The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of The English Nation v. 4
Richard Hakluyt

Part 5 out of 8

the Lord Boris, whom he adopted as his third sonne, and was brother to the
Empresse, who was a man very wel liked of al estates, as no lesse worthy
for his valure and wisdome: all these were appointed to dispose, and settle
his sonne Pheodor Iuanowich, hauing one sworne another, and all the
nobilitie, and officers whosoeuer. In the morning the dead Emperor was layd
into the Church of Michael the Archangel, into a hewen sepulcre, very
richly decked with vestures fit for such a purpose: and present
Proclamation was made, (Emperor Pheodor Iuanowich of all Russia, &c.).
Throughout all the citie of Mosco was great watch and ward, with souldiers,
and gunners, good orders established, and officers placed to subdue the
tumulters, and mainteine quietnes: to see what speede and policie was in
this case vsed was a thing worth the beholding. This being done in Mosco,
great men of birth and accompt were also presently sent to the bordering
Townes, as Smolensko, Vobsko, Kasan, Nouogorod &c. with fresh garrison, and
the old sent vp. As vpon the 4. of May a parliament was held, wherein were
assembled, the Metropolitane, Archbishops, Bishops, Priors, and chiefe
clergie men, and all the nobility whatsoeuer: where many matters were
determined not pertinent to my purpose, yet all tended to a new reformation
in the gouernment: but especially the terme, and time was agreed vpon for
the solempnizing of the new Emperors coronation. [Sidenote: The old
Empresse, her father, and her yong sonne sent to Ouglets.] In the meane
time the Empresse, wife to the old Emperor, was with her child the Emperors
sonne, Charlewich Demetrie Iuanowich, of one yeres age or there abouts,
sent with her father Pheodor Pheodorowich Nagay, and that kindred, being 5.
Brothers, to a towne called Ouglets, which was giuen ynto her, and the
young Prince her sonne, with all the lands belonging to it in the shire,
with officers of all sortes appointed, hauing allowance of apparell,
iewels, diet, horse &c. in ample maner belonging to the estate of a
princesse. [Sidenote: The day of Pheodor his coronation.] The time of
mourning after their vse being expired, called Sorachyn, or fortie orderlie
dayes, the day of the solemnizing of this coronation, with great
preparations, was come, being vpon the 10. day of Iune, 1584: and that day
then Sunday; he being of the age of 25. yeres: at which time, Master Ierome
Horsey was orderly sent for, and placed in a fit roome to see all the
solemnitie. The Emperor comming out of his Pallace, there went before him,
the Metropolitan, Archbishops, Bishops, and chiefest Monkes, and Clergie
men, with very rich Copes, and Priestes garments vpon them, carying
pictures of our Ladie &c. with the Emperours Angell, banners, censers, and
many other such ceremonious things, singing all the way. The Emperour with
his nobilitie in order entred the Church named Blaueshina, or Blessednes,
where prayers, and seruice were vsed, according to the maner of their
Church: that done, they went thence to the Church, called Michael the
Archangell, and there also vsed the like prayers, and seruice: and from
thence to our Lady Church, Prechista, being their Cathedrall Church. In the
middest thereof was a chaire of maiestie placed, wherein his Auncestors
vsed to sit at such extraordinarie times: his robes were then changed, and
most rich and vnualuable garments put on him: being placed in this Princely
seate, his nobility standing round about him in their degres, his imperiall
Crowne was set vpon his head by the Metropolitane, his Scepter globe in his
right hand, his sword of Iustice in his left of great riches: his 6.
Crownes also, by which he holdeth his kingdomes were set before him, and
the Lord Boris Pheodorowich was placed at his right hand: then the
Metropolitan read openly a booke of a small volume, with exhortations to
the Emperour to minister true iustice, to inioy with tranquilitie the
Crowne of his auncestors, which God had giuen him, and vsed these words

Through the will of the almighty and without beginning God, which was
before this world, whom we glorifie in the Trinitie, one onely God, the
Father, the Sonne, and the holy Ghost, maker of all things, worker of all
in all euery where, fulfiller of all things, by which will, and working, he
both liueth, and giueth life to man: that our only God which enspireth
euery one of vs his only children with his word to discerne God through our
Lord Iesus Christ, and the holy quickning spirit of life, now in these
perilous times establish vs to keep the right Scepter, and suffer vs to
raigne of our selues to the good profit of the land, to the subduing of the
people, together with the enemies, and the maintenance of vertue. And so
the Metropolitan blessed and layd his crosse vpon him. After this, he was
taken out of his chaire of Maiestie, hauing vpon him an vpper robe adorned
with precious stones of all sorts, orient pearles of great quantitie, but
alwayes augmented in riches: it was in waight two hundred pounds, the
traine, and parts thereof borne vp by 6. Dukes, his chiefe imperiall Crowne
vpon his head very precious: his staffe imperiall in his right hand of an
vnicornes horne of three foot and a halfe in length beset with rich stones,
bought of Merchants of Ausburge by the old Emperour in An. 1581, and cost
him 7000. Markes sterling. This Iewel M. Horsey kept sometimes, before the
Emperor had it. His scepter globe was caried before him by the prince Boris
Pheodorowich, his rich cap beset with rich stones and pearles was caried
before him by a Duke: his 6. Crownes also were caried by Demetrius
Iuanowich Godonoua, the Emperors vncle, Mekita Romanowich the Emperors
vncle, Stephan Vasiliwich, Gregory Vasiliwich, Iuan Vasiliwich brothers of
the blood royal. Thus at last the Emperor came to the great Church doore,
and the people cried, God saue our Emperour Pheodor Iuanowich of al Russia,
His horse was there ready most richly adorned, with a couering of
imbrodered pearle, and precious stones, saddle, and all furniture agreeable
to it, reported to be worth 300000. markes sterling.

There was a bridge made of 150. fadome in length, three maner of waies,
three foote aboue ground and two fadome broad, for him to goe from one
Church to the other with his Princes and nobles from the presse of the
people, which were in number infinite, and some at that time pressed to
death with the throng. As the Emperour returned out of the Churches, they
were spred vnder foot with cloth of gold, the porches of the Church with
red veluet, the bridges with scarlet, and stammell cloth from one church to
another: and as soone as the Emperor was passed by, the cloth of gold,
veluet and scarlet was cut, and taken of those that could come by it, euery
man desirous to haue a piece, to reserue it for a monument: siluer and gold
coyne, then mynted of purpose was cast among the people in great quantitie.
The lord Boris Pheodorowich was sumptuously, and richly attired, with his
garments decked with great orient pearle, beset with al sorts of precious
stones. In like rich maner were appareled all the family of the Godonouaes
in their degrees, with the rest of the princes, and nobilitie, whereof one
named Knez Iuan Michalowich Glynsky, whose robe, horse, and furniture, was
in register found worth one hundred thousand markes sterling, being of
great antiquitie. The Empresse being in her pallace, was placed in her
chaire of Maiesty also before a great open window: most precious, and rich
were her robes, and shining to behold, with rich stones, and orient pearle
beset, her crowne was placed vpon her head, accompanied with her
Princesses, and Ladies of estate: then cried out the people, God preserue
our noble Empresse Irenia. After all this the Emperour came into the
Parliament house which was richly decked: there he was placed in his royall
seat adorned as before: his 6. crownes were set before him vpon a table;
the basin, and ewer royall of gold held by his knight of gard with his men
standing two on each, side in white apparell of cloth of siluer, called
Kindry, with scepters, and battle axes of gold in their hands: the Princes,
and nobilitie were all placed according to their degrees, all in their rich

The Emperour after a short oration, permitted euery man in order to kisse
his hande: which being done, he remoued to a princely seate prepared for
him at the table: where he was serued by his nobles in very princely order.
The three out roomes being very great, and large were beset with plate of
golde, and siluer round, from the ground vp to the vaults one vpon the
other: among which plate were many barrels of siluer, and golde: this
solemnitie, and triumph lasted a whole weeke, wherein many royall pastimes
were shewed and vsed: after which the chiefest men of the nobilitie were
elected to their places of office, and dignitie, as the Prince Boris
Pheodorowich was made chiefe Counseller to the Emperor, Master of the
horse, had the charge of his person, Liuetenant of the Empire, and Warlike
engins, Gouernor or Liuetenant of the Empire of Cazan, and Astracan and
others: to this dignitie were by Parliament, and gift of the Emperor giuen
him many reuenues, and rich lands, as there was giuen him, and his for euer
to inherite a prouince called Vaga, of 300. English miles in length, and
250. in bredth, with many townes and great villages populous and wealthy,
his yeerely reuenue out of that prouince, is 35. thousand markes sterling,
being not the 5. part of his yerely reuenue. Further, he and his house be
of such authoritie, and power, that in 40. days warning they are able to
bring into the fielde 100. thousand Souldiers well furnished.

The conclusion of the Emperors Coronation was a peale of ordinance, called
a peale royall two miles without the citie, being 170. great pieces of
brasse of all sorts, as faire as any can be made, these pieces were all
discharged with shot against bulwarkes made of purpose: 20. thousand
hargubusers standing in 8. rankes two miles in length, appareled all in
veluet, coloured silke and stammels, discharged their shot also twise ouer
in good order: and so the Emperor accompanied with all his princes and
nobles, at the least 50. thousand horse departed through the City to his
pallace. This royall coronation would aske much time, and many leaues of
paper to be described particularly as it was performed: it shal suffice, to
vnderstahd that the like magnificence was neuer seen in Russia.

The coronation, and other triumphes ended, al the nobilitie, officers, and
merchants according to an accustomed order euery one in his place, and
degree brought rich presents vnto the Emperor, wishing him long life, and
ioy in his kingdome.

[Sidenote: Iohn de Wale.] The same time also Master Ierom Horsey aforesaid,
remayning as seruant in Russia for the Queenes most excellent Maiestie, was
called for to the Emperor, as he sate in his imperiall seat, and then also
a famous Merchant of Netherland being newly come to Mosco, (who gaue him
selfe out to be the king of Spaines subiect) called Iohn de Wale, was in
like sort called for. Some of the nobilitie would haue preferred this
subiect of the Spaniard before Master Horsey seruant to the Queene of
England, whereunto Master Horsey would in no case agree, saying, he would
haue his legges cut off by the knees, before he would yeeld to such an
indignitie offered to his Soueraigne the Queenes Maiesty of England, to
bring the Emperor a present, in course after the King of Spaines subiect,
or any other whatsoeuer. The Emperor, and the Prince Boris Pheodorowich
perceiuing the controuersie, sent the Lord Treasorer Peter Iuanowich
Galauyn, and Vasili Shalkan, both of the Counsell, to them, who deliuered
the Emperor backe, Master Horseys speech: whereupon he was first in order
(as good reason) admitted and presented the Emperor in the behalfe of the
English merchants trading thither, a present wishing him ioy, and long to
raigne in tranquilitie, and so kissed the Emperors hand, he accepting the
present with good liking, and auouching, that for his sisters sake Queene
Elizabeth of England, he would be a gracious Lord to her Merchants, in as
ample maner as euer his father had ben: and being dismissed, he had the
same day sent him 70. dishes of sundry kinds of meats, with 3. carts laden
with al sorts of drinks very bountifully. After him was the foresayd
subiect of the Spanish king admitted with his present, whom the Emperor
willed to be no lesse faithfull and seruiceable vnto him, then the Queene
of Englands subiects were and had bene, and then the king of Spaines
subiects should receiue fauour accordingly.

All these things thus in order performed, praises were sung in all the
churches. The Emperor and Empresse very deuoutly resorted on foote to many
principal Churches in the Citie, and vpon Trinitie Sunday betooke
themselues to a progresse in order of procession, to a famous monasterie
called Sergius and the Trinitie 60. miles distant from the Citie of Mosco,
accompanied with a huge armie of Noblemen, Gentlemen, and others, mounted
vpon goodly horses with furniture accordingly.

The Empresse of deuotion tooke this iourney on foot all the way,
accompanied with her princesses and ladies, no small number: her guard and
gunners were in number 20000, her chiefe counseller or attendant, was a
noble man of the blood Roial her vncle of great authoritie called Demetri
Iuanowich Godonoua. All this progresse ended, both the Emperor and Empresse
returned to Mosco: shortly after the Emperor by the direction of the prince
Boris Pheodorowich, sent a power into the land of Siberia, where all the
rich Sables and Furres are gotten. This power conquered in one yeere and a
halfe, 1000. miles. [Sidenote: Chare Siberski prince of Siberia taken
prisoner and brought to Mosco.] In the performance of this warre, there was
taken prisoner the Emperor of the countrey called Chare Sibersky, and with
him many other dukes and noble men, which were brought to Mosko with a
guard of souldiers and gunners, who were receiued into the citie in very
honorable maner, and do there remaine to this day.

Hereupon the corrupt officers, Iudges, Iustices, captains and lieutenants
through the whole kingdom were remooued, and more honest men substituted in
their places, with expresse commandement, vnder seuere punishment to
surcease their old bribing and extortion which they had vsed in the old
Emperors time, and now to execute true iustice without respect of persons:
and to the end that this might be the better done, their lands and yeerly
stipends were augmented: the great taskes, customes, and duties, which were
before layd vpon the people in the old Emperors time, were now abated, and
some wholy remitted, and no punishments commanded to be vsed, without
sufficient and due proofe, although the crime were capitall, deseruing
death: many Dukes and noble men of great houses, that were vnder
displeasure, and imprisoned 20. yeeres by the old Emperor, were now set at
libertie and restored to their lands: all prisoners were set at libertie
and their trespasses forgiuen. In summe, a great alteration vniuersally in
the gouernment folowed, and yet all was done quietly, ciuilly, peaceably,
without trouble to the Prince, or offence to the Subiect: and this bred
great assurance and honour to the kingdom, and all was accomplished by the
wisedom especially of Irenia the Empresse.

