The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques,
Richard Hakluyt

Part 7 out of 7

To Oher 90
To Narue 180
Southwest and Northeast 770 versts

To go with a small boat within the land from S. Nicholas to Wardhouse.

To Newnox riuer |
To Ousca Gouba |
To Lobshanga |
To Oust Nauelocki | To Wardhouse
To Orlouanos | in
To Solusca Monasterie | all 800.
To Candelox | versts
To Oust Colla | Northwest
To Zhemaker | and Southeast
To Poganna Volocki |
To Chibe Nanolocke |
To Kegor |

The way from Colmogro to Mixemske Sloboda, where the Samoeds keep their

To Vst Pinnego |
To Palango |
To Vescom |
To Soyaua | Al is 230 versts
To Coula |
To Nendega |
To Lampas |
To Sloboda |

The way to Vromo from Mazemske Sloboda, where the Losh hides are gotten.

To Lampas | All is 115. versts
To Pogorel | Northeast and
To Zapolle | Southwest.
To Vromo |

The way and distances from Saint Nicholas, to the Caspian Sea.

If you goe straight from Saint Nicholas, to the Caspian Sea, you must goe
to Vologhda by water, as by the easiest passage, and that is accomplished,
passing day and night, in foureteene dayes and foureteene nights, in boates
cut out of a tree: (the boates are called Stroogs) 1100. versts it is.

By horse and sleds in 8. dayes you may passe it in Winter. In Summer the
way is dangerous by meanes of marishes and bogs, and not safely then to be
passed. Then from Vologhda to Yeraslaue 180. versts ouer land. This
Yeraslaue standeth vpon the riuer of Volga, 180. versts I say distant from

To the Caspian sea are 2700. versts from Yeraslaue.

So from S. Nicholas to the Caspian sea, are 3800. 80. versts.

The iourney from S. Nicholas to Yeraslaue is accomplished in foureteene
dayes by water, and two dayes by land. 16. dayes.

From thence to Astracan men trauell by water in 30. dayes and 30. nights.

So between S. Nicholas and the Caspian sea, are 46. dayes iourney.

There passe downe Volga euery Summer, 500. boats great and smal, from all
the vpper parts of the riuer, whereof some be of 500. tunne. They go for
Minerall salt and for Sturgeon.

The salt lieth in rocks (and is whitish red, and in fine sand) as it were
30. miles from Astracan toward the Caspian sea. They dig it themselues and
pay nothing for it, but to the prince a peny a pood, viz. 40. pound waight.

[Sidenote: Fishing for Sturgeon for 3 moneths.] The Sturgeon which they
call Ocetera is taken fiftie miles on this side Astracan. Along the riuer
the space of 20. miles, they make their booties in plaine grounds, and fish
for the space of three moneths, viz. from the end of May till, the end of
August, and hauing salt they vse to salt them.

The riuer is there 5. or 6. miles broad, but with some Islands. The riuer
below Yeraslaue, where it is most narrow, is a mile broad from side to

The riuer runneth vpon red clay, all woods of birch and oke on the riuer
sides, saue about the townes of the fishing places.

Dwina from S. Nicholas to Vstiug runneth all on chalke and sand: the fish
are sweete and fat The Mene a fish with a great head a foot long breedeth
about Vologda, and is fat and delicate.

Between Vobsko and Nouogrod, the space of an 180. miles, groweth flax: the
whole soile in length is so imploied, and as much in breadth: this is vpon
a flat soile.

The hempe groweth about Smolensko vpon the Polish border, 300. miles in
compasse: much of the soile is so imploied.

[Sidenote: The Englishmen in making of cables set on worke 100 men in
Russia.] Of this hempe they bring in Winter to Vologda and Colmogro, and we
set in worke in making of cables aboue 100 men.

The Russians do spin and hachell it, and the English tarre it in threed and
lay the cable. And one cable of those is woorth two of Danzick, because the
Danzickers put in old cable and rotten stuffe, which in fowle weather is
found of no strength.

[Sidenote: Sosnoua tree excellent for the cure of the wolfe.] Sosnoua, a
tree that cureth the wolfe with the shauings of the wood, groweth in these
parts, and of the barks they make ropes as big as a mans arme for their

The Samoeds lacking linnen make handkerchiefs and towels of the very wood
of this tree. The wood of this tree is as heauie as hollie, and the
shauings tough.

[Sidenote: The description of Rose Island.] Rose Island in S. Nicholas Baie
is full of Roses damaske and red, of violets and wild Rosemarie: This
Island is neere 7. or 8. miles about, and good pasture, and hath the name
of the roses.

The snow here about the midst of May is cleared, hauing bin two moneths in
melting, then the ground is made dry within 14. dayes after, and then the
grasse is knee high within a moneth. Then after September the frost commeth
in, the snow is a yard deepe vpon plaine ground. The Island hath Firre and
Birch, and a faire fresh spring neere the house built there by the English.

