The Peace Negotiations
Part 5 out of 5
The Secretary General shall act in that capacity at all meetings of the
Assembly and of the Council.
The expenses of the Secretariat shall be borne by the Members of the
League in accordance with the apportionment of the expenses of the
International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union.
The Seat of the League is established at Geneva.
The Council may at any time decide that the Seat of the League shall be
All positions under or in connection with the League, including the
Secretariat, shall be open equally to men and women.
Representatives of the Members of the League and officials of the League
when engaged on the business of the League shall enjoy diplomatic
privileges and immunities.
The buildings and other property occupied by the League or its officials
or by Representatives attending its meetings shall be inviolable.
The Members of the League recognize that the maintenance of peace
requires the reduction of national armaments to the lowest point
consistent with national safety and the enforcement by common action of
The Council, taking account of the geographical situation and
circumstances of each State, shall formulate plans for such reduction
for the consideration and action of the several Governments.
Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration and revision at least
every ten years.
After these plans shall have been adopted by the several Governments,
the limits of armaments therein fixed shall not be exceeded without the
concurrence of the Council.
The Members of the League agree that the manufacture by private
enterprise of munitions and implements of war is open to grave
objections. The Council shall advise how the evil effects attendant upon
such manufacture can be prevented, due regard being had to the
necessities of those Members of the League which are not able to
manufacture the munitions and implements of war necessary for
The Members of the League undertake to interchange full and frank
information as to the scale of their armaments, their military, naval
and air programmes and the condition of such of their industries as are
adaptable to warlike purposes.
A permanent Commission shall be constituted to advise the Council on the
execution of the provisions of Articles 1 and 8 and on military, naval
and air questions generally.
The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against
external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political
independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such
aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the
Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be
Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any of the
Members of the League or not, is hereby declared a matter of concern to
the whole League, and the League shall take any action that may be
deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of nations. In case any
such emergency should arise the Secretary General shall on the request
of any Member of the League forthwith summon a meeting of the Council.
It is also declared to be the friendly right of each Member of the
League to bring to the attention of the Assembly or of the Council any
circumstance whatever affecting international relations which threatens
to disturb international peace or the good understanding between nations
upon which peace depends.
The Members of the League agree that if there should arise between them
any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, they will submit the matter
either to arbitration or to inquiry by the Council, and they agree in no
case to resort to war until three months after the award by the
arbitrators or the report by the Council.
In any case under this Article the award of the arbitrators shall be
made within a reasonable time, and the report of the Council shall be
made within six months after the submission of the dispute.
The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute shall arise
between them which they recognize to be suitable for submission to
arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily settled by diplomacy,
they will submit the whole subject-matter to arbitration.
Disputes as to the interpretation of a treaty, as to any question of
international law, as to the existence of any fact which if established
would constitute a breach of any international obligation, or as to the
extent and nature of the reparation to be made for any such breach, are
declared to be among those which are generally suitable for submission
For the consideration of any such dispute the court of arbitration to
which the case is referred shall be the Court agreed on by the parties
to the dispute or stipulated in any convention existing between them.
The Members of the League agree that they will carry out in full good
faith any award that may be rendered, and that they will not resort to
war against a Member of the League which complies therewith. In the
event of any failure to carry out such an award, the Council shall
propose what steps should be taken to give effect thereto.
The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of the League for
adoption plans for the establishment of a Permanent Court of
International Justice. The Court shall be competent to hear and
determine any dispute of an international character which the parties
thereto submit to it. The Court may also give an advisory opinion upon
any dispute or question referred to it by the Council or by
If there should arise between Members of the League any dispute likely
to lead to a rupture, which is not submitted to arbitration in
accordance with Article 13, the Members of the League agree that they
will submit the matter to the Council. Any party to the dispute may
effect such submission by giving notice of the existence of the dispute
to the Secretary General, who will make all necessary arrangements for a
full investigation and consideration thereof.
For this purpose the parties to the dispute will communicate to the
Secretary General, as promptly as possible, statements of their case
with all the relevant facts and papers, and the Council may forthwith
direct the publication thereof.
The Council shall endeavour to effect a settlement of the dispute, and
if such efforts are successful, a statement shall be made public giving
such facts and explanations regarding the dispute and the terms of
settlement thereof as the Council may deem appropriate.
If the dispute is not thus settled, the Council either unanimously or by
a majority vote shall make and publish a report containing a statement
of the facts of the dispute and the recommendations which are deemed
just and proper in regard thereto.
Any Member of the League represented on the Council may make public a
statement of the facts of the dispute and of its conclusions
regarding the same.