[Sidenote: Sophet Keri Alli king of the Crimmes arriual at Mosco.] These
things being reported and caried to the eares of the kings and princes that
were borderers vpon Russia, they grew so fearefull and terrible to them,
that the Monarch of all the Scythians called the Crimme Tartar or great Can
himselfe, named Sophet Keri Alli, came out of his owne countrey to the
Emperor of Russia, accompanied with a great number of his nobilitie well
horsed, although to them that were Christians they seemed rude, yet they
were personable men, and valiant: their comming was gratefull to the
Emperor, and their entertainment was honourable, the Tartar prince hauing
brought with him his wiues also, receiued of the Russe Emperor
entertainment, and princely welcome according to their estates.

Not long after, 1200. Polish gentlemen, valiant Souldiors, and proper men
came to Mosko offring their seruice to the Emperor, who were all
entertained: and in like sort many Chirkasses, and people of other nations
came and offred seruice. And assoone as the report of this new created
Emperor was spred ouer other kingdoms of Europe, there were sent to him
sundry Ambassadors to wish him ioy and prosperitie in his kingdom: thither
came Ambassadors from the Turke, from the Persian, the Bogharian, the
Crimme, the Georgian, and many other Tartar princes. There came also
Ambassadors from the Emperor of Almaine, the Pole, the Swethen, the Dane,
&c. And since his coronation no enemie of his hath preuailed in his

[Sidenote: The new Emperor Pheodore Iuanowich his letters and requests to
the Queene.] It fell out not long after, that the Emperor was desirous to
send a message to the most excellent Queene of England, for which seruice
he thought no man fitter then M. Ierome Horsey, supposing that one of the
Queenes owne men and subiects would be the more acceptable to her. The
summe of which message was, that the Emperor desired a continuance of that
league, friendship, amitie and intercourse of traffique which was betweene
his father and the Queens maiestie and her subiects, with other priuate
affaires besides, which are not to be made common.

[Sidenote: M. Horseis voiage from Mosco to England ouerland.] Master Horsey
hauing receiued the letters and requests of the Emperor, prouided for his
iourney ouer land, and departed from Mosco the fift day of September,
thence vnto Otuer, to Torshook, to great Nouogrod, to Vobsky, and thence to
Nyhouse in Liuonia, to Wenden, and so to Riga: (where he was beset, an
brought foorthwith before a Cardinall called Rageuil, but yet suffred to
passe in the end:) From thence to Mito, to Golden, and Libou in Curland, to
Memel, to Koningsburgh in Prussia, to Elbing, to Dantzike, to Stetine in
Pomerland, to Rostock, to Lubeck, to Hamborough, to Breme, to Emden, and by
sea to London. Being arriued at her maiesties roiall court, and hauing
deliuered the Emperors letters with good fauour, and gracious acceptance,
he was foorthwith againe commaunded to repasse into Russia, with other
letters from her maiestie to the Emperor, and prince Boris Pheodorowich,
answering the Emperors letters, and withall requesting the fauour and
friendship, which his father had yeelded to the English merchants: and
hereunto was he earnestly also solicited by the merchants of London
themselues of that company, to deale in their behalfe. [Sidenote: 1586.]
Being thus dispatched from London by sea, he arriued in Mosco the 20. of
April 1586. and was very honourably welcommed. And for the merchants
behoofe, obtained all his requests, being therein specially fauoured by the
noble prince Boris Pheodorowich, who alwayes affected M. Horsey with
speciall liking, And hauing obtained priuiledges for the merchants, he was
recommended from the Emperor againe, to the Queene of England his
mistresse, by whom the prince Boris, in token of his honorable and good
opinion of the Queens maiestie, sent her highnesse a roiall present of
Sables, Luzarns, cloth of gold and other rich things. So that the companie
of English merchants, next to their thankfulnes to her maiestie, are to
account M. Horseis paines their speciall benefit, who obtained for them
those priuileges, which in twentie yeeres before would not be granted.

The maner of M. Horseis last dispatch from the Emperor, because it was very
honorable, I thought good to record. He was freely allowed post horses for
him and his seruants, victuals and all other necessaries for his long
iourney; at euery towne that he came vnto from Mosco to Vologda, which is
by land fiue hundred miles, he receiued the like free and bountifull
allowances, at the Emperors charge. New victuall and prouision were giuen
him vpon the riuer Dwina at euery towne by the Kings officers, being one
thousand miles in length. When he came to the new castle called Archangel,
he was receiued of the Duke Knez Vasili Andrewich Isuenogorodsky by the
Emperors commission into the Castle, gunners being set in rankes, after
their vse, where he was sumptuously feasted: from thence hee was dispatched
with bountifull prouision and allowance in the Dukes boat, with one hundred
men to rowe him, and one hundred Gunners in other boats to conduct him,
with a gentleman captaine of the Gunners. Comming to the road where the
English, Dutch, and French ships rode, the gunners discharged, and the
ships shot in like maner 46. pieces of their ordinance, and so he was
brought to his lodging at the English house vpon Rose Island.

And that which was the full and complete conclusion of the fauour of the
Emperor and Boris Pheodorowich toward M. Horsey, there were the next day
sent him for his further prouision vpon the sea by a gentleman and a
captaine the things following.

16. liue oxen.
70. sheepe.
600. hens.
25. flitches of Bacon.
80. bushels of meale.
600. loaues of bread.
2000. egs.
10. geese.
2. cranes.
2. Swans
65. gallons of mead.
40. gallons of Aquauitae.
60. gallons of beere.
3. yong beares.
4. hawkes.
Store of onions and garlike.
10. fresh salmons.
A wild bore.

All these things were brought him downe by a Gentleman of the Emperors, and
another of prince Boris Pheodorowich, and were recalled in order by Iohn
Frese seruant to M. Horsey, together with an honorable present and reward
from the prince Boris, sent him by M. Francis Cherry an Englishman: which
present was a whole very rich piece of cloth of gold, and a faire paire of
Sables. This gentleman hath obserued many other rare things concerning
those partes, which hereafter (God willing) at more conuenient time and
laisure shall come to light.

* * * * *

Pheodor Iuanowich the new Emperors gracious letter of priuilege to the
English Merchants word for word, obtained by M. Ierome Horsey. 1586.

Through the wil of the almightie, and without beginning God, which was
before this world, whom we glorifie in the Trinitie, one only God the
father, the sonne, and the holy ghost, maker of all things, worker of all
in all euery where, fulfiller of all things, by which will and working, he
both loueth and giueth life to man, That our onely God, which inspireth
euery one of vs his onely children with his word, to descerne God through
our Lord Iesus Christ, and the holy quickning spirit of life now in these
perilous times, Establish vs to keep the right Scepter, and suffer vs of
our selues to raigne to the good profite of the land, and to the subduing
of the people, together with the enemies, and to the maintenance of virtue.

We Pheodor the ofspring of Iohn, the great Lord, Emperor, king and great
prince of all Russia, of Volodemeria, Moscouia and Nouogrod, king of Cazan,
king of Astracan, Lord of Plesko, and great prince of Smolensko, of Tuer,
Yougoria, Permia, Viatsko, of Bolghar and others, lord and great prince of
the land of the lower Nouogrod, Chernigo, Rezan, Polotsko, Rostow.
Yeraslaue, the White lake, Liefland, Oudor, Condensa, and Ruler of all
Siberia, and all the Northside, and lord of many other countries.

I haue gratified the merchants of England, to wit, sir Rowland Haiward, and
Richard Martin Aldermen, sir George Barnes, Thomas Smith, esquire, Ierome
Horsey, Richard Saltonstall, with their fellowes.

I haue licensed them to saile with their shippes into our dominion the land
of Dwina, with all kind of commodities to trade freely, and vnto our
kingdom andd the citie of Mosco, and to all the cities of our empire of

And the English merchants sir Rowland Haiward and his societie desired vs,
that we would gratifie them to trade into our kingdom of Moscouia, and into
our heritage of great Nouogrod and Plesko, and into all parts of our
kingdom, to buy and sell with their wares without custome.

Therefore we for our sisters sake Queene Elizabeth, and also because that
they allege that they had great losse and hinderance by the venture of the
sea, and otherwise, haue gratified the said English merchants sir Rowland
Haiward and his societie, freely to come into our kingdom of Moscouia, and
into al our dominions with al kind of commodities, to trade, and traffique
freely, and at their pleasure with al kind of their commodities: also I
haue commanded not to take any maner of custome for their goods, nor other
customs whatsoeuer: That is to say, neither for passing by any place by
water, nor for lanching, neither for passing through any place by land,
neither for the vessels or boats, nor for their heads, nor for passing ouer
bridges, nor for ferying ouer at any place, neither for acknowledgment at
any place where they shall come, nor any maner of custome or dutie, by what
name soeuer.

Only they shall not bring with them into our dominions, neither recarie out
of our dominions, or father any other mens goods but their owne, neither
sell them nor barter them away for them.

Also our natural people shall not buy and sell for them, or from them,
neither shal they retaine or keepe any of our naturall subiects goods, or
pawnes by them to colour them.

Also they shall not send any of their Russe seruants about into any citie
to ingrosse, or buy vp commodities, but into what citie they themselues
shal come, they shal buy and sel, and shal sel their owne commodities and
not ours.

And when they shal come into our inheritance of great Nouogrod and Plesko,
and through all our dominions with their commodities, then our noblemen,
and captains, and euery one of our officers shall suffer them to depart
according to this our letter, and shall take no custom at all of them, for
any of their commodities, neither for passing through or passing by, nor
for passage ouer any bridges, nor shall take of them any other dutie
whatsoeuer name they haue.

Also into what places of our dominion, or when they shal happen to come,
and to proceed to buy or sell, and wheresoeuer they shall passe through
with goods not buying of any commodities, neither will sell their owne,
then in those cities and townes they shall take no maner of custome or
dutie of them accordingly as before.

And I haue gratified them and giuen them free leaue to traffique throughout
all the dominions of our kingdom in all cities with their goods, to buy and
sell all maner of commodities, without any dutie or custome whatsoeuer.

And the English merchants where they are desirous to buy or sell, or barter
their wares with our merchants, whole wares for wares, they shall sell
their commodies whole, and not by retaile: That is to say, neither by small
weight nor by the yard, to sell or barter in their owne houses, and they
shal sel and barter their wares wholly, Cloth by the packe, and by the
whole Cloth, and Damaske and veluet by the piece and not by the yard, and
al maner of commodities that are to be sold by weight, not to sell by the
small weights, as by the pound and ounce, but by whole sale: also they
shall sel wines by the pipe: and by the gallon, quart or stoope they shal
not sell.

And they shall buy, sell and exchange their owne commodities themselues,
and the Russe merchants shall not make sales or exchange for them or from
them any of their commodities, neither shal they themselues conuey or cary
through any other mans goods at no place instead of their owne: and which
of the English merchants will at any time sell his commodities at Colmogro
or Vologda or Yeraslaue, they may, and of their commodities throughout all
our cities and dominions, our noblemen, captains, and euery of our officers
shall take no maner of custome, according as it is written in this our
gracious letter: and throughout all our dominions and cities they shal hire
carriers and vessels with men to labour, at their owne charge, to transport
their goods.

So likewise, whensoeuer the English merchants are disposed to depart out of
our kingdom into any other countrey or into their owne land, if our
pleasure be, they shall take our goods with them from our Treasurie, and
shall sell them, and exchange them for such commoditie as is commodious for
our kingdom, and shall deliuer it into our Treasurie, and with those our
commodities, our Noblemen and captains, and euery of our officers shall let
them passe through all our cities also without custome according to these
our letters.

Also whensoeuer the English merchants shall haue sold their own goods and
bought themselues commodities, and wil depart out of Mosco, then they shal
manifest themselues to our chiefe Secretarie Andrew Sholkaloue, in the
office where the Ambassadors are alwayes dispatched.

And if the English merchants comming, haue had any mischance by the sea,
insomuch that the ship be broken, or if that ship do come to any part of
our country: then we will cause the goods to be sought out in true Iustice,
and to be giuen to the English people, which at that time shall bee here
resident in our countrey: and if so be that it so fell out that at that
time there be no Englishmen within our realme: then wil we cause these
goods to be laid vp in a place together, and when the people of England
shall come into our realme, then we will command all those goods to be
deliuered to the sayd English people.

Also we haue gratified all the English merchants with the house of one Vrie
here in the Mosco right ouer against S. Maximes church behind the market,
and they shal dwel in the same house according as before time, and they
shall keepe one alwayes in the house to keepe it, either a Russe, or one of
their owne people.

Also the English merchants shal possesse their houses, to wit, at
Yeraslaue, Vologda, Colmogro, and the house at the hauen of the sea, and
they shal dwel in those houses, according as our goodnes hath bene to them
heretofore: and we haue commanded, that there shall not be taken of them no
yeerely rent, nor no maner of custome, taxe, rent or any other dutie
whatsoeuer for those houses, neither shal they pay any dutie or taxe with
any of the townsmen of those places, and in euery one of those houses, to
wit, at Yeraslaue, Vologda, and Colmogro, they shall haue men to keepe
their houses, two or three of their owne countrey people, strangers or els
Russes, men of the meanest sort, which shall be no merchants, that they may
lay their goods in those houses, and they may sell the commodities out of
those their houses to whom they please, according to this our gracious
letter: and those that keepe their houses shall not sell or buy no part of
their commoditie, except they be there or giue order, whereby they be not
deceiued by them.

So likewise I haue gratified them with their house at the sea hauen, at the
mouth of Podezemsky, and we haue commanded that they shal not cary their
goods from thence to the new castle S. Michael the archangel, but shall
arriue, and doe as they haue done heretofore with their wares at that their
house, and shall vnlade their commodities out of their ships, and shal lade
them againe with Russe commodities, euen there at that their house without
interruption: onely they shal permit our officers of Colmogro and sworn men
to write vp those commodities, both the commodities of England, and those
of Russeland, what the merchants shal declare themselues, and no otherwise,
but they shal not ouerlooke their commodities, neither shal they vnbind any
of their packs.