* * * * *

The way discouered by water by vs Thomas Southam and Iohn Sparke, from the
towne of Colmogro, by the Westerne bottome of the Baie of S. Nicholas,
vnto the citie of Nouogrod in Russia, containing many particulars of the
way, and distance of miles, as hereafter foloweth. Anno 1566.

We departed from Colmogro about 10. of the clocke afore noone in a Lodia or
Barke, which we hired to bring vs along the coast to a place called Soroka,
and in the sayd barke we hired 6. mariners, and a boy to conduct vs to the
place before rehearsed.

The Lodia or barke was of the burden of 25. tunnes or thereabout, wherewith
we valed downe the riuer of Dwina, the winde being then calme, vnto a
monasterie, called S. Michael where we were, constrained to anker because
of a contrary wind which there met vs.

[Sidenote: A verst is but 3 quarters of an english mile.] From Colmogro to
this monasterie are 50. versts or miles of Russia, at which place we taried
till the 21. day in the morning, and then hauing the wind somewhat faire,
we set saile and departed thence.

21 We departed, from the monasterie of S. Michael, hauing the wind somewhat
faire, and arriued at Rose Island, ouer and against the monasterie of S.
Nicholas, the 22. day at 2. of the clocke in the morning, which is 35.
miles distant from the monasterie of S. Michael. By reason of contrary wind
and tide we were constrained to tary there all that day.

23 We departed from the monasterie of S. Nicholas at 7. of the clocke in
the euening, and came to an anker at the Beacons, and continued there vntil
halfe an houre past 10. of the clocke, and then set from thence, the wind
being South: our course was West vntil 5. of the clock in the morning, when
as we came to an anker against Newnox towne, where we continued vntil the
25. day.

[Sidenote: At this towne Newnox Richard Chanceller in his first voyage,
with his companie ashipboard were relieved.] The sayd towne of Newnox is
from the monasterie of S. Nicholas 35. miles.

25 We departed from Newnox hauen at one of the clocke in the after noone,
the wind at South and Southeast, and our course Northwest and by West.

The point of Tolstick which is the headland before the entrance of Newnox
hauen, and the headland of Seusemski lie next Southeast and by South,
Northwest and by North. We came to an anker there this day at 4. of the
clock in the afternoone being from Newnox hauen 15. miles, where we
continued in harbour til the 27, day of the moneth, by reason of contrary

27 We departed from Seusemski in the morning at 5. of the clocke, the wind
next at East and by North, and our course Northwest and by West.

The said land of Seusemski and the headland going into Owna riuer lieth
East and by South, west and by North, and between them is 25. miles.

This day at Sunne set we came to an Island called Sogisney passing betwixt
it and the maine, with the wind at South and by East, our course was West
and by South, being 85. miles from Owna riuer.

Being past the said Island 10. miles, the wind came contrary, whereupon we
returned to the Island of Sogisney, where we remained vntil the 29. day.

29 The 29. day we departed from Sogisney aforesayd, at 5. of the clocke in
the afternoone, the wind at East northeast, and our course was Southwest
and by west, passing by an Island called Anger, being 30. miles from
Sogisney, and keeping on our course, we came by the headland of an Island
called Abdon, being from the Island of Anger 15. miles, where we found many
rocks: and if the great prouidence of God had not preserued vs, wee had
there perished, being fallen amongst them in the night time, and our pilot
none of the perfectest, which was contrary to his profession as we found

But whosoeuer will trauell that way must either keepe hard aboord the
shore, for that there is a chanell which goeth along the coast within the
rocks, or els giue the headland a birth of 6. miles at the least, and so
goe a seaboord all: for there are ledges of rocks that lie fiue miles from
the headland.

We gaue the headland a birth of 3. miles, notwithstanding there lay two
rockes two miles to sea boord of vs, so that we were inclosed with them,
and sate vpon the highest of them: but it pleased God to make it calme, and
giue vs the day also, or els we had miscaried.

30 We departed from the headland of the Island of Abdon, at 4. of the
clocke in the morning, directing our course West, and at 10. of the clocke
before noone, we arriued at a monasterie named Solofky, which is 15. miles
from Abdon.

At this monasterie we continued vntill the 31. day of this moneth. We had
here detracted vs by the chiefe monkes of the monasterie, their letter and
house seale, and a seruant of theirs to conduct vs safely through the
dangerous riuer of Owiga.

The people of all those parts are wild, and speake another kind of
language, and are for the most part all tenants to the monasterie. The
effect of the letter was, that they should be ready to helpe and assist vs
in all dangerous places, and carie our boats and goods ouer land in places
needfull, as in deed they did, as hereafter shall appeare.

Note, that at our being at the monasterie, there was no Abbot for the place
as then chosen: for 15. dayes before our arriual there, the Abbot was sent
for by the Emperour, and made Metropolitane of the realme, as he now is.
The number of monkes belonging to the monasterie are at the least 200.