If a report by the Council is unanimously agreed to by the members
thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the parties to
the dispute, the Members of the League agree that they will not go to
war with any party to the dispute which complies with the
recommendations of the report.
If the Council fails to reach a report which is unanimously agreed to by
the members thereof, other than the Representatives of one or more of
the parties to the dispute, the Members of the League reserve to
themselves the right to take such action as they shall consider
necessary for the maintenance of right and justice.
If the dispute between the parties is claimed by one of them, and is
found by the Council, to arise out of a matter which by international
law is solely within the domestic jurisdiction of that party, the
Council shall so report, and shall make no recommendation as to its
The Council may in any case under this Article refer the dispute to the
Assembly. The dispute shall be so referred at the request of either
party to the dispute, provided that such request be made within fourteen
days after the submission of the dispute to the Council.
In any case referred to the Assembly, all the provisions of this Article
and of Article 12 relating to the action and powers of the Council shall
apply to the action and powers of the Assembly, provided that a report
made by the Assembly, if concurred in by the Representatives of those
Members of the League represented on the Council and of a majority of
the other Members of the League, exclusive in each case of the
Representatives of the parties to the dispute, shall have the same force
as a report by the Council concurred in by all the members thereof other
than the Representatives of one or more of the parties to the dispute.
Should any Member of the League resort to war in disregard of its
covenants under Articles 12, 13 or 15, it shall _ipso facto_ be deemed
to have committed an act of war against all other Members of the League,
which hereby undertake immediately to subject it to the severance of all
trade or financial relations, the prohibition of all intercourse between
their nationals and the nationals of the covenant-breaking State, and
the prevention of all financial, commercial or personal intercourse
between the nationals of the covenant-breaking State and the nationals
of any other State, whether a Member of the League or not.
It shall be the duty of the Council in such case to recommend to the
several Governments concerned what effective military, naval or air
force the Members of the League shall severally contribute to the armed
forces to be used to protect the covenants of the League.
The Members of the League agree, further, that they will mutually
support one another in the financial and economic measures which are
taken under this Article, in order to minimise the loss and
inconvenience resulting from the above measures, and that they will
mutually support one another in resisting any special measures aimed at
one of their number by the covenant-breaking State, and that they will
take the necessary steps to afford passage through their territory to
the forces of any of the Members of the League which are cooperating to
protect the covenants of the League.
Any Member of the League which has violated any covenant of the League
may be declared to be no longer a Member of the League by a vote of the
Council concurred in by the Representatives of all the other Members of
the League represented thereon.
In the event of a dispute between a Member of the League and a State
which is not a Member of the League, or between States not Members of
the League, the State or States not Members of the League shall be
invited to accept the obligations of membership in the League for the
purposes of such dispute, upon such conditions as the Council may deem
just. If such invitation is accepted, the provisions of Articles 12 to
16 inclusive shall be applied with such modifications as may be deemed
necessary by the Council.
Upon such invitation being given the Council shall immediately institute
an inquiry into the circumstances of the dispute and recommend such
action as may seem best and most effectual in the circumstances.
If a State so invited shall refuse to accept the obligations of
membership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, and shall
resort to war against a Member of the League, the provisions of Article
16 shall be applicable as against the State taking such action.
If both parties to the dispute when so invited refuse to accept the
obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of such
dispute, the Council may take such measures and make such
recommendations as will prevent hostilities and will result in the
settlement of the dispute.
Every treaty or international engagement entered into hereafter by any
Member of the League shall be forthwith registered with the Secretariat
and shall as soon as possible be published by it. No such treaty or
international engagement shall be binding until so registered.
The Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsideration by Members
of the League of treaties which have become inapplicable and the
consideration of international conditions whose continuance might
endanger the peace of the world.
The Members of the League severally agree that this Covenant is accepted
as abrogating all obligations or understandings _inter se_ which are
inconsistent with the terms thereof, and solemnly undertake that they
will not hereafter enter into any engagements inconsistent with the
In case any Member of the League shall, before becoming a Member of the
League, have undertaken any obligations inconsistent with the terms of
this Covenant, it shall be the duty of such Member to take immediate
steps to procure its release from such obligations.
Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of
international engagements, such as treaties of arbitration or regional
understandings like the Monroe Doctrine, for securing the maintenance
To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late war
have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which formerly
governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand
by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world, there
should be applied the principle that the well-being and development of
such peoples form a sacred trust of civilisation and that securities for
the performance of this trust should be embodied in this Covenant.