And when the English merchants are disposed to send into their owne
countrey, to wit, any of their owne people on land through any other
kingdom whatsoeuer, they shall not send their people without our kingly
knowledge, and commandement, and which of their people so euer they do
meane to send out of our kingdom into their owne countrey, then they shal
send those their people, not without our kingly maiesties knowledge, to
wit, those that go of pleasure without carying any commodities with them,
and they shal haue a letter of passe giuen vnto them, out of the office
where the Ambassadors haue alwayes their dispatch.

And whosoeuer hath anything to doe with them in matters of controuersie,
either concerning merchandize or iniuries, then they are to be iudged by
our treasurers and Secretarie of the Ambassadors office to do iustice
between both parties, and to seek out the trueth of matters in al things,
and whatsoeuer cannot be found out by the Law, shalbe tried by othe and
lots: whose lot soeuer is taken foorth, him to haue right.

And in what place of all our kingdom, in what citie soeuer they or their
people shall bee, and that there happen any matter of controuersie, either
concerning merchandise, iniuries or otherwise, that they haue occasion to
set vpon any man by lawe, or that any seeke vpon them, concerning what
matter soeuer in all our kingdom and cities, then our lieutenants,
captains, and our officers shall giue them Iustice, and shall minister all
true iustice betweene them, seeking out the trueth: and what cannot be
truly sought by law, shalbe sought out by othe and lot; whose lot soeuer is
taken out, him to haue right accordingly as before, and the Iudges or
Iustices shall take of them no kind of dutie, for matters of law no where
throughout all our realmes. This letter is giuen in our princely palace
within the citie of Mosco, in the yeere from the foundation of the world,
seuen thousand fourescore and fifteene in the moneth of February.

* * * * *

The Ambassage of M. Giles Fletcher, Doctor of the Ciuil Law, sent from her
Maiestie to Theodor the Emperor of Russia. Anno 1588.

In the yeere 1588. was sent Ambassador from her highnesse into the countrey
of Russia, Giles Fletcher Doctor of the Ciuil Lawe, as well to treat with
the new Emperor Pheodor Iuanowich, about league and amitie, in like maner
as was before with his father Iuan Vasilowich, as also for the
reestablishing and reducing into order the deciad trade of our Englishmen
there. Who notwithstanding at his first arriuall at the Mosco, found some
parts of hard entertainment, by meanes of certaine rumors concerning the
late nauall victory which was there reported to haue fallen on the Spanish
side, as also for some dislike conceiued against the priuileged trade of
our English merchants. Yet in the end he obtained of the Emperour many good
and equall conditions, and was curteously and honourably dismissed by him.
The principall points which he entreated of, and were granted vnto him by
the said Emperor were these:

1 A continuation of league and amitie betweene her Highnesse and the sayd
Emperour Pheodor Iuanowich, in like maner as was before with his father
Iuan Vasilowich.

2 A confirmation and reestablishment of the former priuileges of the
Companie of our English merchants, which were infringed and annulled in the
principal points, with diuers necessary additions to the same, for the
better ordering of their trade in those countreys hereafter, viz. That the
state of the priuilege granted before in the names of some priuate and
particular men, be altered in that point, and the same granted by the name
and stile of their incorporation, viz. To the felowship of English
merchants for the discouerie of new trades.

3 That vpon euery surmise and light quarel, the said priuilege be not
reuoked and annulled, as before time it hath bene.

4 That iustice shall be administred to the said Companie and their Agent
without delay, vpon such as shal offer them any despite or iniurie, or shal
exact or impose vpon them any paiment, taxation or imposition whatsoeuer,
contrary to the freedome of the said grant.

5 That the goods and commodities of the said Companie, be not forcibly
taken as before time they had bene by the Emperors officers or people of
authoritie, either for the vse of the said Emperor or of his officers. But
in case they haue need of the said commodities, the same to be taken at
reasonable prices, and for ready money.

6 That the said Companie be not charged hereafter with the answering of
such debts as are made by any Englishman not being of the societie.

7 That the Emperors authorized people shall not hereafter repute any
Englishman residant in that countrey, to be any factor, seruant, or dealer,
in the said Companies affaires, but such as the Agents shall inregister by
name, within the offices where custome is entered in all such places of the
land where the sayd Companie haue residences to traffike.

8 That the names of such as shall so be inregistred be no longer continued
in record, nor themselues reputed as factors or dealers for the said
Companie, then the Agent shall thinke good. But in case the said Agent in
his discretion shall thinke meete to strike out of the Register any name of
such as haue bene employed in the Companies seruice, the said person to be
held as priuate, and whose acte in bargaining or otherwise, shall not
charge the said Companie.

9 That if any English man within the countrey of Russia be suspected for
any notorious crime, as felony, treason, &c. the same be not straightwaies
set vpon the Pudkey, [Marginal note: It is rosting to death.] nor otherwise
tormented, till such time as he shall be conuicted by plaine and euident
proofes: which being done, the whole proceeding to be sent ouer to the
Queene of England.

10 That the said priuilege with the additions, shall be published in all
townes and partes of the Emperors dominions, where the said Companie haue

11 That the said Companie shall be permitted to vse a sole trade through
the Emperours countries, by the riuer Volga into Media, Persia, Bogharia,
and the other the East countries.

12 Whereas there was claimed of the said Companie the summe of 23553.
markes of debt, made by certaine of their factors for the said company, for
paiment whereof their whole stocke was in danger of arrest, by publike
authoritie: Futher also 2140. rubbles for custome and houserent, he
obtained a rebatement of eighteene thousand, one hundred fiftie and three
marks of the sayd debt.

The sayd Ambassador M. Giles Fletcher, as I vnderstand, hath drawen a booke
intituled, Of the Russe Common wealth, containing:

First, a Cosmographicall description, of the countrey, which hath these

1 Of the length and bredth of the countrey of Russia, with the names of the

2 Of the soile and climate.

3 Of the natiue commodities of the countrey.

Secondly, a description of their policie contained in these Chapters, viz.

1 Of the constitution or state of the Russe Common wealth.

2 Of their Parliaments, and maner of holding them,

3 Of the Russe Nobilitie and meanes whereby it is kept in an vnder
proportion agreeable to that state.

4 Of the maner of gouerning their prouinces of shires.

5 Of the Emperours priuie counsell.

6 Of the Emperors customs and their reuenues, with the practises for the
increase of them.

7 Of the Russe communaltie and their condition.

8 Of their publike iustice and maner of proceeding therein.

9 Of the Emperors forces for his warres, with the chiefe officers,
and their salarie or pay.

10 Of their maner of mustering, armour, and prouision for victuall.

11 Of their ordering, marching, charging, and their martiall discipline.

12 Of their colonies and policie in maintaining their purchases by

13 Of their borderers with whom they haue most to doe in warre and peace.

14 Of their church officers and degrees.

15 Of their liturgie or forme of Church seruice.

16 Of their maner of administring the Sacraments.

17 Of the doctrine of the Russe church.

18 Of the maner of solemnizing their marriages.

19 Of the other ceremonies of the Russe church.

Thirdly, the Oeconomie or priuate behauiour of the Russe containing these

1 Of the Emperors houshold officers, and order of his house.

2 Of the priuate behauiour and maner of the Russe people.

The description of the countrey of Russia, with the bredth, length, and
names of the Shires.

The countrey of Russia was sometimes called Sarmatia. It changed the name
(as some do suppose) for that it was parted into diuers smal, and yet
absolute gouemments, not depending, nor being subiect the one to the other.
For Russe in that tongue doeth signifie as much as to part, or diuide. The
Russe reporteth that foure brethren, Trubor, Rurico, Sinees, and Variuus
deuided among them the North parts of the country. Likewise that the South
parts were possessed by 4. other, Kio, Scieko, Choranus, and their sister
Libeda: each calling his territorie after his owne name. Of this partition
it was called Russia, about the yere from Christ 860. [Sidenote: Strabo in
his 7. booke of Geogr.] As for the coniecture which I find in some
Cosmographers, that the Russe nation borowed the name of the people called
Roxellani, and were the very same nation with them, it is without all good
probabilitie, both in respect of the etymologie of the word (which is very
far fet) and especially for the seat and dwelling of that people, which was
betwixt the two ruiers of Tanais and Boristhenes, (as Strabo reporteth)
quite another way from the countrey of Russia.

When it bare the name of Sarmatia, it was diuided into two chiefe parts:
the White and the Black. The white Sarmatia was all that part that lieth
towards the North, and on the side of Liefland: as the prouinces now called
Dwina, Vagha, Vstiug, Vologda, Cargapolia, Nouogrodia, &c whereof Nouogrod
velica was the Metropolite or chiefe citie. Black Sarmatia was al that
countrey that lieth Southward towards the Euxin or Black sea: as the
dukedome of Volodemer, of Mosco, Rezan, &c. Some haue thought that the name
of Sarmatia was first taken, from one Sarmates, whom Moses and Iosephus cal
Asarmathes sonne to Ioktan, and nephew to Heber, of the posteritie of Sera.
[Sidenote: Gen, 10. Ioseph. l. 1. ca, 14.] But this seemeth to be nothing
but a coniecture taken out of the likenes of the name Asarmathes. For the
dwelling of all Ioktans posteritie is described by Moses to haue bene
betwixt Mescha or Masius (an hil of the Ammonites) and Sephace, nere to the
riuer Euphrates: which maketh it very vnlikely that Asarmathes should plant
any colonies so far off in the North and Northwest countries. [Sidenote:
The borders of Russia.] It is bounded northward by the Lappes and the North
Ocean. On the Southside by the Tartars called Crimmes. Eastward they haue
the Nagaian Tartar, that possesseth all the countrey on the East side of
Volga towards the Caspian sea. On the West and Southwest border lieth
Lituania, Liuonia and Polonia.

[Sidenote: The Shires of Russia.] The whole Countrey being nowe reduced
vnder the gouernment of one, conteineth these chiefe Prouinces or Shires.
Volodemer, (which beareth the first place in the Emperours stile, becauce
their house came of the Dukes of that Countrey) Mosco, Nisnouogrod, Plesko,
Smolensko, Nouogrod velica (or Nouogrod of the low Countrey) Rostoue,
Yeraslaue, Bealozera, Rezan, Duyna, Cargapolia, Meschora, Vagha, Vstuga,
Ghaletsa. These are the naturall shires perteyning to Russia, but farre
greater and larger then the shires of England, though not so well peopled.
[Sidenote: The Prouinces or Countries got by conquest.] The other Countreys
or prouinces to which the Russe Emperours haue gotten perforce added of
late to their other dominion, are these which followe, Twerra, Youghoria,
Permia, Vadska, Boulghoria, Chernigo, Oudoria, Obdoria, Condora, with a
great part of Siberia: where the people though they be not naturall Russes,
yet obey the Emperour of Russia, and are ruled by the Lawes of his
Countrey, paying customes and taxes, as his owne people doe. Besides these
he hath vnder him the kingdomes of Cazan and Astracan, gotten by conquest
not long since. As for all his possession in Lituania (to the number of 30.
great Townes and more,) with Narue and Dorp in Liuonia, they are quite
gone, being surprised of late yeeres by the Kings of Poland and Sweden.
These Shires and Prouinces are reduced into foure Iurisdictions, which they
call Chetfyrds (that is) Tetrarchies, or Fourth parts.

[Sidenote: The breadth and length of the Countrey.] The whole Countrey is
of great length and breadth. From the North to the South (if you measure
from Cola to Astracan which bendeth somewhat Eastward) it reacheth in
length about 4260. verst, or miles. [Sidenote: Pechinga.] Notwithstanding
the Emperour of Russia hath more territorie Northward, farre beyond Cola
vnto the Riuer of Tromschua, that runneth a hundred verst, welnigh beyond
Pechingna, neere to Wardhouse but not intire nor clearely limited, by
reason of the kings of Sweden and Denmarke, that haue diuers townes there,
aswell as the Russe, plotted together the one with the other; euery one of
them clayming the whole of those North parts as his owne right. The breadth
(if you go from that part of his territorie that lyeth farthest Westward on
the Narue side, to the parts of Siberia Eastward, where the Emperour hath
his garrisons) is 4400. verst or thereabouts. A verst (by their reckoning)
is a 1000. pases, yet lesse by one quarter than an English mile. If the
whole dominion of the Russe Emperour were all habitable, and peopled in all
places, as it is in some, he would either hardly holde it all within one
regiment, or be ouer mightie for all his neighbour Princes.

Of the Soile and Climate.

The soyle of the Countrey for the most part is of a sleight sandie moulde,
yet very much different one place from another, for the yeeld of such
things as grow out of the earth. The Countrey Northwards towards the parts
of S. Nicholas and Cola, and Northeast towards Siberia, is all very barren,
and full of desert woods by reason of the Climate, and extremitie of the
colde in Winter time. So likewise along the Riuer Volgha betwixt the
countreys of Cazan, and Astracan: where (notwithstanding the soyle is very
fruitfull) it is all vnhabited, sauing that vpon the riuer Volgha on the
Westside, the Emperour hath some fewe Castels with garisons in them. This
happeneth by meanes of the Crimme Tartar, that will neither himselfe plant
Townes to dwel there, (liuing a wild and vagrant life) nor suffer the Russe
(that is farre off with the strength of his Countrey) to people those
parts. From Vologda (whieh lieth almost 1700. verst from the port of S.
Nicholas) downe towards Mosco, and so towards the South part that bordereth
vpon the Crimme, (which conteineth the like space of 1700. verst or there
abouts) is a very fruitfull and pleasant countrey, yeelding pasture, and
corne, with woods and waters in very great plentie. The like is betwixt
Rezan (that lieth Southeast from Mosco) to Nouogrod and Vobsko, that reach
farthest towards the Northwest. So betwixt Mosco, and Smolensko (that lyeth
Southwest towards Lituania) is a very fruitfull and pleasant soile.

