The Naval Pioneers of Australia
Louis Becke and Walter Jeffery
Part 4 out of 4
the barracks at five o'clock in the evening. He held a consultation with
his officers, and the upshot of this was that Johnston, as
lieutenant-governor of the colony, demanded the instant release of
MacArthur from gaol. The gaoler complied, and MacArthur went straight to
the barracks, where a requisition to Johnston to place Bligh under arrest
was arranged, at the suggestion of MacArthur, on the ground "that the
present alarming state of the colony, in which every man's property,
liberty, and life are endangered, induces us most earnestly to implore you
instantly to assume the command of the colony. We pledge ourselves at a
moment of less agitation to come forward to support the measure with our
lives and fortunes." This was signed by several of the principal Sydney
inhabitants, and then Johnston proceeded to carry out their and his own
and the other rum-traffickers' designs.
The drums beat to arms; the New South Wales Corps--most of the men primed
with the original cause of the trouble--formed in the barrack square, and
with fixed bayonets, colours flying, and band playing, marched to
Government House, led by Johnston. It was about half-past six on an
Australian summer evening, and broad daylight. The Government House guard
waited to prime and load, then joined their drunken comrades, and the
house was surrounded.
Mrs. Putland, the governor's brave daughter (widow of a lieutenant in the
navy, who had only been buried a week before), stood at the door, and
endeavoured to prevent the soldiers from entering. She was pushed aside,
and the house was soon full of soldiers, who, according to what some of
them said, found Bligh hiding under his bed--a statement which, there is
not the slightest doubt, was an infamous lie, suggested by the position in
which the governor really was found, viz., standing behind a cot in a back
room, where he was endeavouring to conceal some [Sidenote: 1808]
Bligh surrendered to Johnston, who announced that he intended to assume
the government "by the advice of all my officers and the most respectable
of the inhabitants." Johnston caused Bligh's commission and all his papers
to be sealed up, informed the governor that he would be kept a prisoner in
his own house, and leaving a strong guard of soldiers, marched the rest of
his inebriated command back to barracks, with the same parade of
band-playing and pretence of dignity.
The colony was now practically under martial law, and Johnston appointed a
new batch of civil officials, dismissing from office the others, including
the Judge-Advocate, Atkins. MacArthur was then--humorously enough--tried
by the court as newly constructed, and, of course, unanimously acquitted,
Johnston then appointing him a magistrate and secretary of the colony. To
complete the business, the court then took it upon themselves to try the
Provost-Marshal, and gave him four months' gaol for having "falsely sworn
that the officers of the New South Wales Corps intended to rescue his
prisoner" (MacArthur), and at the same time the court sentenced the
attorney who drew the indictment, and managed the legal business for
Atkins, to a long term of imprisonment.
In July, Lieutenant-Colonel Foveaux arrived from England, and was
surprised to find the existing state of affairs. By virtue of seniority,
he succeeded Johnston as lieutenant-governor, and appointed another man in
place of MacArthur, but did not interfere in any other way, contenting
himself with sending to England a full report of the affair. Foveaux was
in turn succeeded by Colonel Paterson, who arrived at the beginning of
1809, and who also declined to interfere in the business, but he granted
Johnston leave of absence to proceed to England, MacArthur and two other
officers accompanying him.
Meanwhile some of the free settlers had begun to show indications of a
desire to help Bligh, who, to prevent accidents, was taken by the rebels
from his house and lodged with his daughter a close prisoner in the
barracks. Later on, he signed an agreement with Paterson to leave the
colony for England in a sloop of war then bound home.
Bligh and his daughter embarked on the vessel, but on the way she put into
the Derwent river, in Van Diemen's Land, where the [Sidenote: 1809]
deposed governor landed, and at first thought he would be able to
re-establish his authority, but the spirit of rebellion had taken hold; he
was compelled to re-embark soon after, but he remained in Tasmanian waters
on board ship until Governor Macquarie arrived from England.
For the English Government, in due course, had heard of the state of
affairs, and woke up to the necessity for strong action. In December,
1809, there arrived in Sydney Harbour a 50-gun frigate and a transport,
bringing Governor Macquarie, with his regiment of Highlanders, the 73rd.
His orders were to restore Bligh for twenty-four hours and send home the
New South Wales Corps, with every officer who had been concerned in the
rebellion under arrest, and the regiment, as we said in a former chapter,
was disbanded; Macquarie was himself then to take over the government.
The absence of Bligh from the colony prevented his restoration being
literally carried out, but Macquarie issued proclamations which served the
purpose, and restored all the officials who had been put out by the
rebels. Macquarie soon made himself popular with the colonists, and the
best proof of his success is the fact that he governed the colony for
twelve years, and his administration, though an important epoch in its
history, cannot be gone into here as he was not a naval man.
Bligh, the last of the naval governors, arrived in England in October, was
made a rear-admiral, and died in 1817. Johnston was tried by court-martial
and cashiered, and returned to the colony, becoming one of its best
settlers and the founder of one of Sydney's most important suburbs.
MacArthur was ordered not to return to the colony for eight years. He
returned in 1817, bringing with him sons as vigorous as himself.
Ultimately he became a member of the Legislative Council, and his services
and those of his descendants will justly be remembered in Australia long
after the petty annoyances to which he was subjected and the improper
manner in which he resisted them have been totally and happily forgotten.
The history of Australia up to, and until the end of Bligh's appointment,
can be summed up in half a dozen sentences. Phillip, during the term of
his office, had repeatedly urged upon the home Government the necessity of
sending out free men. Convicts without such a leaven could not, in his
opinion, successfully lay the foundation of the "greatest acquisition
England has ever made." Time proved the correctness of his judgment. The
population of the colony, from something more than 1000 when he landed,
had been increased at the close of King's administration to about 7000
persons. Half a dozen settlements had been formed at places within a few
miles of Sydney; advantage had been taken of the discoveries of Bass and
Flinders, and settlements made at Hobart and at Port Dalrymple; while an
attempt (resulting in failure on this occasion and described later on) was
made to colonize Port Phillip. A good deal of country was under
cultivation, and stock had greatly increased, so that in the seventeen
years that had elapsed some progress had been made, but the state of
society at Botany Bay had grown worse rather than better. In the direction
of reformation the experiment of turning felons into farmers was not a
success. Few free emigrants had arrived in the colony, and those who came
out were by no means the best class of people. Nobody worked more than
they could help; drinking, gambling, and petty bickering occupied the
leisure of most. This was the state of affairs which Captain Bligh was
sent to reform, and we have seen how his mission succeeded.
In the case of the mutiny of the _Bounty_, it is reasonably believed that
the mutineers were, at any rate, partially incited to their crime by the
seductions of Tahiti; in the case of the revolt in New South Wales, it is
known that allegiance to constituted authority had no part in the
character of Bligh's subjects. Therefore, notwithstanding that Bligh was
the victim of two outbreaks against his rule, posterity, without the most
indisputable evidence to the contrary, would have held him acquitted of
the least responsibility for his misfortunes. In the case of the _Bounty_
mutiny the evidence of Bligh's opponents that the captain of the _Bounty_
was a tyrannical officer remains uncontradicted by any authority but that
of the _Bounty's_ captain; in the case of the New South Wales revolt we
can only judge of the probabilities, for the witnesses at the Johnston
court-martial were of necessity upon one side. But the court-martial, a
tribunal not at all likely to err upon the side of mutineers, came to the
same conclusion as we have, and, so far as we are aware, most other
writers acquainted with the subject have been driven to: that Bligh, to
say the least of it, behaved with great indiscretion.
Our references to this matter have been entirely to [Sidenote: 1829]
the minutes of the court-martial and to writers who wrote long enough ago
to have had a personal knowledge of the subject or acquaintance with
actors in the events. The lady whose letter we have quoted in the first
pages of this chapter refers us to Lang's _History_ for a justification of
Bligh, and Dr. Lang, as is well known to students of Australian history,
wrote more strongly in that governor's favour than did any other writer.