The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that the
tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations who by
reason of their resources, their experience or their geographical
position can best undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to
accept it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as
Mandatories on behalf of the League.
The character of the mandate must differ according to the stage of the
development of the people, the geographical situation of the territory,
its economic conditions and other similar circumstances.
Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have
reached a stage of development where their existence as independent
nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the rendering of
administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as
they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a
principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.
Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such a stage
that the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the
territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience
and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and
morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms
traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the establishment
of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military training
of the natives for other than police purposes and the defense of
territory, and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade and
commerce of other Members of the League.
There are territories, such as South-West Africa and certain of the
South Pacific Islands, which, owing to the sparseness of their
population, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of
civilisation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the
Mandatory, and other circumstances, can be best administered under the
laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to
the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous
In every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render to the Council an
annual report in reference to the territory committed to its charge.
The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised by
the Mandatory shall, if not previously agreed upon by the Members of the
League, be explicitly defined in each case by the Council.
A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and examine the
annual reports of the Mandatories and to advise the Council on all
matters relating to the observance of the mandates.
Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international
conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the Members of
_(a)_ will endeavour to secure and maintain fair and humane conditions
of labour for men, women, and children, both in their own countries and
in all countries to which their commercial and industrial relations
extend, and for that purpose will establish and maintain the necessary
_(b)_ undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants of
territories under their control;
_(c)_ will entrust the League with the general supervision over the
execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in women and
children, and the traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs;
_(d)_ will entrust the League with the general supervision of the trade
in arms and ammunition with the countries in which the control of this
traffic is necessary in the common interest;
_(e)_ will make provision to secure and maintain freedom of
communications and of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce
of all Members of the League. In this connection, the special
necessities of the regions devastated during the war of 1914-1918 shall
be borne in mind;
_(f)_ will endeavour to take steps in matters of international concern
for the prevention and control of disease.
There shall be placed under the direction of the League all
international bureaux already established by general treaties if the
parties to such treaties consent. All such international bureaux and all
commissions for the regulation of matters of international interest
hereafter constituted shall be placed under the direction of the League.
In all matters of international interest which are regulated by general
conventions but which are not placed under the control of international
bureaux or commissions, the Secretariat of the League shall, subject to
the consent of the Council and if desired by the parties, collect and
distribute all relevant information and shall render any other
assistance which may be necessary or desirable.
The Council may include as part of the expenses of the Secretariat the
expenses of any bureau or commission which is placed under the direction
of the League.
The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the
establishment and co-operation of duly authorised voluntary national Red
Cross organisations having as purposes the improvement of health, the
prevention of disease and the mitigation of suffering throughout
Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by the
Members of the League whose Representatives compose the Council and by a
majority of the Members of the League whose Representatives compose the
Assembly. No such amendment shall bind any Member of the League which
signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that case it shall cease to be a
Member of the League.
THE FOURTEEN POINTS
The program of the world's peace, therefore, is our program; and that
program, the only possible program, as we see it, is this:
I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall
be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy
shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial
waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in
whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of
III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the
establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations
consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be
reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.
V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all
colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in
determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the
populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims
of the government whose title is to be determined.
VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all
questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest
cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an
unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent
determination of her own political development and national policy and
assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under
institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance
also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The
treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come
will be the acid test of their good-will, of their comprehension of her
needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their
intelligent and unselfish sympathy.
VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and
restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys
in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as
this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws
which they have themselves set and determined for the government of
their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole
structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.
VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions
restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter
of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for
nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more
be made secure in the interest of all.
IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along
clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish
to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest
opportunity of autonomous development.
XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied
territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea;
and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined
by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance
and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and
economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan
states should be entered into.
XII. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be
assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now
under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and
an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the
Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships
and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.
XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include
the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which
should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose
political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be
guaranteed by international covenant.
XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific
covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political
independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
PRINCIPLES DECLARED BY PRESIDENT WILSON IN HIS ADDRESS OF FEBRUARY 11,
The principles to be applied are these:
_First_, that each part of the final settlement must be based upon the
essential justice of that particular case and upon such adjustments as
are most likely to bring a peace that will be permanent;
_Second_, that peoples and provinces are not to be bartered about from
sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were mere chattels and pawns in a
game, even the great game, now forever discredited, of the balance of
power; but that
_Third_, every territorial settlement involved in this war must be made
in the interest and for the benefit of the populations concerned, and
not as a part of any mere adjustment or compromise of claims amongst
rival states; and
_Fourth_, that all well defined national aspirations shall be accorded
the utmost satisfaction that can be accorded them without introducing
new or perpetuating old elements of discord and antagonism that would be
likely in time to break the peace of Europe and consequently of
THE ARTICLES OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES RELATING TO SHANTUNG
Germany renounces, in favour of Japan, all her rights, title and
privileges--particularly those concerning the territory of Kiaochow,
railways, mines, and submarine cables--which she acquired in virtue of
the Treaty concluded by her with China on March 6, 1898, and of all
other arrangements relative to the Province of Shantung.
