The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques,
Richard Hakluyt

Part 5 out of 7

him, he with his owne mouth biddeth them to dinner, and this order he
alwaies obserueth.

The 10 of October the Emperour gaue vnto M. Standish 70 rubles in money,
and to the rest of our men of occupations 30 rubles apiece.

The 3 of Nouember we dined againe with the Emperour, where we were serued
as before.

[Sidenote: Long Dinners.] The 6 of December being S. Nicholas day, we dined
againe at the Emperours, for that is one of the principall feasts which the
Moscouites hold: we were serued in siluer vessels and ordered in all points
as before, and it was past 7 of the clocke at night before dinner was

The Emperours maiestie vseth euery yeare in the moneth of December, to haue
all his ordinance that is in the citie of Mosco caried into the field which
is without the Suburbs of the citie, and there to haue it planted and bent
vpon two houses of Wood filled within with earth: against which two houses
there were two faire white markes set vp, at which markes they discharge
all their ordinance, to the ende the Emperour may see what his Gunners can
doe. [Sidenote: Ordinance in Russia.] They haue faire ordinance of brasse
of all sortes, bases, faulcons, minions, sakers, culuerings, cannons double
and royall, basiliskes long and large, they haue sixe great pieces whose
shot is a yard of height, which shot a man may easily discerne as they
flee: they haue also a great many of morter pieces or potguns, out of which
pieces they shoote wild fire. [Footnote: The cannon in use in the 16th
century were all cast, and in England font metal or bronze was mostly
employed. The falcon seems to have been of 2-1/2 inches bore; the minion
3-1/2 inches; the saker about the same; the culverin 5-1/2 inches--the
weight of the shot not being proportionate to the bore. The falconet,
minion, falcon, saker, and demi-culverin were known respectively as 2, 3,
4, 6, and 9-pounders; while the heavier pieces, or culverins, ranged from
15-pounders up to the "cannon-royall," or 63-pounders. Mortars were first
introduced in the reign of Henry VIII. According to Stowe, those made for
this monarch in 1543 were "at the mouth from 11 to 19 inches wide," and
were employed to throw hollow shot of cast iron, filled like modern bombs
with combustibles, and furnished with a fuse. Some of these 16th century
guns may still be seen at the Tower of London.]

[Sidenote: A yerely triumph.] The 12 of December the Emperours Maiestie and
all his nobility came into the field on horsebacke, in most goodly order,
hauing very fine Iennets and Turkie horses garnished with gold and siluer
abundantly. The Emperors maiestie hauing on him a gowne of rich tissue, and
a cap of skarlet on his head, set not only with pearles, but also with a
great number of rich and costly stones: his noble men were all in gownes of
cloth of gold, which did ride before him in good order by 3. and 3. and
before them there went 5000 harquebusiers, which went by 5 and 5 in a rank
in very good order, euery of them carying his gun vpon his left shoulder,
and his match in his right hand, and in this order they marched into the
field whereas the foresayd ordinance was planted.

And before the Emperors maiestie came into the field, there was a certaine
stage made of small poles which was a quarter of a mile long, and about
threescore yardes off from the stage of poles were certaine pieces of ice
of two foot thicke, and six foote high set vp, which ranke of ice was as
long as the stage of poles, and as soone as the Emperors maiestie came into
the field, the harquebusiers went vpon the stage of poles where they
settled themselues in order. And when the Emperors maiestie was setled
where he would be, and where he might see all the ordinance discharged and
shot off, the harquebusiers began to shoot off at the banke of ice, as
though it had bin in any skirmish or battel, who ceased not shooting vntill
they had beaten all the ice flat on the ground.

After the handguns, they shot off their wild fire vp into the aire, which
was a goodly sight to behold. And after this, they began to discharge the
smal pieces of brasse, beginning with the smallest and so orderly bigger
and bigger, vntill the last and biggest. When they had shot them all off,
they began to charge them againe, and so shot them al off 3 times after the
first order, beginning with the smallest and ending with the greatest. And
note that before they had ended their shooting, the 2 houses that they shot
vnto were beaten in pieces, and yet they were strongly made of Wood and
filled with earth, being at the least 30 foote thicke. This triumph being
ended, the Emperour departed and rode home in the same order that he came
foorth into the field. The ordinance is discharged euery yeare in the
moneth of December, according to the order before mentioned.

On Christmas day we were all willed to dine with the Emperors Maiestie,
where for bread, meat and drinke, we were serued as at other times before:
but for goodly and rich plate, we neuer saw the like or so much before.
There dined that day in the Emperors presence aboue 500 strangers, and two
hundred Russes, and all they were serued in vessels of gold, and that as
much as could stand one by another vpon the tables. Besides this there were
foure cupbords garnished with goodly plate both of gold and siluer. Among
the which there were 12 barrels of siluer, conteining aboue 12 gallons a
piece, and at each end of euery barrell were 6 hoopes of fine gold: this
dinner continued about sixe houres.

[Sidenote: The hallowing of the riuer of Mosco.] Euery yeare vpon the 12
day they vse to blesse or sanctifie the riuer Moscua, which runneth through
the citie of Mosco, after this maner.

First they make a square hole in the ice about 3 fadoms large euery way,
which is trimmed about the sides and edges with white boords. Then about 9
of the clocke they come out of the church with procession towards the riuer
in this wise.

First and foremost there goe certaine young men with waxe tapers burning,
and one carying a great lanterne: then follow certaine banners, then the
crosse, then the images of our Lady, of S. Nicholas, and of other Saints,
which images men carie vpon their shoulders: after the images follow
certaine priests to the number of 100 or more: after them the Metropolitan
who is led betweene two priests, and after the Metropolitan came the
Emperour with his crowne vpon his head, and after his maiestie all his
noble men orderly. Thus they followed the procession vnto the water, and
when they came vnto the hole that was made, the priests set themselues in
order round about it. And at one side of the same poole there was a
scaffold of boords made, vpon which stood a faire chaire in which the
Metropolitan was set, but the Emperours maiestie stood vpon the ice.

After this the priests began to sing, to blesse and to sense, and did their
seruice, and so by that time that they had done, the water was holy, which
being sanctified, the Metropolitan tooke a litle thereof in his hands, and
cast it on the Emperour, likewise vpon certaine of the Dukes, and then they
returned againe to the church with the priests that sate about the water:
but that pressse that there was about the water when the Emperor was gone,
was wonderful to behold, for there came aboue 5000 pots to be filled of
that water: for that Moscouite which hath no part of that water, thinks
himselfe vnhappy.

And very many went naked into the water, both men and women and children:
after the presse was a litle gone, the Emperours Iennets and horses were
brought to drinke of the same water, and likewise many other men brought
their horses thither to drinke, and by that means they make their horses as
holy as themselues.

All these ceremonies being ended, we went to the Emperour to dinner, where
we were serued in vessels of siluer, and in all other points as we had bene

[Sidenote: The Russes Lent.] The Russes begin their Lent alwaies 8 weekes
before Easter: the first weeke they eate egs, milke, cheese and butter, and
make great cheare with pancakes and such other things, one friend visiting
another, and from the same Sunday vntil our Shrofesunday there are but few
Russes sober, but they are drunke day by day, and it is accompted for no
reproch or shame among them.

The next weeke being our first weeke of Lent, or our clensing weeke,
beginning our Shrofesunday, they make and keepe a great fast. It is
reported, and the people do verily beleeue that the Metropolitan neither
eateth nor drinketh any maner of thing for the space of seuen dayes, and
they say that there are many religious men which doe the like.

The Emperors Maiestie eateth but one morsel of bread, and drinketh but one
draught of drinke once in the day during that weeke, and all men that are
of any reputation come not out of their houses during that time, so that
the streetes are almost void of company, sauing a few poore folkes which
wander to and fro. The other sixe weeks they keepe as we do ours, but not
one of them will eate either butter, cheese, egs or milke.

On Palme Sunday they haue a very solemne procession in this maner

First, they haue a tree of a good bignesse which is made fast vpon two
sleds, as though it were growing there, and it is hanged with apples,
raisins, figs and dates, and with many other fruits abundantly. In the
midst of the same tree stand 5 boyes in white vestures, which sing in the
tree before the procession: after this there followed certaine yong men
with waxe tapers in their hands burning, and a great lanterne that al the
light should not go out: after them followed two with long banners, and
sixe with round plates set vpon long staues: the plates were of copper very
ful of holes and thin: then followed 6 carying painted images vpon their
shoulders, after the images followed certaine priests to the number of 100
or more, with goodly vestures, whereof 10 or 12 are of white damaske set
and imbrodered round about with faire and orient pearles, as great as
pease, and among them certaine Sapphires and other stones. After them
followed the one halfe of the Emperours noble men: then cometh the Emperors
maiestie and the Metropolitane, after this maner.

First, there is a horse, couered with white linen cloth down to the ground,
his eares being made long with the same cloth like to an asses ears. Vpon
this horse the Metropolitane sitteth sidelong, like a woman: in his lappe
lieth a faire booke, with a crucifix of Goldsmiths worke vpon the couer
which he holdeth fast with his left hand, and in his right hand he hath a
crosse of gold, with which crosse he ceaseth not to blesse the people as he

There are to the number of 30 men which spread abroad their garments before
the horse, and as soone as the horse is past ouer any of them, they take
them vp againe and run before, and spread them againe, so that the horse
doth alway go on some of them. They which spread the garments are all
priests sonnes, and for their labours the Emperour giueth vnto them new

[Sidenote: The Emperor leadeth the Metropolitans horse in procession.] One
of the Emperors noble men leadeth the horse by the head, but the Emperour
himselfe going on foote leadeth the horse by the ende of the reine of his
bridle with one of his hands, and in the other of his hands he had a branch
of a Palme tree: after this followed the rest of the Emperors Noble men and
Gentlemen, with a great number of other people. In this order they went
from one church to another within the castle, about the distance of two
flights shot: and so returned againe to the Emperours Church, where they
made an end of their seruice. Which being done, the Emperours maiestie and
certaine of his noble men went to the Metropolitane his house to dinner,
where of delicate fishes and good drinks there was no lacke.

The rest of this weeke vntil Easter day they kept very solemnely,
continuing in their houses for the most part, and vpon Munday or Thursday
the Emperour doth alwayes vse to receiue the Sacrament, and so doe most of
his nobles.

Vpon good Friday they continue all the day in contemplation and prayers,
and they vse euery yere on good Friday to let loose a prisoner in the stead
of Barrabas. The night following they go to the Church where they sleepe
vntil the next morning, and at Easter they haue the resurrection, and after
euery of the Lents they eat flesh the next weeke following, Friday,
Saturday and all.

They haue an order at Easter which they alwaies obserue, and that is this:
euery yere against Easter to die or colour red with Brazell a great number
of egs, of which euery man and woman giueth one vnto the priest of their
Parish vpon Easter day in the morning. And moreouer the common people vse
to carie in their hands one of their red egs, not onely vpon Easter day,
but also three or foure dayes after, and gentlemen and gentlewomen haue egs
gilded which they cary in like maner. They vse it as they say for a great
loue, and in token of the resurrection, whereof they reioyce. [Sidenote:
Kissing vsed in the Greek church.] For when two friends meete during the
Easter holy dayes, they come and take one another by the hand: the one of
them sayth, the Lord or Christ is risen, the other answereth, it is so of a
truth, and then they kisse and exchange their egs both men and women,
continuing in kissing 4 dayes together.

The 12 of Aprill being Tuesday in the Easter weeke, Master Ienkinson and
Master Graie, and certayne other of vs English men dined with the Emperor,
where we were serued as we had bin before time. And after diner the
Emperours maiestie gave vnto master Ienkinson and vnto M. Gray, and so
orderly vnto euery one of vs a cup of Mead, according to his accustomed
maner which when euery man had received and giuen thanks, M. Ienkinson
stepped into the midst of the chamber before the Emperours maiestie, and
gaue thankes to his highnesse for his goodnesse vnto him extended, desiring
his grace to licence him to depart, and in like maner did M. Gray. His
maiestie did not only licence them to depart, but also graunted vnto Master
Ienkinson his letters vnder his great seale, vnto all princes through whose
dominions master Ienkinson should haue occasion to passe, that he might the
sooner and quietlier passe by meanes thereof. [Sidenote: With these letters
M. Ienkinson tooke his voyage the same April to Boghar.] Which being
granted, master Ienkinson and Gray lowly submitted themselues, thanking his
maiestie. So the Emperour gaue vnto either of them a cuppe of mead to
drinke, and willed them to depart at their pleasure in Gods peace.

The 14. of Aprill in the morning, when M. Gray and I were ready to depart
towards England, the Chancellors sent vnto vs and willed vs to come to
their office in the Chancerie, where at our comming they shewed vs a great
number of the Emperors iewels, and rich robes, willing vs to marke and
beholde them well, to the end that at our arriuall into England, we might
make report what we had seene there.

[Sidenote: The Emperors wardrobe.] The chiefest was his maiesties crowne,
being close vnder the top very faire wrought: in mine opinion, the
workmanship of so much gold few men can amend. It was adorned and decked
with rich and precious stones abundantly, among the which one was a rubie,
which stood a handfull higher then the top of the crown vpon a small wier,
it was as big as a good beane: the same crown was lined with a faire blacke
Sable, worth by report 40. robles.

Wee sawe all his maiesties robes which were very richly set with stones,
they shewed vs manie other great stones of diuers kindes, but the most part
of them were vneuen, in maner as they came out of the worke, for they doe
more esteeme the greatnesse of stones, then the proportion of them.