Dr. Lang tells us that the behaviour of certain subordinates towards
MacArthur was highly improper, and that MacArthur's speech in open court
was "calculated to give great offence to a man of so exceedingly irritable
disposition as Governor Bligh." Again, Dr. Lang says that Bligh by no
means merited unqualified commendation for his government of New South
Wales, and that the truth lies between the most unqualified praise and the
most unqualified vituperation which the two sides of this quarrel have
loaded upon his memory.
Judge Therry, who came to New South Wales in 1829, in a judicial summing
up of the causes of this revolt, gives Bligh full credit for his attempt
to govern well, and condemns in strong terms the outrageous conduct of
the New South Wales Regiment; but he describes Bligh as a despotic man who
"had proved his incapacity to govern a ship's crew whom he had driven to
mutiny, yet had been made absolute ruler of a colony." Says Therry:--
"The extravagant and illegal proceedings to which these men" (the
Judge-Advocate and his blackguard attorney) "had recourse
contributed perhaps more than even the shortcomings of Bligh
himself to the catastrophe that ensued. The governor's conflicts
with many, but especially with MacArthur, were bitter and
incessant through his career."
Says Dr. West, writing in 1852:--
"The governor resolved to bring to trial the six officers, who had
repelled the Judge-Advocate, for treasonable practices; and, as a
preliminary step, ordered that they should appear before the bench
of magistrates, of whom Colonel Johnston, their commander, was
one. It was now supposed that Bligh intended to constitute a novel
court of criminal jurisdiction, and that he had resolved to carry
to the last extremes the hostility he had declared. Colonel
Johnston, as a measure of self-defence, was induced to march his
regiment to Government House, and place His Excellency under
arrest, demanding his sword and his commission as governor. This
transaction throughout caused a very strong sensation, both in the
colony and at home. Opinions widely differ respecting its origin
and its necessity. That it was illegal, it may be [Sidenote: 1811]
presumed, no one will deny; that it was wanton is not so
indisputable. The unfortunate termination of Bligh's first
expedition to Tahiti, the imputations of harshness and cruelty for
ever fastened to his name, and the disreputable agents he
sometimes employed in his service made the position of the
officers extremely anxious, if not insecure. Bligh had become
popular with the expired settlers, who reckoned a long arrear of
vengeance to their military taskmasters, and who, with the law on
their side or encouragement from the governor, might have been
expected to show no mercy. Had Bligh escaped to the interior, the
personal safety of the officers might have been imperilled. The
settlers, led on by the undoubted representative of the Crown,
would have been able to justify any step necessary for the
recovery of his authority, and at whatever sacrifice of life."
The court-martial on Johnston was held at Chelsea Hospital, and lasted
from May 11th till June 5th, 1811. Bligh complained that many of his
papers had been stolen, and the want of these was detrimental to his case.
Johnston, in the course of his defence, said:--
"My justification of my conduct depends upon my having proved to
the satisfaction of this honourable court that such was the state
of the public mind on the 26th of January, 1808, that no
alternative was left for me but to pursue the measures I did or to
have witnessed an insurrection and massacre in the colony,
attended with the certain destruction of the governor himself. In
doing this, I have endeavoured to show not only the fact of
Captain Bligh's general unpopularity, and the readiness of the
people to rise against him, and the probability that they would be
joined by the soldiery, but also the causes of that unpopularity,
founded on the general conduct of the governor."
The court came to the following decision:--
"The court having duly and maturely weighed and considered the
whole of the evidence adduced on the prosecution, as well as what
has been offered in defence, are of opinion that
Lieutenant-Colonel Johnston is guilty of the act of mutiny as
described in the charge, and do therefore sentence him to be
and approval of the sentence is thus recorded:--
"His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, in the name and on the
behalf of His Majesty, was pleased, under all the circumstances of
the case, to acquiesce in the sentence of the court. The court, in
passing a sentence so inadequate to the enormity of the crime of
which the prisoner has been found guilty, have apparently been
actuated by a consideration of the novel and extraordinary
circumstances which, by the evidence on the face of the
proceedings, may have appeared to them to have existed during the
administration of Governor Bligh, both as affecting the
tranquillity of the colony and calling for some immediate
decision. But although the Prince Regent admits the principle
under which the court have allowed the consideration to act in
mitigation of the punishment which the crime of [Sidenote: 1811]
mutiny would otherwise have suggested, yet no circumstances
whatever can be received by His Royal Highness in full extenuation
of an assumption of power so subversive of every principle of good
order and discipline as that under which Lieutenant-Colonel
Johnston has been convicted."
If Bligh had no part in bringing these disasters upon himself, he was a
very unfortunate man (he was never given another command), and his enemies
were extremely lucky in coming off so well. Mutineers whom he accused of
taking active part against him, instead of getting hanged, rise to high
rank in the service of the King; the military leader of an insurrection,
in place of being shot on a parade-ground, is mildly dismissed the
service, and becomes a prosperous settler upon the soil on which he raised
the standard of revolution. But, whatever may have been his faults,
arising from his ungovernable temper and arbitrary disposition, the
statements of his military traducers reflecting on his personal courage
may be dismissed with the contempt they deserve.
OTHER NAVAL PIONEERS, AND THE PRESENT MARITIME STATE OF
Long after Bligh, the last naval governor, was in his grave, the pioneer
work of naval officers went on; and if not the chief aid to the settlement
of Australia, it played an important part in its development. Begun at the
foundation of the colony, when the marine explorer did his work in open
boats; carried on, as the settlement grew, in locally built fore-and-aft
vessels down to the present, when navigating officers are year in, year
out, cruising "among the South Sea Islands," or on the less known parts of
the northern and western Australian coast-line, surveying in up-to-date
triple-expansion-engined steam cruisers or in steam surveying yachts, the
work of chart-making has always been, and still is, done so thoroughly as
to command the admiration of all who understand its [Sidenote: 1793]
its meaning, and withal so modestly that the shipmaster, whose Admiralty
charts are perhaps little less or even more valuable to him than his
Bible, scarcely ever thinks, if he knows, how they are made.
In the earliest days of the colony, Phillip and Hunter were land as well
as sea explorers; Dawes and Tench, of the Marines, and Quartermaster
Hacking, of the _Sirius_, in 1793 and 1794, made the first attempts to
cross the Blue Mountains. Shortlands (father and son), Ball, of the
_Supply_, and half a dozen other naval lieutenants, all made discoveries
of importance; Vancouver, McClure, and Bligh (the latter twelve years
before he was thought of as a governor) each did a share of early
The list might be extended indefinitely. Let us take only one or two names
and tell their stories; and these examples, with the narrative of Flinders
and Bass, must stand as illustrative of the work of all.
In land exploring the military officers were not behindhand. Beside the
work of the marines, a young Frenchman, Francis Louis Barrallier, an
ensign of the New South Wales Corps, who came out with King,
distinguished himself. King made him artillery and engineer officer, and
he did much surveying with Grant in the _Lady Nelson_. Inland he went west
until stopped by the Blue Mountains barrier; and King tells us an amusing
story of this trip. Paterson, in command of the regiment, told King that
he could not spare Barrallier for exploring purposes, so King, to get over
the difficulty, appointed him his aide-de-camp, and then sent him on an
"embassy to the King of the Mountains."
Barrallier went home in 1804, and saw a great deal of service in various
regiments, distinguishing himself in military engineering, among his works
being the erection of Nelson's column in Trafalgar Square. He died in
London in 1853.
The _Lady Nelson_ was a little brig of 60 tons burden, one of the first
built with a centre-board, or sliding keels, as the idea was then termed.
