuvres with Roldan; leaves the inland with a threat;
returns to Spain with a drove of slaves; appointed governor of New
Andalusia; fails in his undertaking to colonize that country; his evidence
relative to the discovery of the coast of Paria by Columbus.

Oro, Rio del, or Santiago, discovered.

Otto, Mons., remarks on his letter to Dr. Franklin relative to Martin

Ovando, Don Nicholas de, chosen to supersede Bobadilla; character of;
great privileges granted to; his fleet; allowed to wear silk, precious
stones, etc.; sails; reaches St. Domingo and assumes the government;
refuses to let Columbus take shelter; his mysterious conduct to Columbus
in his distress as Jamaica; an account of his administration and
oppression; sufferings of the natives under the civil policy of; view of
the military operations of: visits Anneaona: takes it into his head that
she intends to massacre him and all his attendants; seizes Anacaona and
burns all the Caciques: massacres the populace; and causes Anacaona to be
ignominiously hanged; his further atrocious conduct, to the unfortunate
Indians; founds Santa Maria in commemoration of his atrocities. 267; wages
war against the natives of Higuey; causes many of them to be slaughtered
and their chieftains to be burnt; hangs a female Cacique of distinction;
causes 600 Indians of Saona to be imprisoned in one dwelling and put to
the sword; receives Columbus on his arrival at St. Domingo with a
hypocritical politeness.

Oviedo, Gonzalo Fernandez de, a short account of his life and writings.

Oysters, in the Gulf of Paria, round the roots of the Mangrove trees.

Ozema, river of, and the country through which it flows.


Palos, the port whence Columbus sailed on his first expedition; present
state of; visit to.

Palms, Cape of, discovered.

Pane, Roman, labors to convert the Haytiens.

Paradise, observations on the situation of the terrestrial; of the

Paria., Gulf of, Columbus's voyage through the; description of the coast
of; manners of the natives; current of the sea.

Parrots, first seen in the western hemisphere; large flights of, seen;
found on the coast of Paria.

Partition, papal bull of; line of, removed.

Pasamonte, Miguel, becomes an enemy to Don Diego Columbus.

Pearls, the Gulf of.

---- of Cubagua. Pepper, Agi.

Perez, Alonzo, discovers land in Columbus's third voyage.

----, Pray Juan, prior of the convent of La Raibida, entertains Columbus
on his first entry into Spain; gives him letters of introduction to the
queen's confessor, and educates his son; reception of Columbus; writes to
Queen Isabella; invited to court; pleads the cause of Columbus; receives a
visit from Columbus after his success.

Philip, king of Castile, listens to the request of Columbus, and promises
a prosperous termination to his suit.

Pigeons, wood, vast numbers seen on the south side of Cuba.

Pilgrimages, lots for, drawing of.

Pilot, observations on the rumor of a pilot having died in the house of

Pine-apple first met with.

Pines, island of, discovered by Columbus.

Pinos, Isla de, discovery of.

Pinta, desertion of.

Pinzons, family of, they enable Columbus to offer to bear one-eighth of
the charge of the expedition, and to add a third ship to the armament.
100; their activity and interest in the voyage; furnish Columbus with
money to defray the eighth share of the expense; account of their family,
note. Pinzon, Martin Alonzo, offers to bear the expenses of Columbus in a
renewed application to the court; his opinion relative to the nearness of
land; begins to lose confidence in the course they are pursuing; crediting
the accounts of the Indians in respect to a very rich island, deserts and
goes in search of it; Columbus meets him; his apology: account of his
proceedings; his duplicity becomes more evident: his arrival at Palos;
effect of his treacherous conduct; his death; reflections on; observations
relative to the supposed idea of Columbus owing to him the success of his
great enterprise: his character.

----, Vicente Yanes, obtains a license for voyages of discovery; sails on
a voyage of discovery; discovers the Brazils; discovers the river of
Amazons; is allowed, as a reward, to colonize and govern the lands which
he had discovered.

Planisphere of Martin Behein. Pliny, his notice of electrical lights on
the masts of ships.

Poetry of the Haytiens.

Polo, Nicholas and Matteo, an account of their travels into the east;
their first journey; return: their second journey: their return; invite
their relatives to a splendid banquet.

----, Marco, influence of his travels upon the mind of Columbus; ii. 406;
short account of his travels; his return; commands a galley at the battle
of Cuzzola: is taken prisoner and sent in chains to Genoa; writes an
account of his travels; is liberated and returns to Venice; an account of
his work.

Porras, Francisco de, engages in a mutiny at Jamaica; they embark with
most of Columbus's erew in ten Indian canoes; are driven back; and with
their companions rove about the island; refuses an offer of pardon;
attacks the Admiral and Adelantado; taken prisoner: is set at liberty by
Ovando; and sent to Spain to be examined by the Indian board. 284.

Porto Rico, or Boriquen, discovery of.

Portugal and Spain, diplomatic negotiations between the courts of, with
respect to the new discoveries.

Potato in Hayti.

Prado, prior of. See Talavera.

Prester John, an imaginary Christian king; account of.

Priests of the Haytiens.

Ptolemy, difficulty at the council of Salamanaca to reconcile the theory
of Columbus with that of.

Puerto de Bastimento, harbor of.

---- Bello, discovery of, by Columbus.

---- Santo, Columbus's description of.


Queen's Gardens, Columlms's arrival at, in his third voyage; archipelago
of, discovered.

Question, the territorial, how settled.

Quibian, Cacique of Veragua, interview with Bartholomew Columbus: second
interview; determines on preventing the Spaniards from obtaining a
settlement in his territories; conspires to burn their houses and murder
them; is seized by the Adelantado with his wives and children; escapes in
a very extraordinary manner 199; attacks the Spaniards and is defeated.

