The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries
Richard Hakluyt

Part 3 out of 5

bedde. From fiue yeres olde, to twentie and fowre, thei learne to ride, to
throwe the Darte, to shoote, and chiefly to haue a tongue voide of all
vntruthe. For their nourituryng and trainyng in good maners, thei haue
appoincted theim Masters of greate sobrenes and vertue, that teache them
dieties, and pretie songes, conteinyng either the praises of their Goddes,
or of some worthy Princes. Whiche sometime thei sing, and sometyme recite
without note: that so they mighte learne to confourme their liues vnto
theirs, whose praises thei sieme themselues to allowe. To this lesson
assemble thei alwaie together, at the calle of a Trompette. And as thei
growe into yeres, an accompt is required of them how well thei haue borne
awaie the lessons of their childhode. Thei vse to ronne the race, and to
course, bothe on horsebacke and on foote: at the leadyng of some noble
mannes sonne, chosen for the nones. The field for the race, is at least
thre mile and thre quarters longe. And to the ende that heate or colde
should the lesse trouble them, they vse to wade ouer brookes, and swimme
ouer riuers, and so to rowme and to hunte the fieldes, and to eate and
drinke in their armour, and wette clothes. The fruyctes that eate are
akecornes, wild Peares, and the fruicte of the Terebinthine tree. But their
daiely foode aftre their ronnyng, and other exercises of the bodie: is hard
Bisquette, or a like crustie breade, Hortechocques, Gromelle sede, a litle
roste flesshe or soden, whether thei lust: and faire water their drincke.
Their maner of Huntyng, is with the bowe, or the Darte on horse backe. Thei
are good also in the slynge. In theforenoone thei plante and graffe, digge
vp settes, stubbe vp rootes, make their owne armour, or fisshe and foule,
with the Angle or nette. Their children are decked with garnishynges of
golde. And their chief iuelle is the precious stone Piropus, whiche thei
haue in suche price, that it maie come vppon no deade corps. And that
honour giue thei also to the fire, for the reuerence thei beare there vnto.
From twentie, till fiuetie: thei folowe the warres. As for byeng and
sellyng, or any kinde of Lawe prattle, thei vse not. Thei cary in their
warres, a kind of shieldes facioned like a losenge, a quiure with shaftes,
and a curtilace. On their heades a copintanke, embatled aboute like a
turrette, and a brestplate emboussed, of skaled woorke. The princes and
menne of honour did weare a treble Anaxirides, facioned muche like a coate
armour, and a long coate doune to the knees, with hangyng slieues acordyng.
The outside colours, but the lining white. In Somer thei weare purple, and
in Wintre Medleis. The abillementes of their heades, are muche like the
frontlettes that their Magj doe weare. The commune people are double coated
doune to the midde Leggue, and haue about their heade a great rolle of
Sendalle. Their beddes and their drinking vessell, are garnished with gold.
When they haue matier of moste importaunce to common of, thei debate and
conclude in the middes of their cuppes: thinkyng it muche surer that is so
determined, then aftre any other sobrer sorte. Acqueintaunce mieting of
equall degre, griete one another with a kisse. But the inferiour mietyng
with his bettre, enclineth his bodie foreward with lowe reuerence. Thei
bewrie their corpses in the grounde, cearyng them all ouer with waxe. Their
Magicens thei leaue vnbewried, for the foules to disspetche. The children
there, by an ordenaunce no where elles vsed: doe carnally knowe their
mothers. Thus have ye heard what the maners of the Persians ware sometyme.

Herodotus reherseth certeine other, their facions not vtterly vnworthe the
tellynge. That thei compted it vilanie to laughe, or to spitte before the
kyng. Thei thought it fondenes in the Grekes, worthie to be laughed at, to
imagine goddes to be sprong vp of menne. What so euer was dishoneste to be
done, that thoughte thei not honeste to be spoken. To be in debte was muche
dishonour, but of all thinges moste vile for to lie. Thei vse not to bewrie
their deade bodies, vntill thei haue bene torne with dogges, or with
fowles. And the parentes brought to niedinesses vse there to make
cheuisaunce of their doughters bodies, which emong no nation elles was euer
allowed. Howbeit some holde opinion, that it was also the propretie of the
Babilonians. The Persians at this daie, beynge subdued of the Saracenes,
and bewitched with Mahometes brainsicke wickednesse, are cleane out of
memorie. A people in those daies, whiche through their greate hardinesse
and force, ware of long tyme Lordes of the Easte parte of the worlde. But
now tombled cleane from their aunciente renowne, and bewried in dishonour.

The. viij. Chapitre.

Of Ynde, and the vncouthe trades and maners of life of the
people therein.

Ynde, a Countrie also of the Easte, and the closyng vp of Asia toward that
quartre: is saied to be of suche a maigne syse, that it maie be compared
with the thirde parte of the whole earth. Pomponius writeth, that alonge
the shore, it is fowrtie daies sailyng the nighte also comprised therein.

It tooke the name of the floude called Indus, whiche closeth vp the lande
on the Weste side. Beginnyng at the Southe sea, it stretcheth to the
Sonnerisynge: And Northward to the mount Caucasus. There are in it many
greate peoples: and Tounes and Cities so thicke, that some haue reported
them in nombre fiue thousande. And to saie truthe, it ought not to sieme
greatly straunge vnto folkes, though the countrie be reported to haue suche
a nombre of Tounes, or to be so populous: consideryng that of all other,
the Yndiens alone, neuer discharged theim selues of any ouerplus of issue,
as other haue done: but alwaie kepte their owne offspryng at home in their
owne countrie. Their principall floudes are Ganges, Indus, and Hypanis. But
Ganges farre passeth in greatnes the other twaine. This lande by the
benefite of the battling breathe of the gentle Weast winde, reapeth corne
twise in the yere. And other Wintre hath it none, but the bittre blastes of
Theasterly windes called Etesia. Thei lacke wine, and yet some men reporte,
that in the quartre called Musica, there groweth a good wine grape. In the
Southe parte thereof, groweth Nardus, Cinnamome, Peper and Calamus
aromaticus: as doeth in Arabia and Aethiope. The woode Ebenum (which some
suppose to be our Guayacum) groweth there, and not elles where. Likewise of
the Popiniaye and the Vnicorne. As for precious stones, Beralle, Prasnes,
Diamantes, firie Carbuncles and Pearles of all sortes, be founde there in
greate plentie. They haue twoo Sommers, softe pimpelyng windes, a milde
aier, a rancke soile, and abundaunce of watre. Diuerse of them therefore
liue an hundred and thirtie yeres. Namely emong the Musicanes. And emong
the Serites, yet somewhat longer.