We saw two goodlie gownes which were as heauie as a man could easily
carrie, all set with pearles ouer and ouer: the gards or borders round
about them were garnished with saphires and other good stones abundantly.
One of the same gownes was very rich, for the pearles were very large,
round and orient: as for the rest of his gownes and garments, they were of
rich tissue and cloth of gold and all furred with very blacke Sables.

When we had sufficiently perused all these things, they willed master Gray
at his arriuall in England, to prouide if he could, such iewels and rich
clothes as he had seene there, and better if he could, declaring that the
Emperour would gladly bestow his money vpon such things.

So we tooke our leaue the same time, and departed towards Vologda

The maners, vsages, and ceremonies of the Russes.

Of the Emperour.

The Emperours name in their tongue is Iuan Vasiliuich, that is as much to
say, as Iohn the sonne of Vasilie [Marginal note: Or, Basilius.] and by his
princely state hee is called Otesara [Footnote: Czar.] as his predecessors
haue bene before, which to interprete, is a king, that giueth not tribute
to any man. And this word Otesara his maiesties interpreters haue of late
dayes interpreted to be Emperour, so that now hee is called Emperour and
great Duke of all Russia, &c. Before his father they were neither called
Emperours nor kings but onely Ruese Velike, that is to say, great Duke. And
as this Emperor which now is Iuan Vasiliuich, doeth exceede his
predecessors in name, that is, from a Duke to an Emperour, euen so much by
report he doeth exceede them in stoutnesse of courage and valiantnesse, and
a great deale more: for he is no more afraid of his enemies which are not
few, then the Hobbie of the larks.

His enemies with whom he hath warres for the most part are these: Litto,
Poland, Sweden, Denmarke, Lifland, the Crimmes, Nagaians, and the whole
nation of the Tartarians, which are a stoute and a hardie people as any
vnder the Sunne.

This Emperour vseth great familiaritie, as wel vnto all his nobles and
subiects, as also vnto strangers which serue him either in his warres, or
in occupations: for his pleasure is that they shall dine oftentimes in the
yeere in his presence, and besides that he is oftentimes abroad, either at
one Church or another, and walking with his noble men abroad. And by this
meanes he is not onely beloued of his nobles and commons, but also had in
great dread and feare through all his dominions, so that I thinke no prince
in Christendome is more feared of his owne then he is, nor yet better
beloued. For if he bid any of his Dukes goe, they will runne, if he giue
any euil or angrie worde to any of them, the partie will not come into his
maiesties presence againe of a long time if he be not sent for, but will
faine him to be very sicke, and will let the haire of his head grow very
long, without either cutting or shauing, which is an euident token that hee
is in the Emperors displeasure: for when they be in their prosperity, they
account it a shame to weare long haire, in consideration whereof, they vse
to haue their heads shauen.

[Sidenote: Note.] His maiesty heareth all complaints himselfe, and with his
owne mouth giueth sentence, and iudgement of all matters, and that with
expedition: but religious matters he medleth not withall, but referreth
them wholly vnto the Metropolitane.

His maiestie retaineth and well rewardeth all strangers that come to serue
him, and especially men of warre.

Hee delighteth not greatly in hawking, hunting, or any other pastime, nor
in hearing instruments or musicke, but setteth all his whole delight vpon
two things: First, to serue God, as vndoubtedly he is very deuoute in his
religion, and the second, howe to subdue and conquere his enemies.

He hath abundance of gold and siluer in his owne handes or treasurie: but
the most part of his subiects know not a crowne from a counter, nor gold
from copper, they are so much cumbred therewithall, and he that is worth 2.
3. or 4. grotes, is a rich man.

Of their religious men.

The Metropolitane is next vnto God, our Lady and S. Nicholas excepted: for
the Emperors maiestie iudgeth and affirmeth him to be of higher dignitie
then himselfe; for that, saith he, he is Gods spiritual officer, and I the
Emperour am his temporall officer, and therefore his maiestie submitteth
himselfe vnto him in many things concerning religious matters, as in
leading the Metropolitans horse vpon Palme Sunday, and giuing him leaue to
sitte on a chaire vpon the 12. day, when the riuer Mosco was in blessing,
his maiestie standing on the yce.

All matters of religion are reformed by the Metropolitane, he heareth the
causes and giueth sentence as himselfe listeth, and is authorized so to
doe, whether it be to whip, hang or burne, his will must needs be

They haue both monks, friers and nunnes, with a great number of great and
rich monasteries: they keepe great hospitalitie, and doe relieue much poore
people day by day. I haue bene in one of the monasteries called Troietes,
[Footnote: There was a monastery answering this description, but its name
was Trajetski.] which is walled about with bricke very strongly like a
castle, and much ordinance of brasse vpon the walles of the same. They told
me themselues that there are seuen hundred brethren of them which belong
vnto that house. The most part of the lands, towns, and villages which are
within 40. miles of it, belong vnto the same. They shewed me the church,
wherein were as many images as could hang about, or vpon the wals of the
Church round about, and euen the roofe of the church was painted ful of
images. The chiefe image was of our Ladie, which was garnished with gold,
rubies, saphirs and other rich stones abundantly. In the midst of the
church stood 12. waxe tapers of two yards long, and a fathom about in
bignesse, and there stands a kettle full of waxe with about 100. weight,
wherein there is alwayes the wicke of a candle burning, as it were a lampe
which goeth not out day nor night.

They shewed me a coffin couered with cloth of gold which stoode vpon one
side within their church, in which they told me lay a holy man, who neuer
eate or dranke, and yet that he liueth. And they told me (supposing that I
had beleeued them) that he healeth many diseases, and giueth the blind
their sight, with many other miracles, but I was hard of belief because I
saw him worke no miracle whilest I was there.

After this they brought me into their sellers, and made me taste of diuers
kinds of drinks, both wine and beere, mead and quassie, of sundry colours
and kinds. Such abundance of drink as they haue in their sellers, I doe
suppose few princes haue more, or so much at once.

Their barrels or vessels are of an vnmeasurable bignes and sise: some of
them are 3. yards long and more, and 2. yards and more broad in their
heads: they conteine 6. or 7. tunnes a piece: they haue none in their
sellers of their owne making that are lesse then a tunne. They haue 9. or
10. great vautes which are full of those barrels which are seldome
remooued: for they haue trunks which come downe through the roofe of the
vautes in sundry places, through which they powre drinke downe, hauing the
caske right vnder it to receiue the same, for it should be a great trouble
to bring it all downe the stayres.

[Sidenote: The hospitalitie of their monasteries.] They giue bread, meat
and drinke vnto all men that come to them, not onely while they are at
their abbey, but also when they depart, to serue them by the way.

There are a great number of such monasteries in the Realm, and the Emperors
maiesty rideth oftentimes from one to another of them, and lieth at them 3.
or 4. daies together.

The same monkes are as great merchants as any in the land of Russia, and
doe occupy buying and selling as much as any other men, and haue boats
which passe too and fro in the riuers with merchandize from place to place
where any of their countrey do traffike.

They eate no flesh during their liues as it is reported: but vpon Sunday,
Munday, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday it is lawfull for them to eate
egges, butter, cheese, and milke, and at all times to eate fish, and after
this sort they lead their liues.

They weare all blacke garments, and so doe none other in all the lande, but
at that abbey onely.

[Sidenote: Want of preachers cause of great ignorance and idolatry.] They
haue no preachers no not one in al the land to instruct the People, so that
there are many, and the most part of the poore in the countrey, who if one
aske them how many gods there be, they wil say a great many, meaning that
euery image which they haue is a god: for all the countrey and the
Emperours maiesty himselfe wil blesse and bowe, and knocke their heads
before their images, in so much that they will crie earnestly unto their
images to helpe them to the things which they need. Al men are bound by
their law to haue those images in their houses, and ouer euery gate in all
their townes and cities are images set vp, vnto which the people bow and
bend, and knocke their heads against the ground before them: as often as
they come by any church or crosse they do in like maner. And when they come
to any house, they blesse themselues 3. or 4. times before they will salute
any man in the house.

They reckon and hold it for great sinne to touch or handle any of their
images within the circle of the boord where the painting is, but they keep
them very daintily, and rich men deck them ouer and about with gold, siluer
and stones, and hang them ouer and about with cloth of gold.

The priestes are married as other men are, and weare all their garments as
other men doe, except their nightcaps, which is cloth of some sad colour,
being round, and reacheth vnto the eares: their crownes are shauen, but the
rest of their haire they let grow as long as nature will permit, so that it
hangeth beneath their eares vpon their shoulders: their beards they neuer
shaue: if his wife happen to die, it is not lawfull for him to mary againe
during his life.

They minister the Communion with bread and wine after our order, but he
breaketh the bread and putteth it into the cup vnto the wine, and commonly
some are partakers with them: and they take the bread out againe with a
spoon together with part of the wine, and so take it themselues, and giue
it to others that receiue with them after the same maner.

Their ceremonies are al as they say, according to the Greeke Church vsed at
this present day, and they allow no other religion but the Greeks, and
their owne: and will not permit any nation but the Greeks to be buried in
their sacred burials, or churchyards.

All their churches are full of images, vnto the which the people when they
assemble, doe bowe and knocke their heads, as I haue before said, that some
will haue knobbes vpon their foreheads with knocking, as great as egges.

[Sidenote: Al their seruice is in their mother tongue.] All their seruice
is in the Russe tongue, and they and the common people haue no other
praiers but this, _Ghospodi Iesus Christos esine voze ponuloi nashe_. That
is to say, O Lorde Iesus Christ, sonne of God haue mercy upon vs: and this
is their prayer, so that the most part of the vnlearned know neither Pater
noster, nor the Beliefe, nor Ten commandements, nor scarcely vnderstand the
one halfe of their seruice which is read in their Churches.

Of their Baptisme.

When any child is borne, it is not baptised vntil the next Sunday, and if
it chance that it be not baptized then, it must tary vntil the next Sunday
after the birth, and it is lawfull for them to take as manie Godfathers and
Godmothers as they will, the more the better.

When they go to the Church, the midwife goeth foremost, carrying the
childe, and the Godfathers and Godmothers follow into the midst of the
Church, where there is a small table ready set, and on it an earthen pot
ful of warme water, about the which the Godfathers and Godmothers, with the
childe, settle themselues: then the clerke giueth vnto euery of them a smal
waxe candle burning, then commeth the priest, and beginneth to say certaine
words, which the Godfathers and Godmothers must answere word for word,
among which one is, that the childe shal forsake the deuill, and as that
name is pronounced, they must all spit at the word as often as it is
repeated. Then he blesseth the water which is in the pot, and doth breathe
ouer it: then he taketh al the candles which the gosseps haue, and holding
them all in one hand letteth part of them drop into the water, and then
giueth euery one his candle againe, and when the water is sanctified, he
taketh the childe and holdeth it in a small tubbe, and one of the
Godfathers taketh the pot with warme water, and powreth it all vpon the
childs head.

After this he hath many more ceremonies, as anoynting eares and eyes with
spittle, and making certaine crosses with oyle vpon the backe, head, and
brest of the childe: then taking the childe in his armes, carieth it to the
images of S. Nicholas, and our Ladie, &c. and speaketh vnto the images,
desiring them to take charge of the childe, that he may liue, and beleeue
as a Christian man or woman ought to doe, with many other words. Then
comming backe from the images, he taketh a paire of sheares and clippeth
the yong and tender haires of the childes head in three or foure places,
and then deliuereth the childe, whereunto euery of the Godfathers and
Godmothers lay a hand: then the priest chargeth them, that the childe be
brought vp in the faith and feare of God or Christ, and that it be
instructed to clinege and bow to the images, end so they make an end: then
one of the Godfathers must hang a crosse about the necke of the childe,
which he must alwayes weare, for that Russe which hath not a crosse about
his necke they esteeme as no Christian man, and thereupon they say that we
are no Christians, because we do not weare crosses as they do.

Of their Matrimonie.

Their matrimonie is nothing solemnized, but rather in most points
abominable, and as neere as I can learne, in this wise following.

First, when there is loue betweene the parties, the man sendeth vnto the
woman a small chest or boxe, wherein is a whip, needles, threed, silke,
linnen cloth, sheares, and such necessaries as shee shall occupie when she
is a wife, and perhaps sendeth therewithall raisins, figs or some such
things, giuing her to vnderstand, that if she doe offend she must be beaten
with the whip, and by the needles, threed, cloth, &c. that she should apply
her selfe diligently to sowe, and do such things as shee could best doe,
and by the raisins or fruites he meaneth if she doe well, no good thing
shalbe withdrawn from her, nor be too deare for her: and she sendeth vnto
him a shirt, handkerchers, and some such things of her owne making. And now
to the effect.

When they are agreed, and the day of marriage appointed when they shall goe
towardes the Church, the bride will in no wise consent to go out of the
house, but resisteth and striueth with them that would haue her out, and
faineth her selfe to weepe, yet in the end, two women get her out, and lead
her towards the church, her face being couered close, because of her
dissimulation, that it should not be openly perceiued: for she maketh a
great noise, as though she were sobbing and weeping, vntil she come at the
Church, and then her face is vncouered. The man commeth after among other
of his friends, and they cary with them to the church a great pot of wine
or mead: then the priest coupleth them together much after our order, one
promising to loue and seme the other during their liues together, &c. which
being done, they begin to drinke, and first the woman drinketh to the man,
and when he hath drunke he letteth the cuppe fell to the ground, hasting
immediately to tread vpon it, and so doth she, and whether of them tread
first vpon it must haue the victorie and be master at all times after,
which commonly happeneth to the man, for he is readiest to set his foot on
it, because he letteth it fall himselfe, then they goe home againe, the
womans face beeing vncouered. The boyes in the streetes crie out and make a
noyse in the meanetime, with very dishonest wordes.