She was designed by Captain Schanck, one of the naval transport
commissioners, and when she sailed from Portsmouth to begin her survey
service in Australia, she was so deeply laden for her size that she had
less than three feet of freeboard.
Lieutenant James Grant was, through the influence of [Sidenote: 1800]
Banks, appointed to command this little vessel. He has much to say on the
subject of sliding keels, for which see his _Narrative of a Voyage of
Discovery_. The _Lady Nelson_ was well built, and Grant showed his respect
for her designer by his naming of Cape Schanck in Victoria and Mount
Schanck in South Australia. In one of his letters to Banks, Grant says
that, with all his stores of every description on board, he could take his
vessel into seven feet of water, and could haul off a lee shore, by the
use of sliding keels, "equal to any ship in the navy." On the night of
January 23rd, 1800, it blew such a gale in the Channel that six vessels
went on shore, and several others were reported missing. This gale lasted
for nine days, and during that time the _Lady Nelson_ rode comfortably at
her anchor in the Downs.
Grant's instructions when he left England were to proceed through the
newly discovered Bass' Straits on his way, report himself at Sydney, and
then set to work and survey the coast, beginning with the southern and
south-western parts of it. The brig sailed, with a crew of seventeen all
told, in February, 1800, and arrived on December 16th of the same year,
being the first vessel to pass through Bass' Straits on the way from
England to Australia. On the voyage Grant discovered and named many points
on the Victorian coast-line; then, as soon as the vessel arrived and
received a thorough overhaul, she was sent to sea again to continue the
work in company with a small intercolonial vessel, the _Bee_.
They sailed on March 8th, 1801, and were surveying until May 2nd, when
Grant sums up the work done in these words:--
"We have now gained a complete survey of the coast from Western
Point to Wilson's Promontory, with the situation of the different
islands of the same, and ascertained the latitudes of the same,
which from our different observations we have been able to do
sufficiently correct.... These points being ascertained so far as
lays in our power, I judge it most prudent to make the best of our
way to port, keeping the shore well in sight to observe every
particular hitherto unknown."
The portions left out in this extract refer to the latitudes and
longitudes, which are so correctly given that the only ascertainable
difference between them and the figures in a recent addition of Norrie is
in the case of Wilson's Promontory, which Grant says is [Sidenote: 1801]
in longitude between 146 deg. 25' and 146 deg. 14', and Norrie's table gives
us 146 deg. 25' 37".
On the return of the little vessel, she took part in an interesting
ceremony, which the following proclamation by Governor King, dated May
29th, best describes:--
"Thursday next being the anniversary of His Majesty's birth, will
be observed as a holyday. The present Union will be hoisted at
sunrise. At a quarter before nine the New South Wales Corps and
Association to be under arms, when the Royal Proclamation for the
Union between Great Britain and Ireland will be publicly read by
the Provost-Marshall, and on the New Union flag being displayed at
Dawes Point and on board His Majesty's armed vessel _Lady Nelson_
the military will fire three rounds, which the batteries will take
up, beginning at the main guard, Bennilong and Dawes Points, at
the Windmill Hills, and at the barracks. When finished, His
Majesty's armed vessel the _Lady Nelson_ will fire 21 guns, man
ship, and cheer. At noon the salute will be repeated from the
batteries, New South Wales Corps and Association will fire three
rounds, and at one o'clock the _Lady Nelson_ will fire 21 guns in
honour of His Majesty's birthday. The Governor will be ready to
receive the compliments of the officers, civil and military, on
those happy occasions, at half-past one o'clock."
King had a high opinion of Grant as a seaman, but he considered him an
unscientific man, not suitable for surveying, and wrote to England to that
effect. Grant himself confirms this in a letter asking to go home, as from
the "little knowledge I have of surveying, ... where I may be enabled to
be more serviceable to my country." His faith in sliding keels had been
somewhat shaken by this time, and he complained that he could not claw his
vessel off a lee shore, and so Flinders found, when Grant with the _Lady
Nelson_ kept him company along the Barrier Reef when the _Investigator_
was surveying that part of the coast. The _Nelson_ had been ordered to act
as tender to the _Investigator_, but she was so unsuited to the work that
Flinders lost patience and sent her back to Sydney, where she did a great
deal of surveying in the exploration of the Hunter River and its vicinity.
Grant went home, and cut a much better figure as a fighting officer, was
promoted commander, and died in 1838. On his way home he took a box of
King's despatches to convey to England, and when the despatch-box was
opened it was found to be empty. King, writing of this matter, said:--
"I do not blame Lieutenant Grant so much for the [Sidenote: 1802]
villainous transaction respecting the loss of my despatches as I
deprecate the infamy of those who had preconcerted the plan.
Before the vessel he went in left the colony, it was told me that
such an event would happen, and the master's conduct prior to his
leaving this fully justified the report. I would not suffer the
vessel to leave the port before a bond of L500 was given that
neither Lieutenant Grant or the despatches should be molested.
Under these circumstances and Lieutenant Grant's knowledge of the
master, he ought to have been more guarded, as I gave my positive
directions that the vessel should be seen a certain way to sea,
and the box was not given from my possession before the vessel was
under way. However, the plan was too well laid and bound with
ill-got gold to fail. Let the villain enjoy the success of his
infamy. As to any publication of Mr. Grant's, I believe nothing
new or original can arise from his pen without the aid of
Lieutenant Murray, of the _Porpoise_, relieved Grant in the _Lady Nelson_,
and Murray and his mate. Lieutenant Bowen, further explored Bass' Straits
and the Victorian coast, their chief achievement being the discovery of
The _Lady Nelson_ was off the heads of Port Phillip on January 5th, 1802,
but the weather was too bad to enter, and Bowen was sent to examine the
bay in one of the brig's boats. This he did, and the _Lady Nelson_
entered, and anchored off what is now the quarantine station on February
15th. Murray took possession of the place on March 9th, naming it Port
King, and Surveyor Grimes made a survey of it. They left on March 12th.
The Frenchman Baudin, with the _Geographe_ and _Naturaliste_, eighteen
days later ran along this coast and claimed its discovery, although the
Englishmen, Flinders in particular, had already surveyed and named nearly
all his discoveries; but Baudin was gracious enough to admit that Port
Phillip, which he had only sighted, had been first entered by the _Lady
Nelson_. Flinders sailed into the bay on April 26th, thinking that he had
made a new discovery, until, on his arrival at Port Jackson, he heard of
the _Lady Nelson's_ prior visit, and that Governor King, with modesty and
regard for his old chief, had altered Murray's name of Port King to Port
In consequence of Murray's services in the _Lady Nelson_, King appointed
him acting lieutenant, and strongly recommended the Admiralty should
confirm the appointment.
With the recommendation, Murray sent home, through the governor, the
following certificate of his services, which is interesting as showing
how such certificates were then written, and because of what came of this
"In pursuance of the directions of Sir Roger Curtis, Bart.,
Vice-Admiral of the White and Commander-in-chief of His Majesty's
ships and vessels employed and to be employed at the Cape of Good
Hope and the seas adjacent, dated the 8th July, 1800.
"We have examined Mr. John Murray, who appears to be more than 21
years of age, and has been at sea more than six years in the ships
and qualities undermentioned, viz.:--
|Ships. |Entry. |Quality. |Discharge. |Y.|M.|W.|D.|
|_Duke_ |9 June, 1789 |Able Seaman|2 Dec., 1789 | |5 |2 |2 |
|_Polyphemus_|10 Oct., 1794|Midshipman |7 May, 1797 |2 |7 |2 | |
|_Apollo_ |8 May, 1797 |Mate |27 Dec., 1797| |8 |1 |3 |
|_Blazer_ |2 Jan., 1798 |2nd Master | | | | | |
| | | and Pilot|26 July, 1798| |7 |1 |3 |
|_Porpoise_ |7 Oct.,1798 |Mate |9 July, 1800 |1 |9 | | |
| | | | |6 |1 |3 |1 |
"He produceth journals kept by himself in the _Polyphemus, Apollo_,
and _Porpoise_, and certificates from Captains Lumsdine,
Manly, and Scott, of his diligence and sobriety. He can splice
knots, reef and sail, work a ship in sailing, and shift his tides,
keep a reckoning of the ship's way by plain sailing and Mercator,
observe the sun and stars, and find the variation of the compass,
and is qualified to do the duty of an able seaman and midshipman.