All the Yndians generally, weare long heare: died either aftre a bright
asshe coulour, or elles an Orenge tawnie. Their chief ieuelles, are of
Pearle and precious stones. Their appareille is verie diuers: and in fewe,
one like another. Some go in Mantles of Wollen, some of Linnen some naked,
some onely brieched to couuer the priuities, and some wrapped aboute with
pilles, and lithe barckes of trees. Thei are all by nature blacke of hewe:
euen so died in their mothers wombe acordyng to the disposicion of the
fathers nature, whose siede also is blacke: as like wise in the
Aethiopians. Talle men and strongly made. Thei are very spare fieders,
namely when thei are in Campe. Neither delighte thei in muche preasse. Thei
are as I saied, greate deckers and trimmers of them selues, haters of
theft. Thei liue by lawe, but not written. They haue no knowledge of
lettres, but administer altogether without booke. And for which they are
voide of guile, and of very sobre diete: all thing prospereth well with
them. Thei drinke no wine, but when thei Sacrifie to their goddes. But
their drincke is a bruage that thei make sometyme of Rize, sometime of
Barlie. Their meate for the mooste parte is soupynges made also of Rize.

In their lawes, bargaines, and couenauntes, their simplicitie and true
meanyng well appeareth: for that thei neuer are muche contencious aboute
them. Thei haue no Lawes concernyng pledges or thynges committed to another
mannes kiepyng. No witnessynges, no handwritynges, no sealynges, ne suche
like tokens of trecherie and vntrust: but without all these, thei trust and
be trusted, thei belieue and are belieued, yea, thei oftentymes leaue their
houses wide open without keper. Whiche truely are all great signes of a
iuste and vprighte dealyng emong them. But this peraduenture can not seatle
well with euery mannes fantasie: that thei should liue eche manne aparte by
himself, and euery body to dine and to suppe when he lust, and not all at
an howre determined. For in dede for the felowshippe and ciuilitie, the
contrary is more allowable. Thei commende and occupie muche as a commune
exercise, to rubbe their bodies: specially with skrapers made for the
nones. Aftre whiche, thei smothe them selues again with Ebenum, whereof I
spake afore.

In their Toumbes, and Bewrialles, very plaine and nothyng costlie: But in
trimming and arraieng of their bodies, to, to, gaude glorious. For there
aboute thei neither spare gold, ne precious stone ne any kinde of silke
that thei haue. Thei delighte muche in garmentes of white Sarcenet. And for
that thei sette muche by beautie, thei cary aboute with theim phanelles to
defende them from the sonne, and leaue nothyng vndone, that maketh for the
bettre grace of their faces. Thei sette asmuche by truthe alone, as by all
other vertues together.

Age hath there no prerogatiue, except thei winne it with their wisedome,
and knowledge. Thei haue many wiues, whiche thei vse to buye of their
parentes for a yoke of Oxen. Some to serve them as their vndrelynges, and
some for pleasure, and issue. Whiche maie neuerthelesse vse buttoke
banquetyng abrode (for any lawe or custome there is to restreine theim)
excepte their housebandes by fine force, can compelle them to kepe close.

No one emong the Yndians either sacrifieth coroned, ne offreth odours, ne
liquours. Thei wounde not their Sacrifice in no maner of wise: but smore
[Footnote: To smother, from the Dutch _smooren_] hym by stopping the
breath. Least thei should offre any mangled thing vnto God, but that that
ware in euery parte whole. He that is conuicte of false witnessyng, hath
his fingres cutte of by the toppe ioynctes. He that hath taken a limme from
any manne, suffreth not onely the like losse, but loseth also his hande.
But if any man haue taken from an artificer, his hande, or his eye, it
lyeth hym vpon his heade.

The kyng hath a garde of bought women: who take chardge of his bodie, and
haue the trimmyng and orderyng thereof, the residue of the armie, remainyng
without the gates. If the Kyng fortune to be droncken, it is not onely
lawfull for any one of these women to slea hym: but she shall also as in
the waie of rewarde, be coupled in mariage to the nexte king. Whiche (as is
saied) is one of his sonnes, that afore enioied the Croune. It is not
lawfull for the king to slepe by daie time: and yet in the night tyme to
auoide trecherie, he is forced euery houre to chaunge his chambre. When he
is not in campe, he ofte tymes cometh abroade: bothe to giue sentence, and
to heare matters dependyng in question. And if it be time of daie to trimme
his bodie: he bothe heareth the pleaes, and is rubbed in the meane season
with the skrapers afore mencioned, by thre of his women. He cometh furthe
also to Sacrifices, and to hunting: Where he is accompaignied with a rable
of women, in as good ordre as ours ware wonte to be vpon Hocke Mondaie.
[Footnote: Hock-Monday fell eight days after Easter, Hock-tide was a
festival instituted in memory of King Hardicanute's death in 1042.
Hock-Tuesday money was a duty paid to the landlord in ancient times.] His
waie is ranged with ropes, and his garde of menne abideth without. But if
it fortune any to steale in, to the women (whiche is contrary to their
ordre and duetie) he loseth his heade for it. There go afore hym Tabours
and Belles. When he hunteth in places fensed aboute, two or thre armed
women stande preste, [Footnote: Preste--_ready_.] for his aide, and
defence. But when he hunteth in open place, he is caried vppon an
Eliphante: and euen so sittyng on his backe shooteth, or throweth the darte
at his game. Some of his women ride vppon Horses, some vpon Elephantes. As
likewise in the warres, where thei fight with all kinde of weapons

Suche menne also as haue gathered thinges into writynges, recorde: that the
Yndians worshippe as their goddes the father of raine Iupiter: Ganges their
floude, and the familiar spirites of their countrie. And when their kyng
washeth his heade, thei make solempne feast, and sende his highnes greate
giftes, eche man enuyenge other, who maye shewe hym self most riche, and

The commune wealth of the Yndians, was sometyme deuided into seuen states
or degrees. The Sages (whiche other calle Philosophers) ware of the first
ordre, or state: the whiche although thei ware, in nombre feawer then any
of the rest: yet ware thei in honour and dignitie aboute the kyng, farre
aboue all other. These menne (priuiledged from all busines) neither be
troubled with office, ne be at any mannes commaundemente: But receiue of
the communes suche thinges as serue for the Sacrifices of their goddes, and
are requisite for bewrialles. As though thei ware bothe well acqueinted,
and beloued in heauen, and knewe muche of the trade in helle. For this
cause haue thei bothe giftes and honour largely giuen them. And in very
diede thei do muche good among the people. For in the beginning of the
yere, assemblyng together, thei foreshewe of raine, of drouthe, of winde
and of sickenesse: and of suche like thynges as maie to profeight be
foreknowen. For as well the kynge as the people, ones vndrestandyng their
foresawes, and knowyng the certeintie of their iudgemintes by former
experience: shone the euilles, and are preste to attende vpon that, that is
good. But if any of their said Sages shall fortune to erre in his
foresighte: other punishmente hath he none, then for euer after to holde
his peace.