When they come home, the wife is set at the vpper end of the table, and the
husband next vnto her: they fall then to drinking till they bee all drunke,
they perchance haue a minstrell or two, and two naked men, which led her
from the Church daunce naked a long time before all the companie. When they
are wearie of drinking, the bride and the bridegrome get them to bed, for
it is in the euening alwayes when any of them are married: and when they
are going to bedde, the bridegrome putteth certain money both golde and
siluer, if he haue it, into one of his boots, and then sitteth down in the
chamber, crossing his legges, and then the bride must plucke off one of his
boots, which she will, and if she happen on the boote wherein the money is,
she hath not onely the money for her labor, but is also at such choyse, as
she need not euer from that day forth to pul off his boots, but if she
misse the boot wherin the money is, she doth not onely loose the money, but
is also bound from that day forwards to pull off his boots continually.

Then they continue in drinking and making good cheere three daies
following, being accompanied with certaine of their friends, and during the
same three daies he is called a Duke, and shee a dutches, although they be
very poore persons, and this is as much as I haue learned of their
matrimony: but one common rule is amongst them, if the woman be not beaten
with the whip once a weeke, she will not be good, and therefore they looke
for it orderly, and the women say, that if their husbands did not beate
them, they should not loue them.

They vse to marry there very yong, their sonnes at 16. and 18. yeeres old,
and the daughters at 12. or 13. yeeres or yonger: they vse to keepe their
wiues very closely, I meane those that be of any reputation, so that a man
shall not see one of them but at a chance, when she goeth to church at
Christmas or at Easter, or els going to visite some of her friends.

The most part of the women vse to ride a stride in saddles with styropes,
as men do, and some of them on sleds, which in summer is not commendable.

[Sidenote: The women of Russia paint their faces.] The husband is bound to
finde the wife colours to paint her withall, for they vse ordinarily to
paynt themselues: it is such a common practise among them, that it is
counted for no shame: they grease their faces with such colours, that a man
may discerne them hanging on their faces almost a flight shoote off: I
cannot so well liken them as to a millers wife, for they looke as though
they were beaten about the face with a bagge of meale, but their eye browes
they colour as blacke as ieat.

The best propertie that the women haue, is that they can sowe well, and
imbroder with silke and golde excellently.

Of their buriall.

When any man or woman dieth, they stretch him out, and put a new paire of
shooes on his feete, because he hath a great iourney to goe: then doe they
winde him in a sheet, as we doe, but they forget not to put a testimonie in
his right hand, which the priest giueth him, to testifie vnto S. Nicholas
that he died a Christian man or woman. And they put the coarse alwayes in a
coffin of wood, although the partie be very poore: and when they goe
towards the Church, the friends and kinsemen of the partie departed carrie
in their hands small waxe candles, and they weepe and howle, and make much

They that be hanged or beheaded, or such like, haue no testimonie with
them: how they are receiued into heauen, it is a wonder, without their

There are a great number of poore people among them which die daily for
lacke of sustenance, which is a pitifull case to beholde: for there hath
beene buried in a small time, within these two yeeres, aboue 80. persons
young and old, which haue died onely for lacke of sustenance: for if they
had had straw and water enough, they would make shift to liue: [Sidenote:
Bread made of straw.] for a great many are forced in the winter to drie
straw and stampe it, and to make bread thereof, or at the least they eate
it in stead of bread. In the summer they make good shift with grasse,
herbes and rootes: barks of trees are good meat with them at all times.
[Sidenote: The vnmercifulnesse of the Russes toward the poor.] There is no
people in the world, as I suppose, that liue so miserably as do the pouerty
in those parts, and the most part of them that haue sufficient for
themselues, and also to relieue others that need, are so vmnerciful that
they care not how many they see die of famine or hunger in the streets.

[Sidenote: Stooues or baths vsuall with the Muscovites.] It is a countrey
full of diseases, diuers, and euill, and the best remedy is for anie of
them, as they holde opinion, to goe often vnto the hote houses, as in a
maner euery man hath one of his owne, which hee heateth commonly twise
euery weeke, and all the bouseholde sweate, and wash themselues therein.

The names of certaine sortes of drinkes vsed in Russia, and commonly drunke
in the Emperours Court.

[Sidenote: Reported by Thomas Bulley.] The first and principall meade is
made of the iuice or liccour taken from a berrie called in Russia, Malieno,
which is of a marueilous sweete taste, and of a carmosant colour, which
berry I haue seene in Paris.

The second meade is called Visnoua, because it is made of a berry so
called, and is like a black gooseberrie: but it is like in colour and taste
to the red wine of France.

The third meade is called Amarodina or Smorodina, short, of a small berry
much like to the small rezin, and groweth in great plentie in Russia.

The fourth meade is called Chereunikyna, which is made of the wilde blacke

The fift meade is made of hony and water, with other mixtures.

There is also a delicate drinke drawn from the root of the birch tree,
called in the Russe tongue Berozeuites, which drinke the noble men and
others vse in Aprill, May, and Iune, which are the three moneths of the
spring time: for after those moneths, the sappe of the tree dryeth, and
then they cannot haue it.

* * * * *

The voyage of Master Anthony Ienkinson, made from the citie of Mosco in
Russia, to the citie of Boghar in Bactria, in the yeere 1558: written by
himselfe to the Merchants of London of the Moscouie company.

The 23. day of April, in the yeere 1558. (hauing obtained the Emperor of
Russia his letters, directed vnto sundry kings and princes, by whose
dominions I should passe) I departed from Mosco by water, hauing with mee
two of your seruants, namely, Richard Iohnson, and Robert Iohnson, and a
Tartar Tolmach, with diuers parcels of wares, as by the inuentory
appeareth: and the 28. day we came to a town called Collom, distant from
the Mosco 20. leagues, and passing one league beyond the saide Collom, we
came vnto a riuer called Occa, into the which the riuer Mosco falleth, and
looseth his name: and passing downe the said riuer Occa 8. leagues, we came
vnto a castle called Terreuettisko, which we left vpon our right hand, and
proceeding forward, the second day of May, we came vnto another castle
called Peroslaue, distant 8. leagues, leauing it also on our right hand.
The third day we came vnto the place where olde Rezan was situate, beeing
now most of it ruined and ouergrowen, and distant from the said Peroslaue,
6. leagues: the 4. day we passed by a castle called Terrecouia, from Rezan
12. leagues, and the 6. day we came to another castle called Cassim, vnder
the gouernment of a Tartar prince named Vtzar Zegoline, sometime Emperour
of the worthy citie of Cazan, and now subiect vnto the Emperour of Russia.
But leauing Cassim on our left hand, the 8. day we came vnto a faire town
called Morom, from Cassim 20. leagues, where we took the sonne, and found
the lattitude 56 degrees: and proceeding forward the 11. day, we came vnto
another faire town and castle called Nyse Nouogrode, situated at the
falling of the foresaid riuer Occa into the worthie riuer of Volga, distant
from the saide Moron [Transcriber's note: sic.] 25. leagues, in the
latitude of 56. degrees 18. minutes. From Rezan to this Nyse Nouogrod, on
both sides the said riuer of Occa, is raised the greatest store of waxe and
hony in all the land of Russia. We tarried at the foresaid Nyse Nouogrode
vntil the 19. day, for the comming of a captain which was sent by the
Emperour to rule at Astracan, who beeing arriued, and hauing the number of
500. great boates vnder his conduct, some laden with victuals, souldiers,
and munition: and other some with merchandise, departed altogether the said
19. day from the said Nyse Nouogrode, and the 22. we came vnto a castle
called Vasiliagorod, distant 25. leagues, which we left vpon our right
hand. This towne or castle had his name of this Emperors father, who was
called Vasilius, and gorod in the Russe tongue is as much as to say as a
castle, so that Vasiliagorod is to say, Vasilius castle: and it was the
furthest place that the said Emperour conquered from the Tartars. But this
present Emperour his sonne, called Iuan Vasiliwich, hath had great good
successe in his warres, both against the Christians and also the
Mahometists and Gentiles, but especially against the Tartars, inlarging his
Empire euen to the Caspian sea, hauing conquered the famous riuer of Volga,
with all the countries there about adiacent. Thus proceeding on our iourney
the 25. day of May aforesaide, wee came to another castle called
Sabowshare, which wee left on our right hand, distant from Vasiliagorod 16.
leagues. The countrey heereabout is called Mordouits, and the habitants did
professe the law of the Gentiles: but nowe beeing conquered by this
Emperour of Russia, most of them are christened, but lie in the woods and
wildernesse, without towne or habitation.

[Sidenote: Cazan.] The 27. day we passed by another castle called Swyasko,
distant from Shabowshare aforesaid 25. leagues: we left it on our, right
hand, and the 29. came vnto an Island one league from the citie of Cazan,
from which falleth downe a riuer called Cazanka reca, and entreth into the
foresaide Volga. Cazan is a faire town after the Russe or Tartar fashion,
with a strong castle, situated vpon a high hill, and was walled round about
with timber and earth, but now the Emperour of Russia hath giuen order to
plucke downe the old walles and to builde them againe of free stone. It
hath bene a citie of great wealth and riches, and being in the hands of the
Tartars it was a kingdome of it selfe, and did more vexe the Russes in
their warres, then any other nation: but 9 yeres past, this Emperour of
Russia conquered it, and tooke the king captiue, who being but young is
nowe baptised, and brought vp in his court with two other princes, which
were also kings of the said Cazan, and being ech of them in time of their
raignes in danger of their subiects through ciuil discord, came and rendred
themselues at seueral times vnto the said Emperor, so that at this present
there are three princes in the court of Russia, which had bene Emperours of
the said Cazan, whom the Emperour vseth with great honour.

[Sidenote: The Island of marchants.] We remained at Cazan till the 13. day
of Iune, and then departed from thence: and the same day passed by an
Island called the Island of merchants, because it was woont be a place
where all merchants, as well Russes and Cazanites, as Nagayans and Crimmes,
and diuers other nations did resort to keepe mart for buying and selling,
but nowe it is forsaken, and standeth without any such resort thither, or
at Cazan, or at any place about it, from Mosco vnto Mare Caspium.
[Sidenote: The riuer of Cama.] Thus proceeding forward the 14. day, we
passed by a goodly riuer called Cama, which we left on our left hand. The
riuer falleth out of the countrey of Permia into the riuer of Volga, and is
from Cazan 15. leagues: and the countrey lying betwixt the said Cazan and
the said riuer Cama on the left hand of Volga is called Vachen, and the
inhabitants be Gentiles, and liue in the wildernesse without house or
habitation: and the countrey on the other side of Volga ouer against the
said riuer Cama is called the land of Cheremizes, halfe Gentiles, halfe
Tartars, and all the land on the left hand of the said Volga from the said
riuer vnto Astracan, and so following the North and Northeast side of the
Caspian sea, [Sidenote: Nagay Tartars.] to a land of the Tartars called
Turkemen, is called the countrey of Magnat or Nagay, whose inhabitants are
of the law of Mahomet, and were all destroyed in the yeere 1558, at my
being at Astracan, through ciuill warres among them, accompanied with
famine, pestilence, and such plagues, in such sort that in the said yeere
there were consumed of the people, in one sort and another, aboue one
hundred thousand: the like plague was neuer seen in those parts, so that
the said countrey of Nagay being a countrey of great pasture, remaineth now
vn-replenished to the great contentation of the Russes, who haue had cruel
warres a long time together.

The Nagayans when they flurished, liued in this maner: they were diuided
into diuers companies called Hords, and euery hord had a ruler, whom they
obeyed as their king, and was called a Murse. [Sidenote: Hords.] Towne or
house they had none, but liued in the open fields, every Murse or King
hauing his Hords or people about him, with their wives, children and
cattell, who hauing consumed the pasture in one place, remooued unto
another; and when they remooue they haue houses like tents set vpon wagons
or carts, which are drawen from place to place with camels, and therin
their wiues, children, and all their riches, which is very litle, is caried
about, and euery man hath at the least foure or fiue wives besides
concubines. Vse of money they haue none, but doe barter their cattell for
apparell and other necessaries. They delight in no arte nor science, except
the warres, wherein they are expert, but for the most part they be
pasturing people, and haue great store of cattell, which is all their
riches. They eate much flesh, and especially the horse, and they drinke
mares milk, wherewith they be oftentimes drunke: they are seditious and
inclined to theft and murther. Corne they sowe not, neither do eate any
bread, mocking the Christians for the same, and disabling our strengths,
saying we liue by eating the top of a weede, and drinke a drinke made out
of the same, allowing their great deuouring of flesh, and drinking of milke
to be the increase of their strength. But now to proceed forward to my

[Sidenote: The Crimme Tarters.] All the countrey vpon our right hand the
riuer Volga, from ouer against the riuer Cama, vnto the towne of Astracan,
is the land of Crimme, whose inhabitants be also of the lawe of Mahomet,
and liue for the most part according to the fashions of the Nagayes, having
continuall wars with the Emperour of Russia, and are valiant in the fielde,
hauing countenance, and support from the great Turke.

[Sidenote: The River of Samar.] The 16. day of Iune we passed by certaine
fishermens houses called Petowse twenty leagues from the riuer Cama, where
is great fishing for sturgeon, so continuing our way untill the 22. day,
and passing by another great riuer called Samar, which falleth out of the
aforesaide countrey, and runneth through Negay, and entreth into the saide
riuer of Volga. The 28. day wee came vnto a great hill, where was in times
past a castle made by the Crimmes, but now it is ruined, being the iust
midway betweene the said Cazan and Astrachan, which is 200. leagues or
thereabout, in the latitude of 51. degrees 47. minutes. [Sidenote: Licoris
in great plentie.] Vpon all this shore groweth great abundance of Licoris,
whose root runneth within the ground like a vine.