"Given under our hands on His Majesty's ship _Adamant_, in
Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope, this 9th day of July, 1800.
"J. Motham, \ Captains of / _(Adamant,_
"Thomas Larcom, | His Majesty's | _Lancaster,_
"Roger Curtis, / ships \ _Rattlesnake_."
The Secretary to the Admiralty wrote to Governor King on May 5th, 1802,
stating that this passing certificate of Mr. Murray's was "an imposition
attempted to be practised in his report of services, and to acquaint you
that they will not, in consequence, give him a commission, nor will they
allow him to pass for an officer at any future period." With this letter
came an enclosure showing that by Mr. Murray's passing certificate "it is
set forth that he served in the _Duke_ from the 9th June, 1789, to the 2nd
December, 1789, but we must observe that the _Duke_ was not in commission
in 1789, neither is he found on her books from the 10th of August, 1790,
to 2nd August, 1791, when she was in commission, nor is he born on the
_Duke_ while she was in ordinary, which time, even admitting he did belong
to her, would not have been allowed towards the regular servitude of six
In reply to this charge, Murray told King that he could [Sidenote: 1803]
"explain" the circumstance; but he soon after returned to England, and
these deponents can find no further trace of him.
Soon after it was decided to colonize the new discovery, and the
_Calcutta_, man-of-war, and _Ocean_, transport, sailed from Portsmouth
with prisoners and stores on April 26th, 1803, arriving at Port Phillip on
October 10th. Collins, now a brevet-lieutenant-colonel, who was
Judge-Advocate under Phillip, was in command of the expedition, and was to
be the first governor of the settlement.
King, at Port Jackson, had meanwhile sent--in May, 1803--Lieutenant Bowen
in the _Lady Nelson,_ with a transport and a party of settlers, to form a
settlement at the head of the Derwent in Van Diemen's Land.
The expedition was made up of 307 male convicts, 17 of their wives, and 7
children; 4 officers and 47 non-commissioned officers and men of the
Marines, with 5 women and 1 child; and a party of 11 men and 1 woman, free
settlers. Besides these were about 12 civilian officials. By the close of
1803, Collins, with the concurrence of most, if not all, of his officers,
decided to abandon Port Phillip, and convey his colonists to the Derwent
settlement. His justification for taking this step was the unsuitableness
of the land and the difficulty of procuring fresh water near the heads of
Port Phillip. This shows that he was not of the same spirit as Governor
Phillip, and that he wrote history far better than he made it.
Bowen had already begun the settlement near what was named Hobart Town by
him in honour of the Secretary of State, Lord Hobart. In 1881 the "Town"
was dropped, and "Hobart" became the official name of the capital of
Tasmania. The man acting as mate of the _Lady Nelson_ was one Jorgenson,
the "King of Iceland," whose remarkable story was written by Mr. Hogan,
and published by Ward and Downey in 1891, and whose career was a most
extraordinary series of adventures. The _Lady Nelson_ pursued her careful
and useful voyages until 1827, when she was seized by Maoris on the coast
of New Zealand and destroyed.
In 1817 there came out young Phillip Parker King, son of Governor King,
who made four voyages round the Australian coast, completing a minute
survey in 1822, when he returned to England and [Sidenote: 1822]
published an interesting account of his work. Sir Gordon Bremer in the
_Tamar_, Sterling in the _Success_, Fitzroy in the _Beagle_, Hodson in the
_Rattlesnake_, Captain (afterwards Sir George) Grey on the West Australian
coast, Blackwood in the _Fly_, Stokes and Wickham, and scores of other
naval officers ought to be mentioned, and no attempt can be made in a work
like this to do justice to the merchantmen who, in whalers and sealers or
East Indiamen, in a quiet, modest, business-like way of doing the thing,
sailed about the coast making discoveries, and often, through the
desertion of their seamen, leading to the foundation of settlements.
Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson, and William Charles Wentworth, in
Governor Macquarie's time, were the first men to make an appreciable
advance to the west, inland from the sea. Lawson was a lieutenant in the
New South Wales Corps, in the Veteran Company of which notorious regiment
he remained attached to the 73rd when the "Botany Bay Rangers" went home.
Blaxland was an early settler in the colony, and Wentworth was the son of
a wealthy Norfolk Island official, who had sent his boy home to be
educated, and when these three men went exploring, young Wentworth had
just returned to Australia. In 1813, after many hard trials, by keeping to
the crown of the range and avoiding the impenetrable gorges which their
predecessors had thought would lead to a pass through the barrier, they
managed to gain the summit of the main range, and then returned to Sydney.
The work had taken a month to perform, and Macquarie promptly sent out a
fully equipped party to follow up the discovery. So thoroughly did the
governor back up the work of the explorers that by January, 1815, the
convict-made road had been completed to Bathurst, and the Blue Mountain
ranges were no longer a barrier to the good country of the west.
The Humes, Evans, Oxley, and the rest of the land explorers followed as
the years went on, and very soon there was not a mile of undiscovered land
in the mother-colony. Attempts to penetrate the interior of the great
continent followed, and that work and the opening of the far north, with
its too often accompaniments of disaster and death, went on until quite
recent times. Occasionally even now we hear much talk of expeditions into
the interior, but newspaper-readers who read of such exploring parties can
generally take it for granted that stories of hazard and hardship
nowadays lose nothing in the telling, especially where mining interests
and financial speculation are concerned.
By way of ending to this story of the naval pioneers of Australia, it will
perhaps be not amiss to show what the navy was in Australia at the
beginning of the century and what it is now at its close. A return issued
by Governor King on the 4th of August, 1804, showed that the _Buffalo_,
ship of war, with a crew of 84 men, the _Lady Nelson_, a 60-ton brig, with
15 men, were the only men-of-war that could be so described on the
station. The _Investigator_, Flinders' ship, was then being patched up to
go home, and she is stated to have 26 men rated on her books. Belonging to
the Colonial Government were the _Francis_, a 40-ton schooner, the
_Cumberland_, 20-ton schooner, the _Integrity_, a cutter of 59 tons, the
_Resource_, a schooner of 26 tons, built from the wrecks of the _Porpoise_
and _Cato_, and some punts and open boats. The crews of all these vessels
amounted to 145 men.
A return dated six months later shows that there were 23 merchant vessels
owned, or constantly employed, in the colony, of a total tonnage of 660
tons, carrying crews numbering altogether 117. The vessels varied in size
from the _King George_, of 185 tons and 25 men, to the _Margaret_, of 7
tons and 2 men.
In the year 1898 the royal naval forces in Australian waters make a
squadron, under the command of a rear-admiral, consisting of 17 ships. Of
these 15 (including 3 surveying vessels at present attached to the
Australian station) are in commission, and 2 in reserve. The total tonnage
of the vessels in commission and in reserve amounts to 31,795 tons, armed
with the most modern weapons, and carrying crews numbering in the
aggregate about 3000, while the naval establishment at Garden Island (so
called because about a hundred and twenty years ago it was used as a
vegetable garden for the crew of the _Sirius_) is now one of the most
important British naval stations.
Seven of these war vessels belong to a special squadron, the maintenance
of which is partially paid for by the colonial governments; and, by
agreement with the Imperial Government, the ships are to be employed in
Australasian waters solely for the defence of Australia and New Zealand.