The seconde ordre is of housebande menne, whiche beyng more in nombre then
any of the other states, and exempte fro the warres, and all other labour:
bestowe their tyme onely in housebandrie. No enemie spoileth them, none
troubleth them: but refraineth fro doing them any hurte or hinderaunce,
vpon respect of the profighte that redoundeth to the whole, throughe their
trauailles. So that thei, hauyng libertie without all feare to followe
their business, are instrumentes and meanes of a blessed plenteousnesse.
Thei with their wiues and children, dwell alwaie in the countrie, withoute
resortyng to the tounes or citie. Thei paie rente to the Kyng (for all the
whole Countrie is subiecte to their kyng) neither is it lawfull for any of
the communes to occupie and possesse any grounde, without paieynge rente.
And the housebande men beside this rente, yelde vnto the Kynges maiestie, a
fiueth of their fruictes yerely.

The thirde ordre standeth all by brieders and fieders, of all sortes,
whiche like wise neither enhabite toune ne village: but with tentes, in the
wilde fieldes. And these with huntyng and foulyng in sondrie wise, so kiepe
vndre the beastes and hurtefull foules: that whear other wise the
housebande menne should in siede tyme, and towarde harueste, be muche
acloyed [Footnote: This word, meaning overburthened, is frequently met with
in Chaucer.] and hyndered by the fowles, and theim selues alwaie by the
beastes, the countrie is quiete from al suche annoyance.

In the fowrthe ordre are Artificers, and handicraftesmen. Whiche are
deuided, some into Smithes, some into Armourers, some for one purpose, some
for another, as is expediente. These doe not onely liue rente free, but
also haue a certaine of graine allowed them at the kinges allowaunce.

In the fiueth ordre are the menne of warre, a greate nombre daiely
exercised in armes, bothe on Horsebacke, on Elephantes, and on foote. And
all their Elephantes, and horses miete for their warres, are found of the
kinges allowaunce.

The sixteth ordre is of Surueiours or Maisters of reporte, whiche haue the
ouer sighte of all thynges that are done in the realme, and the charge to
bryng reaporte vnto the kyng.

In the seuenth place, are thei that be Presidentes, and heades of the
commune counsailles, very fewe in nombre, but worthy men for their
nobilitie and wisedome. Oute of these are chosen counsailours for the
kynges Courtes, and officers to administre the commune wealth, and to
determine controuersies: yea, capitaines for the warres, and Princes of the

The whole state of Ynde beyng deuided into these ordres or degrees: it is
also ordeined, that a man shall not marie out of the ordre, wherin his
callyng lieth, ne chaunge his trade. For neither maie the souldiour occupie
housebandrie thoughe he woulde: ne the artificers entremedle with the
doctrine of the Sages.

There are also amonge the Yndians, persons of honour appointed to be as it
ware Tutours of straungiers, to see that no wronge be done them, to put
ordre for their kepyng, and Phisicke, if any falle sicke. As also (if it
fortune any of them to die) for the bewrieng of theim, and to deliuer their
goodes, and money to their nexte friendes.

All causes are brought afore the iudges, who heare the parties, and
punysshe the offenders diligently. Ther is no slauery amonge them. Yea,
thei haue a certaine ordinaunce, that none shalbe slaue or bonde amonge
them, but all fre, and of equalle aucthoritie and honour. For thei holde
opinion that who so accustometh his selfe neither to be Lorde ouer other,
ne to wronge any bodie: that man hath prepared him selfe sauftie and ease
what so euer shall happen hym by any aduenture. And a fonde thing ware it
to make the lawes indifferente for all, and not to make the states of the
men indifferente.

But because ther are in Inde manye sondrie contries, diuerse bothe in
people and tongue (as in so large a thing muste nedes happen) ye shall
vnderstond that thei do not all alike vse suche trade as I haue described,
but in some places somewhat worse.

Of those that lie towarde the Easte, some occupie brieding, and some do
not. Other dwellinge in the mershe and fennes vpon the riuers side: occupie
fisshing, and liue by the same all rawe. And thebettre to worcke their
feate, thei make them selues boates, of suche canes as growe ther, of a
wonderfull biggenes, So, that so muche of the cane as is betwixte ioyncte,
and ioyncte, is a iuste proportion of timbre for one of their boates.

These of all the other Indians, are appareilled in matte, made of a
certayne softe kinde of mere rushes. Which when they haue gathered out of
the floude, and sliced out in maner of lace: they brayde together muche
like oure figge fraile, or suche like kinde of mattinge, and make them
selues ierkins therof.

Those that be yet by Easte of them, are brieders of cataille: and liue
altogether with rawe fleshe, and haue to name Padians. Whose conditions are
sayde to be suche.

As often as it fortuneth any of their citezeins to besicke, yf it be a
manne: his nierest friendes, and those that are moste aboute him, kylle him
by and by, leaste (saye thei) his fleshe shoulde waxe worse. Yea, thoughe
he woulde dissemble the matier, and denie him self to be sicke, it boteth
not. For withoute pardon, they kille him, and make a feaste with him. If it
be a woman, looke how the menne did by the manne, so do the women by a
woman. Likewise do thei with bothe sortes, when thei waxe croked for age,
or become impotente: where broughte, what by the one meanes and the other,
none of them die for age.

Ther is another sorte of the Indians that kille no liuinge thing, ne
plante, nor sowe, nor builde house: but liue with herbes, and a certeine
sede whiche groweth there of the owne accorde, muche like vnto gromelle,
whiche thei gather with the cuppe or shelle that it groweth in, and so
seeth it, and eate it. If any of these falle sicke, he wandereth forthe
into some deserte place, and ther laieth him downe: no manne taking hede
either to his lieng or to his dienge.