31 Wee departed from the monasterie of Solofky, as is aforesayde, to a
faire stone house of theirs, which is 5. miles from the monasterie, lying
from it South and by West.

[Sidenote: August] 1 We departed from the Stone house at 3. of the clocke
in the morning: our course was West for 60. versts, and then passing
betwixt diuers and sundry rocks, with many small Islands round about vs for
the space of 20 miles, keeping most commonly the same course still, we then
shaped a new course, and yet sundry times shifting, [Sidenote: The riuer
Owiga.] but we alwayes kept the Southwest, and neerest of all South
southwest vntill we came within two miles of the entrance of the riuer
Owiga where we were to beare in, West and by North.

From the riuer Owiga, to the Islands and rocks before mentioned, are 20.

We arriued about 4. of the clocke in the after noone within the riuer of
Owiga, at a place named Soroka, at which place we forsooke our barke or
Lodia, and continued there in making prouision for small boates to carie vs
vp the riuer vntill the 3. day of the same.

3 We departed from Soroka at two of the clocke in the afternoone, with 3.
boats and 12. men to rowe, and set the foresaid boates vp the riuer of
Owiga, which we hired.

[Sidenote: The fall of a riuer.] We went this day 7. miles to a place
called Ostroue, where we lay all night, but in the way 4. miles from
Soroka, at a place where the water falleth from the rocks, as if it came
steepe downe from a mountain, we were constrained to take out our goods and
wares out of the said boats, and caused them to be caried a mile ouer land,
and afterwards also had our boates in like sort caried or drawen ouer land
by force of men which there dwelled, being tenants to the monasterie

And when our boats were come to the place where our wares were laid, we
lanched our boats and laded our wares againe, and went to the place before
named, where we continued and remained that night.

We departed from Ostroue in the morning before Sunne rising, rowing and
setting vp the riuer 5. miles, where we came to a place whereas we were
againe constrained to take out our wares, and to carie them and our boats
three miles ouer land, so that with rowing, drawing and setting, we went
this day 7. miles more to a place called Sloboday, where we lay all night.

5 We departed from Sloboday in the morning at Sunne rising, and at sixe of
the clocke in the aftemoone, we came to a village called Paranda, which is
from Sloboday 30. miles, where wee remained all that night.

6 We departed from Paranda at 6. of the clocke in the morning, and all that
day what with setting and drawing our boats, we went but 11. miles, for we
twise vnladed our wares, and drew our boats ouerland, in one place a mile
and an halfe, in another place as it were the eight part of a mile, and so
we came to a place called Voyets, where we taried all that night.

7 We departed from Voyets at 4. of the clocke in the morning, and so came
to an Ozera or lake, called after the name of the riuer, and vnto a place
called Quequenich, wee rowed all this day, and came thither by one of the
clock in the afternoone, which is 25. miles from Voyets, and there we
remained all night to hire men and boats to carie vs forward on our

Here departed backe from vs the seruant which we had at the Monasterie,
being sent by the monkes to go thus far with vs. And after that he had
hired the boats and taken the mens names that should conduct vs, and giuen
them charge to deliuer vs with all things in safetie, at a place being a
litle towne called Pouensa, then hee departed from vs without taking any
reward for his paines, for so he was charged and commanded by the monkes.

[Sidenote: A lake very full of Islands.] 8 We departed from Quequenich at
sunne rising, and all that day rowed vpon the lake amongst many Islands.
The inhabitants doe there report that there are as many Islands in their
lake, as there are dayes in the yeere. In the euening we came to a village
named Tellekina, which is 60. miles from Quequenich.

9 We departed from Tellekina in the morning at 5. of the clocke, and so
entring into a riuer, we went that day 13. miles. In one place we caried
our boates and goods ouerland 3. miles. At euening we came to a place
called Oreiche na maelay, where we lay all night.

10 Wee departed thence at 5. of the clocke in the morning, and so rowing,
came to a place where the riuer ended, being 20 miles distant from the
place where wee lay all night, at which place wee forsooke our boates and
vnladed our wares, and sent a man to the towne of Pouensa, which was seuen
mile ony for horses to cary vs and our wares to the said place. The horses
came, and we laded our goods, and at sixe of the clocke in the afternoone
wee arriued at the towne of Pouensa, with all things in safetie.

[Sidenote: The famous lake of Onega.] This towne of Pouensa standeth within
one mile lake of of the famous lake or Ozera of Onega, which is 320. miles
long and in some places 70. miles ouer. But where it is narrowest it is 25.
miles ouer, being fed with many goodly riuers which fall into it. Hard
aboord the shore within 6. miles, you shall haue 40. and 45. fathoms of

Here it is to bee noted that from this place of Pouensa vnto the village of
Soroka downe those dangerous riuers which wee came through, at no time of
the yeere can or may any man cary or transport any goods that come from
Nouogrod, or the Narue, and such other places: for in the Sommer it is
impossible to cary downe any wares by reason of the great fals of water
that doe descend from the rockes. Likewise in the Winter by reason of the
great force and fall of waters which make so terrible raises, that in those
places it neuer freezeth, but all such wares as come from Nouogrod to
Pouensa, are transported by land to a place called Some in the Winter,
which Some standeth on the sea side, as doth Soroka. The ready way from
Pouensa by land to this place of Some, with the distance of miles I will
shew hereafter.