Besides this force, most of the colonial governments maintain a naval
reserve of their own, highly efficient, perhaps, as a land force, but,
owing to the lack of vessels and of money, scarcely to be considered
seriously of value as a naval defence force.
The merchant shipping trade of Australia, measured by the entering and
clearing returns from all Australian ports, now reaches about 18,000,000
tons annually, of which about one-third is entered or cleared from the
ports of the mother-colony. The returns do not separate purely local
tonnage from the other shipping of the British empire, but out of the
above 18,000,000 tons some 16,000,000 tons are classed as British, and
Australia as a whole contributes no mean proportion of that amount.
Here ends this account of the naval pioneers of Australia. We have already
said that this work is biographical rather than historical. All that we
have attempted is not to sketch the progress of the colony--as a colony,
for the first twenty years of its existence, no element of progress was in
it--but to show how certain naval officers, in spite of the difficulties
of the penal settlement days, in spite very often of their own unfitness
for this to them strange service, did their work well, not perhaps always
governing wisely, but holding to ground won in such circumstances and by
such poor means as men with more brains and less "grit" would have
abandoned as untenable.
Arthur Phillip landed in a desert, obtained a footing on the land, and
when he left it, left behind him a habitable country; Hunter and King
followed him and held the country, though nearly every man's hand was
against them, and the industrious and the virtuous among their people
could be numbered by the fingers of the hand. Yet these men and their
officers dotted the coast-line with their discoveries, and by what they
wrought in the direction of sea exploration more than made up for what
they lacked in the art of civil governing. Bligh honestly endeavoured in a
blundering way to accomplish that which only the sharp lesson of his
mistake made possible; Macquarie, backed by a regiment, began his
administration with concessions, and continued for many years to govern
the colony, chiefly for the benefit of the emancipists instead of for its
officials. Whatever evils may have come of his methods, it has been said
of him that "he found a garrison and a gaol, and left the broad and deep
foundations of an empire." Such foundation was really laid by his
successors, who encouraged the emigration of free men who presently
demanded that Australia should no longer be used as a place of
punishment, and its lands as a reward for felons; that it must be a
British colony in the fullest and freest sense. It is to these men,
marching forward upon ways cut for them by the naval pioneers, we owe the
fulfilment of Phillip's prediction that "this would be the most valuable
acquisition England ever made."
Abbott, Captain, 144, 147, 257.
Abrolhos, 11, 15, 17, 38.
_Adamant_, H.M.S., 288.
Adams, John, 234, 240.
Addison's _Arithmetical Navigation_, 35.
Admiralty Islands, 51.
Adventure Bay, 223.
All Saints, Bay of, 34.
Apia Harbour, 32.
_Ariadne_, 76, 137.
Armstrong Channel, 170.
Arnhem's Land, 184;
discovery of, 9, 16.
Atkin, Mr., 199, 203, 212.
Atkins, Judge-Advocate, 261.
belief in the existence, 2;
the Spanish voyages, 4;
the Dutch, 6;
discovery of the south coast, in 1627, 9;
the first English naval expedition, 23;
first use of the name, 184;
condition of the navy in 1804, 293;
in 1898, 294;
merchant shipping trade, 295.
Baffin's Bay, 65.
Bahio de todos los Santos, or the Bay of All Saints, 34.
Ball, Lieutenant, 77, 140, 279.
Banks, Sir Joseph, 53, 67, 73, 149, 154, 158,
168, 182, 208, 222, 223, 249, 251, 252;
on establishing a penal colony at Botany Bay, 74;
letters from Captain Flinders, 204-206, 212, 213;
to Governor King, 209;
to Captain Flinders, 210.
Barham, Lord, 211.
Barrallier, Francis Louis, 279, 280.
Barrier Reef, 60, 63, 184, 227, 284.
Barrington, George, 164.
Barrow, Sir John, his _Mutiny of the "Bounty,"_
218, 231, 232, 238, 245.
Barton, Mr. G.B., his _History of Australia_, 2;
_History of New South Wales from the Records_, 87.
Bashee Islands, 19.
Bass, George, 95, 105, 279;
his work of surveying, 167;
early career, 169;
appointed surgeon to the _Reliance_, 169;
discovers the coalfields of New South Wales, 172;
explorations, 172-175, 177;
sails in the _Venus_, 179;
last news, 179;
mysterious fate, 181;
various reports, 181.
Bass' Straits, 170, 178, 281, 285.
Batavia, 11, 58, 64, 100, 141.
_Batavia_, Wreck of the, 10.
Bathampton Church, 89.
Baudin, M., 157, 286;
his expedition to New South Wales, 158;
letter to Captain King, 160.
Baye du Cap, 198, 201.
Belcher, Lady, _Mutineers of the Bounty_, 218, 238.
Benevideis, General, 241.
Bennilong Point, 283.
Bergeret, Captain, 199, 212.
Besant, Sir Walter, 45.
Bishop, Charles, 179.
Blaxland, George, 291.
Bligh, Captain, 100, 163, 169, 211, 277, 279;
Governor of New South Wales, 218, 247, 252;
his first visit to the South Seas, 221;
in command of the _Bounty_, 222;
outbreak of the mutiny, 224;
cast adrift, 225;
his courage and endurance, 226, 246;
reaches Timor, 228;
in command of the _Providence_, 229;
his version of the mutiny, 242;
responsibility for it, 245;
defence of his conduct, 248-250;
administration, 254, 296;
dispute with MacArthur, 256;
prohibits the distillation of spirits, 257;
proceedings against MacArthur, 259;
surrenders to Major Johnston, 267;
Bligh's Passage, 227.
Blue Mountains, 82, 157, 279, 292.
_Bonaparte_, 133, _note_.
Botany Bay, 57, 58, 94;
proposal to establish a penal colony at, 74;
arrival of the fleet, 78;
its unsuitability, 81;
state of society, 271.
_Bounty, Mutiny of the_, 218;
various books on, 218, 219;
sails for Tahiti, 222;
outbreak of the mutiny, 224;
trial of the mutineers, 232;
sole survivor, 233;
beached and burnt, 234.
Bowen, Lieutenant, 285;
forms a settlement at Derwent, 289.
Bowles, Captain, 240.
Bowrey, Captain, 37.
Brazils, Viceroy of the, treatment of Captain Cook, 55.
Bremen, Jan de, 15.
Bremer, Sir Gordon, 291.
Breton, Cape, 125.
_Bridgewater_, 186, 188;
escapes being wrecked, 189;
deserts the ships, 190.
Britton, Mr., 124.
Broken Bay, 94, 174.
Brown, 183, 234.
Buccaneer Archipelago, 20.
_Buffalo_, 105, 293.
Bunker, Mr., 242.
Bunker's Hill, Battle of, 119, 124.
Burney, Charles, 92.
Burney, extract from his _Voyages_, 5.
Byron, Mr., 51, 66, 137;
discovers the Falkland Islands, 50.
Byron, his poem of "The Island," 219.
Caen, General de, 199, 201;
his treatment of Captain Flinders, 198, 202;
his report, 207.
Callao, 4, 241, 242.
Camden, Lord, 252.
Campbell, Captain, 181.
Campbell, Mr., 201.
Campeachy, Bay of, 19.
Camperdown, Battle of, 248.
Carpentaria, Gulf of, 16, 184.
Carteret, Captain, 100;
in command of the _Swallow_, 50;
his discoveries, 51.
Cascade Bay, 123.
Castle Hill, 152.
Castlereagh, Lord, 250.
_Cato_, 186, 293;
wreck of the, 188-192.
Chappell, Captain, 217.
Charles II., 37.
Charnock, his _Marine Architecture_, 23;
illustration of a sixth-rate vessel, 26;
a man-of-war, 27;
his scale of provisions, 30;
dress of sailors, 31.