Thus going forward the sixt day of Iuly we came to a place called
Perouolog, so named because in times past the Tartars caried theit bortes
from Volga vnto the riuer Tanais, otherwise called Don, by land, when they
would robbe such as passed downe the said Volga to Astracan, and also such
as passed downe by the riuer Tanais, to Asou, Caffa, or any other towne
situated vpon Mare Euxinum, into which sea Tanais falleth, who hath his
springs in the countrey of Rezan, out of a plaine ground. It is at this
straight of Perouolog from the one riuer to the other two leagues by land,
and is a dangerous place for theeues and robbers, but now it is not so
euill as it hath bene, by reason of the Emperour of Russia his conquests.

Departing from Perouolog, hauing the wildernesse on both sides, wee sawe a
great heard of Nagayans, pasturing, as is abouesaid, by estimation aboue a
thousand camels drawing of cartes with houses vpon them like tents, of a
strange fashion, seeming to bee a farre off a towne: that Hord was
belonging to a great Murse called Smille, the greatest prince in all Nagay,
who had slaine and driuen away all the rest, not sparing his owne brethren
and children, and hauing peace with this Emperour of Russia he hath what he
needeth, and ruleth alone: so that now the Russes liue in peace with the
Nagayans, who were wont to haue mortall warres together.

The 14. day of Iuly passing by an old castle, which was Old Astracan, and
leauing it vpon our right hand, we arriued at New Astracan, which this
Emperour of Russia conquered sixe yeeres past, in the yeere 1552. It is
from the Mosco vnto Astracan sixe hundred leagues, or thereabout.
[Sidenote: Astracan.] The towne of Astracan is situated in an Island vpon a
hill side, hauing a castle within the same, wailed about with earth and
timber, neither faire nor strong: The towne is also walled about with
earth; the buildings and houses (except it be the captaines lodging, and
certaine other gentlemens) most base and simple. [Sidenote: Store of
Sturgions.] The Island is most destitute and barren of wood and pasture,
and the ground will beare no corne: the aire is there most infected, by
reason (as I suppose) of much fish, and specially Sturgion, by which onely
the inhabitants liue, hauing great scarsitie of flesh and bread. They hang
vp their fish in their streets and houses to dry for their prouision, which
causeth such abundance of flies to increase there, as the like was neuer
seene in any land, to their great plague. And at my being at the sayd
Astracan, there was a great famine and plague among the people, and
specially among the Tartars called Nagayans, who the same time came thither
in great numbers to render themselues to the Russes their enemies, and to
seeke succour at their hands, their countrey being destroyed, as I said
before: but they were but ill entertained or relieued, for there died a
great number of them for hunger, which lay all the Island through in heapes
dead and like to beasts vnburied, very pitifull to behold: many of them
were also sold by the Russes, and the rest were banished from the Island.
At that time it had bene an easie thing to haue conuerted that wicked
Nation to the Christian faith, if the Russes themselues had bene good
Christians: but how should they shew compassion vnto other Nations, when
they are not mercifull vnto their owne? At my being there I could haue
bought many goodly Tartars children, if I would haue had a thousand, of
their owne fathers and mothers, to say a boy or a wench for a loafe of
bread woorth sixe pence in England, but we had more need of victuals at
that time then of any such merchandise. This Astracan is the furthest hold
that that this Emperour of Russia has conquered of the Tartars towards the
Caspian sea, which he keepeth very strong, sending thither euery yere
prouision of men and victuals, and timber to build the castle.

There is a certaine trade of merchandise there vsed, but as yet so small
and beggerly, that it is not woorth the making mention, and yet there come
merchants thither from diuers places. The chiefest commodities that the
Russes bring thither are redde hides, redde sheepes skinnes, woodden
vessels, bridles, and saddles, kniues, and other trifles, with corne,
bacon, and other victuals. The Tartars bring thither diuers kindes of wares
made of cotten wooll, with diuers kindes of wrought silkes: and they that
come out of Persia, namely from Shamacki doe bring sowing silke, which is
the coursest that they vse in Russeland, Crasco, diuers kinds of pide
silkes for girdles, shirts of male, bowes, swords, and such like things:
and some yeeres corne, and wallnuts, but all such things in such small
quantitie, the merchants being so beggerly and poore that bring the same,
that it is not worth the writing, neither is there any hope of trade in all
those parts woorth the folowing.

[Sidenote: The length of the Island of Astracan] This foresaid Island of
Astracan is in length twelue leagues, and in bredth three, and lieth East
and West in the latitude of fortie seuen degrees, nine minutes: we taried
there vntil the sixt day of August, and hauing bought and prouided a boate
in company with certaine Tartars and Persians, we laded our goods and
imbarked our selves; and the same day departed I, with the said two
Iohnsons hauing the whole charge of the Nauigation downe the sayd riuer
Volga, being very crooked, and full of flats towards the mouth thereof.
[Sidenote: They enter into the Caspian sea.] We entred into the Caspian sea
the tenth day of August at the Easterly side of the sayd riuer, being
twentie leagues from Astracan aforesayd, in the latitude of fortie six
degrees, twentie seuen minutes.

Volga hath seuentie mouthes or fals into the sea: and we hauing a large
wind, kept the Northeast shore, and the eleuenth day we sailed seuen
leagues Eastnortheast, and came vnto an Island hauing an high hill therein,
called Accurgar, a good marke in the sea. From thence East tenne leagues,
we fell with another Island called Bawhiata, much higher then the other.
Within these two Islands to the Northwards, is a great Baie called the Blew
sea. [Sidenote: The Blew sea.] From thence wee sailed East and by North ten
leagues, and hauing a contrary wind, we came to an anker in a fadome water,
and so rid vntill the fifteenth day, hauing a great storme at Southeast,
being a most contrary wind, which we rid out. Then the wind came to the
North, and we weyed, and set our course Southeast, and that day sailed
eight leagues.

[Sidenote: Baughleata being 74 leagues from Volga.] Thus proceeding
forwards, the 17. day wee lost sight of land, and the same day sailed
thirtie leagues, and the 18. day twentie leagues winding East, and fell
with a land called Baughleata, being 74. leagues fromm the mouth of the
said Volga, in the latitude of 46. degrees 54. minutes, the coast lying
neerest East and by South, and West and by North. At the point of this land
lieth buried a holy Prophet, as the Tartars call him, of their law, where
great deuotion is vsed of all such Mahometists as doe passe that way.

[Sidenote: Iaic riuer.] The nineteenth day the winde being West, and we
winding Eastsoutheast, we sailed tenne leagues, and passed by a great riuer
called Iaic, which hath his spring in the lande of Siberia, nigh vnto the
foresaid riuer Cama, and runneth through the lande of Nagay, billing into
this Mare Caspium. [Sidenote: Serachick] And vp this riuer one dayes
tourney is a Towne called Serachick, subiect to the aforesaid Tartar prince
called Murse Smille, which is nowe in friendship with the Emperour of
Russia. Here is no trade of merchandize vsed, for that the people haue no
vse of money, and are all men of warre, and pasturers of cattel, and giuen
much to theft and murther. Thus being at an anker against this riuer Iaic,
and all our men being on land, sauing I, who lay sore sicke, and fiue
Tartars whereof one was reputed a holy man, because he came from Mecka,
there came vnto vs a boate with thirtie men well armed and appointed, who
boorded vs, and began to enter into our barke, and our holy Tartar called
Azy, perceiuing that, asked them what they would haue, and withall made a
prayer: with that these rouers staied, declaring that they were Gentlemen,
banished from their countrey, and out of liuing, and came to see if there
were any Russes or other Christians (which they call Caphars) in our barke:
To whom this Azi most stoutly answered, that there were none, auowing the
same by great othes of their lawe, (which lightly they will not breake)
whom the rouers beleeued, and vpon his words departed. And so through the
fidelitie of that Tartar, I with all my company and goods were saued, and
our men being come on boord, and the wind faire, we departed from that
place, and winding East and Southeast, that day being the 20. of August
sailed 16. leagues.

[Sidenote: The Countrie of Colmack] The 21. day we passed ouer a Bay of 6.
leagues broad, and fell with a Cape of land, hauing two Islands at the
Southeast part thereof, being a good marke in the sea: and doubling that
Cape the land trended Northeast, and maketh another Bay, into which felleth
the great riuer Yem, springing out of the land of Colmack.

The 22. 23. and 24. dayes, we were at an anker.

The 25. the winde came faire, and wee sailed that day 20. leagues, and
passed by an Island of lowe land, and thereabout are many flats and sands:
and to the Northward Of this Island there goeth in a great Bay, but we set
off from this Island, and winded South to come into deepe water, being much
troubled with shoalds and flats, and ran that course 10. leagues, then East
Southeast 20. leagues, and fel with the maine land, being full of copped
hils, and passing along the coast 20. leagues, the further we sailed, the
higher was the land.

The 27. day we crossed ouer a Bay, the South shore being the higher land,
and fel with a high point of land: and being ouerthwart the Cape, there
rose such a storme at the East, that we thought verily we should haue
perished: this storme continued 3. dayes. [Sidenote: The port of
Manguslaue.] From this Cape we passed to a port called Magnuslaue. The
place where we should haue arriued at the Southernmost part of the Caspian
sea, is 12. leagues within a Bay: but we being sore tormented and tossed
with this foresaid storme, were driuen vnto another land on the other side
the Bay, ouerthwart the sayd Manguslaue being very lowe land, and a place
as well for the ill commoditie of the hauen, as of those brute field
people, where neuer barke nor boate had before arriued, not liked of vs.

But yet here we sent certaine of our men to land to talke with the
gouernour and people, as well for our good vsage at their handes, as also
for prouision of camels to carry our goods from the sayd sea side to a
place called Sellyzure, being from the place of our landing fiue and
twentie dayes iourney. Our messengers returned with comfortable wordes and
faire promises of all things. [Sidenote: They goe on land.] Wherefore the
3. day of September 1558. we discharged our barke, and I with my companie
were gently entertained of the Prince and of his people. But before our
departure from thence, we found them to be very bad and brutish people, for
they ceased not daily to molest vs, either by fighting, stealing or
begging, raising the prise of horse and camels, and victuals, dooble that
it was woont there to be, and forced vs to buy the water that we did
drinke: which caused vs to hasten away, and to conclude with them as well
for the hire of camels, as for the prise of such as wee bought, with other
prouision, according to their owne demaund: So that for euery camels
lading, being but 400. waight of ours, we agreed to giue three hides of
Russia, and foure woodden dishes, and to the Prince or gouernour of the
sayd people, one ninth, and two seuenths: Namely, nine seuerall things, and
twise seuen seuerall things: for money they vse none.

[Sidenote: The countrey of Manguslaue.] And thus being ready, the
foureteenth of September we departed from that place, being a Carauan of a
thousand Camels. And hauing trauailed fiue dayes iourney, we came to
another Princes Dominion, and vpon the way there came vnto vs certaine
Tartars on horseback, being well armed, and seruants vnto the saide Prince
called Timor Soltan, gouernour of the said countrey of Manguslaue, where
wee meant to haue arriued and discharged our barke, if the great storm
aforesayd had not disappointed. These aforesaid Tartars stayd our Carauan
in the name of their Prince, and opened our wares, and tooke such things as
they thought best for their saide prince without money, but for such things
as they tooke from me, which was a ninth (after much dissension) I ridde
vnto the same Prince, and presented my selfe before him, requesting his
fauour, and pasport to trauaile through his countrey, and not to be robbed
nor spoiled of his people: which request he graunted me, and intertained me
very gently, commaunding me to be well feasted with flesh and mares milke:
for bread they vse none, nor other drinke except water: but money he had
none to giue mee for such thinges as he tooke of mee, which might be of
value in Russe money, fifteene rubbles, but he gaue me his letter, and a
horse woorth seuen rubbles. And so I departed from him being glad that I
was gone: for he was reported to be a very tyrant, and if I had not gone
vnto him, I vnderstoode his commaundement was that I should haue beene
robbed and destroyed.

This Soltan liued in the fields without Castle or towne, and sate, at my
being with him, in a little rounde house made of reedes couered without
with felt, and within with Carpets. There was with him the great
Metropolitan of that wilde Country, esteemed of the people, as the Bishop
of Rome is in most parts of Europe, with diuers other of his chiefe men.
The Soltan with this Metropolitan demanded of me many questions, as wel
touching our kingdoms, lawes, and Religion, as also the cause of my coming
into those parts, with my further pretence. To whom I answered concerning
all things, as vnto me seemed best, which they tooke in good part.
[Sidenote: 20 dayes trauaile in the wildernese, with scarcite of water.] So
hauing leaue I departed and ouertooke our Carauan and proceeded on our
iourney, and trauailed 20 dayes in the wildernes from the sea side without
seeing towne or habitation, carying prouision of victuals with vs for the
same time, and were driuen by necessity to eate one of my camels and a
horse for our part, as other did the like: and during the said 20 daies we
found no water, but such as we drew out of old deepe welles, being very
brackish and salt, and yet sometimes passed two or three dayes without the
same. [Sidenote: Another gulfe of the Caspian sea.] And the 5. day of
October ensuing, we came gulfe of the Caspian sea againe, where we found
the vnto a water very fresh and sweete: at this gulfe the customers of the
king of Turkeman met vs, who tooke custome of euery 25. one, and 7. ninthes
for the saide king and his brethren, which being receiued they departed,
and we remained there a day after to refresh our selues.