12 We departed from Pouensa at 9. of the clocke in the morning, with 2.
smal boats which we hired to cary vs to a place called Toluo vpon the lake
of Onega, being 50 miles from Pouensa, where we arriued the 13. day in the
morning, where wee bought a boate that caried vs and all our wares from
thence to the Citie of Nouogrod.

14 We departed from Toluo at 3. of the clocke in the afternoone, and at the
euening arriued at a certaine Island named Salasalma, vpon the said lake 7.
miles from Toluo, and by reason of contrary windes we there taried vntill
the 16. day of this moneth.

16 We departed from Salasalma, at 8. of the clocke in the morning, and came
to an Island the 17. day in the morning, named Vorronia, where wee
continued by reason of contrary winds, vntill the 21. day of the said
moneth, and it is 60. miles from Salasalma.

[Sidenote: S. Clement his Monasterie.] 21 We departed from Vorronia Island
two houres before day, and arriued at S. Clements Monasterie at 2. of the
clocke in the after noone, being from Vorronia 48. miles.

22 We departed from S. Clements Monasterie at the breake of the day, hauing
a faire wind all a long the lake: we sailed without striking of saile vntil
two houres within night, and then entred into a riuer called Swire, at a
Monasterie called Vosnessino Christo, fiue miles from the entrance of the
riuer, where we taried al night. It is from S. Clements Monastery 160.
miles: the streame of that riuer went with vs.

23 Wee departed from Vosnessino Christo before Sunne rising, and valed
downe the riuer sometime sailing, and sometime rowing, so that this day wee
went 90. miles and lay at night at a place called Vassian.

24 Wee departed from Vassian at the breake of the day, and came to a place
called Selucax [Marginal note: Or Sermaxe.], where we lay all night, and is
10. miles from Vassian.

[Sidenote: The riuer of Volhuski. The lake of Ladeskai.] 25 We departed
from Selucaxe at 4 of the clocke in the morning, and entred vpon the Lake
of Ladiskaie, the winde being calme al that day sauing 3. hours, and then
it was with vs, so that we sailed and rowed that day 10. miles, along vpon
the said lake, and entred into the riuer of Volhuski, which riuer hath his
beginning 20. miles aboue Nouogrod, and runneth through the midst of the
Citie, and so falleth into this lake, which is farre longer then the lake
of Onega, but it is not so broad. This lake falleth into the sea that
commeth from the Sound: where any vessel or boat, hauing a good pilot, may
goe through the Sound into England.

As soone as we were entred into the riuer, we came to a Monasterie called
S. Nicholas Medued, where we lay all that night.

[Sidenote: The Monasterie of Gosnopoli.] 26 Wee departed from S. Nicholas
Medued, at fiue of the clocke in the morning, rowing and drawing our boates
all day, and came at night to another Monasterie called Gosnopoli, which is
30 miles from S. Nicholas Medued, where we lay all that night.

27 We departed from Gosnopoli at 6. of the clocke in the morning, and at
euening came to a place called Moislaue, where we lay all night, being 46.
miles from the Monasterie of Gosnopoli.

28 We departed from Moislaue, and the saide day at night came to a place
called Grussina, 35. miles from Moislaue where we lodged.

29 Wee departed from Grussina in the morning, and the same day at euening
came to a place called Petroe Suetoe, where we lay all night, being 40
miles from Grussina.

[Sidenote: The citie of Nouogrod.] 30 We departed from Petroe Suetoe in the
morning, and at two of the clock in the afternoone we arriued at the Citie
of Nouogrod, being twentie miles from Petroe Suetoe. Here we found William
Rowlie Agent to the company, who was there stayed with all his company, and
was not licenced to depart thence for the Mosco, by reason that the plague
was then in the Citie of Nouogrod. Vnto him we deliuered all the wares that
wee brought from Colmogro, for by the way we sold not a peny worth, the
people of the countrey euery where be so miserable.

The right way to bring and transport wares from Nouogrod to Rose Island
into S. Nicholas bay, where our Ships yeerely lade, with the distance of
miles from place to place, is as followeth:

20 Miles from Nouogrod to Petroe Suetoe.

40 Miles from thence to Grusina.

35 Miles from thence to Moislaue.

46 Miles from thence to the Monasterie Gosnopoli.

15 Miles from thence to Ladega towne.

15 Miles from thence to Selunaz ouer the lake of Ladega, albeit there be
many villages all along the lake.

180 Miles from Ladega towne vp the riuer of Swire, vnto the Monasterie of
Vosnessino Christo, albeit there are many villages vpon the riuer: for
within euery fiue or sixe miles you shall haue villages or small townes.