Chart-making, the work of, 278.
Christian, Fletcher, 224, 225, 234, 242, 244, 250;
mystery of his death, 235;
accounts of his revolt, 236, 238.
_Cinque Ports_, 42.
Clarke Island, 170.
Clerke, Charles, 65;
his career, 66;
captain of the _Discovery_, 66;
extracts from his letters, 67-71.
Cochrane, Lord, 241.
Coker, East, 19.
Cole, Mr., 244.
Collins, Arthur, 119.
Collins, General Arthur Tooker, 119.
Collins, Lieut.-Colonel, on the result of
the first voyage to Botany Bay, 78;
the second voyage, 79;
on the settlers of New South Wales, 83;
his history of it, 118;
appointed Judge-Advocate, 119;
Governor of Van Diemen's Land, 120;
in command of the expedition to colonize Port Phillip, 289.
Colnett, Captain, 164.
Convicts, mutiny, 152.
Cook, Captain James, 221, 249;
his early years, 45;
appointed master of the _Mercury_, 45;
marine surveyor of Newfoundland, 46;
in command of the expedition to the Pacific, 46;
object of his voyage, 52;
commander of the _Endeavour_, 52, 53;
his ship's company, 53;
food supply, 54;
order on the treatment of scurvy, 54;
treatment by the Viceroy of the Brazils, 55;
at Point Hicks, 57;
Botany Bay, 57;
discovers and surveys the east coast, 58;
sails through Torres Strait, 58;
takes possession of the continent, 58;
his difficulties, 60;
extracts from his entries, 60-63;
on the number of deaths at Batavia, 64;
logs of his officers, 65;
accidental discovery of Australia, 71;
discovers Norfolk Island, 139;
Coombes, Miss, 165.
Cooper-King, Colonel C, on the punishment of marines, 122.
battle of, 249.
Cornelis, Jerome, the mutiny of, 11-15.
Coupang, 198, 231.
_Courageux_, 66, 119.
_Cumberland_, 159, 194, 196, 201, 293.
Cunningham, James, 140.
Curtis, Sir Roger, 287, 288.
Cygnet Bay, 20.
_Daily Graphic_, 247;
extract from, 248-250.
Dalrymple, 6, 52;
his jealousy of Captain Cook, 52, 56;
_Historical Collection of Voyages_, 56.
Dalrymple Port, 271.
Dampier, Captain, 8, 17, 51;
his voyages, 19;
slave "Joey," 20;
observations on the natives, 21;
in command of the _Roebuck_, 23;
account of his travels, 28;
dedication to the Hon. C. Mountague, 28;
his pay, 29;
ill-disciplined crew, 34;
scientific results of the voyage, 35;
on Tasman's draught of the coast, 36;
in Sharks' Bay, 38;
at New Guinea, 39;
foundering of his ship, 39;
summary of his work, 41;
dedication to the Earl of Pembroke, 42;
in command of a privateering expedition, 42;
sails as pilot, 43;
obscure death, 43;
his _Voyage_, 56.
Dampier's Monument, 21.
Davies, Lieutenant, 152.
Davies, John, 24;
his work on navigation, 35.
Dawes, 118, 279;
De Quiros discovers various islands, 4.
Denmark, Matilda, Queen of, 119.
Derwent, settlement at, 289;
Dewar, Mr. W., 70.
Dirk Hartog's Road, 38.
_Discovery_, 66, 68.
Dixon, Mr., 153.
_Dolphin_, 50, 51, 66, 137.
Duncan, Admiral, 248.
Dunton, John, _A New Discovery of Terra Incognita Australis, or the
Southern World, by James Sadeur, a Frenchman_, 37.
Dusky Bay, 179.
Dutch, their voyages to Australia, 6;
East India Company, establishment of the, 7.
Duyphen Point, 8.
_Duyphen_, its voyages to New Guinea, 7.
_Eagle_, 45, 93.
East Indies, 71.
Edwards, Captain, 229, 245;
his treatment of the mutineers of the _Bounty_, 230-232.
Ellis, Mr. W., 70.
Encounter Bay, 184.
_Endeavour_, 48, 52, 179;
sketch of the vessel, 53;
its condition, 60;
goes ashore on the Barrier Reef, 60.
Endeavour River, 63.
England, state of the navy, 22.
Etheridge, Mr., 166.
_Europe_, 76, 137.
Evelyn, John, extract from, on Captain Dampier, 18.
Everard, Cape, 57.
Everett, Captain Michael, 75.
Exmouth Gulf, 16.
Falkland Islands, discovery of, 50.
Fish, Rev. Lancelot J., 90.
Fitzmaurice, Lieutenant, 181.
Flattery, Cape, 63.
Flinders, Matthew, 59, 105, 279, 284, 286;
his work of surveying, 167;
early career, 168;
joins the _Reliance_, 169;
discoveries, 170, 176, 177, 178, 184;
in command of the _Norfolk_, 177;
return to England, 178, 182;
on the circumnavigation of Van Diemen's Land, 182;
in command of the _Investigator_, 182;
charts of the coast, 184;
on board the _Porpoise_, 186;
reaches Sydney, 192;
at Wreck Reef, 196;
his description of the _Cumberland_, 197;
letter to Governor King on being taken prisoner, 198-201;
tyranny of General de Caen, 202;
letters to Sir J. Banks, 204-206, 212, 213;
to General de Caen, 208, 209;
obtains his freedom, 215;
arrives in England, 216;
_Account of a Voyage to Terra Australia_, 216;
his daughter, 217.
Flinders, Samuel, 169, 183.
Flinders, Mrs., 210.
Folger, Matthew, 233.
Foveaux, Lieutenant-Colonel, 268.
Fowler, Lieutenant, 186, 189.
_Francis_, 176, 194, 196, 197, 293.
Franklin, John, 183.
Frazer, Harriet, 119.
Freycinet, De, 8.
Frobisher, extract from, on Australia, 3.
Fryer, John, 223, 224, 225, 243.
Funnel, in command of the _Cinque Ports_, 43.
Furneaux, Captain, 173, 174.
Furneaux group, 177.
Garden Island, 294.
Gascoyne division, 38.
George, St., 42.
George, III., anniversary of his birthday, 283.
_Geographe_, 160, 200, 286.
Gilbert, Captain, his duel with Lieutenant MacArthur, 125.
_Glatton_, H.M.S., 163, 244, _note_, 249.
Good Hope, Cape of, 68, 71, 95, 102, 105, 216.
Grant, Lieutenant James, 280;
in command of the _Lady Nelson_, 281;
his _Narrative of a Voyage of Discovery_, 281;
survey of the coast, 282.
Green, 53, 65.
Green Cape, 177.
Gregory, Rev. William, 133.
Grey, Sir George, 291.
Grimes, Surveyor, 286.
Grose, Francis, 124.
Grose, Major, 102;
his method of governing New South Wales, 103;
offers to form a corps, 123;
manner of raising, 126;
his career, 124;
grants of land to officers, 130;
in temporary command, 143;
cause of offence against Governor King, 145.
_Guardian_, wreck of the, 142.
_Gulde Zeepard_, 10.
Guns, table of, 25.
Hacking, Quartermaster, 279.
Hackney Churchyard, 113.
Hadley, his quadrant, 35;
Hamelin, Captain, of the _Naturaliste_, 8.
Hamilton, Mr., 176.
Harrison, his chronometer, 50.
Hartog, Dirk, in command of the _Endragt_, 8.
Hawke, Lord, 52.
Hawkesbury, River, 94, 254.
Hawkesworth, Dr., 45, 58, 60, 81.
Hayes, Sir Henry Browne, 164.
Helena, St., 64, 101.
Henriques, Don, 236.
Henry VIII., 22.
Herbert, Captain, 75.