All German rights in the Tsingtao-Tsinanfu Railway, including its branch
lines, together with its subsidiary property of all kinds, stations,
shops, fixed and rolling stock, mines, plant and material for the
exploitation of the mines, are and remain acquired by Japan, together
with all rights and privileges attaching thereto.
The German State submarine cables from Tsingtao to Shanghai and from
Tsingtao to Chefoo, with all the rights, privileges and properties
attaching thereto, are similarly acquired by Japan, free and clear of
all charges and encumbrances.
The movable and immovable property owned by the German State in the
territory of Kiaochow, as well as all the rights which Germany might
claim in consequence of the works or improvements made or of the
expenses incurred by her, directly or indirectly, in connection with
this territory, are and remain acquired by Japan, free and clear of all
charges and encumbrances.
Germany shall hand over to Japan within three months from the coming
into force of the present Treaty the archives, registers, plans,
title-deeds and documents of every kind, wherever they may be, relating
to the administration, whether civil, military, financial, judicial or
other, of the territory of Kiaochow.
Within the same period Germany shall give particulars to Japan of all
treaties, arrangements or agreements relating to the rights, title or
privileges referred to in the two preceding Articles.
[Footnote 1: Reprinted from Senate Doc. No. 106, 66th Congress, 1st
Session, p. 1163.]
[Footnote 2: From the address of President Wilson delivered at a Joint
Session of Congress on January 8, 1918.]
Abrogation of treaties contrary to the League, in Wilson's original
draft; in Treaty,
Affirmative guaranty of territory and independence, plan; Wilson adopts,
in Fourteen Points; Lansing's opposition; constitutional and
political arguments against; Lansing's "self-denying covenant" as
substitute; in Wilson's original draft and in Treaty; as continuing
balance of power; Wilson adheres to; not in Cecil plan; in Lansing's
resolution of principles; other substitute; as reason for rejection
of Treaty by Senate; retained in reported Covenant; and dominance of
Great Powers. _See also_ Equality of nations; League;
Alliances. _See_ French alliance.
Alsace-Lorraine, to be restored to France.
Amendment of League, provision for.
American Bar Association, Lansing's address.
American Commission, members; ignored in League negotiations; conference
of January 10; ignorant of preliminary negotiations; question of
resignation over Shantung settlement; shares in Shantung
negotiations. _See also_ Bliss; House; Lansing; White; Wilson.
American Peace Society.
American programme, lack of definite, as subject of disagreement;
Fourteen Points announced; not worked out; insufficiency of Fourteen
Points; Lansing's memorandum on territorial settlements; effect of
President's attendance at Conference; embarrassment to delegates of
lack; _projet_ of treaty prepared for Lansing; President resents it;
no system or team-work in American Commission; reason for President's
attitude; no instructions during President's absence; results of
lack; and Preliminary Treaty; influence of lack on Wilson's
leadership; text of Fourteen Points.
Annunzio, Gabriele d', at Fiume.
Arabia, disposition. _See also_ Near East.
Arbitral Tribunal, in Lansing's plan.
Arbitration, as form of peace promotion; in Lansing's plan; in Wilson's
original draft; in Cecil plan; in Treaty. _See also_ Diplomatic
adjustment; Judicial settlement.
Armenia, mandate for; protectorate. _See also_ Near East.
Armistice, American conference on.
Article X. _See_ Affirmative guaranty.
Assembly (Body of Delegates), in Wilson's original draft; analogous body
in Cecil plan; in Treaty.
Auchincloss, Gordon, and drafting of League.
Austria, Archduchy and union with Germany, outlet to sea.
Austria-Hungary, dissolution; Fourteen Points on subject people.
Azerbaidjan, Wilson and.
Baker, Ray Stannard, and Shantung.
Balance of power, Clemenceau advocates; Wilson denounces; and Cecil
plan; League and. _See also_ Affirmative guaranty; Equality of
Balfour, Arthur, signs French alliance.