160 Miles from Vosnessino Christo to S. Clements Monastery, albeit there be
many villages all along the lake of Onega.

48 Miles from thence to Voronia.

67 Miles from thence to Toluo towne: and there are diuers villages al along
the lake where the carriers may lie, and haue meate for man and horse.

50 Miles from thence to Pouensa, where Onega lake endeth.

The way from Pouensa to Some towne is this:

30 Miles from Pouensa to Mastlelina.
10 Miles from thence to Tellekina.
30 Miles from thence to Toluich.
35 Miles from thence to Carraich.
20 Miles from thence to Varnich.
10 Miles from thence to Ostrouo.
15 Miles from thence to Lapina.
20 Miles from thence to Some it selfe.

Note, that from the Citie of Nouogrod vnto the towne of Some is 936. miles,
and from the towne of Some vnto the Monasterie of S. Nicholas or Rose
Island, ouer and against where our Ships do ride, is iust as many miles as
is Soroka village from S. Nicholas, as the Russes doe accompt it, as also
we do iudge it, namely 325. miles. So that from Nouogrod to S. Nicholas
road, is by our accompt 1261. miles or versts.

[Sidenote: Trauel by Sleds.] Furthermore it is to be noted that all such
wares as shall be bought at Nouogrod, and sent to Some towne, must be sent
by sled way in the Winter: for if any ware should be sent from Nouogrod by
water in the spring of the yeere after the yce is gone, then must the said
wares remaine at Pouensa towne al that Summer, by reason that in the Summer
there is no way to goe from Pouensa vnto Some towne.

At Pouensa there are many warehouses to be hired, so that if there were as
much goods as ten ships could cary away, you might haue warehouses to put
it in: but if there should remaine much ware all the Summer, to be caried
in the Winter to Some towne, then horses are not easily to be gotten at
that place to cary it thither: [Sidenote: 2000. Sleds belonging to one
towne.] so that your wares once bought at Nouogrod, you musthaue cariers
there to cary it to the towne of Some by Sleds, whereof you may there haue
2000. if you will, by the report of the Russes.

For from Nouogrod yerely there go many Sleds in the Winter to fetche salt
from Some, with carriers and emptie Sleds there to buy it, and to bring it
to Nouogrod to sell it in the market or otherwise.

[Sidenote: A good caueat for seasonable trauell.] From Nouogrod vnto Some
towne you may haue a pood of wares carted for eight pence or nine pence:
but in any wise your wares must bee sent from Nouogrod by the sixt of
Ianuary, so that the wares may bee at Some by Candlemas, or soone after:
for if your wares should tary by the way vntill the 15. of February, when
the Sunne is of some power, then is it dangerous: for the heate of the
Sunne in the day causeth the deepe lakes of Ladega, and specially of Onega
to cleaue: and if there should come then a sudden thaw, as oftentimes in
that time of the yeere doeth, then doe these lakes open and breake, whereby
many men are lost, and both men and horse drowned, although other riuers do
remaine frozen a long time after.

In the towne of Some also there are many warehouses, whereof we cannot be
destitute for the reposing of our wares, as also as many barkes as you wil
to transport your wares from thence to S. Nicholas road, and that for three
pence a poods caryage: so that from the Citie of Nouogrod vnto S. Nicholas
road you may haue wares caried for two altines. The pood commeth vnto 23.
altines the tunne.

[Sidenote: Nouogrod within 180 miles of the Narue.] Prouided alwayes, that
you buy your wares there your selfe, and send it thence: for there is no
hope that the natiues will bring their wares from Nouogrod to Some, in hope
to sell vnto vs, considering the great trade that they haue at the Narue,
which is within 180. miles off them.

Written by Thomas Southam a seruant to the company.

* * * * *

An Act for the corporation of Merchants aduenturers for the discouering of
new trades, made in the eight yere of Queene Elizabeth. Anno 1566.