All these Yndians that I nowe haue spoken of, in quenching of natures
heate, vse their women as secretly as beastes do their females.

These Yndians haue a kinde of sages, that the Griekes calle Gimnosophista,
whiche as the worde Sophista soundeth now, might merily be interpreted
briechelesse bablers. But as Sophista did signifie then, naked Sages: or to
giue one Grieke worde for a nother, naked Philosophres. These (as Petrarche
writeth) haunte the outemoste borders, and shadowie partes of that
countrie, wandering naked accordinge to their name, vp and downe, heather
and theather studienge, and searching the natures of thinges, the course of
the heauens, and the secretes of knowledge. Thei continue sometime al the
whole daye from the sonne rising, till his downe goinge: beholdinge the
same with stedfaste eye, neuer tourning away the heade (althoughe it be
ther moste feruently hote) searching and spienge aftre certaine secretes in
the body thereof.

At another time thei passe the daye likewyse, standing one while on one
legge, another while on another in the broilinge sande of that contrie.
Froste nor snowe, nor firie heate greued not them.

Amonge these, is ther a people called Brachmanes, whiche (as Didimus their
king wrate vnto Alexandre when he went aboute to subdue them) liue a pure
and simple life, led with no likerous lustes of other mennes vanities. This
people longeth for no more then nature requyreth naturallye. Thei are
content with suche foode as commeth to hande, desiryng no suche as other
menne tourne the worlde almoste vpside downe to haue, leauing no element
vnransaked to gette a gowbin [Footnote: A large mouthful. From the old
French, _Gobeau_.] for their glotenous gorge: but suche as the earth
vnploughed, or vndoluen, yeldeth of her self. And because thei acqueinte
not their table with surfet, in dede thei know not so many kindes of
sickenesses, ne so many names of diseases as we doe: but thei bettre knowe
what sounde healthe meaneth, and staied continuaunce of the same then euer
we are like.

Thei haue no neide to craue one anothers helpe and reliefe, wher no manne
maketh clayme by (thine) and by (myne) but euery manne taketh what he
lusteth and lusteth no more then he niedeth. Enuie cannot dwelle ther, ne
none of her impes, wher all be equalle, and none aboue other, and all alike
poore, maketh all alike riche. Thei haue no officers of Iustice among them,
because thei do nothing that ought to be punisshed. Ther can no lawe
appiere, because none offence appeareth.

The whole people hath one onely lawe, to do nothinge against lawe that
nature prescribeth. To cherishe labour, to barre out ydlenes, and banis all
[Transcriber's note: 'colle' in original] couetyse. That lechery licke not
away the vigour of their spirites, and strength: nor lacke throwe menne in
desperate doompes. That euery manne hath enoughe, wher no manne couettes
more. That neuer content, is of all other the moste cruell restles plague.
For whome she catcheth, she throweth a foote beneth beggery, whilest thei
canne finde none ende of their scrattinge, but the more thei haue, the
fellier gnaweth their longing.

Thei warme by the Sonne, the deawe is their moisture, the riuer is their
drinke, the faire grounde their bedde. Care breaketh not their sleape,
Compassing of vanities wearieth not their minde. Pride hath no stroke ouer
them, among whom ther is no diuersite. Neither is their any kinde of bonde
knowen amonge them: but the bondage of the body to the minde whiche they
onely allowe to be iuste.

For the building of their houses, they sende not ouer sea for stone, thei
burne no Calion to make lime to tempre their mortre, thei bake no brickes,
nor digge no sande. But either make them caues in the earthe, or take suche
as they finde ready made in the sides of mounteines and hilles. Ther dwel
thei without feare of rage or ruine, of weather or of winde. He thincketh
him self saeflier fenced from showres with his caue, then with a fewe
tiles: and yet hath by it a double commoditie. A house while he liueth, and
a graue ready made when he dyeth. Ther is no glittering apparell, no
rattelinge in sylkes, no sylkes, no rusteling in veluettes, but a litle
brieche of brawded russhes, or rather a couering of honeste

The women are not sette oute to allure, ne pinched in to please, ne
garnisshed to gase at. No heare died, no lockes outelaied, no face painted,
no skinne sliicked, no countrefeicte countenaunce, nor mynsing of passe. No
poticary practise, no ynckhorne termes, nor pithlesse pratling. Finally no
colours of hipocrisie, no meanes to set out more beautie then nature hathe
giuen them. They ioyne not in engendrure for likerous luste, but for the
loue of yssewe and succession. Thei kepe no warres, but mainteine peace:
not with force, but with peaceable behauour and maners. The father and the
mother folowe not the child to the bewrialle. Thei builde no toumbes for
the deade: more like vnto chirches then graues. They bewry not vp their
asshes in pottes dasshed full of pearle and precious stone. For why they
estieme in these, neither the honour of the quicke, ne the pleasure of the
deade: but raither the trouble and paine of bothe. Pestilence or other
diseases (as I haue sayd) the Abrahmanes are not annoyed with, for they
enfecte not the ayer with any filthe doinges. But nature alwaye with them,
keapeth accorde with the season: and euery elemente his tourne with oute
stoppe or barre. Their Phisicque is abstinence, which is able not only to
cure the maladie already crepte in: but also to holde oute suche as
otherwise mighte entre. Thei couette no sightes, nor shewes of misrule: no
disguisinges nor entreludes. But when thei be disposed to haue the pleasure
of the stage, thei entre into the regestre of their stories, and what thei
finde theremoste fit to belaughed at, that do thei lamente and bewaile.
They delight not as many do, to heare olde wiues tales, and fantasies of
Robin Hoode: but in studious consideracion of the wondreful workemanship of
the worlde, and the disposinge of thinges in suche ordre of course and
degree. Thei crosse no sease for merchaundise, ne learne no colours of
Rethoricque. Thei haue one kinde of plaine eloquence commune to them all:
tongue, and harte agreinge in truthe. Thei haue neither moote halles, ne
vniuersities, whose disagreable doctrine more leaning to apisshe arte, then
natural reason and experience, neuer bringeth anye staye, or certeinte of
thinges. One part of this people iudgeth mannes perfeteste blessednes to
stande in honestie. And a nother in pleasure. Not in the tickelinges of the
taile, or pamperinges of the bealy, more bittre then pleasaunte as thou
maye vse them: but to lacke nothing that perfecte nature desireth, ne
nothing to do that perfecte nature misliketh. Thei thincke it no honour to
God, to slea for him an innocente beaste; yea thei say he accepteth not the
sacrifice of men polluted with bloode, but rather loueth a worship voide of
all bloodsheade. That is to saye, the humble entreatie of woorde, because
that proprety only (to be entreated with woordes) is commune to God and to
manne. With this therefore saye they he is pleased, because we somewhat
resemble him self therin. And this was the life of the vnchristened
Brahmanes, wher with we Christianes are so farre out of loue, that we are
afraid leaste any man should beleue it to be true.