Balkans, Fourteen Points on. _See also_ states by names.
Belgium, and Anglo-Franco-American alliance, full sovereignty,
Bliss, Tasker H. American delegate, opposes affirmative guaranty, and
Covenant as reported, and proposed French alliance, and Shantung,
letter to President, _See also_ American Commission; American
Body of Delegates. _See_ Assembly.
Boers, and self-determination,
Bolshevism, peace as check to spread,
Boundaries, principles in drawing,
Bowman, Isaiah, Commission of Inquiry
Brest-Litovsk Treaty, to be abrogated,
Bucharest Treaty, to be abrogated,
Buffer state on the Rhine,
Bullitt, William C., on revision of Covenant, testimony on Lansing
interview, Lansing's telegram to President on testimony, no reply
received, and Wilson's western speeches,
Canada, Papineau Rebellion and self-determination,
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,
Cecil, Lord Robert, plan for League, Wilson opposes it, text of plan,
Central Powers, Wilson and need of defeat, hope in Wilson's attitude,
peace or Bolshevism, _See also_ Mandates, and states by name.
China. _See_ Shantung.
Chinda, Viscount, and Shantung,
Civil War, and self-determination,
Clemenceau, Georges, Supreme War Council, advocates balance of power,
and Cecil plan, and Franco-American alliance, _See also_ Council of
Codification of international law, in Lansing's plan,
Colonies, disposition of, in Lansing's plan, Fourteen Points on, _See
Commerce. _See_ Non-intercourse; Open Door.
Commission of Inquiry, work,
Commission on the League of Nations, appointed, and Wilson's return to
United States, meets, Wilson's draft as groundwork, meetings and
report, Wilson's address, character of report and work, secrecy,
Constitutional objections, to affirmative guaranty, and to Cecil plan,
Council of Foreign Ministers, established, nickname,
Council of Four, self-constituted, secrecy, "Olympians," gives only
digest of Treaty to other delegates, Shantung bargain, _See also_
Council of Ten, and Lansing's substitute resolution on League, during
Wilson's absence, self-constituted organization, and Supreme War
Council, divided, and secrecy,
Council of the Heads of States. _See_ Council of Four.
Council (Executive Council) of the League, in Wilson's original draft,
analogous body in Cecil plan, in Treaty,
Covenant. _See_ League of Nations.
Dalmatia, in Pact of London,
Danzig, for Poland,
Dardanelles, Fourteen Points on,
Declaration of war, affirmative guaranty and power over,
Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, Heligoland,
Diplomacy. _See_ Secret diplomacy.
Diplomatic adjustment, as basis of Covenant, exalted, Lansing on
judicial settlement and, in Wilson's original draft, in Treaty, _See
also_ Judicial settlement.
Disarmament, not touched in Lansing's plan; in Lansing's resolution of
principles; in Wilson's original draft; in Treaty.
East Indians, and self-determination.
Economic influence on boundary lines.
Economic interdependence, importance in peace negotiations.
Economic pressure. _See_ Non-intercourse.
Egypt, and self-determination; disposition.
Election of 1918, as rebuke to Wilson.
Entangling alliances. _See_ Isolation.
Equality of nations, sacrifice in Wilson's draft of League; in Lansing's
form for League; ignored in Cecil plan; primacy of Great Powers
retained in reported Covenant; violation by Treaty; and secret
diplomacy at Conference.
Esthonia, Wilson and; autonomy.
Ethnic influence on boundary lines. _See also_ Racial minorities;
Finland, question of independence.
Fiume affair, Lansing's attitude; Pact of London in light of dissolution
of Austria-Hungary; resulting increase in Italian claims as basis for
compromise; attitude of Italy toward Jugo-Slavia; commercial
importance of Fiume to Jugo-Slavia; campaign of Italian delegates for
Fiume; Italian public sentiment; character of population,
self-determination question; efforts to get Wilson's approval; threat
to retire from Conference; Wilson's statement against Italian claim;
withdrawal of delegation; Italian resentment against Wilson; as
lesson on secret diplomacy; delegation returns; and Shantung.
Fourteen Points, announced; affirmative guaranty in; insufficient as
France, Alsace-Lorraine; restoration. _See also_ Clemenceau; French
alliance; Great Powers.
Freedom of the seas, in Fourteen Points.
French alliance, as subject of disagreement; provisions of treaty;
relation to League; and removal of certain French demands from Treaty
of Peace; and French adherence to League; Lansing's opposition;
drafted, signed; Lansing and signing; arguments for.
Geographic influence on boundary lines.