Whereas diuers very good Subiects of this Realme of England in the latter
end of the reigne of the late right high and mightie prince our Soueraigne
Lord king Edward the sixt, at the gracious incouragement, and right good
liking of the said king, and by his Maiesties liberall example, did at
their aduenture, and to their exceeding great charges, for the glory of
God, the honor and increase of the reuenues of the Crowne, and the common
vtilitie of the whole Realme of England, set forth three ships for the
discouery by Sea, of Isles, lands, territories, dominions, and Seigniories
vnknowen, and by the Subiects of the sayd late king not commonly by seas
frequented: and after that Almightie God had called to his mercie the said
king, who died before the finishing and sealing of his most ample and
gracious letters of priuiledges promised to the said Subiects, as wel in
consideration of the said enterprise, as for diuers other respects it
pleased our late soueraigne Q. Mary, at the humble suites of the same
subiects, to graunt by her letters Patents vnder the great Seale of
England, bearing date at Westminster the 26. day of February, in the second
yeere of her raigne, for the considerations mentioned in the said letters
Patents, to the saide subiects being specially named in the saide letters
Patents, and to their successors, that they by the name of Merchants
aduenturers of England, for the discouerie of lands, territories, Isles,
dominions, and Seigniores vnknowen, and not before their late aduenture or
enterprise, by seas or Nauigations commonly frequented, should be from
thenceforth one body, and perpetual felowship and communalitie of
themselues, both in deed and in name, and that same felowship and
communaltie from thenceforth should and might haue one or two gouernours,
foure Consuls, and 24. assistants, of the said fellowship and comminaltie
of Merchants aduenturers, and that they by the name of the Gouernour,
Consuls, assistants, felowship, and comminaltie of Merchants aduenturers,
for the discouery of lands, territories, Isles, dominions, and Seigniories
vnknowen by the seas and Nauigations, and not before their said late
aduenture or enterprise, by Seas frequented, should or might be able in the
lawe to implead and to be impleaded, to answere and to be answered, to
defend, and to be defended, before whatsoeuer Iudge or Iustice temporall or
spiritual, or other persons whatsoeuer, in whatsoeuer court or courts, and
in all actions, real, personal, and mixt, and in euery of them, and in all
plaints of Nouel descision, and also in all plaints, suites, quarrels,
affaires, businesse, and demaunds whatsoeuer they be, touching and
concerning the said felowship and comminaltie, and the affaires and
businesse of the same only in as ample maner and forme, as any other
corporation of this Realme might doe, giuing also, and granting vnto them
by the said letters Patents, diners authorities, powers, iurisdictions,
prehemmences, franchises, liberties and priuiledges, as by the same letters
Patents more at large will appeare. And among other things mentioned in the
said letters Patents, whereas one of the three ships, by the said
fellowship before that time set foorth for the voyage of discouery
aforesaid, named the Edward Bonauenture, had arriued within the Empire and
dominion of the high and mightie Prince Lord Iohn Vasiliwich, Emperour of
all Russia, Vlodimersky, great duke of Musky, &c. who receiued the Captaine
and Merchants of the saide shippe very graciously, granting vnto them
freely to traffique with his subiects in all kinde of Merchandizes, with
diuers other gracious priuiledges and liberties: therefore the said late
Queene by the same letters Patents, for her, her heires and successors, did
graunt that all the maine lands, Isles, ports, hauens, creeks, and riuers
of the said mighty Emperour of all Russia, and great duke of Mosco, &c. and
all and singular other lands, dominions, territories, Isles, ports, hauens,
creeks, riuers, armes of the seas, of al and euery other Emperour, king,
prince, ruler, or gouernour whatsoeuer he or they be, before the said late
aduenture or enterprise not knowen, or by the aforesaid merchants and
subiects of the said king and Queene, by, the seas not commonly frequented,
nor any part or parcel thereof, and lying Northwards, Northeastwards, or
Northwestwards, as in the said letters patents is mentioned, should not be
visited, frequented nor haunted by any the subiects of the said late
Queene, other then of the said company and fellowship, and their
successors, without expresse licence, agreement, and consent of the
Gouerner, Consuls, and Assistants of the said felowship, and communaltie or
the more part of them, in maner and forme, as is expressed in the saide
letters patents, vpon paine of forfeiture and losse aswell of the ship and
ships, with the appurtenances, as also of the goods, merchandizes, and
things whatsoeuer they be, of those the subiects of the said late Queene
not being of the saide fellowship and communaltie, which should attempt or
presume to saile to any of those places, which then were, or after should
happen to be found and traffiqued vnto, the one halfe of the same
forfeiture to be to the vse of the said late Queene, her heires and
successors, and the other halfe to be to the vse of the said felowship and
communaltie, as by the same letters patents more plainly will appeare.

Since the making of which letters patents, the said fellowship haue, to
their exceeding great costes, losses and expences, not onely by their
trading into the said dominions of the saide mightie prince of Russia, &c.
found out conuenient way to saile into the saide dominions: but also
passing thorow the same, and ouer the Caspian sea, haue discouered very
commodious trades into Armenia, Media, Hyrcania, Persia, and other
dominions in Asia minor, hoping by Gods grace to discouer also the countrey
of Cathaia, and other regions very conuenient to be traded into by
merchants of this realme, for the great benefite and commodities of the