The whole countrey differeth very much from it selfe, by reason of the
yeere: so that a man would marueile to see the great, alteration and
difference betwixt the Winter, and the Summer Russia. The whole Countrey in
the Winter lieth vnder snow, which falleth continually, and is sometime of
a yard or two thicke, but greater towards the North. [Sidenote: The colde
of Russia.] The riuers and other waters are all frosen vp a yard or more
thicke, how swift or broade soeuer they bee. And this continueth commonly
fiue moneths, viz. from the beginning of Nouember till towardes the ende of
March, what time the snow beginneth to melt. So that it would breede a
frost in a man to looke abroad at that time, and see the Winter face of
that Countrey. The sharpenesse of the aire you may iudge of by this: for
that water dropped downe or cast vp into the air congealeth into yce before
it come to the ground. In the extremitie of Winter, if you holde a pewter
dish or pot in your hand, or any other metall (except in some chamber where
their warme stoaues bee) your fingers will friese fast vnto it, and drawe
off the skinne at the parting. When you passe out of a warme roome into a
colde, you shall sensibly feele your breath to waxe starke, and euen
stifeling with the colde, as you drawe it in and out. Diuers not onely that
trauell abroad, but in the very markets and streetes of their Townes, are
mortally pinched and killed withall: so that you shall see many drop downe
in the streetes; many trauellers brought into the Townes sitting dead and
stifle in their Sleds. Diuers lose their noses, the tips of their eares,
and the bals of their cheeks, their toes, feete, &c. Many times (when the
Winter is very hard and extreeme) the beares and woolfes issue by troopes
out of the woods driuen by hunger, and enter the villages, tearing and
rauening all they can finde: so that the inhabitants are faine to flie for
safegard of their liues. And yet in the Sommer time you shal see such a new
hiew and face of a Countrey, the woods (for the most part which are all of
firre and birch) so fresh and so sweete, the pastures and medowes so greene
and well growen, (and that vpon the sudden) such varietie of flowers, such
noyse of birdes (specially of Nightingales, that seeme to be more lowde and
of a more variable note then in other Countreys) that a man shall not
lightly trauell in a more pleasant Countrey.

And this fresh and speedy growth of the spring there seemeth to proceede
from the benefite of the snow: which all the Winter time being spread ouer
the whole Countrey as a white robe, and keeping it warme from the rigour of
the frost, in the Spring time (when the Sunne waxeth wanme, and dissolueth
it into water) doeth so throughly drench and soake the ground, that is
somewhat of a sleight and sandie mould, and then shineth so hotely vpon it
againe, that it draweth the hearbes and plants foorth in great plentie and
varietie, in a very short time. As the Winter exceedeth in colde, so the
Sommer inclineth to ouer much heat, specially in the moneths of Iune, Iuly
and August, being much warmer then the Sommer aire in England.

The countrey throughout is very well watered with springs, riuers, and
Ozeraes, or lakes. Wherein the prouidence of God is to be noted, for that
much of the Countrey being so farre inland, as that some part lieth a
thousand miles and more euery way from any sea, yet it is serued with faire
Riuers, and that in very great number, that emptying themselues one into
another, runne all into the Sea. Their lakes are many and large, some of
60. 80. 100. and 200. miles long with breadth proportionate.

[Sidenote: The chiefe Riuers of Russia.] The chiefe Riuers are these,
First, Volgha, that hath his head or spring at the route of an Aldertree,
about 200. verst aboue Yaruslaue, and groweth so bigge by the encrease of
other Riuers by that time it commeth thither, that it is broad an English
mile and more, and so runneth into the Caspian sea, about 2800. verst or
miles of length.

The next is Boristhenes (now called Neper) that diuideth the Countrey from
Lituania, and falleth into the Euxin sea.

The third Tanais or Don, (the ancient bounder betwixt Europe and Asia) that
taketh his head out of Rezan Ozera, and so running through the Countrey of
the Chrim Tartar, falleth into the great Sea, lake, or meare, (called
Maeotis) by the citie of Azou. By this Riuer (as the Russe reporteth), you
may passe from their Citie Mosco to Constantinople, and so into all those
parts of the world by water, drawing your boate (as their maner is) ouer a
little Isthmus or narrowe slip of land, a few versts ouerthwart. Which was
proued not long since by an Ambassadour sent to Constantinople, who passed
the riuer of Moscua, and so into another called Ocka, whence hee drew his
boat ouer into Tanais, and thence passed the whole way by water.

The fourth is called Duyna, many hundred miles long, that falleth Northward
into the bay of S. Nicholas, and hath great Alabaster rockes on the bankes
towards the sea side.

The fifth Duna, that emptieth into the Baltick sea by the towne Riga.

The sixt Onega, that falleth into the Bay at Solouetsko 90. verst from the
port of S. Nicholas. This riuer below the towne Cargapolia, meeteth with
the Riuer Volock, that falleth into the Finland Sea by the towne Yama. So
that from the port of S. Nicholas into the Finland sea, and so into the
Sound, you may passe all by water, as hath bene tried by the Russe.

The seuenth Suchana, that floweth into Duyna, and so into the North Sea.

The eight Ocka, that fetcheth his head from the borders of the Chrim, and
streameth into Volgha.

The ninth Moscua, that runneth thorough the Citie Mosco, and giueth it the

There is Wichida also a very large and long riuer that riseth out of
Permia, and falleth into Volgha. All these are riuers of very large
streames, the least to be compared to the Thames in bignesse, and in length
farre more, besides diuers other. The Pole at Mosco is 55. degrees 10.
minutes. At the port of S. Nicholas towards the North 63. degrees and 50.

The natiue commodities of the Countrey.

[Sidenote: The fruits and graine of Russia.] For kindes of fruites, they
haue Apples, peares plummes, cherries, red and blacke, (but the blacke
wilde) a deene like a muske millian, but more sweete and pleasant,
cucumbers and goords (which they call Arbouse) rasps, strawberies, and
hurtilberies, with many other beries in great quantitie in euery wood and
hedge. Their kindes of graine are wheat, rie, barley, oates, pease,
buckway, psnytha, that in taste is somewhat like to rice. Of all these
graines the Countrey yeeldeth very sufficient with an ouerplus quantitie,
so that wheate is solde sometime for two alteens or ten pence starling the
Chetfird, which maketh almost three English bushels.

Their rie is sowed before the Winter, all their other graine in the Spring
time, and for the most part in May. The Permians and some other that dwell
farre North, and in desert places, are serued from the parts that lye more
Southward, and are forced to make, bread sometimes of a kinde of roote
(called Vaghnoy) and of the middle rine of the firre tree. If there be any
dearth (as they accompted this last yeere Anno 1588. wheat and rie being
13. alteens, or 5. shillings fiue pence starling the Chetfird) the fault is
rather in the practise of their Nobilitie that vse to engrosse it, then in
the Countrey it selfe.

[Sidenote: The chiefe commodities of the countrey. 1. Furres.] The natiue
commodities of the Countrey (wherewith they serue both their owne turnes,
and send much abroad to the great enriching of the Emperor, and his people)
are many and substantiall. First, furres of all sorts. Wherein the
prouidence of God is to be noted, that prouideth a naturall remedie for
them, to helpe the naturall inconuenience of their Countrey by the cold of
the Climat. Their chiefe furres are these, Blacke fox, Sables, Lusernes,
dun fox, Martrones, Gurnestalles or Armins, Lasets or Miniuer, Beuer,
Wuluerins, the skin of a great water Rat that smelleth naturally like
muske, [Sidenote: These rats are in Canada.] Calaber or gray squirel, red
squirel, red and white fox. Besides the great quantitie spent within the
Countrey (the people being clad al in furres the whole winter) there are
transported out of the Countrey some yeeres by the merchants of Turkie,
Persia, Bougharia, Georgia, Armenia, and some other of Christendom, to the
value of foure or fiue hundred thousand rubbles, as I haue heard of the
merchants. [Sidenote: Momgosorskoy perhaps Molgomzaia.] The best Sable
furre groweth in the countrey of Pechora, Momgosorskoy and Obdorskoy, the
worser sort in Siberia, Perm, and other places. The blacke foxe and red
come out of Siberia, white and dunne from Pechora, whence also come the
white wolfe, and white Beare skin. The best Wuluerin also thence and from
Perm. The best Martrons are from Siberia, Cadamo, Morum, Perm, and Cazan.
Lyserns, Mineuer, and Armins, the best are out of Gallets, and Ouglits,
many from Nouogrod and Perm. The Beauer of the best sort breedeth in
Murmonskey by Cola. Other common furres and most of these kindes grow in
many, and some in all parts of the Countrey.

[Sidenote: 2. Waxe.] The second commoditie is of Waxe, whereof hath bene
shipped into forreigne countreys (as I haue heard it reported by those that
best know it) the summe of 50000. pood yeerely, euery pood conteyneth 40.
pound, but now about 10000. pood a yeere.

[Sidenote: 3. Hony.] The third is their Honie, whereof besides an exceeding
great quantitie spent in their ordinary drinkes (which is Mead of all
sorts) and their other vses, some good quantitie is caried out of the
countrey. The chiefe encrease of hony is in Mordua and Cadam neere to the
Cheremissen Tartar: much out of Seuerskoy, Rezan, Morum, Cazan, Dorogobose,
and Vasma.

[Sidenote: 4. Tallow.] Fourthly, of Tallow they afoord a great waight for
transportation: not onely for that their countrey hath very much good
ground apt for pasturage of cattell, but also by reason of their many Lents
and other fastes: and partly because their greater men vse much waxe for
their lights, the poorer and meaner sort birch dried in their stoaues, and
cut into long shiuers, which they call Luchineos. Of tallow there hath bene
shipped out of the Realme a few yeeres since about 100000. pood yerely, now
not past 30000. or thereabouts. The best yeeld of tallow is in the parts
and territories of Smolensko, Yaruslaue, Ouglits, Nouogrod, and Vologda,
Otfer, and Gorodetskey.

[Sidenote: 5. Hide.] An other principall commoditie is their Losh and Cow
hide. Their Losh or Buffe hide is very faire and large. Their bull and cowe
hide (for oxen they make none, neither yet weather) is of a small sise.
There hath bene transported by merchants strangers some yeres 100000.
hides. Now it is decreased to 30000. or thereabouts. Besides great store of
goates skinnes, whereof great numbers are shipped out of the countrey. The
largest kinde of Losh or Buffe breedeth about Rostoue, Wichida, Nouogrod,
Morum, and Perm. The lesser sort within the kingdome of Cazan.

[Sidenote: 6. Trane oyle.] Another very great and principall commoditie is
their Trane oyle, drawen out of the Seal fish. Where it will not be
impertinent to shewe the maner of their hunting the Seal, which they make
this oyle of: which is in this sort. [Sidenote: The maner of hunting the
Seale fish.] Towards the ende of Sommer (before the frost beginne) they goe
downe with their boates into the bay of S. Nicholas, to a cape called
Cusconesse or Foxnose, where they leaue their boats till the next spring
tide. When the Sunne waxeth warme toward the spring, and yet the yce not
melted within the Bay, they returne thither againe. Then drawing their
boates ouer the sea yce, they vse them for houses to rest and lodge in.
There are commonly about 17. or 18. fleete of them, of great large boates,
which diuide themselues into diuers companies, fiue or sixe boats in a

They that first finde the haunt, fire a beacon, which they carry with them
for the nonce. Which being espied by the other companies, by such among
them as are appointed of purpose, they come altogether and compasse the
Seales round about in a ring, that lie sunning themselues together vpon the
yce, commonly foure or fiue thousand in a shoale, and so they inuade them
euery man with his club in his hand. If they hit them on the nose they are
soone killed. If on the sides or backe they beare out the blow, and many
times so catch and holde downe the clubbe with their teeth by maine force,
that the partie is forced to call for helpe to his fellowes.

The maner of the Seals is when they see themselues beset, to gather all
close together in a throng or plumpe, to sway downe the yce, and to breake
it (if they can) which so bendeth the yce that many times it taketh the sea
water vpon it, and maketh the hunters to wade a foote or more deepe. After
the slaughter when they haue killed what they can, they fall to sharing
euery boate his part in equall portions: and so they flay them, taking from
the body the skin, and the lard or fat with all that cleaueth to the skin.
This they take with them, leauing the bodies behind, and so go to shore.
Where they digge pits, in the grounde of a fadome and an halfe deepe, or
thereabout, and so taking the fat or lard off from the skinne, they throw
it into the pit, and cast in among it boat burning stones to melt it
withall. The vppermost and purest is sold, and vsed to oile wool for cloth,
the grosser (that is of a red colour) they sell to make sope.

[Sidenote: 7. Ickary.] Likewise of Ickary or Cauery, a great quantitie is
made vpon the riuer of Volgha out of the fish called Bellougina, the
Sturgeon, the Seueriga and the Sterledey. Whereof the most part is shipped
by French and Netherlandish merchants for Italy and Spaine, some by English

[Sidenote: 8. Hempe and Flaxe.] The next is of Flax and Hempe, whereof
there hath bene shipped (as I haue heard merchants say) at the port of
Narue a great part of 100. ships small and great yerely. Now, not past
fiue. The reason of this abating and decrease of this and other
commodities, that were wont to be transported in a greater quantitie, is
the shutting vp of the port of the Narue towards the Finland sea, which now
is in the handes and possession of the Sweden. Likewise the stopping of the
passage ouerland by the way of Smolensko, and Plotsko, by reason of their
warres with the Polonian, which causeth the people to be lesse prouident in
mainteining and gathering these and like commodities, for that they lacke
sales. For the growth of flaxe the prouince of Vobsko, and the countrey
about is the chiefe and onely place. For Hempe Smolensko, Dorogobose and

[Sidenote: 9. Salt.] The countrey besides maketh great store of salt. Their
best salt is made at Stararouse in very great quantitie, where they haue
great store of salt wels, about 250. verst from the sea. At Astracan salt
is made naturally by the sea water, that casteth it vp into great hils, and
so it is digged down, and caried away by the merchants and other that wil
fetch it from thence. They pay to the Emperor for acknowledgement or
custome 3. d. Russe vpon euery hundred weight. [Sidenote: Nonocks.] Besides
these two, they make salt in many other places of the Realme, as in Perm,
Wichida, Totma, Kenitsma, Solouetsky, Ocona, Bombasey, and Nonocks, all out
of salt pits, saue at Solouetsky, which lieth neere to the sea.