Georgia, Wilson and.
Germany, buffer state on the Rhine; and Russian route to the East;
Lansing's memorandum on territorial settlements; military impotence.
_See also_ Central Powers; French alliance; Mandates.
Ginn Peace Foundation.
Great Britain, and clause on self-determination; Egypt. _See also_
French alliance; Great Powers; Lloyd George.
Great Powers, and mandates. _See also_ Balance of power; Council of
Four; Equality of nations.
Gregory, Thomas W., and Wilson's _modus vivendi_ idea.
Guaranty. _See_ Affirmative; Self-denying.
Hague Conventions, and international peace.
Hague Tribunal, and Lansing's plan; Wilson's contempt; recognition in
Hands Off, as basis of Lansing's plan.
Health, promotion in Treaty.
Heligoland, dismantlement, disposition.
Historic influence on boundary lines.
Hostilities. _See_ Prevention of war.
House, Edward M., joins Supreme War Council; conference on armistice
terms; selection as peace negotiator and President as delegate,
Commission of Inquiry, and drafting of League, and international
court, and "self-denying covenant," and balance of power, of
Commission on the League of Nations, and mandates, and data, ignorant
of Wilson's programme, and Preliminary Treaty with detailed Covenant,
and private consultations, _See also_ American Commission.
Hungary, separation from Austria.
Immoral traffic, prevention in Treaty,
Immunities of League representatives,
Indemnities, and mandates,
India, German routes to,
International commissions, in Cecil plan, in Treaty,
International court. _See_ Judicial settlement.
International enforcement. _See_ Affirmative guaranty.
International military force, in Wilson's original draft, in Treaty,
International military staff, proposal,
Interparliamentary Congress, in Cecil plan,
Inviolability of League property,
Irish, and self-determination,
Isolation, policy, and affirmative guaranty, and mandates, and French
Italy, and Cecil plan, territory, _See also_ Fiume; Great Powers.
Japan, and Cecil plan, in Council of Ten, _See also_ Great Powers;
Judicial settlement of international disputes, Lansing's plan,
subordinated in Wilson's draft, Lansing on diplomatic adjustment and,
Lansing urges as nucleus of League, in Lansing's resolution of
principles, Lansing's appeal for, in Covenant, arbitrators of
litigant nations, difficulties in procedure, cost, elimination from
Covenant of appeal from arbitral awards, how effected, Lansing's
appeal ignored, in Cecil plan, _See also_ Arbitration; Diplomatic
Jugo-Slavia, and Anglo-Franco-American alliance, port, erected, _See
Kato, Baron, and Shantung,
Kiao-Chau. _See_ Shantung.
Kiel Canal, internationalization,
Koo, V.K. Wellington, argument on Shantung,
Labor article, in Wilson's original draft, in Treaty,
Lansing, Robert, resignation asked and given, divergence of judgment
from President, reasons for retaining office, reasons for narrative,
imputation of faithlessness, personal narrative, subjects of
disagreement, attitude toward duty as negotiator, policy as to advice
to President, President's attitude towards opinions, method of
treatment of subject, conference on armistice terms, selected as a
negotiator, opposition to President being a delegate, President's
attitude toward this opposition, and Commission of Inquiry, arrival
in Paris, and balance of power, and paramount need of speedy peace,
opposition to mandates, opposition to French alliance treaty, signs
it, personal relations with President, memorandum on American
programme (1918), has _projet_ of treaty prepared, Wilson resents it,
on lack of organization in American Commission, and lack of
programme, and American Commission during President's absence, on
Wilson's _modus vivendi_ idea, opposition to secret diplomacy, effect
on Wilson, and Fiume, and Shantung, Bullitt affair, views on Treaty
when presented to Germans, and ratification of Treaty _See also_
American Commission; League; Wilson.