[Sidenote: This is meant for Alderman Bond the elder.] And forasmuch as
diuers subiects of this realme, vnderstanding the premises, and perceiuing
that now after the charge and trauel aforesaid, diuers wares and
merchandizes are brought by the saide fellowship into this Realme, out of
the dominions already discouered, which bee within this realme of good
estimation, minding for their peculiar gaine, vtterly to decay the trade of
the sayde fellowship, haue contrary to the tenor of the same letters
patents, in great disorder traded into the dominions of the said mightie
prince of Russia, &c. to the great detriment of this common wealth: And for
that the name by which the saide felowship is incorporated by the letters
patents aforesaid, is long, and consisteth of very many words: [Sidenote:
English Merchants for discouery of new trades.] Therfore be it enacted by
the Queenes most excellent Maiestie, the Lords spiritual and temporal, and
the commons in this present parliament assembled, and by authoritie of the
same, that the said felowship, company, society and corporation made or
created by the said letters patents, shal at al time and times from
henceforth be incorporated, named and called only by the name of the
fellowship of English merchants, for disouery of new trades, and by the
same name for euer shall and may continue a perpetuall body incorporate in
deede and name, and onely by the same name from henceforth, shall implead,
and be impleaded, answere and be answered, defend and be defended, sue and
bee sued, in whatsoeuer courts and places, and shall and may by the same
name bee inabled to purchase, haue, holde, possesse, reteine, and enioy
whatsoeuer manors, landes, tenements, rents, reuersions, seruices, and
hereditaments not exceeding a hundred marks yeerly, not being holden of the
Queenes matestie, her heires, or successors by knights seruice in Capite,
and all goods, merchandizes, chattels, and other things whatsoeuer, and
shall and may by the same name make and do all things as any other
corporation may do, and also shall haue and enioy all and singular the
liberties, priuiledges, iurisdictions, franchises, preheminences, powers,
authorities, and things, and may doe and execute all other matters and
things in the sayd letters patents mentioned, or in any wise conteined. And
that no part nor parcell of the maine lands, Isles, ports, hauens, roades,
creekes, riuers, armes of the seas of any Emperour, king, prince, ruler or
gouernor whatsoeuer he or they be, before the said first enterprise made by
the merchants, of the saide corporation, not knowen by the merchants and
subiects of this Realme, or by them not commonly by seas frequented, and
lying from the City of London Northwards, Northwestwards, or
Northeastwards, nor any part or parcel of the maine lands, dominions,
isles, ports, roades, hauens, creeks, armes of the Seas, that now be
subiect to the said high and mightie prince Lord Iohn Vasiliwich, his
heires, or successours, or to the Emperour, chiefe gouernour or ruler of
the said country of Russia for the time being, his heires or successors,
nor the countries of Armenia maior or minor, Media, Hyrcania, Persia, or
the Caspian sea, nor any part of them shall be sailed or traffiqued vnto,
visited, frequented, or haunted by any person being or that shalbe a
subiect or denizen of this realme, by themselues, their factor or factors,
or any other to their vse or commoditie, by any wayes or meanes, directly
or indirectly, other then by the order, agreement, consent, or ratification
of the gouernour, Consuls and assistants of the saide fellowship and
comminaltie, or the more part of them, and their successors for the time
being: vpon paine that euery person and persons offending in this behalfe,
shall forfeit and loose, Ipso facto, euery such ship and ships, with the
appurtenances, and all such goods, Merchandizes, and things whatsoeuer, as
by any such person or persons shalbe by any wayes or meanes, directly or
indirectly, prouided, caried, conducted, brought, or exchanged, in, at, to,
through or from any of the places prohibited, as is aforesiade, contrary to
the true intent of this statute: the one moietie of all which forfeitures
to bee to our said souereigne Lady the Queenes Maiestie, her heires and
successors, and the other moietie thereof to the sayde fellowship of
English Merchants for discouery of newe trades, and their successors, to be
seized and taken wheresoeuer they may be found, by any person or persons,
to the vse of our said Souereigne Lady, her heires and successors, and of
the said fellowship of English Merchants for discouery of newe trades, and
of their successors, or the same or the value thereof to bee demaunded or
sued for by the Queenes highnesse, her heires and successors, or by the
saide fellowship of English Merchants for the discouery of newe trades, or
their successors, or their atturney or atturneis, or by any person or
persons being of the same fellowship of English Merchants for discouery of
newe trades, or their successors in any court of Record, or in any other
Court or courtes within this Realme, or els where, by Action of debt,
action of detinue, bill, plaint, information, or otherwise: in which suite
no essoine, protection, wager of lawe, or iniunction shal be allowed, for,
or on the behalfe of the partie or parties defendant.

Prouided alwayes, that whereas diuers Subiects of this Realme being not of
the fellowship aforesaid, haue heretofore made aduentures to and from some
of the places prohibited by the said letters patents, that the said
subiects, their heires, executors, administrators and assignees, or any of
them shall not be impeached, impleaded, troubled, sued, nor molested for
the same in their goods or persons in any maner of wise, either by our
saide souereigne Lady, her heires or successors, or the said fellowship, or
their successors.