[Sidenote: 10. Tarre.] Likewise of Tarre they make a great quantitie out of
their firre trees in the conntrey of Duyna and Smolensko, whereof much is
sent abroad. [Sidenote: 11. Ribazuba.] Besides these (which are all good
and substantiall commodities) they haue diuers other of smaller accompt,
that are naturall and proper to that countrey: as the fish tooth (which
they call Ribazuba) which is vsed both among themselues, and the Persians
and Bougharians that fetch it from thence for beads, kniues, and sword
hafts of Noblemen and gentlemen, and for diuers other vses. Some vse the
powder of it against poison, as the Vnicornes horne. The fish that weareth
it is called a Morse, and is caught about Pechora. These fish teeth some of
them are almost 2. foote of length, and weigh 11. or 12. pound apiece.

[Sidenote: 12. Slude.] In the prouince of Corelia, and about the riuer
Duyna towards the North sea, there groweth a soft rocke which they call
Slude. This they cut into pieces, and so teare it into thin flakes, which
naturally it is apt for, and so vse it for glasse-lanthorns and such like.
It giueth both inwards and outwards a clearer light then glasse, and for
this respect is better then either glasse or horne: for that it neither
breaketh like glasse nor yet will burne like the lanthorne. [Sidenote: 13.
Saltpeter and brimstone.] Saltpeter in many places, as at Ouglits,
Yaruslaue, and Vstiug, they make and some smal store of brimstone vpon the
riuer Volgha, but want skil to refine it. [Sidenote: 14. Iron.] Their iron
is somewhat brittle, but a great weight of it is made in Corelia,
Cargapolia, and Vstiug Thelesna. Other mine they haue none gowing within
the realme.

[Sidenote: The strange beastes, fish, foule, &c., that breed in Russia.]
Their beasts of strange kinds are the Losh, the Ollen, the wild horse, the
beare, the woluering, or wood dog, the Lyserne, the Beauer, the Sable, the
Martron, the black and dunne fox, the white Beare towards the sea coast of
Pechora, the Gurnstale, the Laset or Mineuer. They haue a kinde of
Squirrell that hath growing on the pinion of the shoulder bone a long tuft
of haire, much like vnto feathers with a far broader taile than haue any
other squirrels, which they moue and shake as they leape from tree to tree,
much like vnto a wing. They skise a large space, and seeme for to flie
withal, and therefore they cal them Letach Vechshe, that is, the flying
squirrels. Their hares and squirrels in sommer are of the same colour with
ours, in Winter the hare changeth her coate into milke white, the squirrel
into gray, whereof cometh the Calaber.

They haue fallow deere, the roe bucke, and goats very great store. Their
horses are but smal, but very swift and hard, they trauell them vnshod both
winter and Sommer, without all regard of pace. Their sheepe are but smal
and beare course and harsh wool. Of foule they haue diuers of the principal
kinds: First, great store of hawks, the eagle, the gerfaulcon, the
slightfaulcon, the goshawk, the tassel, the sparhawk, &c. But the principal
hawke that breedeth in the country, is counted the gerfaulcon. Of other
fowles their principal kinds are the swan tame and wilde, (whereof they
haue great store) the storke, the crane, the tedder of the colour of a
feasant, but far bigger and liueth in the firre woods. Of feasant and
partridge they haue very great plentie. An owle there is of very a great
bignesse more vgly to behold then the owles of this country, with a broad
face, and eares much like vnto a man.

For fresh water fish, besides the common sorts (as carpe, pikes, pearch,
tench, roach, &c.) they haue diuers kinds very good and delicate: as the
Bellouga or Bellougina of 4. or 5. elnes long, the Ositrina or Sturgion,
the Seueriga and Sterledy somewhat in fashion and taste like to the
Sturgion, but not so thick nor long. These 4. kindes of fish breed in the
Volgha, and are catched in great plenty, and serued thence into the whole
Realme for a great food. Of the Roes of these foure kinds they make very
great store of Icary or Caueary as was said before.

They haue besides these that breed in the Volgha a fish called the Riba
bela, or white salmon, which they account more delicate then they do the
red salmon, whereof also they haue exceeding great plentie in the Riuers
Northward, as in Duyna, the riuer of Cola, &c. In the Ozera or lake neere a
towne called Perislaue, not far from the Mosco, they haue a smal fish which
they cal the fresh herring, of the fashion, and somewhat of the taste of a
sea-herring. Their chiefe townes for fish are, Yaruslaue, Bealozera,
Nouogrod, Astracan, and Cazan: which all yeeld a large custome to the
Emperour euery yeere for their trades of fishing, which they practise in
Sommer, but sende if frozen in the Winter time into all parts of the

The chiefe Cities of Russia.

The chiefe cities of Russia are Mosco, Nouogrod, Rostoue, Volodomer,
Plesko, Smolensko, Iaruslaue, Perislaue, Nisnouogrod, Vologda, Vstiug,
Colmogro, Cazan, Astracan, Cargapolia, Columna. [Sidenote: Mosco] The city,
of Mosco is supposed to be of great antiquitie, though the first founder be
vnknowen to the Russe. It seemeth to haue taken the name from the riuer
that runneth on the one side of the towne. Berosus the Chaldean in his 5.
booke telleth that Nimrod (whom other profane stories cal Saturne) sent
Assyrius, Medus, Moscus, and Magog into Asia to plant colonies there, and
that Moscus planted both in Asia and Europe. Which may make some
probabilitie, that the citie, or rather the riuer whereon it is built
tooke, the denomination from this Moscus: the rather because of the climate
or situation, which is in the very farthest part and list of Europe,
bordering vpon Asia. The Citie was much enlarged by one Iuan or Iohn, sonne
to Daniel, that first changed his tide of duke into King: though that
honour continued not to his posterity: the rather because he was inuested
into it by the Popes Legate, who at that time was Innocentius the 4. about
the yeere 1246. which was very much misliked by the Russe people, being
then a part of the Easterne or Greeke Church. Since that time the name of
this city hath growen more famous, and better knowen to the world: insomuch
that, not only the prouince, but the whole countrey of Russia is termed by
some by the name of Moscouia the Metropolite city. The forme of this city
is in maner round with 3. strong wals, circuling the one within the other,
and streets lying betwene, whereof the inmost wall, and the buildings
closed within it (lying safest as the heart within the body, fenced and
watred with the riuer Moscoua, that runneth close by it) is all accompted
the Emperors castle. The number of houses (as I haue heard) through the
whole Citie (being reckoned by the Emperor a little before it was fired by
the Crim) was 41500. in all. Since the Tartar besieged and fired the towne,
(which was in the yere 1571.) there lieth waste of it a great breadth of
ground, which before was wel set and planted with buildings, specially that
part on the South side of Moscua, built not long before by Basilius the
Emperor for his garison of souldiers, to whom he gaue priuiledge to drinke
Mead, and beere at the dry or prohibited times, when other Russes may
drinke nothing but water, and for that cause called this new city by the
name of Naloi, that is skinck [Footnote: From _Scenc_--drink, SAX.

Where every iovial tinker for his chink,
May cry, mine host, to crambe giue us drink,
And do not slink, but skink, or else you stink.
(B. JONSON, _New Inn_, I. 3.)]

or poure in. So that now the city of Mosco is not much bigger then the city
of London. [Sidenote: Nouograd.] The next in greatnes, and in a maner as
large, is the citie Nouograd: where was committed (as the Russe saith) the
memorable warre so much spoke of in stories of the Scythians seruants, that
tooke armes against their Masters: which they report in this sort: viz.
That the Boiarens or gentlemen of Nouograd and the territory about (which
only are souldiers after the discipline of those countreis) had war with
the Tartars. Which being wel performed and ended by them, they returned
homewards. Where they vnderstood by the way that their Cholopey or
bondslaues whom they left at home, had in their absence possessed their
townes, lands, houses, wiues and all. At which newes being somewhat amased,
and yet disdeining the villany of their seruants, they made the more speed
home: and so not far from Nouograd met them in warlike maner marching
against them. Whereupon aduising what was best to be done, they agreed all
to set vpon them with no other shew of weapon but with their horse whips,
(which as their maner is euery man rideth withal) to put them in
remembrance of their seruile condition, thereby to terrifie them, and abate
their courage. And so marching on and lashing al together with their whips
in their hands they gaue the onset. Which seemed so terrible in the eares
of their villaines, and stroke such a sense into them of the smart of the
whip which they had felt before, that they fled altogether like sheepe
before the driuers. In memory of this victory the Nouogradians euer since
haue stamped their coine (which they cal a dingoe Nouogrodskoy currant
through al Russia) with the figure of a horsman shaking a whip aloft in his
hand. These 2. cities exceed the rest in greatnes. For strength their
chiefe townes are Vobsko, Smolensko, Cazan and Astracan, as lying vpon the
borders. [Sidenote: Iaruslaue.] But for situation Iaruslaue far exceedeth
the rest. For besides the commodities that the soile yeeldeth of pasture
and corne, it lieth vpon the famous riuer of Volgha, and looketh ouer it
from a high banke very faire and stately to behold: whereof the towne
taketh the name. For Iaraslaue in that tongue signifieth as much as a faire
or famous banke. [Sidenote: Saxo Grammaticus lib. II. pag. 187.] In this
towne (as may be ghessed by the name) dwelt the Russe king Vladimer
sirnamed Iaruslaue, that maried the Daughter of Harald king of England, by
mediation of Sweno the Dane, as is noted in the Danish story about the yere

The other townes haue nothing that is greatly memorable, saue many ruines
within their wals. [Sidenote: The manner of Russe building.] The streets of
their cities and townes in stead of pauing are planked with fir trees,
plained and layd enen close the one to the other. Their houses are of wood
without any lime or stone, built very close and warme with firre trees
plained and piled one vpon another. They are fastened together with dents
or notches at euery corner, and so clasped fast together. Betwixt the trees
or timber they thrust in mosse (whereof they gather plenty in their woods)
to keep out the aire. Euery house hath a paire of staires that lead vp into
the chambers out of the yard or streat after the Scottish maner. This
building seemeth far better for their countrey, then that of stone or
bricke; as being colder and more dampish then their wooden houses,
specially of firre, that is a dry and warme wood. Whereof the prouidence of
God hath giuen them such store, as that you may build a faire house for 20.
or 30. rubbles or litle more, where wood is most scant. The greatest
inconuenience of their wodden building is the aptnesse for firing, which
happeneth very oft and in very fearful sort, by reason of the drinesse and
fatnes of the fir, that being once fired, burneth like a torch, and is
hardly quenched til all be burnt vp.

Of the maner of Crowning or Inauguration of the Russe Emperours.

The solemnities vsed at the Russe Emperors coronation, are on this maner.
In the great church of Precheste (or our Lady) within the Emperors castle
is erected a stage whereon standeth a scrine that beareth vpon it the
Imperial cap and robe of very rich stuffe. When the day of the Inauguration
is come, there resort thither, first the Patriarch with the Metropolitanes,
arch-bishops, bishops, abbots and priors, al richly clad in their
pontificalibus. Then enter the Deacons with the quier of singers. Who so
soone as the Emperor setteth foot into the church, begin to sing: Many
yeres may liue noble Theodore Iuanowich, &c: Wereunto the patriarch and
Metropolite with the rest of the cleargy answere with a certaine hymne, in
forme of a praier, singing it altogether with a great noise. The hymne
being ended, the patriarch with the Emperor mount vp the stage, where
standeth a seat ready for the Emperor. Whereupon the patriarch willeth him
to sit downe, and then placing himself by him vpon another seat prouided
for that purpose, boweth downe his head towards the ground, and saith this
prayer: O Lord God king of kings, Lord of Lords, which by thy prophet
Samuel didst chose thy seruant Dauid, and annoynt him for King ouer thy
people Israel, heare now our prayer, and looke from thy sanctuary vpon this
thy seruant Theodore, whom thou hast chosen and exalted for king ouer these
thy holy nations anoint him with the oile of gladnes, protect by thy power,
put vpon his head a crowne of gold and precious stones, giue him length of
dayes, place him in the seat of Iustice, strengthen his arme, make subiect
vnto him all the barbarous nations. Let thy feare be in his whole heart,
turne him from an euill faith, and all errour, and shewe him the saluation
of thy holy and vniuersal Church, that he may iudge thy people with
iustice, and protect the children of the poore, and finally atteine
euerlasting life. This prayer he speaketh with a low voice, and then
pronounceth aloud: Al praise and power to God the Father, the Sonne, and
the holy Ghost. The prayer, being ended, he commandeth certaine Abbots to
reach the imperiall roabe and cap: which is done very decently, and with
great solemnitie, the Patriarch withal pronouncing aloud: Peace be vnto
all. And so he beginneth another prayer to this effect: Bow your selues
together with vs, and pray to him that reigneth ouer all. Preserue him (oh
Lord) vnder thy holy protection, keepe him that hee may doe good and holy
things, let Iustice shine forth in his dayes, that we may liue quietly
without strife and malice. This is pronounced somewhat softly by the
Patriarch, whereto hee addeth againe aloud: Thou art the king of the whole
world and the sauiour of our soules, to thee the Father, sonne and Holy
ghost be al praise for euer and euer. Amen. Then putting on the roabe and
the cap, he blesseth the Emperour with the signe of the crosse, saying
withall: In the name of the Father, the Sonne and the Holy ghost. The like
is done by the Metropolites, Archbishops, and Bishops: who all in their
order come to the chaire, and one after another blesse the Emperour with
their two forefingers. Then is sayd by the Patriarch another prayer, that
beginneth: Oh most holy virgin, mother of God &c. After which a Deacon
pronounceth with a loude voice: Many yeres to noble Theodore, good,
honourable, beloued of God, great Duke of Volodemer, of Mosco, Emperour,
and Monarch of all Russia, &c. Whereto the other Priests and Deacons that
stand somewhat farre of by the altar or table, answere singing: Many yeres,
many yeres to the noble Theodore. The same note is taken vp by the Priests
and Deacons, that are placed at the right and left side of the Church, and
then altogether, they channt and thunder out, singing: Many yeres to the
noble Theodore, good, honourable, beloued of God, great Duke of Volodomer,
Mosco, Emperour of all Russia, &c. These solemnities being ended, first
commeth the Patriarch with the Metropolites, Archbishops, and Bishops; then
the Nobility, and the whole company in their order, to doe homage to the
Emperour, bending downe their heads, and knocking them at his feete to the
very ground.