The Yndians called Catheis, haue eche man many wiues. And assone as any one
husbands fortuneth to die, his whole number of wiues assemble before the
chiefest iudges of the citie, and there eche for her self, sheweth and
alledgeth her welle deseruinges towarde her housebande: how derely she
loued him, howe muche she tendered and honoured him. And she that is by
them iudged to haue borne her self beste in that behaulfe, and to haue bene
dierest to her husbonde: she in the beste maner and moste gorgeous that she
can deuise, triumphing and reioysinge, getteth her vp vpon the funeralle
pyle wher her housebandes corps lieth ready to be brente, and ther kissinge
and embrasinge the deade body, is burned together with her housebande. So
gladde is she to haue the victorie, in the contencion of wiuely chastitie,
and honeste behauiour toward her husbande. And the other that lyue, thincke
them selues dishonoured: and escape not without spotte of reproche as longe
as they liue. Their children in their infancie, are not nourished vp at the
libertie and will of the parentes: but certeine there are appointed to
viewe the children: whiche yf thei spie vntowardnes in the infante,
deformitie, or lacke of lymmes, commande it to be slayne.

Thei ioyne not mariages for nobilitie of birthe, or aboundaunce of
substaunce, but for beaultie, and rather vpon regarde of frute, then of

Certaine also among the Yndians haue this custome, that yf thei be of suche
pouertie that thei be not able to marye oute their doughters: euen in the
floure of her age thei bringe her, or them, furthe into the marcate with
trompet and dromme, or suche other their noyses of warre: And their, after
the multitudeis comen together, the maiden first vncouereth her self wholie
vp to the harde shoulders, on the backe haulfe, to be sene starke naked,
and aftre that likewise on the bealy. Yf the multitude finde no faulte, but
allowe her as worthye to please for her bodye, then marieth she to some one
ther, whome she beste liketh.

Megasthenes writeth that vpon diuerse mounteines in Ynde, are people with
dogges heades, and longe clawes, cladde in hydes of beastes, speakinge with
no voyce like vnto manne, but barking onlye, muche like vnto dogges, with
mouthes roughe like a grater.

Thei that dwelle aboute the heade of Ganges, haue no nede of anye kinde of
meate: for they liue by the sauour of their frutes. And yf thei fortune to
iorney, so that they thincke to fayle of the sauour when thei would haue
it, they cary with theim to smell to, at times as thei fainte. But if it
fortune those to smelle any horrible stincke, it is as present deathe vnto
theim, as poyson to vs. It is recorded in writyng, that certaine of those
were in Alexandres campe.

We rede also that there are in Inde men with one eye and no mo. And certein
so notably eared that thei hange downe to their hieles with suche a
largenesse that they may lye in either of them as vpon a pallet: and
soharde, that thei may rende vp trees with them. Some others also hauing
but one legge, but vpon the same such a foote, that when the sonne is hote,
and he lacketh shadowe, lyenge downe vpon his backe, and holdinge vp his
fote, he largely shadoweth his whole bodie.

It is redde that in Clesia certein women haue but ones childe in all their
life time: and the children as sone as thei are borne, immediatly to become
horeheded. Againe, that there is another nacion, much longer lived than we
are, whiche in their youth are horeheared: and in their age, their heare
waxeth blacke. They affirme also that there is another sorte of women that
conceiue at fyue yeres olde, and liue not aboue the age of viii. yeres.
There are also that lacke neckes, and haue their eyes in their shoulders.
Ther are also beside these, certeine saluages with dogges heades, and
shacke heared on their bodies, that make a very terrible charringe with
their mouthes. But in these and suche like tales of the Indians, and their
countrie: for that a manne had nede of a redie beliefe that should take
theim for truthes, one had not niede to bee to large: considerynge
specially that menne nowe a daies, will skante beleue the reporte of other
mens writinges, in the thinges that almost lye vndre their noses.

Ther is a place betwixt Gedrosia and the floude Yndus which is called
Cathainus of the Cathaiens that enhabyte it. This people ware an ofspring
of the Scithians, muche altered from their naturall condicions, and wonted
maners, if that that Aritone the Arminiane writeth of them in his storie,
be true.

Thei passe (saieth he) all other men in quicke smelling. And thei saye of
them selues, that though all other menne haue two instrumentes of sight,
yet do none se with both two in dede, but thei: all other men in comparison
either to haue no sight, or elles as it ware but with one eye. Their
wittinesse is greate, but their boastinge greater. The whole nacion of them
is perswaded, that thei muche passe all other men in knowledge, and the
subtilties of sciences. Thei are all of colour shining, white, small eyed,
beardelesse by nature. Their lettres are aftre the facion of the Romaine,
all in squares. Thei are diuersely ledde with fonde supersticions, some
aftre one sorte, and some aftre another. But thei are all voyde of the true
knowledge which is in Iesus Christe. Some worship the sonne, some the mone.
Other, ymages of yoten metalle, manie of them an oxe. And thus to sondry
suche other monsters, hath this people in sondry wyse diuided it selfe in
supersticion. Thei haue no maner of written lawes, nor knowe not what we
meane when we speake of faithfulnesse or trustiness. And wher (as I said
afore) thei haue in all handi worckes a passing subtiltie of witte, yet in
the knowledge of heauenly thinges, thei are altogether to learne: that is
to saie, the are vtterly ignoraunt. A cowardly people and very feareful of
death. Yet exercise thei a maner of warre, but that thei handle rather by
witte, and pollicie, then by strength and hardinesse. In their fighte thei
use a kinde of shaftes, and certaine other weapons of flight, vnknowen to
other countries.

Their money is a piece of square paper, with their Kynges Image vpon it.
And because it cannot be durable: ordre is taken, that when it is soiled or
dusked muche, with passyng from man to man, thei shall bring it to the
coignyng house, and make exchaunge for newe. All their vtensiles and
necessaries of house, are of golde, siluer, and other metalles. Oile is so
deintie emong theim, that the kyng onely vseth it, as it ware for a
precious ointement Thus haue we treated of the Yndians, and now to their
borderers, the Scithians.

The ix. Chapitre.