Heywood, 219, 229, 238, 242, 250;
imprisoned on the _Pandora_, 230;
Hicks, Lieutenant, 64, 65.
Hicks, Point, 57.
Hobart, Lord, 160, 290;
recalls Captain King, 162.
Hobart, 271, 290.
Hodmadods, (Hottentots) of Monomatapa, 21.
Hogan, Mr., 290.
Hollandia Nova, 16.
Holt, memoirs of, 118, 156.
_Hope, The_ 192.
Horn, Cape, 71, 101.
Houtman's Abrolhos, 10.
Howe, Cape, 171.
Howe, Lord, 76, 93, 94, 102, 119, 169, 249.
Hunter, John, 279, 296;
early years, 91;
at school, 92;
various appointments, 93;
in command of the _Sirius_, 93;
his charts and land maps, 94;
sent to obtain supplies, 95;
account of his voyage home, 99-101;
appointed governor of New South Wales, 102;
interest in exploration, 105;
quarrel with Captain MacArthur, 108;
charges against him, 109;
letters from the Duke of Portland, 109, 110;
recalled, 111, 149;
in command of the _Venerable_, 113;
on the explorations of Bass and Flinders, 172-176.
Hunter, William, 92.
Hunter River, 284.
_Investigator_, 182, 284, 293;
its condition, 185.
Isle of France, 199, 209.
Jackson, Sir George, 59.
James II., 22.
James' _Naval History_, 23, 24.
Jamison, Thomas, 140.
Jarvis' Bay, 173.
"Jeoey, Painted Prince," 20.
Johnston, Major, 127, 256, 264;
his report of the convict mutiny, 152-154;
demands release of MacArthur, 265;
assumes the government, 267;
court-martial on, 270, 275;
cashiered, 270, 276;
Jorgenson, the "King of Iceland," 290.
Juan Fernandez, 43, 236.
Kemp, Captain, 262.
Kent, Captain, 105, 185.
Keppel, Admiral, 124.
Kimberley, West, 20.
King, Philip Gidley, 111, 136, 280, 286;
governor of Norfolk Island, 122, 140;
extract from his journal on establishing martial law, 123;
statement of his services, 137;
voyage to England, 141;
recognition of his services, 143;
marriage, 143, 165;
return to Norfolk Island, 143;
accompanies the Maoris to New Zealand, 144;
gives offence to Major Grose, 145;
suppression of a mutiny, 146-148;
governor of New South Wales, 149;
administration, 149, 296;
on the corps, 150;
his indulgences to political prisoners, 151;
revolt of convicts, 152-154;
on M. Baudin's visit, 158-160;
the treatment of the officers, 161;
defence of his conduct, 163;
famous prisoners, 164;
his son, 165;
on the work of Flinders, 185;
assistance to him, 194;
opinion of Grant, 283;
on his stolen despatches, 285;
sends an expedition to colonize Derwent, 289;
his report on the navy, 293.
King, Phillip Parker, 165;
his voyages round the Australian coast, 290.
King, Mr., 71.
_King George_, 294.
King's Island, 159.
King's Sound, 21.
Klencke, of Amsterdam, 37.
Knowles, Sir Charles, 93.
Labillardiere, his _Voyage in Search of La Perouse_, 243.
_Lady Nelson_, 183, 184, 280, 281, 283, 284, 285, 289, 293;
destroyed by Maoris, 290.
_Lady Shore_, mutiny on board, 132.
_Lancaster_, H.M.S., 288.
Lang, Dr., his _History of New South Wales_, 107, 154, 250, 254, 273.
Larcom, Thomas, 288.
Lawrence, St., 46.
Lawson, William, 291.
Laycock, Quartermaster, 152, 153.
Leeuwin, Cape, 10, 184.
Linois, Admiral, 200.
Lipari Islands, 241.
Longnose Bay, 173.
Lord Howe Island, 140.
Louisiade Archipelago, 4.
Lumsdine, Captain, 287.
MacArthur, Captain John, 107, 150;
quarrel with Captain Hunter, 108;
his duels with Captain Gilbert, 125;
with Lieut.-Colonel Paterson, 151;
successful wool-growing, 157;
dispute with Captain Bligh, 256;
seizure of his stills, 258;
proceedings against him, 259;
objects to be tried by Judge-Advocate Atkins, 262;
lodged in gaol, 263;
his return in 1817, 270.
Macassar, Strait of, 100.
Macquarie, Governor, his administration of New South Wales, 269, 296.
Magellan Straits, 51.
Major, R.H., _Early Voyages to Australia_, 2, 6, 11-15, 37.
Manly, Captain, 287.
Marines, expedition to New South Wales, 114;
petition for liquor, 115;
officers, 116, 118;
severity of the punishments, 122;
granted discharges, 127;
privileges of re-enlistment, 127.
_Marquis de Seignelay_, 93.
Marshall, Captain, 80.
Marshall, Mr., 119.
Matavai Bay, 223, 229.
Matra, Jean Maria, 74.
Mauritius, 142, 198.
Maxwell, Lieutenant George William, 100.
McBride, Admiral, 119.
McBride, Dr., his method of treating scurvy, 54.
McCoy, 234, 235.
McFarland, Judge, his book on _The Mutiny of the "Bounty,"_ 219.
Mercator, Gerald, his chart, 35.
Middleton, Sir Charles, 211.
Mindanao, 20, 101.
Missionaries, on the condition of New South Wales, 105.
Molineux, Robert, 65.
Monistrol, Colonel, 203, 207.
Monson, Sir William, _Naval Tracts_, 25.
Monte Video, 133.
Moore, Thomas, letter from, 182.
Morley, Roger, 140.
Morrison, 232, 233.
Mosse Island, 134.
Motham, J., 288.
Moulter, James, 231.
Mountague, Hon. Charles, 28.
Mulgrave, Lord, 119.
Murray, Lieutenant, 285, 286;
certificate of his services, 287.
Murray, Rear-Admiral, 240.
Murray, Rev. T.B., extract from, on Mr. Nobbs, 240-242.
_Naturaliste_, 8, 160, 200, 286.
_Nautical Almanac_, first number of the, 50.
_Naval Chronicle_, 92, 94.
_Navigation aux Terres Australes, Histoire des_, 57.
Navy, condition of the, in 1688, 22;
in 1769, 48; in 1804, 293; in 1898, 294;
scale of provisions, 30;
dress of sailors, 31;
life on board ship, 32;
improvement in the class of seamen, 48;
food and accommodation, 49;
changes in the uniform of officers, 55.
Nelson, Lord, 46, 142, 244, 249.
Nelson, the botanist, 224, 228.
Nepean, Captain, 145.
Nepean, Evan, 125.
Nepean, Nicholas, 124.
Nepean River, 125, 254.
_Neptune_, 80, 125.
New Britain, 39, 100.
New Caledonia, 100.
New Guinea, 4, 7, 9, 39, 51, 58, 63.
New Hebrides, or Tierra Australis del Espiritu Santo, 4.
New Holland, 16, 20, 50, 59, 71, 95.
New Ireland, 51, 100.
New South Wales, 58;
scheme for colonizing, 74;
opinions on the country, 82;
agricultural returns, 83;
convict population, 84;
administration of Captain Phillip, 85;
Captain Hunter, 102;
the military, 102;
state of disorder, 103;
the corps, 103;
the marines, 114;
officers, 116, 118;
formation of the corps, 123;
manner of raising, 126;
maximum strength, 127;
marines granted discharges, 127;
privileges of re-enlistment, 127;
emancipated convicts, 128;
the first cargo of rum, 131;
character of the corps, 131;
breaches of discipline, 132;
number of companies, 134;
the veteran, 134;
abolished, 135, 269;
revolt of convicts, 152;
the first newspaper, 157;
administration of Capt. King, 136;
discovery of coalfields, 172;
Captain Bligh, 218;
under martial law, 267;
condition of the colony, 271;
Governor Macquarie, 269.