The stile wherewith he is inuested at his Coronation, runneth after this

Theodore Iuanowich, by the grace of God great Lord and Emperour of all
Russia, great Duke of Volodomer, Mosco, and Nouogrod, King of Cazan, King
of Astracan, Lord of Plesco, and great Duke of Smolensco, of Twerria,
Ioughoria, Permia, Vadska, Bulghoria, and others; Lord and great Duke of
Nouogrod of the Low countrey, of Chernigo, Rezan, Polotskoy, Rostoue,
Yaruslaueley, Bealozera, Liefland, Oudoria, Obdoria, and Condensa,
Commander of all Siberia, and of the North parts, and Lord of many other
Countreis, &c.

This stile conteineth in it all the Emperours Prouinces, and setteth foorth
his greatnesse. And therefore they haue a great delight and pride in it,
forcing not onely their owne people but also strangers (that haue any
matter to deliuer to the Emperour by speech or writing) to repeate the
whole forme from the beginning to the end. Which breedeth much cauill, and
sometimes quarell betwixt them and the Tartar, and Poland Ambassadours: who
refuse to call him Czar, that is Emperor, and to repeate the other parts of
his long stile. My selfe when I had audience of the Emperour, thought good
to salute him only with thus much viz. Emperour of all Russia, great Duke
of Volodomer, Mosco and Nouogrod, King of Cazan, King of Astracan. The rest
I omitted of purpose, because I knew they gloried, to haue their stile
appeare to be of a larger volume then the Queenes of England. But this was
taken in so ill part, that the Chancelour (who then attended the Emperour,
with the rest of the nobility) with a loude chafing voice, called still
vpon me to say out the rest. Whereto I answered, that the Emperors stile
was very long, and could not so well be remembred by strangers, that I had
repeated so much of it, as might shew that I gaue honour to the rest &c.
But all would not serue till I commanded my interpreter to say it all out.

Their forces for the wars, with the chief officers and their salaries.

The Souldiers of Russia are called Sinaboyarskey, or the sons of Gentlemen:
because they are all out of that degree, by vertue of their military
profession. [Sidenote: Souldiers by birth and inheritance.] For euery
souldier in Russia is a gentleman, and none are gentlemen, but only the
souldiers, that take it by discent from their ancestors: so that the sonne
of a gentleman (which is borne a souldier) is euer a gentleman, and a
souldier withall, and professeth nothing els but military matters. When
they are of yeres able to beare armes, they come to the office of Roserade,
or great Constable, and there present themselues: who entreth their names,
and allotteth them certaine lands to maintaine their charges, for the most
part the same their fathers enioyed. For the lands assigned to maintaine
the army, are euer certain, annexed to this office without improuing, or
detracting one foot. But that if the Emperor haue sufficient in wages, the
roomes being full so farre as the land doeth extend already, they are many
times deferred, and haue nothing allowed them, except some one portion of
the land be deuided into two. The whole number of his souldiers in
continuall pay, is this. First he hath his Dworaney, that is, Pensioners,
or Gard of his person, to the number of 15000 horsemen, with their
captaines and other officers, that are alwaies in a readines.

[Sidenote: Degrees of horsemen. 1. Praetoriani or such as attend the
Emperors person.] Of these 15000 horsemen, there are three sorts or
degrees, which differ as well in estimation as in wages, one degree from
another. The first sort of them is called Dworaney Bulshey, or the company
of head Pensioners, that haue some an hundred, some fourescore rubbles a
yeare, and none vnder 70. The second sort are called Seredney Dworaney, or
the middle rank of Pensioners. These haue sixty or fifty rubbles by the
yeare, none vnder fortie. The third and lowest sort, are the Dyta
Boiarskey, that is the low Pensioners. Their salary is thirty rubbles a
yere for him that hath most, some haue but 25, some 20, none vnder 12.
Whereof the halfe part is paid them at the Mosco, the other halfe in the
field by the general, when they haue any wars, and are imploied in seruice.
When they receiue their whole pay it amounteth to 55000 rubbles by the

And this is their wages, besides lands allotted to euery one of them, both
to the greater and the lesse, according to their degrees. Whereof he that
hath least, hath to yeelde him twentie rubbles or markes by the yeare.
[Sidenote: Two other troupes to the number of 65000.] Besides these 15000
horsemen, that are of better choyce (as being the Emperors owne gard when
himselfe goeth to the wars, not vnlike the Romane souldiers called
Praetoriani) are a hundred and ten men of speciall account for their
Nobilitie, and trust, which are chosen by the Emperor, and haue their names
registred, that find among them for the Emperors wars, to the number of
65000. horsemen, with all necessaries meet for the wars after the Russe

To this end they haue yerely allowance made by the Emperor for themselues,
and their companies, to the summe of 40000 rubbles. And these 65000 are to
repayre to the field euery yeare on the borders towards the Crim Tartar,
(except they be appointed for some other seruice) whether there be wars
with the Tartars, or not. This might seeme peraduenture somewhat dangerous
for some state, to haue so great forces vnder the command of Noblemen to
assemble euery yere to one certain place. But the matter is so vsed, as
that no danger can growe to the Emperor, or his state by this means. First,
because these noblemen are many, to wit, an 110. in al, and changed by the
Emperor so oft as he thinketh good. Secondly, because they haue their
liuings of the Emperor, being otherwise but of very small reuenue, and
receiue this yerely pay of 46000 rubbles, when it is presently to be payd
forth againe to the souldiers that are vnder them. Thirdly, because for the
most part they are about the Emperors person being of his Counsel, either
speciall or at large. Fourthly, they are rather as paymasters, then
Captaines to their companies, themselues not going forth ordinarily to the
wars, saue when some of them are appointed by speciall order from the
Emperor himselfe. [Sidenote: Horsemen in continuall pay 80000.] So the
whole number of horsemen that are euer in a readinesse, and in continuall
pay, are 80000, a few more or lesse.

If he haue neede of a greater number (which seldome falleth out) then he
enterteineth of those Sinaboiarskey, that are out of pay, so many as be
needeth: and if yet he want of his number, he giueth charge to his
Noblemen, that hold lands of him to bring into the field euery man a
proportionable number of his seruants (called Kolophey, such as till his
lands) with their furniture, according to the iust number that he intendeth
to make. Which the seruice being done, presently lay in their weapons, and
returne to their seruile occupations againe.

[Sidenote: Footmen in continuall pay 12000.] Of footemen that are in
continuall pay he hath to the number of 12000 all gunners, called Strelsey:
Whereof 5000 are to attend about the citie of Mosco, or any other place
where the Emperor shall abide, and 2000 (which are called Stremaney
Strelsey, or gunners at the stirrop) about his owne person at the very
Court or house where himselfe lodgeth. The rest are placed in his garison
townes, till there be occasion to haue them in the field, and receiue for
their salarie or stipend euery man seuen rubbles a yeare, besides twelue
measures a piece of Rye, and Oates. [Sidenote: Strangers mercenaries in pay
4300.] Of mercenary Souldiers, that are strangers (whom they call Nimschoy)
they haue at this time 4300 of Polonians: of Chirchasses (that are vnder
the Polonians) about 4000, whereof 3500 are abroad in his garisons: of
Doutches and Scots about 150: of Greekes, Turks, Danes and Swedens, all in
one band, an 100 or thereabouts. But these they vse onely vpon the Tartar
side, and against the Siberians: as they doe the Tartar souldiers (whom
they hire sometimes, but only for the present) on the other side against
the Polonian and Sweden: thinking it best policie to vse their seruice vpon
the contrary border.

[Sidenote: The chief captains or leaders.] The chiefe Captaines or leaders
of these forces, according to their names and degrees, are these which
follow. [Sidenote: 1. The Voiauod or general.] First, the Voyauoda
Bulshaia, that is, the Great Captaine, or Lieutenant general vnder the
Emperor. This commonly is one of the foure houses of the chiefe Nobility of
the land. Their great Voiauod or general at this present in their wars, is
commonly one of these foure: Knez Feodor Iuanowich Methisloskey, Knez Iuan
Michalowich Glinskoy, Cherechaskoy, and Trowbetskoy, all of great
nobilitie. [Sidenote: 2. Lieutenant general.] Next vnto the Voiauod or
general there is some other placed as Lieutenant general, being a man of
great valour and experience in the wars, who ordereth all things that the
other countenanceth. At this time their principal man, and most vsed in
their wars, is one Knez Demetrie Iuanowich Forestine, an ancient and expert
captaine, and one that hath done great seruice (as they say) against the
Tartar and Polonian. [Sidenote: 3. Marshals of the field foure.] Next under
the Voiauod and his Lieutenant general are foure other that haue the
marshalling of the whole army deuided among them, and may be called the
marshals of the field.

Euery man hath his quarter, or fourth part vnder him. Whereof the first is
called the Praua Polskoy, or right wing. The second is the Leuoy Polskoy,
or left wing. The third is Rusnoy Polskoy, or the broken band, because out
of this there are chosen to send abroad vpon any sodaine exploit, or to
make a rescue or supplie, as occasion doth require. The fourth Storoshouoy
Polskoy, or the warding band. [Sidenote: Foure marshals: deputies eight.]
Euery one of these foure Marshals haue two other vnder them (eight in all)
that twise euery weeke at the least must muster and traine their seueral
wings or bands, and hold and giue iustice for all faults, and disorders
committed in the campe.

And these eight are commonly chosen out of the 110. (which I spake of
before) that receiue and deliuer the pay to the souldiers. [Sidenote: Fiue
Coronels vnder Captaines.] Vnder these eight are diuers other Captaines, as
the Gulauoy, Captaines of thousands fiue hundreds and 100. The Petyde
Setskoy or Captains of fifties, and the Decetskies or Captains of tennes.

[Sidenote: Sixe Masters of the Artillery.] Besides the Voiauoda or general
of the armie (spoken of before) they haue two other that beare the name of
Voiauoda, whereof one is the master of the great Ordinance (called Naradna
voiauoda) who hath diuers vnder officers, necessary for that seruice. [The
walking Captaine.] The other is called the Voiauoda gulauoy, or the walking
Captaine, that hath allowed him 1000 good horsemen of principall choyce, to
range and spie abroad, and hath the charge of the running Castle, which we
are to speake of in the Chapter following. Al these Captains, and men of
charge must once euery day resort to the Bulsha voiauoda, or General of the
armie, to know his pleasure, and to informe him, if there be any requisite
matter pertaining to their office.

Of their mustering, and leuying of forces, maner of armour, and prouision
of victuall for the warres.

[Sidenote: Their order of mustering.] When wars are towards (which they
faile not of lightly euery yere with the Tartar, and many times with the
Polonian and Sweden) the foure Lords of the Chetfirds send forth their
summons in the Emperors name, to all the Dukes and Dyacks of the Prouinces,
to be proclaimed in the head townes of euery Shire: that al the
Sinaboiarskey, or sonnes of gentlemen make their repaire to such a border
where the seruice is to be done, at such a place, and by such a day, and
there present themselues to such, and such Captaines. When they come to the
place assigned them in the summons or proclamation, their names are taken
by certaine officers that haue commission for that purpose from the
Roserade, or high Constable, as Clarkes of the bands. If any make default
or faile at the day, he is mulcted, and punished very seuerely. As for the
General and other chief Captaines, they are sent thither from the Emperors
owne hand, with such Commission and charge as he thinketh behoofull for the
present seruice. When the souldiers are assembled, they are reduced into
their bands, and companies, vnder their seueral Captaines of tennes,
fifties, hundreds, thousands, &c. and these Bands into 4 Polskeis, or
Legions (but of farre greater numbers then the Romane legions were) vnder
their foure great Leaders, which also haue the authoritie of Marshals of
the field (as was sayd before.)

[Sidenote: The horsemans furniture.] Concerning their armour they are but
slightly appointed. The common horseman hath nothing els but his bow in his
case vnder his right arme, and his quiuer and sword hanging on the left
side: except some fewe that beare a case of dagges, or a Iauelin, or short
staffe along their horse side. The vnder captains wil haue commonly some
piece of armour besides, as a shirt of male, or such like. The General with
the other chiefe captaines and men of Nobilitie wil haue their horse very
richly furnished, their saddles of cloth of gold, their bridles fair bossed
and tasselled with gold, and silk fringe, bestudded with pearle and
precious stones, themselues in very faire armor, which they cal Bullatnoy,
made of faire shining steele, yet couered commonly with cloth of golde, and
edged round with armin furre, his steele helmet on his head of a very great
price, his sword bow and arrowes at his side, his speare in his hand, with
another faire helmet, and Shesta pera, or horsemans scepter carried before
him. Their swords, bowes, and arrowes are of the Turkish fashion. They
practise like the Tartar to shoote forwards and backwards, as they flie and

[Sidenote: The footmans furniture.] The Strelsey or footeman hath nothing
but his piece in his hand, his striking hatchet at his back, and his sword
by his side. The stock of his piece is not made calieuerwise, but with a
plaine and straite stocke (somewhat like a fouling piece) the barrel is
rudely and vnartificially made, very heauie, yet shooteth but a very small
bullet. [Sidenote: Prouision of victual.] As for their prouision of
victual, the Emperor alloweth none, either for Captaine or souldiour,
neither prouideth any for them except peraduenture some come for their
money. Euery man is to bring sufficient for himselfe, to serue his turne
for foure moneths, and if neede require to giue order for more to be
brought vnto him to the Campe from his tenant that tilleth his land, or
some other place. One great helpe they haue, that for lodging and diet
euery Russe is prepared to be a souldier beforehand. Though the chiefe
Captains and other of account cary tents with them after the fashion of
ours, with some better prouision of victual then the rest. They bring with
them commonly into the Campe for victuall a kind of dried bread, (which
they call Suchary) with some store of meale, which they temper with water,
and so make it into a ball, or small lumpe of dowe, called Tollockno. And
this they eate rawe in stead of bread; Their meat is bacon, or some other
flesh or fish dryed, after the Dutch maner. If the Russe soldier were as
hardy to execute an enterprise, as he is hard to beare out toyle and
trauell, or were otherwise as apt and well trained for the warres, as he is
indifferent for his lodging and diet bee would farre exceede the souldiers
of our parts.