Of Scithia and their sterne maners

Scithia (a countrie lieng by North) is said of Herodotus, to take the name
of Scitha Hercules sonne. Or as Berosus Iudgeth, of an other Scitha, borne
of our greate granndame Araxe, Noahes wife, that dwelt first in that
countrie. This people in the beginnyng pente within narowe boundes, so in
processe by litle and litle, through their valeauntnes and force enlarged
their limites: that thei became lordes of many countries aboute, and grewe
into a great gouernaunce and renoume. Thei nestled first vpon the floude
Araxis so fewe in nombre and so base: that no manne thought theim worthie
the troublyng or talkyng of. But gettyng vnto them a certain king, hardie,
of great courage, and notable, experience in the warres: thei enlarged
their land so, that thei made it stretche on the one parte (whiche is
altogether Hille, and Mounteigne) vnto Caucasus, and ouer at the plain vnto
the Occean, and vnto the greate marshe of Meotis, and Tanais the floude.
From whence the countrie of Scithia now stretcheth all along toward the
East. And because the mounteigne Imaus, ronnyng along as the countrie
coasteth, deuides it in the middes into two haulues: the one haulfe is
called Scithia within Imaus, and the other without (as ye would saie) on
this side the Mounte, and beyonde. There neuer medled any power with theim,
that was able to conquers theim: or muche to endamage them. Thei forced
Darius, the Kyng of the Persians, with greate dishonour to flie their
countrie. Thei slue Cirus with all his armie. Thei made an ende of
Alexandre with al his power. The Romaines sente theim threates thei would
warre with theim, but they proued in fine but wordes. Thei are a people not
tameable with any toile, bittre warriours, and of great strength of bodie.
At the first very rawe, and with out any ordinarie trade of life: neither
knowyng what tillage meant, ne yet hauyng any houses or cotages to dwell
in. But wandryng vp and doune the wilde fieldes and driuyng their catteile
afore theim, their wiues and their children ridyng in wagons by them. Thei
obserued iustice, without constraint of lawe. Thei compted none offence
more heinous, then thefte. As folke that had nothyng vndre locke nor keye,
barre, nor bolte: but altogether in the open fielde. Thei nether occupied
golde ne siluer. Their chief foode was milke and Hony. Against colde and
other stormes, thei wrapped their bodies in felles, and hides of beastes,
and Mice skinnes. Thei knewe not what Wollen meante, ne any facion of

This maner of life was in many of the Scithians, but not in all. A greate
nombre of theim, as thei muche differed in distaunce of place from other,
so differed thei also from other in maners: and vsed a certeine trade of
liuyng emong them selues, wherof we aftreward will entreats, when we haue
saied somewhat more of their facions in generall.

Many of the Scithians delight in manslaughter. And the firste man that he
taketh, in fight, his bloud drincketh he: and offreth vnto his Kynge the
heades of all those that he ther sleaeth. For when he hath so done, he is
admitted to be partaker of the butine what so euer it be, whereof he should
be otherwise partles. He cutteth of the heade aftre this sorte. Firste,
with his knife he maketh in it a gashe rounde aboute like a circle, vndre
the eares: then taketh he it by the heare of the croune, and striketh it
of. That done, he fleaeth it, and taweth the skinne betwixte his handes,
vntill it become very souple and soft and kiepeth it for a hande kercher.
This wille he hange vpon the reine of his horse, and glorieth not a litle
in it. And he that hath moste of suche handkerchers, is compted the
valeauntest manne. There are many also that sowe together these skinnes of
menne, as other doe the skinnes of beastes, and weare theim for their
clothyng. Some of them flea the right hand of their enemies beyng slaine,
so that the nailes also remain vpon the fingres, and make couers of theim
for their quiuers.

Many of them flea the whole bodie, and stretche out the skinne vpon
certaine stickes fitted for the nones, and so sprede them vpon their Horse.
Of the Skulles of the heades thus slaine, thei make measures to drincke in:
coueryng them on the outside with rawe Neates leather, and gilding them on
the inside, if he be of habilitie. And when any gheste of estimacion
commeth vnto theim, thei offre them to drincke in asmany as they haue, and
declare for a greate braggue of their valeauntnesse, that so many they haue
slaine with their owne hande.

Ones euery yere, all the chief heades of the Scitians, kepe a solempne
drinckyng. At the whiche the maner is, out of one of these Skulles, as out
of a wassailing boule, to giue all those the wine that haue slaine an
enemie. But he that hath done no such notable acte, tasteth not therof, but
sitteth aparte in a corner with out honour: which is iudged among them a
greate reproche. But thei that haue achieued many slaughters, thei drancke
of two Goblettes together, which thei haue for that purpose.

The goddes whom thei worshippe, and doe Sacrifice vnto, are these: Firste
and chiefly vnto Vesta, then to Iupiter, and the goddesse of the grounde:
for that thei take her to be Iupiters wife. Nexte vnto Apollo and Venus,
Mars and Hercules. Yet erecte thei no Chapelle, Altare, nor Image to any of
these: but onely to Mars: to whom thei offre of euery hundred prisoners
that thei take, one for a sacrifice. To the other thei offre bothe horses
and other beastes, but specially horses. Swine thei so little estieme, that
thei neither offre them to any of their goddes ne vouchesauf to kiepe theim
in their Countrie. Looke whom the kyng punissheth with death, his children
he also commaundeth to be slain, as many as be males, but the women are

With whom the Scithians couenaunt or make League: after this manor thei doe
it. They fille an earthen panne with wine, and of the parties that shall
strike the League or couenaunte, thei drawe a quantitie of bloude, whiche
thei mingle therwith. Then diepe thei into the panne their Curtilasse, then
shaftes, their axe, and their darte. That done, thei wishe vnto them selues
many terrible curses and mischiefes, if thei holde not the league or
couenaunte. And then drincke thei the wine. And not thei onely that strike
the couenantes, but also those that are moste honourable in their