Quinsai, Marco Polo's account of.

Quintanilla, Alonzo de, receives Columbus into his house.


Rabida, La, convent of, Columbus is entertained at, on his first arrival
in Spain; present state.

Reeds, river of.

----, immense, seen on the Mosquito coast.

Reinier, king of Naples, Columbus engages in his service.

Religion of the natives of Hayti.

Repartimientos, origin of: opposition of Don Diego Columbus to the.

Rewards and punishments, ideas of the Haytiens in respect to.

Rio Verde, or the green river.

Riquelme, Pedro, makes his house the headquarters of the rebels at
Hispaniola; made Alcalde by Roldan: joins in a conspiracy with Adrian de
Moxica; is taken.

Road, the first constructed by Europeans in the New World.

Rodriguez, Sebastian, takes a letter from the prior Perez to the queen.

Roldan, Francisco, history and character of: an account of his conspiracy;
takes possession of Xaragua; his conduct in respect to the ships sent
forward by Columbus: promises to repair to St. Domingo on the arrival of
Columbus; his interview with Ballester; rejects an offer of pardon;
demands his discharge; his interview with Carvajal, etc.; determines on
going to the admiral; correspondence with the admiral; sends propositions
by Carvajal; which are accepted; circumstances prevent their being acted
upon; makes a second arrangement with the admiral; is permitted to resume
his office of Alcalde-mayor; receives a grant of lands; visits his lands;
assumes new authority; is sent to meet Alonzo de Ojeda; his manoeuvres
with him; his rivalship with Guevara; seizes him in the dwelling of
Anacaona; treated with confidence by Bobadilla; his conduct investigated
by Ovando; sails for Spain, and is lost in a violent hurricane.

Roman, Friar, his account of the natives of Hispauiola.


Sabellicus, his account of the capture of the Venetian galleys.

Salamanca, the learned assemble at, to consider the proposition of
Columbus; pronounce the plan to be vain and impossible.

Salcedo, Diego de, arrives at Jamaica with succors from Ovando.

Salvador, St., discovery of; awe and surprise of the natives on first
beholding the ships of Columbus; description of them; gold first
discovered in this island.

Samana, Gulf of, discovered.

San Rafael, discovery of.

Sanchez, Juan, takes charge of Quibian. ii. 196; who escapes; killed in
battle by the Adelantado.

Sande, Don Ruy do, his mission to the Spanish court.

Santa Marta, island of, discovered.

Santa, La Isla, discovery of.

Santa Cruz, island of, discovery of.

Santa Gloria, (St. Ann's Bay), discovered by Columbus.

Santiago. See Jamaica; letter of Heneken, note.

----, river of, discovered.

Saometa, discovery of.

Saona, island of, discovered; difference of longitude between, and Cadiz

Scandinavians, an essay relative to the voyages of.

Schedel, remarks on an interpolation in his chronicle.

Seneca, his notice of electrical lights on the masts of ships.

Serafin Point.

Sharks, a multitude of, seen on the coast of Veragua; curious method of
taking them; superstition concerning.

Ships, observation relative to the size of those employed by Columbus.

Slaves, five hundred are sent to Spain; three hundred sent by Bartholomew
Columbus; arrival in Spain; Queen Isabella interests herself in their
favor; orders them to be sent back to Hayti; negroes first introduced to
the New World; revolt of; Hispaniola the first island to exhibit an awful
retribution; regulations in respect to.

Solomon, the gold used in the temple of.

Soria, Juan de, his insolence to Columbus.

Soul, ideas of the Haytiens in respect to the; the after-state of,
believed by the natives of Cuba.

Spain and Portugal, diplomatic negotiations between the courts of, with
respect to the new discoveries.

Spotorno, Gio, publishes documents relative to Columbus, note.

Sugar-cane introduced into Hayti.

Superstition of St. Elmo lights.

Swallow, a, encircles the ships of Columbus.


Talavera, Fernando de, prior of Prado and confessor to Queen Isabella.
85; esteems Columbus's plan impossible; he is desired by the king to
assemble men of science to consider the matter; reports to the king that
the council had pronounced the plan vain and impossible; takes a message
from the king;' disgusted at the high terms insisted on by Columbus.

Teneriffe, fears of the crew at beholding Mount.

Territory, question of, how settled.

Thomas, St., fortress of, erected; see note; conduct of the colonists
there; attacks of.

Tobacco, first seen in the island of Cuba.

Tobago, discovery of.

Toledo, archbishop of, his character; gives Columbus an attentive hearing;
and procures him an audience of the king.

Toledo, Dona Maria de, Don Diego Columbus becomes enamored of: their
marriage; and embarkation for Hispaniola; is left as vice-queen at St.
Domingo on the sailing of Don Diego for Spain; becomes a widow.

Torre, Dona Juana de la, receives a letter from Columbus with an account
of his treatment.

Torres, Antonio de, dispatched from Hispaniola, with twelve ships, to
Spain; arrives at Cadiz; dismissed from office.

----, Luis de, sent up the island of Cuba by Columbus; an account of his

Tortoises, sea covered with, on the southern coast of Cuba; curious method
of taking; a living one taken out of the maw of a shark.

Tortugas, beautiful island of, discovery of.

Toscanelli, Paulo, his correspondence with Columbus.

Trade of the colonies monopolized by the crown of Spain; the Spanish
system the scoff of modern times.

Trasierra, Juan de.

Triana, Rodrigo de, first sees the land of the western world; account of.

Tribute imposed upon the Haytiens.

Trinidad, island of, discovered; description of its appearance; curious
account of the natives.


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