[Sidenote: Will. de Rubricis describeth this riuer of Ardok, cap. 4.] Note
that in times past there did fal into this gulf the great river Oxus, which
hath his springs in the mountains of Paraponisus in India, and now commeth
not so far, but falleth into another riuer called Ardock, which runneth
toward the North, and consumeth himself in the ground passing vnder ground
aboue 500. miles, and then issueth out againe and falleth into the lake of
Kithay. [Footnote: Oxus, the Jihun of the Arab, the Amu-darya of the
Persians, and the Vak-shu of the Hindus, is a river of Central Asia, in
Turkestan, draining the Great Pamir through two head streams--the Panja or
southern, rising in Lake Victoria, 13,900 feet above the sea-level, and the
Ak-su or Murghah, or northern, said to flow from Lake Barkal Yasin, 13,000
feet above the sea-level, and receiving the outflow of Lake Kara-kul above
the junction. The united stream flows westwards towards Balkh, before
reaching which it gradually trends to the northwest until, after a course
of about 1300 miles, it reaches the south coast of the Aral Sea. In parts
the stream has a breadth of 800 yards, with a depth of 20 feet, and a very
rapid current; but the vast quantity of sedimentary matter which it brings
down to the month, forming shifting sands and banks, renders it difficult
to navigate. A great portion of the volume of the stream is absorbed in the
irrigation of the Khivan Oasis. The tendency of the Oxus, like that of the
great Siberian rivers, is to press continually on its right or east bank,
and twice within historic times it has oscillated between the Caspian and
Aral Seas. In the fourteenth century it is supposed to have entered the
Caspian by the Uzboi channel, near Mikhailovsk. It was proposed at one time
to attempt to reopen this bed, but the scheme has been abandoned in favour
of the steppe river, Chagan. Herodotus seems to refer to the Oxus under the
name of Araxes, but his description is confused, and many of his
commentators suppose that the Araxes of Herodotus is the river of the same
name in Armenia; while others suppose that it is either the Volga or the
Jaxartes. Strabo says that the Oxus rose in the Indian mountains and flowed
into the Caspian, which is also the opinion of Mela and Ptolemy. Pliny
makes it rise in a lake called Oxus, and the truth of his statement is now

[Sidenote: Sellizure, or Shayzure.] We hauing refreshed our selues at the
foresaide gulfe, departed thence the 4. day of October, and the seuenth day
arriued at a castle called Sellizure, where the king called Azim Can,
remained with 3. other of his brethren, and the 9. day I was commaunded to
come before his presence, to whom I deliuered the Emporors letters of
Russia: and I also gaue him a present of a ninth, who entertained me very
well, and caused me to eate in his presence as his brethren did, feasting
me with flesh of a wilde horse, and mares milk without bread. [Sidenote:
Letters of safteconduct] And the next day he sent for me again, and asked
of me diuers questions, as wel touching the affaires of the Emperour of
Russia, as of our countrey and lawes, to which I answered as I thought
good: so that at my departure he gaue me his letters of safe conduct.

This Castle of Sellizure is situated vpon an high hill, where the King
called the Can lyeth, whose palace is built of earth very basely, and not
strong: the people are but poore, and haue litle trade of merchandise among
them. The South part of this Castle is lowe lande, but very fruitfull,
where grow many good fruites, among which there is one called a Dynie, of a
great bignesse and full of moysture, which the people do eate after meate
in steade of drinke. Also there growes another fruite called a Carbuse of
the bignesse of a great cucumber, yellow and sweete as sugar: also a
certaine corne called Iegur, whose stalke is much like a sugar cane, and as
high, and the graine like rice, which groweth at the toppe of the cane like
a cluster of grapes; the water that serueth all that countrey is drawen by
ditches out of the riuer Oxus, vnto the great destruction of the said
riuer, for which cause it falleth not into the Caspian sea as it hath done
in times past, and in short time all that land is like to be destroied, and
to become a wildernes for want of water, when the riuer of Oxus shal faile.

[Sidenote: Vrgence.] The 14. day of the moneth we departed from this Castle
of Sellizure, and the 16. of the same we arriued at a citie called Vrgence,
where we paid custome as wel for our own heads, as for our camels and
horses. And hauing there soiourned one moneth, attending the time of our
further trauaile, the king of that countrey called Aly Soltan, brother to
the forenamed Azym Can, returned from a towne called Corasan, within the
borders of Persia, which he lately had conquered from the Persians, with
whom he and the rest of the kings of Tartaria haue continuall warres.
Before this king also I was commanded to come, to whom I likewise presented
the Emperors letters of Russia, and he intertained me wel, and demanded of
me diuers questions, and at my departure gaue me his letters of safe

This city or towne of Vrgence standeth in a plaine ground, with walles of
the earth, by estimation 4. miles about it. The buildings within it are
also of earth, but ruined and out of good order: it hath one long street
that is couered aboue, which is the place of their market. It hath bene
wonne and lost 4. times within 7. yeeres by ciuill warres, by meanes
whereof there are but few merchants in it, and they very poore, and in all
that towne I could not sell about 4. kerseis. The chiefest commodities
there sold are such wares as come from Boghar, and out of Persia, but in
most smal quantity not worth the writing. [Sidenote: The countrey of
Turkeman.] All the land from the Caspian sea to this Citie of Vrgence is
called the land of Turkeman, and is subiect to the said Azim Can, and his
brethren which be fiue in number, and one of them hath the name of the
chiefe king called Can, but he is little obeyed sauing in his owne
Dominion, and where he dwelleth: for euery one will be King of his owne
portion, and one brother seeketh alwayes to destroy another, hauing no
natural loue among them, by reason that they are begotten of diuers women,
and commonly they are the children of slaues, either Christians or
Gentiles, which the father doeth keepe as concubines, and euery Can or
Sultan hath at least 4. or 5. wiues, besides young maidens and boyes,
liuing most viciously: and when there are warres betwixt these brethren,
(as they are seldome without) he that is ouercome if he be not slaine,
flieth to the field with such companie of men as will followe him, and
there liueth in the wildemesse resorting to watering places, and so robbeth
and spoileth as many Carauans of Marchants and others as they be able to
ouercome, continuing in this sort his wicked life, vntil such time as he
may get power and aide to inuade some of his brethren againe. From the
Caspian sea vnto the Castle of Sellizure aforesaid, and all the Countreis
about the said Sea, the people liue without towne or habitation in the
wilde fields, remouing from one place to another in great companies with
their cattel, whereof they haue great store, as camels, horses, and sheepe
both tame and wilde. Their sheepe are of great stature with great buttocks,
weighing 60. or 80. pound in weight. There are many wild horses which the
Tartars doe many times kil with their hawkes, and that in this order. The
hawkes are lured to sease vpon the beasts neckes or heads, which with
chafing of themselues and sore beating of the hawkes are tired: then the
hunter following his game doeth slay the horse with his arrow or sword. In
all this lande there groweth no grasse, but a certaine brush or heath,
whereon the cattell feeding become very fat.

The Tartars neuer ride without their bow, arrowes, and sword, although it
be on hawking, or at any other pleasure, and they are good archers both on
horsebacke, and on foote also. These people haue not the vse of golde,
siluer, or any other coyne, but when they lacke apparell or other
necessaries, they barter their cattell for the same. Bread they haue none,
for they neither till nor sow: they be great deuourers of flesh, which they
cut in smal pieces, and eat it by handfuls most greedily, and especially
the horseflesh. Their chiefest drink is mares milke sowred, as I haue said
before of the Nagayans, and they wilbe drunk with the same. They haue no
riuers nor places of water in this countrey, vntil you come to the foresaid
gulf, distant from the place of our landing 20. dayes iourney, except it be
in wels, the water whereof is saltish, and yet distant the one from the
other two daies iourney and more. They eate their meate vpon the ground,
sitting with their legs double vnder them, and so also when they pray. Art
or science they haue none, but liue most idlely, sitting round in great
companies in the fields, deuising, and talking most vainely.

[Sidenote: The riuer of Ardock falleth into the lake of Kitay.] The 26. day
of Nouember, we departed from the towne of Vrgence, and hauing trauailed by
the riuer Oxus, 100 miles, we passed ouer another great riuer called
Ardock, where we paid a certaine pety custome. This riuer Ardock is great,
and very swift, falling out of the foresaid Oxus and passing about 1000.
mile to the Northward, it then consumeth it selfe in the ground, and
passing vnder the same about 500. mile, issueth out againe, and falleth
into the lake of Kitay, as I haue before declared.

[Sidenote: The castle of Kait.] The 7. of December following, we arriued at
a Castle called Kait, subiect to a Soltan called Saramet Soltan, who meant
to haue robbed all the Christians in the Carauan, had it not bene for feare
of his brother the king of Vrgence, as we were informed by one of his
chiefest counsellers, who willed vs to make him a present, which he tooke,
and deliuered: besides, we paid at the said castle for custome, of euery
camel one red hide of Russia, besides pety gifts to his officers.

Thus proceeding in our iourney, the tenth day at night being at rest, and
our watch set, there came vnto vs foure horsemen, which wee tooke as spies,
from whom wee tooke their weapons and bound them, and hauing well examined
them, they confessed that they had seene the tract of many horsemen, and no
footing of camels, and gaue vs to vnderstand, that there were rouers and
theeues abroade: for there trauaile few people that are true and peaceable
in that Countrey, but in companie of Carauan, where there be many camels:
and horsefeeting new without camels were to be doubted. Whereupon we
consulted and determined amongst our selues, and sent a poste to the said
Soltan of Kayte, who immediatly came himselfe with 300. men, and mette
these foure suspected men which we sent vnto him, and examined them so
streightly, and threatned them in such sort, that they confessed, there was
a banished Prince with 40. men 3. daies iourney forward, who lay in wait to
destroy vs, if he could, and that they themselues were of his companie.

The Soltan therefore vnderstanding, that the theeues were not many,
appointed vs 80. men well armed with a Captaine to goe with vs, and conduct
vs in our way. And the Soltan himselfe returned backe againe, taking the
foure theeues with him. These souldiers trauailed with vs two dayes,
consuming much of our victuals. And the 3. day in the morning very earely
they set out before our Carauan, and hauing ranged the wildernes for the
space of foure houres, they mette vs, comming towards vs as fast as their
horse could runne, and declared that they had founde the tract of horses
not farre from vs, perceiuing well that we shoulde meete with enemies, and
therefore willed vs to appoint our selues for them, and asked vs what we
would giue them to conduct vs further, or else they would returne. To whom
we offered as we thought good, but they refused our offer, and would haue
more; and so we not agreeing they departed from vs, and went back to their
Soltan, who (as wee coniectured) was priuie to the conspiracie. [Sidenote:
Diuination by sorcerie] But they being gone, certaine Tartars of our
companie called holy men, (because they had bene at Mecha) caused the whole
Carauan to stay, and would make their prayers, and deuine how wee should
prosper in our iourney and whether we should meet with any ill company or
no? To which, our whole Carauan did agree. And they tooke certaine sheepe
and killed them, and tooke the blade bones of the same, and first sodde
them and then burnt them, and tooke of the blood of the said sheepe, and
mingled it with the powder of the saide bones, and wrote certaine
Characters with the saide blood, vsing many other ceremonies and wordes,
and by the same deuined and found, that wee shoulde meete with enemies and
theeues (to our great trouble) but should ouercome them, to which sorcerie,
I and my companie gaue no credit, but we found it true: for within 3.
houres after that the souldiers departed from vs, which was the 15. day of
December, in the morning, we escried farre off diuers horsemen which made
towards vs, and we (perceiuing them to be rouers) gathered ourselues
together, being 40. of vs wel appointed, and able to fight, and we made our
prayers together euery one after his lawe; professing to liue and die one
with another, and so prepared our selues. When the theeues were nigh vnto
vs, we perceiued them to be in number 37. men well armed, and appointed
with bowes, arrowes and swords, and the captaine a prince banished from his
Countrey. They willed vs to yeelde our selues, or els to be slaine, but wee
defied them, wherewith they shotte at vs all at once, and wee at them very
hotly, and so continued our fight from morning vntil two houres within
night, diuers men, horses and camels being wounded and slaine on both
partes: [Sidenote: Handguns very profitable.] and had it not bene for 4.
handgunnes which I and my companie had and vsed, we had bene ouercome and
destroyed: for the theeues were better armed, and were also better archers
than we: But after wee had slaine diuers of their men and horses with our
gunnes, they durst not approch so nigh, which caused them to come to a
truce with vs vntill the next morning, which we accepted, and encamped our
selues vpon a hill, and made the fashion of a Castle, walling it about with
packes of wares, and laide our horses and camels within the same to saue
them from the shotte of arrowes: and the theeues also incamped within an
arrowe shotte of vs, but they were betwixt vs and the water, which was to
our great discomfort, because neither we nor our camels had drunke in 2.
dayes before.