Latvia Wilson and autonomy
League of Nations principles as subject of disagreement as object of
peace negotiations as reason for President's participation in
Conference Wilson's belief in necessity American support of idea,
earlier plans and associations divergence of opinion on form
political and juridical forms of organization Wilson's belief in
international force and affirmative guaranty affirmative guaranty in
Fourteen Points Phillimore's report preparation of Wilson's original
draft, House as author Lansing not consulted, reason Lansing's
opposition to affirmative guaranty Lansing and non-intercourse peace
plan draft impracticable and equality of nations Lansing's
"self-denying covenant" Lansing accepts guaranty as matter of
expediency diplomatic adjustment as basis of Wilson's draft guaranty
in first draft, later draft, and Treaty Lansing's substitute, his
communications not acknowledged, incorporation of detailed Covenant
in Treaty irreconcilable differences between Wilson's and Lansing's
plans Lansing on diplomatic adjustment versus judicial settlement
Lansing urges international court as nucleus three doctrines of
Lansing's plan Lansing's first view of Wilson's draft his opinion of
its form of its principles Wilson considers affirmative guaranty
essential, effect on Treaty American Commission ignored on matters
concerning Cecil plan Wilson's opposition to it question of
self-determination Lansing's proposed resolution of principles in
Treaty and later detailing detailed Covenant or speedy peace Wilson
utilizes desire for peace to force acceptance of League Lansing
proposes resolution to Wilson and to Council of Ten drafted
resolution of principles Commission on the League of Nations
appointed, American members resolution and Wilson's return to United
States Wilson's draft before Commission Wilson pigeonholes resolution
revision of Wilson's draft Lansing's appeal for international court
it is ignored elimination of appeal from arbitral awards, how
effected report of Commission, Wilson's address character of report
and work of Commission, main principles unaltered Wilson and American
opposition (Feb.) American Commission and report amendments to
placate American opinion reaction in Europe due to American
opposition change in character and addition of functions to preserve
it summary of Lansing's objections and French alliance in a
preliminary treaty as a _modus vivendi_ as subject of Wilson's
private consultations secrecy in negotiations and Shantung bargain
Bullitt's report of Lansing's attitude and carrying out of the Treaty
as merely a name for the Quintuple Alliance text of Wilson's original
draft of Cecil plan in Treaty _See also_ Mandates.
League to Enforce Peace Wilson's address
Lithuania Wilson and autonomy
Lloyd George, David, Supreme War Council, 14 and French alliance _See
also_ Council of Four.
Log-rolling at Conference
London, Pact of
Makino, Baron and Shantung
Mandates, in Smuts plan, Wilson adopts it Lansing's criticism retained
in reported Covenant political difficulties Wilson's attitude legal
difficulties usefulness questioned as means of justifying the League
and indemnities altruistic, to be share of United States in Wilson's
original draft in Treaty.
Meeting-place of League in Wilson's original draft in Cecil plan in
Membership in League in Wilson's original draft in Treaty withdrawal.
Mezes, Sidney E., Commission of Inquiry and data.
Miller, David Hunter and drafting of Covenant and _projet_ of a treaty.
_Modus vivendi_, Wilson and a preliminary treaty as
Monroe Doctrine and affirmative covenant preservation in Treaty
Montenegro in Jugo-Slavia Fourteen Points on
Munitions regulation of manufacture and trade in Wilson's original draft
National safety, dominance of principle
Near East United States and mandates Lansing's memorandum on territorial
settlements mandates in Wilson's original draft mandates in Treaty
Fourteen points on
Negative guaranty. _See_ Self-denying covenant.
Non-intercourse as form of peace promotion constitutionality in Wilson's
original draft in Treaty
Open Door in Lansing's plan in Near East in former German colonies
principle in Wilson's original draft and in Treaty in Fourteen Points
Outlet to the sea for each nation
Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele
Palestine autonomy _See also_ Near East.
Pan-America, proposed mutual guaranty treaty
Papineau Rebellion, and self-determination
Peace, Treaty of inclusion of detailed Covenant as subject of
disagreement expected preliminary treaty speedy restoration of peace
versus detailed Covenant Wilson employs desire for, to force
acceptance of League, resulting delay, delay, delay on League causes
definitive rather than preliminary treaty subjects for a preliminary
treaty influence of lack of American programme Wilson's decision for
a definitive treaty Lansing's views of finished treaty British
opinion protests of experts and officials of American Commission
Lansing and ratification _See also_ League.
Phillimore, Lord, report on League of Nations
Poland and Anglo-Franco-American alliance independence Danzig
Postponement of hostilities as form of peace promotion in Wilson's
original draft in Cecil plan in Treaty
President as delegate as subject of disagreement Lansing's opposition
origin of Wilson's intention influence of belligerency on plan
influence of presence on domination of situation personal reasons for
attending decision to go to Paris decision to be a delegate attitude
of House League as reason for decision
Prevention of war in Wilson's original draft in Cecil plan in Treaty
_Sec also_ Arbitration; League.
Publication of treaties in Lansing's plan in Treaty
Publicity as basis of Lansing's plan _See also_ Secret diplomacy.