The bewriall of their kynges is aftre this maner; where the Kyng dieth,
those that are of his bloude, rounde his heare, cutte of one of his eares,
slice his armes rounde aboute, all to begasshe his foreheade and his nose,
and shoote him through the lifte hande, in thre or fowre places. Then laie
thei the corps in a Carte, and cary it to the Gerrites, where the
Sepulchres of all their Kynges are. And thei dwell vpon the floude
Boristhenes, about the place wher it becometh first saileable. This people
when thei haue receiued it, trenche out a square plotte in the ground very
wide and large. And then rippe the bealy of the corps, and bowelle it
cleane: clensyng it and drieng it from all filthe, and fille it vp with
Siler Montanum, Frankencense, Smallache siede, and Anise siede, beaten
together in a Mortre. And when thei haue sowed it vp againe close, thei
ceare the whole bodie, and conueighe the same in a Carte, to the nexte
people vndre the gouernaunce of the Scithians, whiche with honour receiue
it, and conueigh it vnto the nexte of their dominion: and so from one to
another, vntle it haue passed rounde aboute, to as many peoples as are of
their dominion, and be comen againe to the place of bewriall emong the
Gerrites, whether it is accompanied with a certain of all the peoples, to
whom it hath comen, as thei gathered encreace from place to place. Thei,
aftre what tyme thei haue laied the corps, cophine and all, vpon a bedde of
state, amid the square afore mentioned: sticke doune their iauelines and
speares aboute him, and with stickes laied ouer from one to another, frame
as it ware a Cielyng, whiche thei couer with a funeralle palle. Then in the
reste of the voide space, that yet remaines in the Cophine made for the
nones: thei berwrie one of his dierest lemmans, a waityng manne, a Cooke, a
Horsekeper, a Lacquie, a Butler, and a Horse. Whiche thei al first
strangle, and thruste in, together with a portion of all sortes of plate,
and of euery suche thyng as appertained to his housholde, or body. And when
the yere comes about, then do thei thus. Thei take of those that ware
nerest about the Kyng (now there are none aboute the king, but thei be
Scithians free borne, and suche as his self doth commaunde: for he maie be
serued with no bought slaue) of those take thei fiuetie and as many of his
best horses. And when thei haue strangeled bothe the men and the horses,
they bowell the Horses, stuffe their bealies againe with Chaffe, and sowe
theim vp close, and sette the menne vppon their backes. Then make thei a
voulte ouer round about the bordre of the greate square, and so dispose
these Horse menne enuiron the same, that thei sieme a farre of, a troupe of
liuyng horsemen gardyng the kyng.

The communes haue also a maner of bewrialle aftre a like sorte. When one of
theim dieth, his nexte neighbour and kindsfolke laie hym in a Carte, and
cary hym aboute to euery of his frindes: whiche at the receipte of hym make
a feaste, as well to the kindsmen, as to all the residewe that accompaignie
the corps. And when thei haue thus caried hym aboute by the space of
fowretene daies, he is bewried. All the braine of his heade beyng first
piked out, and the skulle rinsed with water cleane. Aboute the bodie thei
sette vp three sparres of woodde slopyng, and restyng one vpon another at
the toppes. Rounde about these sparres, thei straine cappyng woollen,
packyng theim as close as thei can. And within betwixt the sparres, as it
ware in the middest ouer the deade, thei set a traie or shallowe trough,
where in to thei caste a kinde of stones, that glistereth by fire light.

The menne emong the Scithians do not vse to washe them selues. But the
women vse to powre water vpon their own bodies, and to rubbe themselues
against some roughe stone: and then with a piece of a Cipresse, Ceadre, or
Encence tree, to grate their whole bodie, vntill it be some what bollen or
swollen. And then enoint thei bothe that and their face, with certeine
medicines for the nones: whereby thei become the nexte daie of a very good
smell, and (when the medicine is washed awaie) slicke and smothe.

Their commune othe, and the othe of charge in matiers of controuersie, or
iudgemente, is by the kynges clothe of estate: by the whiche if a man
shalbe tried to haue forsworne hymself (as their enchauntours haue a maner
to trie with salowe roddes whether thei haue or not) by and by without
respighte, he loseth his heade, and all his goodes, whiche tourne to the
vse of them that haue proued him periured.

The Massagetes, a people of Scithia in Asie, beyond the sea called Caspium
mare in appareille and liuyng, muche like to the Scithians, and therefore
of some so called: vse to fighte bothe on horsebacke and on fote, with
suche actiuitie and force, that thei are almoste inuincible in bothe. Their
weapons are bowe and arrowes, Launces and Armynge swordes. Their beltes
aboute their waste, the ornament of their heades, and their pollerone, are
garnished with golde. Their Horses are barbed on the brest, with barbes of
gold. Their reines, bridles, and trappour are all of golde. The heades of
their Launces are of Brasse, and their Quiuers armed with Brasse. As for
Siluer and Iron thei occupie none. Eche manne marieth one wife, and yet are
the wiues of them all, commune one to another, whiche thyng is not vsed
emong any of the other Scythians. When so euer any man lusteth for the
compaignie of his woman, he hangeth vp his quiuer vpon the carte wherein
his wife is caryed by him, and there openly without shame coupleth.

When any one of this people waxeth very aged, his friendes, acquaintance,
and kindesfolke assembled together, make a bealy Sacrifice of hym: sleayng
as many shiepe besides, as will serue for the fulnesse of the nombre. And
when thei haue dressed theim, eate parte and parte like, the one with the
other. And this kinde of departynge is compted emong theim, of all other
moste blessed. If any fortune to pine awaie of sickenesse, hym eate thei
not: but put in a hole, and throwe earthe vpon him. Sory for the losse,
that he came not to the feaste.

Thei neither sowe nor mowe, but liue by flesshe of suche beastes as thei
haue, and suche fisshe as Araxe the floude doeth plenteously minister vnto
them: and with drinckynge of Milke, wherof thei make no spare. Thei knowe
no goddes but the Sonne: In whose honour thei offre vp Horses in Sacrifice,
as beyng in swiftenesse moste like vnto the Sonne.

The Seretines are a debonaire people, and suche louers of quietnesse, that
they shonne to entremedle with any other people. Merchauntes passe their
outmost floude toward them, but thei maie come no nigher. Along the banques
there, thei sette oute suche thynges, as thei are disposed to selle. Not
the Merchauntes, but the indwellers of the Countrie. For thei selle to
other, and buie of none. And thei sette them in ordre as thei iudge them in
price. The buyer cometh, and as he iudgeth theim by his eye to be worthe,
without further trade or feloweshippe betwixte theim, so laieth he doune.
And if thei receiue it, he departeth with the ware. Emong them is there
neither whore nor thiefe, nor adulteresse broughte to iudgemente. Neither
was it euer hearde, that there was a manne slaine emong theim. For the
feare of their Lawes woorketh more strongly with theim, then the influences
of the Starres. Thei dwelle as it ware in the beginnyng or entryng of the
worlde. And for that thei liue aftre a chast sort: thei are neither
skourged with Blastynges, ne Haile, ne Pestilence, ne suche other euilles.
No manne toucheth a woman there, aftre she hath conceiued, ne yet in the
time of her flowres. Thei eate none vncleane beastes, ne knowe what
Sacrifisyng meaneth. Euery man there is his owne Iudge, acordyng to
Iustice. Therefore are thei not chastised with suche corrections as happen
vnto other for synne, but bothe continue long in life, and die without

The Tauroschithians (so called for that thei dwell aboute the mounteigne
Taurus) offre as many as fortune to make Shipwracke vpon their shore: to
the virgine, whose name ye shall aftre heare. And if it fortune any Greke
or Grekes, to be driuen thether, him doe thei sacrifice after this maner.