Of their marching, charging, and other Martial discipline.

The Russe trusteth rather to his number, then to the valure of his
souldiers, or good ordering of his forces. Their marching or leading is
without al order, saue that the foure Polskey or Legions, (whereinto their
armie is deuided) keepe themselues seuerall vnder their ensignes, and so
thrust all on together in a hurrey, as they are directed by their Generall.
Their Ensigne is the image of S. George. [Sidenote: Horsemen drummes.] The
Bulsha Dworaney or chiefe horsemen, haue euery man a small drum of brasse
at his saddle bowe, which he striketh when he giueth the charge, or onset.

[Sidenote: The horsemans maner of charging.] They haue drummes besides of a
huge bignes, which they cary with them vpon a boord layde on foure horses,
that are sparred together with chaines, euery drumme haning eight strikers,
or drummers, besides trumpets and shawmes, which they sound after a wilde
maner, much different from ours. When they giue any charge, or make any
inuasion, they make a great hallow or shoute altogether, as lowd as they
can, which with the sound of their trumpets, shawmes and drummes, maketh a
confused and horrible noyse. So they set on first discharging their
arrowes, then dealing with their swordes, which they vse in a brauerie to
shake, and brandish ouer their heads, before they come to strokes.

[Sidenote: The footmans charge.] Their footmen (because otherwise they want
order in leading) are commonly placed in some ambush or place of aduantage,
where they most annoy the enemie, with least hurt to themselues. [Sidenote:
The walking Castle.] If it be a set battell, or if any great inuasion be
made vpon the Russe borders by the Tartar, they are set within the running
or mouing Castle (called Bexa, or Gulaygorod) which is caried about with
them by the Voiauoda golauoy (or the walking General) whom I spake of
before. This walking or moouing Castle is so framed, that it may be set vp
in length (as occasion doeth require) the space of one, two, three, foure,
fiue, sixe, or seuen miles: for so long will reach. It is nothing els but a
double wall of wood to defend them on both sides behinde and before, with a
space of three yards or thereabouts, betwixt the two sides: so that they
may stand within it, and haue roome enough to charge and discharge their
pieces, and to vse their other weapons. It is closed at both ends, and made
with loope holes on either side, to lay out the nose of their piece, or to
push foorth any other weapon. It is caried with the armie wheresoeuer it
goeth, being taken into pieces, and so layde on cartes sparred together,
and drawen by horse that are not seene, by reason that they are couered
with their cariage as with a shelfe or penthouse. When it is brought to the
place where it is to be vsed (which is deuised and chosen out before by the
walking Voiauod) it is planted so much as the present vse requireth,
sometime a mile long, sometimes two, sometimes three or more: Which is
soone done without the helpe of any Carpenter, or instrument: because the
timber is so framed to claspe together one piece with in another: as is
easily vnderstoode by those that know the maner of the Russe building.

In this Castle standeth their shot wel fenced for aduantage, especially
against the Tartar, that bringeth no ordinance, nor other weapon into the
field with him, saue his sword, and bow, and arrowes. They haue also within
it diuers field pieces, which they vse as occasion doth require. Of pieces
for the field they carie no great store, when they warre against the
Tartar: but when they deale with the Polonian (of whose forces they make
more account) they go better furnished with all kind of munition, and other
necessarie prouisions. It is thought that no Prince of Christendome hath
better store of munition, then the Russe Emperour. And it may partly
appeare by the Artillery house at Mosco, where are of all sortes of great
Ordinance, all brasse pieces, very faire, to an exceeding great number.

The Russe souldier is thought to be better at his defence within some
castle or towne, then he is abroad at a set pitched field. Which is euer
noted in the practise of his warres, and namely at the siege of Vobsco,
about eight yeres since: [Sidenote: 1580.] where he repulsed the Polonian
king Stepan Batore, with his whole armie of 100000 men, and forced him in
the end to giue ouer his siege, with the losse of many of his best
Captaines and souldiers. But in a set field the Russe is noted to haue euer
the worse of the Polonian and Sweden.

[Sidenote: Reward for valure.] If any behaue himselfe more valiantly then
the rest, or do any special piece of seruice, the Emperor sendeth him a
piece of golde, stamped with the Image of Saint George on horsebacke: Which
they hang on their sleeues, and set in their caps. And this is accounted
the greatest honour they can receiue, for any seruice they doe.

Of their Colonies, and maintaining of their conquests, or purchases by

The Russe Emperors of late yeres haue very much enlarged their dominions,
and territories. Their first conquest after the Dukedome of Mosco, (for
before that time they were but Dukes of Volodomer, as before was said) was
the citie, and Dukedome of Nouogrod on the West, and Northwest side: which
was no smal enlargement of their dominion, and strengthening to them for
the winning of the rest. This was done by Iuan great grandfather to Theodor
now Emperor, about the yere 1480. The same began likewise to encroach vpon
the countries of Lituania and Liuonia, but the conquest only intended, and
attempted by him vpon some part of those countries, was pursued and
performed by his sonne Basileus, who first wan the citie and dukedom of
Plesko, afterwards the citie and dukedome of Smolensco, and many other
faire towns, with a large territory belonging vnto them, about the yere
1514. [Sidenote: 1580.] These victories against the Lettoes or Lituanians
in the time of Alexander their duke, he atchieued rather by aduantage of
ciuil dissentions, and treasons among themselues, then by any great
policie, or force of his own. But al this was lost againe by his son Iuan
Vasiliwich about 8 or 9 yeres past, vpon composition with the Polonian king
Stephan Batore: whereunto he was forced by the aduantages which the Pole
had then of him, by reason of the foile he had giuen him before, and the
disquietnes of his own state at home. Onely the Russe Emperor, at this time
hath left him on that side his countery, the cities of Smolensco, Vobsco,
Chernigo, and Bealagorod in Lituania. In Liuonia, not a towne nor one foot
of ground.

[Sidenote: Lituania.] When Basilius first conquered those countries, he
suffered then the natiues to keepe their possessions, and to inhabite all
their townes, onely paying him a tribute, vnder the gouernment of his Russe
Captaines. But by their conspiracies and attempts not long after, he was
taught to deale more surely with them. And so comming vpon them the second
time, he killed and caried away with him, three parts of foure, which he
gaue or sold to the Tartars that serued him in those wars, and in stead of
them placed there his Russes, so many, as might ouermatch the rest, with
certaine garisons of strength besides. Wherein notwithstanding this
ouersight was committed, for that (taking away with him the vpland, or
countrey people that should haue tilled the ground, and might easily haue
bene kept in order without any danger, by other good policies) he was
driuen afterwards many yeres together, to vitaile the countrey (specially
the great townes) out of his owne countrey of Russia, the soile lying there
in the meane while wast and vntilled.

[Sidenote: Narue.] The like fell out at the port of Narue in Liefland,
where his sonne Iuan Vasiliwich deuised to build a towne, and a castle on
the other side the riuer, (called Iuanogrod) to keepe the towne and
countrey in subiection. The castle he caused to be so built and fortified,
that it was thought to be inuincible. And when it was furnished, for reward
to the Architect (that was a Polonian) he put out both his eyes, to make
him vnable to build the like againe. But hauing left the natiues all within
their owne countrey, without abating their number or strength, the towne
and castle not long after was betraied, and surrendred againe to the king
of Sweden.

On the Southeast side they haue got the kingdomes of Cazan, and Astracan.
These were wonne from the Tartar, by the late Emperour Iuan Vasiliwich, the
one about thirtie fiue, the other about thirtie and three yeares agoe.
[Sidenote: Siberia and Ob. Conquest of a 1000 miles.] Northward out of the
countrey of Siberia, he hath layed vnto his realme a great breadth and
length of ground, from Wichida to the riuer of Obba, about a thousand miles
space: so that he is bolde to write himselfe now, The great Commander of
Siberia. [Sidenote: Premia and Pechora] The countries likewise of Permia,
and Pechora are a diuers people and language from the Russe, ouercome not
long since, and that rather by threatning, and shaking of the sword, then
by any actual force: as being a weake and naked people, without meanes to

That which the Russe hath in his present possession, he keepeth on this
sort. [Sidenote: Means of holding chief townes.] In his foure chief border
townes of Vobsko, Smolensko, Astracan, and Cazan, he hath certaine of his
counsel not of the greatest nobility, but of greatest trust, which haue
more authoritie within their precincts, (for the countenancing and
strengthening of their gouernment there) then the other Dukes that are set
to gouerne in other places, as was noted before, in the maner of ordering
their Prouinces. These he changeth sometimes euery second or third yere,
but exceedeth not that time, except vpon very speciall trust, and good
liking of the party, and his seruice: least by enlarging of their time,
they might grow into some familiaritie with the enemie (as some haue done)
being so farre out of sight.

The townes besides are very strongly fenced with trenches, castles, and
store of munition, and haue garisons within them, to the number of two or
three thousand a piece. They are stored with victual if any seige should
come vpon them, for the space of two or three yeres before hand. The foure
castles of Smolensko, Vobsko, Cazan and Astracan, he hath made very strong
to beare out any siege: so that it is thought that those townes are

[Sidenote: Meanes of holding the countries of Pechora, Permia and Siberia.]
As for the countries of Pechora and Permia, and that part of of Siberia,
which he hath now vnder him, they are kept by as easie meanes, as they were
first got, viz. rather by shewing, then by vsing of armes. First, he hath
stored the countrie with as many Russes as there are natiues, and hath
there some few souldiers in garison, inough to keepe them under. Secondly,
his officers and Magistrates there are of his own Russe people, and he
changeth them very often, viz. euery yere twise or thrise: notwithstanding
there be no great feare of any innouation. Thirdly, he deuideth them into
many smal gouernments, like a staffe broke in many small pieces: so that
they haue no strength being seuered, which was but litle neither when they
were al in one. Fourthly, he prouideth that the people of the countrie haue
neither armor nor money, being taxed and pilled so often as he thinketh
good: without any meanes to shake off that yoke, or to relieue themselues.

[Sidenote: Siberia.] In Siberia (where he goeth on in pursuing his
conquest) he hath diuers castles and garisons to the number of 6000
souldiers of Russes and Polonians, and sendeth many new supplies thither,
to plant and inhabite, as he winneth ground. [Sidenote: The kings brother
of Siberia.] At this time besides he hath gotten the kings brother of
Siberia, allured by certaine of his captaines, to leaue his own country by
offers of great entertainment and pleasanter life with the Russe Emperor,
then he had in Siberia. [Sidenote: 1588.] He was brought in this last yere,
and is now with the Emperor at Mosco well enterteined.

Of the Tartars, and other borderers to the country of Russia, with whom
they haue most to doe in warre, and peace.

Their neighbors with whom they haue greatest dealings and intercourse, both
in peace and war, are first the Tartar. [Sidenote: The Polonians called
Laches by the Russe.] Secondly the Polonian whom the Russe calleth Laches,
noting the first author or founder of the nation, who was called Laches or
Leches, whereunto is added Po, which signifieth People, and is so made
Polaches, that is, the People or posterity of Laches: which the Latins
after their maner of writing cal Polonos. The third are the Swedens. The
Polonians and Swedens are better knowen to these parts of Europe then are
the Tartars, that are farther off from vs (as being of Asia) and diuided
into many tribes, different in name, and gouernment one from another.
[Sidenote: The Chrim Tartar.] The greatest and mightiest of them is the
Chrim Tartar, (whom some call the Great Can) that lieth South, and
Southeastward from Russia, and doth most annoy the country by often
inuasions, commonly once euery yere, sometimes entring very farre within
the inland parts. [Sidenote: The firing of Mosco by the Chrim Tartar in the
yere 1571.] In the yere 1571 he came as farre as the citie of Mosco, with
an armie of 200000 men, without any battel, or resistance at al, for that
the Russe Emperor (then Iuan Vasiliwich) leading forth his armie to
encounter with him, marched a wrong way. The citie he tooke not, but fired
the suburbs, which by reason of the buildings (which are all of wood
without any stone, brick, or lime, saue certaine out roomes) kindled so
quickly, and went on with such rage, as that it consumed the greatest part
of the citie almost within the space of foure houres, being of 30 miles or
more of compasse. Then might you haue seene a lamentable spectacle: besides
the huge and mighty flame of the citie all on light fire, the people
burning in their houses and streetes, but most of all of such as laboured
to passe out of the gates farthest from the enemie, where meeting together
in a mightie throng, and so pressing euery man to preuent another, wedged
themselues so fast within the gate, and streetes neere vnto it, as that
three rankes walked one vpon the others head, the vppermost treading downe
those that were lower: so that there perished at that time (as was said) by
the fire and the presse, the number of 800000 people or more.