Quintuple Alliance, League of Nations as name for
Racial equality issue in Shantung bargain
Racial minorities protection, in Wilson's original draft
Ratification of Treaty Lansing's attitude
Red Cross promotion in Treaty
Rhenish Republic as buffer state
Roumania Bucharest Treaty to be abrogated territory Fourteen Points on
Russia Wilson's policy and route for Germany to the East Lansing's notes
on territorial settlement Fourteen Points on
Ruthenians and Ukraine
Scott, James Brown drafts French alliance treaty and _projet_ of a
Secret diplomacy as subject of disagreement in negotiation of League as
evil at Conference Lansing's opposition, its effect on Wilson
Wilson's consultations and Wilson's "open diplomacy" in Council of
Four public resentment Fiume affair as lesson on perfunctory open
plenary sessions of Conference Council of Ten effect on Wilson's
prestige responsibility effect on delegates of smaller nations
climax, text of Treaty withheld from delegates psychological effect
great opportunity for reform missed and Shantung Fourteen Points on
_See also_ Publicity
Secretariat of the League in Wilson's original draft in Cecil plan in
"Self-denying covenant" for guaranty of territory and independence
Lansing's advocacy House and Wilson rejects suggested by others to
Self-determination in Wilson's draft of Covenant why omitted from treaty
in theory and in practice Wilson abandons violation in the treaties
and Civil War and Fiume colonial, in Fourteen Points Wilson's
statement (Feb. 1918)
Senate of United States and affirmative guaranty opposition and Wilson's
threat plan to check opposition by a _modus vivendi_
Separation of powers Wilson's attitude
Serbia Jugo-Slavia territory Fourteen Points on
Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes _See_ Jugoslavia
Shantung Settlement as subject of disagreement and secret diplomacy
bargain injustice, blackmail influence of Japanese bluff not to agree
to the League German control Japanese occupation moral effect Chinese
agreement to Japanese demands, resulting legal and moral status
status after China's declaration of war on Germany attitude of Allied
delegates attitude of American Commission, letter to Wilson argument
before Council of Ten Japanese threat to American Commission before
Council of Four value of Japanese promises questioned and Fiume
question of resignation of American Commission over China refuses to
sign Treaty Wilson permits American Commission to share in
negotiations American public opinion text of Treaty articles on
Silesia and Czecho-Slovakia
Small nations _See_ Equality.
Smuts, General and disarmament plan for mandates
Society for the Judicial Settlement of International Disputes
Sonnino, Baron Sidney _See_ Fiume
Sovereignty question in system of mandates
Strategic influence on boundary lines
Straus, Oscar S. favors League as reported
Supreme War Council, American members added, 14; and Cecil plan; and
Council of Ten.
Syria, protectorate. _See also_ Near East.
Taft, William H., supports League as reported.
Treaty of Peace. _See_ Peace.
Treaty-making power, President's responsibility, duties of negotiators,
and affirmative guaranty,
Trieste, disposition; importance,
Turkey, dismemberment and mandates, _See also_ Near East.
Ukraine, Wilson and; autonomy, and Ruthenians.
Unanimity, requirement in League.
Violation of the League, action concerning, in Wilson's original draft,
in Cecil plan; in Treaty,
War. _See_ Arbitration; League of Nations; Prevention.
White, Henry, arrival in Paris; opposes affirmative guaranty; and
Covenant as reported and later amendments; and proposed French
alliance; and Shantung question. _See also_ American programme;
Wickersham, George W., supports League as reported.
Williams, E. T., and Shantung question,
Wilson, Woodrow, responsibility for foreign relations; duties of
negotiators to, and opposition, presumption of self-assurance,
conference on armistice terms; disregard of precedent; and need of
defeat of enemy; and Commission of Inquiry; open-mindedness; and
advice on personal conduct; positiveness and indecision; and election
of 1918; prejudice against legal attitude; prefers written advice,
arrives in Paris, reception abroad, on equality of nations, and
separation of powers, denounces balance of power, and
self-determination, conference of Jan. 10, contempt for Hague
Tribunal, fidelity to convictions, return to United States, return to
Paris, and mandates, and French alliance, and open rupture with
Lansing, and team-work, decides for a definitive treaty only,
rigidity of mind, secretive nature, and Fiume, Italian resentment and
Shantung, and Bullitt affair, Treaty as abandonment of his
principles, Fourteen Points, principles of peace (Feb. 1918), _See
also_ American programme; Commission on the League; Council of Four;
Lansing; League; Peace; President as delegate; Secret diplomacy.
Withdrawal from League, provision in Treaty, through failure to approve
World Peace Foundation,
Zionism, and self-determination,
Zone system in mutual guaranty plan,
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