_New South Wales Records_, 67.
New Zealand, 7, 57, 71, 143.
town of, founded, 157.
Nicobar Islands, 20.
Nobbs, Rev. George H., his history, 240-242.
_Norfolk_, 177, 178, 183.
Norfolk Island, 96, 99, 128, 235;
establishment of martial law, 122;
discovery of, 139;
Norton, Sir Fletcher, 67.
Nutting, Mary, letter from, on Captain Bligh, 248-250.
Nuyts Archipelago, 10.
Nuyts, Peter, 10.
Oakes, Francis, 260.
Oxford, Earl of, 29.
Palliser, Sir Hugh, 46.
Palmerston, Lord, 86.
_Pandora_ frigate, 229;
Pandora's Reef, 231.
Paris, Peace of, 93.
Parker, Admiral, 249.
Parramatta, 83, 128, 152.
Pascoe, Lieutenant, 47.
Paterson, Lieut.-Colonel, 103, 104, 125, 268, 280;
his duel with Captain MacArthur, 151.
Peckover, William, 224.
Pellew, Sir Edward, 213, 214.
Pelsart, Francis, in command of the _Batavia_, 10.
Pembroke, Earl of, 42.
Pepy's Diary, 18, 22, 31, 32.
Perouse, La, 8, 66, 139, 243.
Petit, Mr., 161.
Petril, Mrs. Annie, 217.
Philip III. of Spain, 6.
Philippines, The, 20.
Phillip, Captain Arthur, 139, 166, 270, 279;
his early career, 75;
in command of the first fleet to New South Wales, 76;
number of vessels, 77;
his good management, 79;
Governor-in-Chief and Captain-General, 80;
on the unsuitability of Botany Bay, 80;
explores the coast, 81;
founds Sydney, 81;
administration, 84, 296;
promotions and death, 89.
Commander of the _Lion_, 65.
Pindar, Peter, 74.
Pitcairn Island, 51, 233;
character of its population, 234.
Pitcairne, Major, 119.
Pitt, William, 164.
Plymouth, 125, 221.
_Porpoise_, 159, 186, 197, 285, 287, 293;
wreck of the, 187-192.
Port Bowen, 187.
Port King, 286.
Port Jackson, 59, 81, 94, 142.
Port Louis, 142, 198, 201.
Port Phillip, 157, 160, 184;
discovery of, 285;
attempt to colonize, 271, 289.
Port Royal, 52.
Port Stephens, 59.
Portland, Duke of, 107, 148, 150, 172;
extract of his letters to Captain Hunter, 109-111.
Possession Island, 58.
Preservation Island, 170, 177.
_Providence_, 100, 169, 229, 249.
Providential Channel, 63.
Purchas, extract from, on Australia, 3.
Putland, Mrs., 266.
siege of, 46.
_Queen Charlotte_, 102.
Quintall, 234, 235.
_Rattlesnake_, H.M.S., 288, 291.
_Reliance_, 168, 169, 178.
_Resolution_, 65, 66, 221, 230, 249.
_Resource_, 197, 293.
Restoration Island, 227.
Rio de Janeiro, 132.
Riou, Captain, 142.
Robinson, Commander C.N., _The British Fleet_, 28, 31.
Rodney, Sir George, 93.
Rodriguez, Island of, 233
_Roebuck_, H.M.S., 23, 240;
a sixth-rate vessel, 24;
scale of provisions, 30;
dress of the sailors, 31;
Roebuck Bay, 39.
Rogers, Woodes, 43.
_Rolla_, 194, 196, 197.
Rosemary Isles, 39, 213.
Ross, Major, 96;
on the attempt to colonize New South Wales, 82;
commandant and lieutenant-governor, 116;
return to England, 117;
establishes martial law at Norfolk Island, 122;
in temporary command, 143.
Ross Point, 97.
_Royal George_, 92.
_Royal Prince_, 19.
Russell, Mr. Clark, his sketch of Dampier, 40.
Sadeur, James, 37.
Sailors, dress of, 31;
life on board ship, 32;
compared with the modern, 32, 33;
improvement in the class, 48;
food and accommodation, 49.
Sandwich Islands, 51.
Sandwich, Lord, 67, 68.
Sandy Hook, 93.
Santham, Mr. G., 70.
_Sardam_, the frigate, 14.
Saunders, Sir Charles, 93.
Schanck, Cape, 281;
Schanck, Captain, 280.
Scilly Isles, 247.
Scott, Captain, 287.
Selkirk, Alexander, 43.
Semple, Major, 132.
Shark's Bay, 8, 36, 38.
Sierra Leone, 241.
Simon's Bay, 223, 288.
_Sirius_, 77, 82, 93, 137, 140, 143;
wreck of the, 96-98.
his work at Pitcairn, 234.
Smollett, _Roderick Random_, 31.
Solander, Dr., 53, 70.
South Sea Islands, 179.
Southwell, extracts from his letters, 95, 96-98.
Spanish, voyages to Australia, 4.
Spencer, Lord, 211.
Spithead, 76, 222, 232.
Spragge, Captain Sir Edward, 19.
Stephens, Mr. Philip, 59.
imprisoned on the _Pandora_, 230;
Stingray Bay, 57.
_Stirling Castle_, 75.
Storm Bay Passage, 159.
Sunda, Strait of, 242.
_Supply_, 77, 96, 140, 141, 143.
Sutherland, Forby, 57.
_Swallow_, 50, 51, 100, 137.
Swan, Captain, 19.
Swan Point, 21.
harbour, 81, 184.
_Sydney Cove_, wreck of the, 170, 176.
_Sydney Gazette_, the first paper, 157.
Sydney, Lord, 76.
Table Bay, 101.
Tahiti, 50, 52, 105, 169, 222, 223, 229, 234.
_Tamar_, 50, 291.
Tasman, Commander Abel Janszoon, his voyages and discoveries, 7, 15, 37;
death at Batavia, 16;
draught of the coast of Australia, 36.
capital of, 290.
Tench, Captain, 137, 279;
his history of New South Wales, 82, 118, 138.
Teneriffe, 78, 223.
Therenot, extract from his _Recueil de Voyages Curieux_, 11-15.
Therry, Judge, his reminiscences of New South Wales, 154;
on the revolt against Captain Bligh, 273, 274.
Timor, 20, 39, 198, 226, 228, 249.
Tofoa, 224, 226, 228.
_Tom Thumb_, 170.
Torres, Luis Vaez de, his explorations, 4.
Torres Straits, 6, 8, 16, 58, 184, 227.
Trafalgar, battle of, 214.
Transportation, commission of enquiry, 73.
Tribulation, Cape, 61.
_True Briton, The_, extract from, 236.
Valparaiso, 181, 241, 242.
Van Diemen, Antonio, Governor-General of Batavia, 7.
Van Diemen's Land, 7, 95, 120, 177, 182, 223;
settlement at, 157.
expedition under, 143.
Vessel, a sixth-rate, 26.
Victoria, 57, 171.
_Victoria_, sailors of the, 33.
launched in 1765, 48.
_Waaksamheyd_, 99, 101.
_Wager_, loss of the, 33;
Wallis, 51, 65;
in command of the _Dolphin_, 50.
Waterhouse, Captain, 179.
Wattamolla Harbour, 171.
Wentworth, William Charles, 291.
West, Dr., extract from, on Governor Bligh, 274.
White, on the colony of New South Wales, 83.
William III., 23, 29.
Wilson's Promontory, 282, 283.
Windmill Hills, 283.
Wreck Island, 194, 197.
Wright, Edward, 35.
York, Cape, 5, 8, 58.
York, Duke of, 22.
Young, Admiral Sir George, 74.
Young, 234, 235.
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