Thus keeping good watch, when halfe the night was spent, the Prince of the
theeues sent a messenger halfe way vnto vs, requiring to talke with our
Captaine, in their tongue, the Carauan Basha, who answered the messenger, I
will not depart from my companie to goe into the halfe way to talke with
thee: but if that thy Prince with all his companie will sweare by our Lawe
to keepe the truce, then will I send a man to talke with thee, or els not.
Which the Prince vnderstanding as well himselfe as his company, swore so
loude that we might all heare. And then we sent one of our company (reputed
a holy man) to talke with the same messenger. [Sidenote: Bussarmans.
Caphar.] The message was pronounced aloude in this order, our Prince
demaundeth of the Carauan Basha, and of all you that be Bussarmans, (that
is to say circumcised) not desiring your bloods, that you deliuer into his
hands as many Caphars, that is unbeleeuers (meaning vs the Christians) as
are among you with their goods, and in so doing, hee will suffer you to
depart with your goods in quietnesse, and on the contrary, you shall be
handled with no lesse cruelty then the Caphars, if hee ouercome you, as he
doubteth not. To the which our Carauan Basha answered, that he had no
Christians in his company, nor other strangers, but two Turkes which were
of their Law, and although hee had, hee would rather die then deliuer them,
and that we were not afraide of his threatnings, and that should he know
when day appeared. And so passing in talke, the theeues (contrary to their
othe) caried our holy man away to their Prince, crying with a lowde voyce
in token of victory, Ollo, ollo. Wherewith we were much discomforted,
fearing that that holy man would betray vs: but be being cruelly handled
and much examined, would not to death confesse anything which was to vs
preiudliciall, neither touching vs, nor yet what men they had slaine and
wounded of ours the day before. When the night was spent, in the morning we
prepared our selues to battel againe: which the theeues perceiuing,
required to fall to agreement and asked much of vs: And to be briefe, the
most part of our companie being loth to go to battel againe, and hauing
litle to loose, and safeconduct to passe, we were compelled to agree, and
to giue the theeues 20 ninths (that is to say) 20 times 9 seuerall things,
and a camell to cary away the same, which being receiued, the theeues
departed into the wildernes to their old habitation, and we went on our way
forward. [Sidenote: The river of Oxus.] And that night came to the riuer
Oxus, where we refreshed our selues, hauing bene 3. dayes without water and
drinke, and tarried there all the next day, making mery with our slaine
horses and camels, and then departed from that place, [Sidenote: A
wildernes of sande.] and for feare of meeting with the said theeues againe
or such like, we left the high way which went along, the said riuer, and
passed through a wildernes of sand, and traulled 4 dayes in the same before
we came to water: and then came to a wel, the water being very brackish,
and we then as before were in neede of water, and of other victuals, being
forced to kill our horses and camels to eate.

In this wildernes also we had almost fallen into the hands of theeues: for
one night being at rest, there came certaine scouts, and caried away
certaine of our men which lay a litle separated from the Carauan, wherewith
there was a great shoute and crie, and we immedately laded our camels, and
departed being about midnight and very darke, and droue sore till we came
to the riuer Oxus againe, and then we feared nothing being walled with the
said riuer: and whether it was for that we had gotten the water, or for
that the same theeues were far from vs when the scouts discouered vs, we
knowe not, but we escaped that danger.

[Sidenote: Boghar a citie of Bactria.] So vpon the 23 day of December we
arriued at the citie of Boghar in the lande of Bactria. This Boghar is
situated in the lowest part of all the land, walled about with a high wall
of earth, with diuers gates into the same: it is diuided into 3 partitions,
whereof two parts are the kings, and the 3 part is for Marchants and
markets, and euery science hath their dwelling and market by themselues.
The Citie is very great, and the houses for the most part of earth, but
there are also many houses, temples and monuments of stone sumptuously
builded, and gilt, and especially bathstoues so artificially built, that
the like thereof is not in the world: the maner whereof is too long to
rehearse. [Sidenote: A strange worme in mens legs.] There is a little riuer
running through the middest of the said Citie, but the water there of is
most vnholsome, for it breedeth sometimes in men that drinke thereof, and
especially in them that be not there borne, a worme of an ell long, which
lyeth commonly in the legge betwixt the flesh and the skinne, and is pluckt
out about the ancle with great art and cunning, the Surgeons being much
practised therein, and if shee breaks in plucking out, the partie dieth,
and euery day she commeth out about an inch, which is rolled vp, and so
worketh till she be all out. And yet it is there forbidden to drinke any
other thing then water, and mares milke, and whosoeuer is found to breake
that law is whipped and beaten most cruelly through the open markets, and
there are officers appointed for the same, who haue authoritie to goe into
any mans house, to search if he haue either Aquauitae, wine, or brage, and
finding the same, doe breake the vessels, spoile the drinke, and punish the
masters of the house most cruelly, yea, and many times if they perceiue but
by the breath of a man that he hath drunke, without further examination he
shall not escape their hands.

There is a Metropolitane in this Boghar, who causeth this to bee so
streightly kept: and he is more obeyed then the king, and will depose the
king, and place another at his will and pleasure, as he did by this king
that raigned at our being there, and his predecessour, by the meanes of the
said Metropolitan: for he betrayed him, and in the night slewe him in his
chamber, who was a Prince who loued all Christians well.

This Countrey of Boghar was sometime subiect to the Persians, and do now
speake the Persian tongue, but yet now it is a kingdome of it selfe, and
hath most cruell warres continually with the sayd Persians about their
religion, although they be all Mahometists. One occasion of their wars is,
for that the Persians will not cut the haire of their vpper lips, as the
Bogharians and all other Tartars doe, which they accompt great sinne, and
cal them Caphars, that is Vnbeleeuers, as they doe the Christians.

[Sidenote: The coyne of Boghar.] The king of Boghar hath no great power or
riches, his reuenues are but small, and he is most meinteined by the Citie:
for he taketh the tenth penie of all things that are there solde, as well
by the craftsmen as by the marchants, to the great impouerishment of the
people, whom he keepeth in great subiection, and when he lacketh money, he
sendeth his officers to the shops of the sayd Marchants to take their wares
to pay his debts, and will haue credit of force, as the like he did to pay
me certaine money that he owed me for 19 pieces of Kersey. Their money is
siluer and copper, for gold there is none current: they haue but one piece
of siluer, and that is worth 12. pence English, and the copper money are
called Pooles, and 120 of them goeth the value of the said 12. pence, and
is more common paiment then the siluer, which the king causeth to rise and
fall to his most aduantage euery other moneth, and sometimes twise a
moneth, not caring to oppresse his people, for that he loketh not to reigne
aboue 2 or 3 yeres before he be either slaine, or driuen away, to the great
destruction of the countrey and merchants.

The 26 day of the moneth I was commanded to come before the said king, to
whom I presented the Emperour of Russia his letters, who interteined vs
most gently, and caused vs to eate in his presence, and diuers times he
sent for me, and deuised with me familiarly in his secret chamber, as well
of the power of the Emperour, and the great Turke as also of our countries,
lawes, and religion, and caused vs to shoote in handguns before him, and
did himselfe practise the vse thereof. But after all this great
intertainement before my departure he shewed himselfe a very Tartar: for he
went to the wars owing me money, and saw me not payd before his departure.
And although indeede he gaue order for the same, yet was I verie ill
satisfied, and forced to rebate part, and to take wares as payment for the
rest contrary to my expectation: but of a begger better paiment I could not
haue, and glad I was so to be paid and dispatched.

But yet I must needs praise and commend this barbarous king who immediately
after my arriual at Boghar, hauing vnderstoode our trouble with the
theeues, sent 100 men well armed, and gaue them great charge not to returne
before they had either slaine or taken the sayd theeues. Who according to
their commission ranged the wildernes in such sort, that they met with the
said company of theeues, and slew part, and part fledde, and foure they
tooke and brought vnto the king, and two of them were sore wounded in our
skirmish with our gunnes: And after the king had sent for me to come to see
them, he caused them all 4 to be hanged at his palace gate, because they
were Gentlemen, to the example of others. And of such goods as were gotten
againe, I had part restored me, and this good iustice I found at his hands.

There is yeerely great resort of Marchants to this Citie of Boghar, which
trauaile in great Carauans from the countries thereabout adioining, as
India, Persia, Balgh, Russia, with diuers others, and in times past from
Cathay, when there was passage: but these Marchants are so beggerly and
poore, and bring so little quantitie of wares, lying two or 3 yeeres to
sell the same, that there is no hope of any good trade there to be had
worthy the following.

The chiefe commodities that are brought thither out of these foresayd
Countreys, are these following.

[Sidenote: Marchandise of India.] The Indians doe bring fine whites, which
the Tartars do all roll about their heads, and al other kinds of whites,
which serue for apparell made of cotton wooll and crasko, but golde,
siluer, precious stones, and spices they bring none. I enquired and
perceiued that all such trade passeth to the Ocean sea, and the vaines
where all such things are gotten are in the subiection of the Portingals.
The Indians carie them from Boghar againe wrought silkes, red hides,
slaues, and horses, with such like, but of Kerseis and other cloth, they
make little accompt. I offered to barter with Marchants of those Countreis,
which came from the furthest parts of India, euen from the countrey of
Bengala, and the riuer Ganges, to giue them Kersies for their commodities,
but they would not barter for such commoditie as cloth.

[Sidenote: Marchandise of Persia.] The Persians do bring thither Craska,
wollen cloth, linnen cloth, diuers kindes of wrought pide silkes,
Argomacks, with such like, and doe carie from thence redde hides with other
Russe warres, and slaues, which are of diuers countreies, but cloth they
will by none, for that they bring themselues, and is brought vnto them as I
haue inquired from Allepo in Syria, and the parts of Turkie. [Sidenote:
Marchandise of Russia.] The Russes doe carie vnto Boghar, redde hides,
sheepe skinnes, wollen cloth of diuers sorts, woodden vessels, bridles,
saddles, with such like, and doe carie away from thence diuers kindes of
wares made of cotton wooll, diuers kinds of silkes, Crasca, with other
things, but there is but smal vtterance. [Sidenote: Marchandise of Cathay.]
From the Countreis of Cathay are brought thither in time of peace, and when
the way is open, musk, rubarbe, satten, damaske, with diuers other things.
At my being at Boghar, there came Carauans out of all these foresaid
Countries, except from Cathay: and the cause why there came none from
thence was the great warres that had dured 3 yeeres before my comming
thither, and yet dured betwixt 2 great Countries and cities of Tartars,
that are directly in the way betwixt the said Boghar and the said Cathay,
and certaine barbarous field people, as well Gentiles as Mahometists
bordering to the said Cities. [Sidenote: Taskent and Caskar.] The cities
are called Taskent and Caskar, and the people that warre against Taskent
are called Cassaks of the law of Mahomet: and they which warre with the
sayd countrey of Caskar are called Kings, Gentiles and idolaters. These 2
barbarous nations are of great force liuing in the fields without house or
towne, and haue almost subdued the foresaid cities, and so stopped vp the
way, that it is impossible for any Carauan to passe vnspoiled: so that 3
yeeres before our being there, no Carauan had gone, or vsed trade betwixt
the countries of Cathay and Boghar, and when the way is cleare, it is 9
moneths iourney.

To speake of the said countrey of Cathay, and of such newes as I haue heard
thereof, I haue thought it best to reserue it to our meeting. I hauing made
my solace at Boghar in the Winter time, and hauing learned by much
inquisition, the trade thereof, as also of all the other countries thereto
adioyning, and the time of the yeere being come, for all Carauans to
depart, and also the king being gone to the warres, and newes come that he
was fled, and I aduertised by the Metropolitan himselfe, that I should
depart, because the towne was like to bee besieged: I thought it good and
meete, to take my iourney some way, and determined to haue gone from thence
into Persia, and to haue seene the trade of that countrey, although I had
enformed my selfe sufficiently thereof, as well at Astracan, as at Boghar:
and perceiued well the trades not to be much vnlike the trades of Tartaria:
but when I should haue taken my iourney that way, it was let by diuers
occasions: the one was, the great wars that did newly begin betwixt the
Sophie, and the kings of Tartaria, whereby the waies were destroyed: and
there was a Carauan destroied with rouers and theeues, which came out of
India and Persia, by safe conduct: and about ten daies iourney from Boghar,
they were robbed, and a great part slaine. [Sidenote: He returneth the
eight of March 1559.] Also the Metropolitan of Boghar, who is greater then
the king, tooke the Emperors letters of Russia from me, without which I
should haue bene taken slaue in euery place: also all such wares as I had
receiued in barter for cloth, and as I tooke perforce of the king, and
other his Nobles, in paiment of money due vnto me, were not vendible in
Persia: for which causes and diuers others, I was constrained to come backe
againe to Mare Caspium, the same way I went: so that the eight of March
1559, we departed out of the said Citie of Boghar, being a Carauan of 600
Camels: and if we had not departed when we did, I and my company had bene
in danger to haue lost life and goods. For, ten daies after our departure,
the king of Samarcand came with an armie, and besieged the said Citie of
Boghar, the king being absent, and gone to the wars against another prince,
his kinsman, as the like chanceth in those Countries once in two or three
yeres. For it is maruell, if a King reigne there aboue three or foure
yeres, to the great destruction of the Countrey, and marchants.

[Sidenote: Vrgence.] The 25 of March, we came to the foresayd towne of
Vrgence, and escaped the danger of 400 rouers, which lay in waite for vs
backe againe, being the most of them of kindred to that company of theeues,
which we met with going foorth; as we perceiued by foure spies, which were
taken. [Sidenote: The king of Balke, or Balgh.] There were in my company,
and committed to my charge, two ambaassadors, the one from the king of
Boghar, the other from the king of Balke, and were sent vnto the Emperor of
Russia. And after having taried at Vrgence, and the Castle of Sellysure,
eight daies for the assembling, and making ready of our Carauan, the second
of Aprill we departed from thence, hauing foure more Ambassadors in our
companie, sent from the king of Vrgence, and other Soltans, his brethren,
vnto the Emperor of Russia, with answere of such letters as I brought them:
and the same Ambassadors were also committed vnto my charge by the sayde
Kings and princes: to whome I promised most faithfully, and swore by our
law, that they should be well vsed in Rusland, and suffered to depart from
thence againe in safetie, according as the Emperor had written also in his
letters: for they somewhat doubted, because there had none gone out of
Tartaria into Russia, of long time before.