Prouided also, that it shall be lawfull for any subiect of this Realme,
hauing presently any shipping, goods, wares, or ready money, remayning at
or in any place, of or within the dominion of the said mighty prince of
Russia, or in any other of the places prohibited to be visited or
traffiqued vnto by this statute or the said letters Patent, to fetch,
brings and conuey the same, or cause the same to be brought or conueyed
from thence by sea or otherwise, before the feast of S. Iohn Baptist, which
shalbe in the yeere of our Lord God 1568. any thing, conteined in this
statute, or in the said letters Patents to the contrary notwithstanding.

Prouided also, that it shall be lawfull for any of the subiects of this
Realme, to saile to the port, towne, territorie, or castle of Wardhouse, or
to any of the coastes, townes, hauens, creekes, riuers, Islands, and land
of Norway for trade of fishing or any other trade there vsed by the
subiects of this Realme, any thing in this statute to the contrary

And for the better maintenance of the Nauie and Mariners of this Realme, be
it prouided and inacted that it shall not be lawfull to the saide
fellowship and company, nor to any of them to cary and transport, or cause
to be caried any commodie of this Realme to their newe trade, but only in
English ships, and to be sailed for the most part with English Mariners,
nor also to bring into this Realme nor into Flanders from their saide new
trade, any merchandizes, or other commodities but in English ships, and
sailed for the most part by the English Mariners, on paine to forfeit for
euery such offence two hundred pounds, whereof the one moietie shall be to
the Queenes Maiestie, her heires and successors, the other moietie to the
head officers of any port towne, hauing any hauen or harborough decayed, by
what name soeuer they bee incorporate, to the reparation of such
harborough, that will sue for the same in any Court of Record, by action,
bill, plaint or information, wherein no essoine, protection, wager of lawe
for the defendant shall be admitted or allowed.

Prouided also, and be it enacted, that no maner of person or persons shall
from henceforth carrie or transport, or cause to be carried or transported
out of this Realme of England, any maner of clothes or karsies into any of
the partes where the said fellowship and societie is priuiledged to trade
by this Act, before the same clothes and karsies shall be all dressed, and
for the most part died within this Realme vpon paine of forfeiture for
euery such cloth and karsie, otherwise caried and transported, fiue pounds:
the one halfe thereof to the Queenes Maiestie, her heires and successors,
the other halfe to the Master and Wardens of the Cloth-workers in the Citie
of London for the time being, by what name soeuer they be incorporate that
will sue for the same.

Prouided also that whensoeuer the said societie of company shall willingly
withdraw, and discontinue wholy by the space of three yeeres in time of
peace, the discharging of their merchandizes at the road of S. Nicholas bay
in Russia, and doe not discharge their said merchandizes at some other port
or roade lying on that North coast of Russia, or other territofie nowe
subiect to the saide mightie prince of Russia, &c. hitherto by the subiects
of this realme not commonly frequented, that then during the time of any
such discontinuance and withdrawing, as is aforesaid, it shalbe lawful to
all the subiects of this realme to trade to the Narue onely in English
bottoms, any thing in this Act to the contrary notwithstanding.

Prouided also, that euery of the Queenes Maiesties Subiects inhabiting
within the Citie of Yorke, the townes of Newcastle vpon Tine, Hull and of
Boston, hauing continually traded the course of merchandize by the space of
ten yeeres, and which before 25. of December that shalbe in Anno D. 1567.
shal contribute, ioyne, and put in stocke, to, with, and amongst the said
company, such summe and summes of money, as any of the said company, which
hath throughly continued and contributed to the saide newe trade, from the
yeere 1552. hath done, and before the saide 25. of December 1567. shall do
for the furniture of one ordinary, full and intire portion, or share, and
do in all things behaue himselfe as others of the said societie be bound to
doe, and hereafter shall bee bound to do by the priuiledges, ordinances and
statutes of the saide company, shall from the same 25. day of December
1567. be, and be accompted free, and as one of the said societie and
company, and subiect to the priuiledges, ordinances and statutes of the
saide company, reasonably made and to be made, any thing in this present
Act to the contrary notwithstanding.

* * * * *

A very briefe remembrance of a voyage made by M. Anthony Ienkinson, from
London in Moscouia, sent from the Queenes Maiestie to the Emperour, in
the yeere 1566.

The fourth day of May in the yere aforesaid, I imbarked my selfe at
Grauesend in the good ship called the Harry of London, and hauing had a
prosperous voyage arriued at the bay of S. Nicholas in Russia the 10. day
of Iuly following, and immediately I sent in post to the Emperor to
aduertise of my comming, and traueiling then thorowe the countrey, I with
my company came to the Mosco where the Emperour kept his court, the 23. of
August and foorthwith gaue the Secretarie to vnderstand of my arriuall, who
aduertised the Emperours Maiestie of it, and the first day of September,
being a solemne feast among the Russes, I came before the Emperours
Maiestie, sitting in his seate of honour, and hauing kissed his hand and
done the Queenes Maiesties commendations, and deliuered her graces letters
and present, he bad me to dinner, which I accepted, and had much honour
done vnto me both then and all the time of my abode in Russia.



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