The principall cause of this continual quarell betwixt the Russe and the
Chrim is for the right of certaine border partes claimed by the Tartar, but
possessed by the Russe. The Tartar alleageth that besides Astracan and
Cazan (that are the ancient possession of the East Tartar) the whole
countrey from his bounds North and Westward so farre as the citie of Mosko,
and Mosko it selfe perteineth to his right. [Sidenote: Homage done by the
Russe to the Chrim Tartar.] Which seemeth to haue bene true by the report
of the Russes them selues, that tell of a certaine homage that was done by
the Russe Emperour euery yeere to the great Chrim or Can, the Russe
Emperour standing on foot and feeding the Chrims horse, (himselfe sitting
on his backe) with oates out of his owne cappe, in stead of a bowle or
manger, and that within the castle of Mosko. And this homage (they say) was
done till the time of Basileus grandfather to this man. Who surprising the
Chrim Emperour by a stratageme done by one of his nobilitie (called Iuan
Demetrowich Belschey) was content with this raunsome, viz. with the
changing of this homage into a tribute of furrres: which afterwards also
was denied to be paide by this Emperors father.

Hereupon they continue the quarrel, the Russe defending his countrey, and
that which he hath won, the Chrim Tartar inuading him once or twise euery
yere, sometime about Whitsontide, but oftner in haruest. What time if the
great Can or Chrim come in his owne person, he bringeth with him a great
armie of 100000. or 200000. men. Otherwise they make short and sudden rodes
into the countrey with lesser numbers, running about the list of the border
as wild geese flie, inuading and retiring where they see aduantage.

Their common practise (being very populous) is to make diuers armies, and
so drawing the Russe to one or two places of the frontiers, to inuade at
some other place, that is left without defence. [Sidenote: The maner of the
Tartars fight and armour.] Their maner of fight, or ordering of their
forces is much after the Russe maner (spoken of before) saue that they are
all horsemen, and carie nothing els but a bowe, a sheafe of arrowes, and a
falcon sword after the Turkish fashion. They are very expert horsemen, and
vse to shoote as readily backward, as forward. Some will haue a horsemans
staff like to a bore speare, besides their other weapons. The common
souldier hath no other armour than his ordinary apparell, viz. a blacke
sheeps skin with the wool side outward in the day time, and inwarde in the
night time, with a cap of the same. But their Morseys or noblemen imitate
the Turk both in apparel and armour. When they are to passe ouer a riuer
with their armie, they tie three or four horses together and taking long
poles or pieces of wood, bind them fast to the tailes of their horse: so
sitting on the poles they driue their horse ouer. At handie strokes, (when
they ioyne battell) they are accounted farre better men then the Russe
people, fierce by nature, but more hardy and bloody by continuall practise
of warre: as men knowing no artes of peace, nor any ciuil practise.

[Sidenote: The subtilitie of the Tartar.] Yet their subtility is more than
may seeme to agree with their barbarous condition. By reason they are
practised to inuade continually, and to robbe their neighbours that border
about them, they are very pregnant, and ready witted to deuise stratagems
vpon the sudden for their better aduantage. As in their warre against Beala
the fourth, king of Hungarie, whome they inuaded with 500000. men, and
obtained against him a great victorie. Where, among other, hauing slaine
his Chancelor called Nicholas Schinick, they found about him the kings
priuy seale. Whereupon they deuised presently to counterfeit letters in the
kings name, to the cities and townes next about the place, where the field
was fought: with charge that in no case they should conuey themselues, and
their goods out of their dwellings, where they might abide safely without
all feare of danger, and not leaue the countrey desolate to the possession
of so vile and barbarous an enemie, as was the Tartar nation, terming
themselues in all reproachful maner. For notwithstanding he had lost his
carriages, with some few straglers that had marched disorderly, yet he
doubted not but to recouer that losse, with the accesse of a notable
victorie, if the sauage Tartar durst abide him in the field. To this
purpose hauing written their letters in the Polish character, by certain
yong men whom they tooke in the field, and signed them with the Kings
seale, they dispatched them forth to all the quarters of Hungaria. that lay
neere about the place. Wherevpon the Vngarians that were now flying away
with their goods, wiues, and children, vpon the rumour of the kings
ouerthrow, taking comfort of these counterfeit letters, staid at home. And
so were made a pray, being surprised on the sudden by this huge number of
these Tartars, that had compassed them about before they were aware.

When they besiege a towne or fort, they offer much parle, and send many
flattering messages to perswade a surrendry: promising all things that the
inhabitants will require: but being once possessed of the place, they vse
all maner of hostilitie, and crueltie. This they doe vpon a rule they haue,
viz, that iustice is to bee practised but towards their owne. They
encounter not lightly, but they haue some ambush, whereunto (hauing once
shewed themselues, and made some short conflict) they retire as repulsed
for feare, and so draw the enemie into it if they can. But the Russe beeing
well acquainted with their practise is more warie of them. When they come a
rouing with some small number, they set on horsebacke counterfaite shapes
of men, that their number may seeme greater.

When they make any onset, their maner is to make a great shoute, crying out
altogether Olla Billa, Olla Billa, God helpe vs, God help vs. They contemne
death so much, as that they chuse rather to die, then to yeeld to their
enemie, and are seene when they are slain to bite the very weapon, when
they are past striking or helping of themselues. Wherein appeareth how
different the Tartar is in his desperate courage from the Russe and Turke.
For the Russe souldier, if he begin once to retire, putteth all his safetie
in his speedy flight. And if once he be taken by his enemy, he neither
defendeth himselfe, nor intreateth for his life, as reckoning straight to
die. The Turk commonly, when he is past hope of escaping, falleth to
intreatie, and casteth away his weapon, offereth both his hands, and
holdeth them, as it were to be tied: hoping to saue his life by offering
himselfe bondslaue.

The chiefe bootie the Tartars seeke for in all their warres is to get store
of captiues; specially young boyes, and girles, whome they sell to the
Turkes, or other their neighbours. To this purpose they take with them
great baskets make like bakers panniers, to carry them tenderly, and if any
of them happen to tire, or to be sicke by the way, they dash him against
the ground, or some tree, and so leaue him dead. The Souldiers are not
troubled with keeping the captiues and the other bootie, for hindering the
execution of their warres, but they haue certaine bandes that intend
nothing else, appoynted of purpose to receiue and keepe the captiues and
the other praye.

[Sidenote: The Tartar religion.] The Russe borderers (being vsed to their
inuasions lightly euery yeere in the Sommer) keepe fewe other cattell on
the border partes, saue swine onely which the Tartar will not touch, nor
driue away with him: for that he is of the Turkish religion, and will eate
no swines flesh. Of Christ our Sauiour they confesse as much as doeth the
Turke in his Alkaron, viz. that he came of the Angel Gabriel and the Virgin
Marie, that he was a great Prophet, and shall be the Iudge of the worlde at
the last day. In other matter likewise, they are much ordered after the
manner and direction of the Turke: hauing felt the Turkish forces when hee
wonne from them Azou and Caffa, with some other townes about the Euxine or
blacke Sea, that were before tributaries to the Crim Tartar. So that now
the Emperor of the Crims for the most part is chosen one of the Nobility
whom the Turke doeth commend: whereby it is brought nowe to passe, that the
Crim Tartar giueth to the Turke the tenth part of the spoyle which hee
getteth in his warres against the Christians.

Herein they differ from the Turkish religion, for that they haue certaine
idole puppets made of silke, or like stuffe, of the fashion of a man, which
they fasten to the doore of their walking houses, to be as Ianusses or
keepers of their house. And these idoles are made not by all, but by
certaine religious women which they haue among them for that and like vses.
They haue besides the image of their King or great Can, of an huge
bignesse, which they erect at euery stage when the army marcheth: and this
euery one must bend and bowe vnto as he passeth by it, be he Tartar or
stranger. They are much giuen to witchcraft, and ominous coniectures vpon
euery accident which they heare or see.

In making of mariages they haue no regard of alliance or consanguinitie.
Onely with his mother, sister, and daughter a man may not marrie, and
thougn he take the woman into his house, and accompany with her, yet be
accounteth her not for his wife till he haue a childe by her. Then hee
beginneth to take a dowry of her friends, or horse, sheepe, kine, &c. If
she be barren after a certaine time, be turneth her home againe.

[Sidenote: The Tartar nobilitie.] Vnder the Emperour they haue certaine
Dukes, whome they call Morseis or Diuoymorseis, that rule ouer a certaine
number of 10000, 20000, or 40000, a piece, which they call Hoords. When the
Emperour hath any vse of them to serue in his warres, they are bound to
come, and to bring with them in their Souldiers to a certain number, euery
man with his two horse at the least, the one to ride on, the other to kill,
when it commmeth to his turne to haue his horse eaten. [Sidenote: The
tartar diet.] For their chiefe vitaile is horse flesh, which they eate
without bread, or any other thing with it. So that if a Tartar be taken by
a Russe, he shall he sure lightly to finde a horse-legge, or some other
part of him at his saddle bowe.

[Sidenote: 1588.] This last yeere when I was at the Mosco, came in one
Kiriach Morsey, nephew to the Emperour of the Crims that nowe is (whose
father was Emperour before) accompanied with 300. Tartars, and his two
wiues, whereof one was his brothers widow. Where being intertained in very
good sort after the Russe maner, hee had sent vnto his lodging for his
welcome, to bee made ready for his supper and his companies, two very large
and fat horses, ready flayed in a shed. They prefer it before other flesh,
because the meate is stronger (as they say) then Beefe, Mutton, and such
like. And yet (which is marueile) though they serue all as horsemen in the
warres, and eate all of horse flesh, there are brought yeerely to the Mosco
to bee exchanged for other commodities 30. or 40. thousand Tartar horse,
which they call Cones. They keepe also great heards of kine, and flocks of
blacke sheepe, rather for the skins and milke (which they carie with them
in great bottels) then for the vse of the flesh, though sometimes they eate
of it. Some vse they haue of ryse, figs, and other fruits. They drinke
milke or warme blood, and for the most part card them both together. They
vse sometime as they trauel by the way to let their horse blood in a vaine,
and to drinke it warme, as it commeth from his bodie.

[Sidenote: The Tartars dwelling.] Townes they plant none, nor other
standing buildings, but haue walking houses, which the latines call Veij,
built vpon wheeles like a shepheards cottage. These they drawe with them
whithersoeuer they goe, driuing their cattell with them. And when they come
to their stage, or standing place, they plant their carte houses verie
orderly in a ranke: and so make the forme of streetes, and of a large
towne. And this is the manner of the Emperor himselfe, who hath no other
seat of Empire but an Agora, or towne of wood, that moueth with him
whithersoeuer he goeth. As for the fixed and standing buildings vsed in
other countreyes, they say they are vnwholesome and unpleasant.

They begin to mooue their houses and cattell in the Spring time from the
South part of their countrey towards the North partes. And so driuing on
till they haue grased all vp to the first farthest part Northward, they
returne backe againe towards their South countrey (where they continue all
the Winter) by 10. or 12. miles a stage: in the meane while the grasse
being sprung vp againe, to serue for their cattell as they returne. From
the border of the Shelcan towards the Caspian sea, to the Russe frontiers,
they haue a goodly Countrey, specially on the South and Southeast parts,
but lost for lack of tillage.

Of money they haue no vse at all, and therefore prefer brasse and steele
before other metals, specially bullate, which they vse for swordes, kniues,
and other necessaries. As for golde and siluer they neglect it of very
purpose, (as they doe all tillage of their ground) to bee more free for
their wandering kinde of life, and to keepe their Countrey lesse subiect to
inuasions. Which giueth them great aduantage against all their neighbors,
euer inuading and neuer being inuaded. Such as haue taken vpon them to
inuade their Countrey (as of olde time Cyrus and Darius Hystaspis, on the
East and Southeast side) haue done it with very ill successe: as wee finde
in the stories written of those times. For their manner is when any will
inuade them, to allure and drawe them on by flying and reculing (as if they
were afraide) till they haue drawen them some good way within their
countrey. Then when they begin to want victuall and other necessaries (as
needes they must where nothing is to be had) to stoppe vp the passages, and
inclose them with multitudes. By which stratagem (as we reade in Laonicus
Chalcacondylas in his Turkish storie) they had welnigh surprised the great
and huge armie of Tamerlan, but that hee retired with all speede hee could
towardes the riuer Tanais or Don, not without great losse of his men, and

[Sidenote: Pachymerius.] In the storie of Pachymerius the Greek (which he
wrote of the the elder) I remember he telleth to the same purpose of one
Nogas a Tartarian captaine vnder Cazan the Emperor of the East Tartars (of
whom the citie and kingdome of Cazan may seeme to Emperors of
Constantinople from the beginning of the reigne of Michael Palaeologus to
the time of Andronicus haue taken the denomination) who refused a present
of Pearle and other iewels sent vnto him from Michael Palaeologus: asking
withall, for what vse they serued, and whether they were good to keepe away
sicknesse, death, or other misfortunes of this life, or no. So that it
seemeth they haue euer, or long time bene of that minde to value things no
further, then by the vse and necessitie for which they serue.

For person and complexion they haue broade and flatte visages, of a tanned
colour into yellowe and blacke, fierce and cruell lookes, thinne haired
vpon the upper lippe, and pitte of the chinne, light and nimble bodied,
with short legges, as if they were made naturally for horsemen: whereto
they practise themselues from their childhood, seldome going afoot about
anie businesse. Their speech is verie sudden and loude, speaking as it were
out of a deepe hollowe throate. When they sing you would thinke a kowe
lowed, or some great bandogge howled. Their greatest exercise is shooting,
wherein they traine vp their children from their verie infancie, not
suffering them to eate till they haue shot neere the marke within a
certaine scantling. They are the very same that sometimes were called
Scythae Nomades, or the Scythian shepheards, by the Greekes and Latines.
Some thinke that the Turks took their beginning from the nation of the Crim
Tartars. [Sidenote: Laonicus Calcocondylas.] Of which opinion is Laonicus
Calcocondylas the Greek Historiographer, in his first booke of his Turkish
storie. Wherein hee followeth diuers verie probable coniectures. [Sidenote:
1.] The first taken from the verie name it selfe, for that the worde Turke


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