The 23 of Aprill, we arriued at the Mare Caspium againe, where we found our
barke which we came in, but neither anker, cable, cocke, nor saile:
neuerthelesse wee brought hempe with vs, and spunne a cable our selues,
with the rest of our tackling, and made vs a saile of cloth of cotton
wooll, and rigged our barke as well as we could, but boate or anker we had
none. In the meane time being deuising to make an anker of wood of a cart
wheele, there arriued a barke, which came from Astracan, with Tartars and
Russes, which had 2 ankers, with whom I agreed for the one: and thus being
in a readinesse, we set saile and departed, I, and the two Iohnsons being
Master and Mariners ourselues, hauing in our barke the said sixe
ambassadors, and 25 Russes which had bene slaues a long time in Tartaria,
nor euer had before my comming, libertie, or meanes to get home, and these
slaues serued to rowe, when neede was. Thus sailing sometimes along the
coast, and sometimes out of sight of lande, the 13. day of May, hauing a
contrary winde, wee came to an anker, being three leagues from the shoare,
and there rose a sore storme, which continued 44. houres, and our cable
being of our our owne spinning, brake, and lost our anker, and being off a
lee shoare, and hauing no boate to helpe vs, we hoysed our saile, and bare
roomer with the said shoare, looking for present death: but as God prouided
vs, we ranne into a creeke ful of oze, and so saued our selues with our
barke, and liued in great discomfort for a time. For although we should
haue escaped with our liues the danger of the sea, yet if our barke had
perished, we knew we should haue bene either destroyed, or taken slaues by
the people of that Countrey, who liue wildly in the field, like beasts,
without house or habitation. Thus when the storme was seazed, we went out
of the creeke againe: and hauing set the land with our Compasse, and taken
certaine markes of the same, during the time of the tempest, whilest we
ridde at our anker, we went directly to the place where we ridde, with our
barke againe, and found our anker which we lost: whereat the Tartars much
marueiled howe we did it. While we were in the creeke, we made an anker of
wood of cart wheeles, which we had in our barke, which we threw away, when
wee had found our yron anker againe. Within two days after, there arose
another great storme, at the Northeast, and we lay a trie, being driuen far
into the sea, and had much ado to keepe our barke from sinking, the billowe
was so great: but at the last, hauing faire weather, we tooke the Sunne,
and knowing howe the land lay from vs we fel with the Riuer Yaik, according
to our desire, wherof the Tartars were very glad, fearing that wee should
haue bene driuen to the coast of Persia, whose people were vnto them great

[Sidenote: The English flag in the Caspian sea.] Note, that during the time
of our Nauigation, wee set vp the redde crosse of S. George in our flagges,
for honour of the Christians, which I suppose was neuer seene in the
Caspian sea before. We passed in this voyage diuers fortunes:
notwithstanding the 28. of May we arriued in safetie at Astracan, and there
remained till the tenth of Iune following, as well to prepare vs small
boates, to goe vp against the streame of Volga, with our goods, as also for
the companie of the Ambassadours of Tartarie, committed vnto me, to bee
brought to the presence of the Emperour of Russia.

[Sidenote: A notable description of the Caspian Sea.] This Caspian sea (to
say some thing of it) is in length about two hundred leagues, and in
breadth 160, without any issue to other seas: to the East part whereof,
ioyneth the great desert countrey of the Tartars, called Turkemen: to the
West, the countreyes of the Chyreasses, the mountaines of Caucasus, and the
Mare Euxinum, which is from the said Caspian Sea a hundred leagues. To the
North is the riuer Volga, and the land of Nagay, and to the South parte
ioyne the countreys of Media and Persia. This sea is fresh water in many
places, and in other places as salt as our great Ocean. It hath many goodly
Riuers falling into it, and it auoideth not it selfe except it be vnder
ground. The notable riuers that fall into it are first the great riuer of
Volga, called in the Tartar tongue Edell, which springeth out of a lake in
a marrish or plaine ground, not farre from the Citie of Nouogrode in
Russia, and it is from the spring to the Sea, aboue two thousande English
miles. It hath diuers other goodly Riuers falling into it, as out of
Siberia, Yaic, and Yem: Also out of the mountaines of Caucasus, the Riuers
of Cyrus and Arash, and diuers others.

As touching the trade of Shamaky in Media and Tebris, with other townes in
Persia, I haue enquired, and do well vnderstand, that it is euen like to
the trades of Tartaria, that is little vtterance, and small profite: and I
haue bene aduertised that the chiefe trade of Persia is into Syria, and so
transported into the Leuant sea. The fewe shippes vpon the Caspian Seas,
the want of Mart and port Townes, the pouertie of the people, and the ice,
maketh that trade naught.

At Astracan there were merchants of Shamaky, with whom I offered to barter,
and to giue them kersies for their wares, but they would not, saying, they
had them as good cheape in their countrey, as I offred them, which was sixe
rubbles for a kersie, that I asked: and while I was at Boghar, there were
brought thither out of Persia, Cloth, and diuers commodities of our
countries, which were sold as good cheape, as I might sell ours.

The tenth day of Iune we departed from Astracan towards the Mosco, hauing
an hundred gunners in our company at the Emperors charges, for the safe
conduct at the Tartar Ambassadors and me. And the eight and twentieth day
of Iuly folowing, wee arriued at the citie of Cazan, hauing bene vpon the
way from Astracan thither, sixe weekes and more, without any refreshing of
victuals: for in all that way there is no habitation.

[Sidenote: His arriual at Mosco the 2. of September.] The seuenth of August
folowing, wee departed from Cazan, and transported our goods by water, as
farre as the citie of Morum, and then by land; so that the second of
September, we arriued at the citie of Mosco, and the fourth day I came
before the Emperours Maiestie, kissed his hand, and presented him a white
Cowes taile of Cathay, and a drumme of Tartaria, which he well accepted.
Also I brought before him all the Ambassadors that were committed to my
charge, with all the Russe slaues: and that day I dined in his Maiesties
presence, and at dinner his Grace sent me meate by a Duke, and asked me
diuers questions touching the lands and countreis where I had bene. And
thus I remained at the Mosco about your affaires, vntil the 17. day of
February that your wares were sent downe: and then hauing a license of the
Emperors Maiestie to depart, the 21. day I came to your house at Vologhda,
and there remained vntil the breaking vp of the yere: and then hauing seene
all your goods laden into your boates, I departed, with the same, and
arriued withall in safetie at Colmogro the 9. of May 1560. And here I cease
for this time, intreating you to heare with this my large discourse, which
by reason of the varietie of matter, I could make no shorter, and I beseech
God to prosper all your attempts.

The latitudes of certaine principall places in Russia, and other Regions.

Deg. Min.
Mosco in 55 10
Nouogrod the great 58 26
Nouogrod the lesse 56 33
Colmogro 64 10
Vologhda 59 11
Cazan 55 33
Oweke 51 40
Astracan 47 9
At the entrance into the
Caspian sea. 46 42
Manguslaue beyond the
Caspian sea. 45 04
Vrgence in Tartary 20.
dayes iourney from the
Caspian sea. 42 18
Boghar a citie in Tartary
20. dayes iourney from
Vrgcnce. 39 10

* * * * *

Certaine notes gathered by Richard Iohnson (which was at Boghar with M.
Anthony Ienkinson) of the reports of Russes and other strangers, of the
wayes of Russia to Cathaya, and of diuers and strange people.

The first note giuen by one named Sarnichoke a Tartarian subiect to the
Prince of Boghar, which are also Tartars bordering vpon Kizilbash or
Persia, declaring the way from Astracan, being the furthest part of
Russia, to Cathaya as foloweth.

First from Astracan to Serachick by land, trauailing by leysure as
Merchants vse with wares, is 10. dayes iourney.

From Serachick to a towne named [Marginal note: Or Vrgema.] Vrgenshe, 15.

From Vrgenshe to Boghar, 15. dayes.

From Boghar to Cascar, 30. dayes.

From Cascar to Cathaya, 30. dayes iourney.

* * * * *

By the same partie a note of another way more sure to traueile, as he

From Astracan to Turkemen by the Caspian sea, 10. dayes, with barkes.

From Turkemen by lande specially with Camels, bearing the weight of 15.
poodes for their common burthens, is 10. dayes to Vrgenshe.

From Vrgenshe to Boghar, 15. dayes.

Note. At this Citie of Boghar is the marte or meeting place betweene the
Turkes and nations of those parts and the Cathayans.

Also the toll there is the 40. part to be payed of Merchandizes or goods.

From thence to Cascar is one moneths iourney, and from Cascar (being the
frontier of the great Can, hauing many townes and fortes by the way) is
also a moneths trauel for merchants by land to Cathay.

Further, as he hath heard (not hauing bene in those parts himselfe) ships
may saile from the dominions of Cathaia vnto India. But of other waies, or
how the seas lie by any coast hee knoweth not.

The instruction of another Tartarian merchant dwelling in the citie of
Boghar, as he hath learned by other his countreymen which haue bene

First from Astracan by sea to Serachick is 15 dayes: affirming also that a
man may trauell the other way before written by Turkemen.

From Serachick to Vrgence is 15 dayes.

From Vrgence to Boghar also 15 dayes.

Note. These last 30 daies iourney is without habitation of houses:
therefore trauellers lodge in their own tents, carying with them to eate,
their seuerall prouisions: and for drinesse there bee many wels of faire
water at equall baiting places not farre distant dayly to be had.

From Boghar to Taskent easie travelling with goods, is 14 dayes by land.

From Taskent to Occient 7 dayes.

From Occient to Cascar 20 daies. This Cascar is the head towne or citie of
another prince, lying betweene Boghar and Cathaia, called Reshit can.

From Cascar to Sowchick 30 daies iourney, which Sowchick is the first
border of Kathay.

From Sowchick to Camchick 5 dayes iourney, and from Camchick to Cathay is 2
moneths iourney, all the way being inhabited, temperate, and wel
replenished with innumerable fruits, and the chiefe citie in that whole
land is called Cambalu, which is yet 10 dayes iourney from Cathay.

Beyond this land of Cathay, which they praise to be ciuill and vnspeakeably
rich, is the countrey named in the Tartarian tongue Cara-calmack inhabited
with blacke people: but in Cathay the most part thereof stretching to the
sunne rising, are people white and of faire complexion. Their religion
also, as the Tartars report, is christian, or after the maner of
Christians, and their language peculiar, differing from the Tartarian

There are no great and furious Beares in trauelling through the waies
aforesaid, but wolues white and blacke. And because that woods are not of
such quantitie there, as in these parts of Russia, but in maner rather
scant then plentiful, as is reported, the Beares breed not that way, but
some other beasts (as namely one in Russe called Barse) are in those
coasts. This Barse appeareth by a skinne of one seene here to sell, to be
nere so great as a big lion, spotted very faire and therefore we here take
it to be a Leopard or Tiger.

[Sidenote: Angrim] Note that 20 daies iourney from Cathay is a country
named Angrim, where liueth the beast that beareth the best Muske, and the
principal thereof is cut out of the knee of the male. [Sidenote: Mandeuille
speaketh hereof.] The people are taunie, and for that the men are not
bearded nor differ in complexion from women, they have certaine tokens of
iron, that is to say: the men weare the sunne round like a bosse vpon their
shoulders, and women on their priuie parts. Their feeding is raw flesh in
the same land, and in another called Titay: [Marginal Note: or Kitay.] the
Duke there is called Can. [Sidenote: Small people.] They worship the fire,
and it is 34 dayes iourney from great Cathay, and in the way lyeth the
beautifull people, eating with kniues of golde, and are called Comorom, and
the land of small people is neerer the Mosko then Cathay.

* * * * *

The instructions of one of Permia, who reporteth he had bene at Cathay the
way before written, and also another way neere the sea coast, as
foloweth, which note was sent out of Russia from Giles Holmes.

[Sidenote: Pechora but sixe days iourney by land or water from Ob.] First
from the prouince of Dwina is knowen the way to Pechora, and from Pechora
traueiling with Olens or harts, is sixe dayes iourney by land, and in the
Sommer as much by water to the riuer of Ob.

The Ob is a riuer full of flats, the mouth of it is 70. Russe miles ouer.
And from thence three dayes iourney on the right hand is a place called
Chorno-lese, to say in English, blacke woods, and from thence neere hand is
a people called Pechey-cony, wearing their haire by his description after
the Irish fashion.

From Pechey-cony to Ioult Calmachey three dayes iourney, and from thence to
Chorno Callachay three dayes tending to the Southeast.

These two people are of the Tartarian faith, and tributaries to the great

* * * * *

Here follow certaine countreys of the Samoeds which dwell vpon the riuer
Ob, and vpon the sea coasts beyond the same, taken outof the Russe tongue
word by word, and trauailed by a Russe born in Colmogro, whose name was
Pheodor Towtigin, who by report, was slaine in his second voyage in one
of the said countreys.

Vpon the East part beyond the countrey of Vgori, the riuer Ob is the most
Westernmost part thereof. Vpon the sea coast dwell Samoeds, and their
countrey is called Molgomsey, whose meate is flesh of Olens, or Harts, and
Fish, and doe eate one another sometimes among themselues. And if any
Marchants come vnto them, then they kill one of their children for their
sakes to feast them withall. And if a Marchant chance to die with them,
they burie him not, but eate him, and so doe they eate them of their owne
countrey likewise. [Sidenote: Travelling on dogs and harts.] They be euill
of sight, and haue small noses, but they be swift and shoote very well, and
they trauaile on Harts and on dogges, and their apparell is Sables and
Harts skinnes. They haue no Marchandise but Sables onely.

2 Item, on the same coast or quarter beyond those people; and by the sea
side also doth dwell another kinde of Samoeds in like maner, hauing another
language. One moneth in the yeere they liue in the sea, and doe not come or
dwell on the dry land for that moneth.

3 Item beyond these people, on the sea coast, there is another kinde of
Samoeds, their meate is flesh and fish, and their merchandise are Sables,
white and blacke Foxes (which the Russes call Pselts) and Harts skinnes,
and Fawnes skinnes.

* * * * *

The relation of Chaggi Memet a Persian Marchant, to Baptista Ramusius, and
other notable citizens of Venice; touching the way from Tauris the chiefe
city of Persia, to Campion a citie of Cathay ouer land: in which voyage
he himselfe had passed before with the Carauans.

From Tauris to Soltania. 6 dayes iourney
From Soltania to Casbin. 4 " "
From Casbin to Veremi. 6 " "
From Veremi to Eri. 15 " "
From Eri to Boghara. 20 " "
From Boghara to Samarchand. 5 " "
From Samarchand to Cascar. 25 " "
From Cascar to Acsu. 20 " "
From Acsu to Cuchi. 20 " "
From Cuchi to Chialis. 10 " "
From Chialis to Turfon. 10 " "
From Turfon to Camul. 13 " "
From Camul to Succuir. 15 " "
From Succuir to Gauta. 5 " "
From Gauta to Campion. 6 " "

Which Campion is a citie of the Empire of Cathay in the prouince of Tangut,
from whence the greatest quantitie of Rubarbe commeth.

* * * * *

A letter of Sigismond king of Polonia, written in the 39. yeere of his
reigne to Elizabeth the Queenes most excellent Maiestie of England, &c.

Sigismundus Augustus by the grace of God king of Polonia, great Duke of
Lituania, Russia, Prussia, Massouia, and Samogetia, &c. Lord and heire &c.
to the most Noble Princesse Ladie Elizabeth by the same grace of God Queene
of England, France and Ireland, &c. our deare sister, and kinsewoman,
greeting and increase of all felicitie. Whereas your Maiestie writeth to vs
that you haue receiued two of our letters, wee haue looked that you should
haue answered to them both. [Sidenote: The trade to Narue forbidden by the
K. of Poland.] First to the one in which we intreated more at large in
forbidding the voyage to Narue, which if it had bene done, we had bene
vnburdened of so often writing of one matter: and might haue answered your
Maiestie much better to the purpose. Now we thus answere to your Maiestie
to those matters of the which you writte to vs the 3 of October from
Windsore. [Sidenote: The ancient couenants of trafficke between England and
Prussia.] First, forasmuch as your Maiestie at the request of our letters
hath discharged the arrest of Marchants goods, and of the names of the men
of Danske our subiects, which was set vpon them by the commandement of your
Maiestie: and also haue restored the olde and ancient libertie of
traffique, we acknowlege great pleasure done vnto vs in the same: and also
think it to bee done according to common agreement made in times past.
Neither were we euer at any time of any other opinion touching your
Maiestie, but that wee should obtaine right and reason at your hands.
Forasmuch as we likewise shall at all times be ready to grant to your
Maiestie, making any request for your subiects, so farre as shall stand
with iustice, yet neither will we yeeld any thing to your Maiestie in
contention of loue, beneuolence, and mutuall office, but that we iudge
euery good turne of yours to be recompensed by vs to the vttermost: and
that shall we prooue as occasion shall serue. [Sidenote: The olde libertie
of trafficke.] Therefore we shall commaund the arrests, if any be made by
our subiects (as it is vnknowen to vs) of merchants goods and English names
to be discharged: and shall conserue the olde libertie of trafficke, and
all other things which shall seeme to apperteine to neighbourhood betweene
vs and your Maiestie: so that none of the subiects of your Maiestie
hereafter presume to vse the nauigation to the Narue forbidden by vs, and
full of danger not onely to our parts, but also to the open destruction of
all Christians and liberall nations. [Sidenote: The meanes of increase of
the power of the Muscouite.] The which as we haue written afore, so now we
write againe to your Maiesty that we know and feele of a surety, the
Moscouite, enemy to all liberty vnder the heauens, dayly to grow mightier
by the increase of such things as he brought to the Naure, while not onely
wares but also weapons heretofore vnknowen to him, and artificers and arts
be brought vnto him: by meane whereof he maketh himselfe strong to vanquish
all others. Which things, as long as this voyage to Narue is vsed, can not
be stopped. And we perfectly know your Maiesty can not be ignorant how
great the cruelty is of the said enemy, of what force he is, what tyranny
he vseth on his subiects, and in what seruile sort they be under him. We
seemed hitherto to vanquish him onely in this, that he was rude of arts,
and ignorant of policies. If so be that this nauigation to the Naure
continue, what shall be vnknowen to him? Therefore we that know best, and
border vpon him, do admonish other Christian princes in time, that they do
not betray their dignity, liberty and life of them and their subiects to a
most barbarous and cruell enemy, as we can no lesse do by the duty of a
Christian prince. For now we do foresee, except other princes take this
admonition, the Moscuite puffed vp in pride with those things that he
brought to the Narue, and made more perfect in warlike affaires with
engines of warre and shippes, will make assault this way on Christendome,
to slay or make bound all that shall withstand him: which God defend. With
which our admonition diuers princes already content themselues, and
abstaine from the Narue. The others that will not abstaine from the sayd
voyage shalbe impeached by our nauie, and incurre the danger of losse of
life, liberty, wife and children. Now therefore if the subiects of your
Maiesty will forbeare this voyage to Narue, there shalbe nothing denied to
them of vs. Let your Maiesty well weigh and consider the reasons and
occasions of our stopping of ships going to the Narue. In which stopping,
our subiects of Danske be in no fault, as we haue already written to your
Maiesty, neither vse we their counsell in the same. In any other matter, if
there be any fault in them against your Maiesty or your subiects, we will
gladly do iustice vpon them, that your Maiesty may well vnderstand that we
be careful of you and your subiects. Neither thinke we it meet to take
Hamburgh, or any other place to iudge the matter: for we have our councell
and iudgement seat at Rie, where your Maiesty and your subiects, or any
other shal haue iustice administred vnto them, with whom we haue had
ancient league and amity. And thus much we haue thought good to let your
Maiesty vnderstand. Fare ye well. Dated the sixt of December the 39 of our
reigne. [Footnote: A.D. 1559]

Sigismundus Augustus Rex.

* * * * *

The Queenes Maiesties Letters to the Emperour of Russia, requesting
licence, and safe conduct for M. Anthony Ienkinson to passe thorow his
kingdome of Russia, into Persia, to the Great Sophie, 1561.

ELIZABETHA Dei gratia, Angliae, &c. Regina, serenissimo et potentissimo
principi, D. Ioanni Basiliuich, Imperatori totius Russia, Magno Duci, &c.
Salutem, et omnium rerum prosperarum foelicissimum incrementum.
Potentissime Princeps, res est nobis ad memorandum longe gratissima, illa
vestra Maiestatis erga nos et nostros amicitia. Qua tempore foelicissima
memoria Regis Edwardi sexti, fratris nostri charissimi, Dei benignitate
incepta, deinceps vero vestra non solum singulari humanitate alta atque
fota, sed incredibili etiam bonitate aucta atque cumulata, nunc autem
omnibus beneuolentia vestra officijs sic firmata est atque constabilita, vt
iam minime dubitemus, quin ea ad laudem Dei, ad gloriam vtriusque nostrum,
ad publicam nostrorum vtrobique regnorum immensam commoditatem, ad priuatam
singulorum vtrinque subditorum optatam spem, certamque foelicitatem multis
sit deinceps seculis duratura. Et quanquam hac vestra bonitas, plenissime
sese effudit in omnes nostros subditos, qui sese in ullas imperij vestri
partes vnquam receperunt, (pro qua ingentes nostras, vt par est, gratias
vestra Maiestati habemus, vestrisque vicissim in omni opportunitatis loco
libentissime feremus) tamen abundantia benignitatis vestra, in accipiendo,
tamque humaniter tractando nostrum fidelem et perdilectum famulum Antonium
Ienkinson, qui has perfert literas, seorsim nobis gratissima existit. Nam
praterquam quod nullis non locis vestri Imperij et magna libertate, et
summa humanitate vestra serenitatis non permissu solum, sed iussu etiam
frueretur, vestra bonitas tamen non in hac domestica benigne feciendi
ratione conquieuit, sed perlibenter et vltro eundum nostrum hunc
perdilectum famulum, varijs exteris princibus, quoquouersus ipse iter suum
instituerat, literis suis, suo magno Imperiali sigillo consignatis
commendauit. Quod beneficium illi vbiuis gentium, et viam sine vllo
periculo, propter publicam vestram fidem, et aduentum cum magno fauore,
propter vestram commendationem, optate quidem et foeliciter communiuit
Itaque quemadmodum gemina hac vestra beneuolentia, cum illa generalis
exhibita in vestro regno negotiantibus subditis nostris vniuersis, tum ista
seorsim prastita huic Antonio Ienkinson, perfideli nostro famulo, nobis in
mente non solum ad gratam perpetuamque memoriam, verum etiam ad mutuam, vel
opportunam compensationem, firmissime defixa est: ita, petimus a vestra
Maiestate vt vtramque beneuolentia vestra rationem et communem nostris
vniuersis, et priuatam huic nostro dilecto famulo, vtrisque deinceps
dignetur tueri, atque conseruare. Neque nos quidem diffidemus, quin quem
fauorem vestra Maiestas antea sua sponte Antonio Ienkinson, tum quidem
priuato ostendit, eundem nunc nostra rogatu eidem Antonio in nostrum iam
famulatum cooptato benigne velit denuo declarere. Et propterea petimus a
vestra Maiestate, vt dignetur iterum concedere eidem nostro famulo literas
suas commeatus, publica fidei, ac saluiconductus, quarum tenore,
authoritate, atque prasidio, sit illi, familiaribus suis, et seruis, tutum,
liberumque, cum mercibus, sarcinis, equis, et bonis suis vniuersis,
inuehendis euehendisque, per vestra regna, domicilia, atque prouincias,
proficisci, ire, transire, redire, abire, et istic morari, quandiu
placuerit, et inde recedere quandocunque illi aut suis libitum fuerit. Et
sicut non dubitamus, quin vestra Maiestas hac omnia humanitatis grata
officia, pro immensa bonitate sua natura benigne et largiter huic famulo
nostro sit concessura ita valde optamus, adeoque petimus, vt vestra
Maiestas eodem nostrum famulum, vna cum omnibus suis familiaribus, ac
bonis, exteris alijs principibus literis suis dignetur commendare,
presertim vero atque seorsim Magno Sophi, Persarum Imperatori, in cuius
etiam imperia et ditiones idem noster famulus gratia potissime experiundi
peregrina, commercia, proficisci vna cum suis constituit.

Confidimus igitur hac omnia nostra postulata pro famuli spe, pro nostra
expectatione, pro vestra bonitate, pro nostrorum utrinque subditorum
commoditate, fausta illi, grata nobis, acccpta etiam vestra Maiestati, et
nostris vtrobique perquam vtilia euasura. Deus vestra Maiestatis, &c. Datum
in celeberrima nostra Ciuitate Londini, anno mundi 5523. Domini ac Dei
nostri Iesu Christi 1561. regnorum vero nostrorum tertio.

The same in English

Elizabeth by the grace of God, Queene of England, &c. to the right
excellent, and right mightie Prince, Lord Iohn Basiliwich, Emperour of all
Russia, &c. greeting, and most happie increase in all prosperitie. Right
mightie Prince, the amitie of your Maiestie towards vs and our subiects is
very pleasant to vs to be remembred, which being begun by the goodnesse of
God in the reigne of our most deare brother of happie memorie, King Edward
the sixt, and afterwards, through your not onely singular humanitie, fed,
and nourished, but also through your incredible goodnesse increased, and
augmented, is now firmed and established, with all maner of tokens of your
beneuolence, that now we doubt not, but that from hencefoorth, during many
ages, the same shall endure to the praise of God, to both our glories, to
the publike great commoditie of our Realmes on either part, and to the
priuate desired hope; and certeine felicitie of all our subiects. And
although that this your goodnesse hath bene abundantly extended to all our
subiects that have at any time repaired into any part of your Empire, for
the which wee giue (as reason is) your Maiestie right heartie thanks, and
will againe shew the like vnto yours, right willingly, whensoeuer
opportunitie shall require: yet the abundance of your benignitie both in
receiuing, and also in enterteining our faithfull and beloued seruant,
Anthonie Ienkinson, the bringer of these our letters, is vnto vs for him
priuately very thankefull. For besides this, that in all places of your
Empire, he not onely by your Maiesties sufferance, but also by your
commandement, enioyed much libertie, and great friendship, your goodnesse
not ceasing in this your domesticall disposition of clemencie, did right
willingly, and of your owne abundant grace, commend the same our
well-beloued seruant, by your letters sealed with your Imperiall seale, to
sundrie forren Princes, vnto whom he was minded to iourney: which your
magnificence did purchase unto him happily, according to his desire, both
passage without all perill, through your notable credit, and also
atchieuing of his iourney through your commendation. Therefore like as
these your duplicated beneuolences, both that one generally exhibited to
all our subiects frequenting that your Realme, and also this the other
extended apart to this our right faithfull seruant Anthonie Ienkinson, is
right assuredly fastened in our remembrance, not onely for a perpetuall and
gratefull memorial, but also for a mutuall and meet compensation: so we


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