Aftre what tyme thei haue made prayer after their maner, thei strike of his
heade with an hatchet. And (as some saie) tumble doune the carkesse into
the Sea, (for this Virgine hath a Chapelle vpon the toppe of a high clieue,
hangyng ouer the Sea, where this feate is doone) and naile vp the heade
vpon a Gibet. In this poincte of nailyng vp the heade, all the writers
agre, but in tomblyng doune the body, not so, for some affirme, that the
body is bewried. The Virgine Deuille, to whom thei Sacrifice: is saith to
be Iphigenia Agamemnons doughter. Their enemies as many as thei take, thus
thei handle. Euery manne cutteth of his prisoners head, and carieth it
home: and fasteneth it vpon the ende of a long pole, and setteth it vp:
some vpon their house toppe some vpon their chimneis as high as thei can.
And no merueile though thei set them so that thei might well see rounde
about theim: for thei saie: they are the wardens and kepers of al their
whole house. They liue by spoile, and by warre.

The Agathirsians are menne verie neate and fine, and greate wearers of
golde in their appareill. Thei occupie their women in commune, so that thei
seme all of one kindred, and one householde: neuer striuyng nor grudgyng
one with another, muche like in body vnto the Thracians.

The Neuriens vse the maners of the Sithians. This people the somer before
that Darius set furthe, ware constrained for the greate multitude of
Serpentes that ware bredde in their quartres, to chaunge their dwellyng
place. Thei verily doe belieue, and wille sweare it: that euery yere ones
for a certaine daies, thei become Woulues, and retourne againe into their
former shape and state.

The Antropophagites (so called for that thei liue by mannes fleshe) of all
menne, are the worste condicioned, without lawe, or officer, appareilled
like the Scithiens: but in language like vnto no bodye but them selues.

The Melanchleni do all weare blacke, as their name dothe signifie. And of
these also are eaters of mannes fleshe: so manye as folowe the trade of the

The Budines are a great nacion, and a populous, graye eyed, and redde
headed al. Their heade citie is Gelone, wherof thei are also called
Gelonites. Thei kepe euery thirde yere a reuelle in the honour of Bacchus:
whereat thei make reuelle in dede, yea, reuell route. Thei ware sometime
Griekes, whiche put of fro their countrie, seatled them selues there. And
by processe, losing the proprietie of their owne tongue, became in language
haulfe Grekes, and haulfe Scithians. Yet are the Gelonites bothe in
language and liuinge, different from the Budines. For the Budines being
natiue of the place, are brieders of Catteile: The Gelonites, occupienge
tilthe: liue by corne, and haue their frute yardes. Neyther lyke in colour
ne countenaunce to the other. All their quartres are verye full, and thicke
of trees. It hathe also many meres and greate. In and aboute the whiche
thei take Ottres, and Beauers, and many other beastes: of whose skinnes
they make them pilches, and Ierkins.

The Lirceis liue by woodmanshippe, and huntinge, and aftre this maner.
Their countrie beinge also very thicke of trees, thei vse to climbe suche
as siemeth them beste: and there awaite their game. At the foote of euery
mannes tree lieth a dogge, and a horse well taughte to couche flatte on the
bealy, as lowe as can bee. When the beast cometh within daungier, he
shoteth. And yf he hitte, he streighte commeth downe, taketh his horse
backe, and foloweth with his hounde.

The Argippians dwell vndre the foote of the highe mountaines. Men whiche
fro their birthe are balde; bothe the males and the females. Their noses
tourne vp like a shoinge horne, and their chinnes be great out of measure.
The sounde of their voice vnlike to all other: ther apparell aftre the
sorte of the Scithians. Thei haue small regarde to brieding: by the reason
wherof thei haue smalle store of cattaile. Thei lie vndre trees, whiche in
the wintre thei couer ouer with a white kinde of felte, and in the somer
take the same awaye, and lie vndre the open tree. Ther is no manne that
will harme them for that thei are compted holy halowed: neither haue thei
anye kinde of armour, or weapon of warre. These men haue the arbitrement of
their neighbours controuersies rounde aboute. And as thei determine so are
thei ended. Who so flieth vnto them, is saufe as in sanctuary.

The Issedonnes haue this propertie. When so euer any mannes father ther,
dieth: all his kinsfolke bringe euery man one beast or other to the house
of the sonne that kepeth the funeral. Which when they haue killed and
minsed: they minse also the body of the deade. And bothe the flesshes
beinge mingled together, thei fall to the banket. Then take thei the dead
mannes heade, and pike the braine cleane, and all other moistures and
ragges, and when thei haue guilte it, thei vse it for a representacion of
the partie departed. Solempnisinge euery yere furthe, the memoriall, with
newe ceremonies, and mo. This dothe the sonne for the father, and the
father for the sonne, as the Grekes kepe their birthe daies.

These are also sayde to be verye iuste dealers, and their wiues to be as
valeaunt and hardie as the husbandes. Suche haue the maners of the
Scithians bene. But afterwarde being subdued by the Tartares, and wearing
by processe into their maners and ordinaunces: thei nowe liue all aftre one
sorte, and vndre one name.

The x. Chapiter.

Of Tartarie, and the maners and power of the Tartarians.

Tartaria, otherwyse called Mongal: As Vincentius wryteth, is in that parte
of the earthe where the Easte and the Northe ioyne together. It had vpon
the Easte, the londe of the Katheorines and Solangores, on the South, the
Saracenes: on the Weste the Naymaniens, and on the Northe is enclosed with
the occean. It hath the name of the floude Tartar that ronneth by it. A
country very hilly, and full of mountaines. And where it is champein,
myngled with sande and grauelle. Barreine, except it be in places where it
is moysted with floodes, which are very fewe. And therfore it is muche
waaste, and thinly enhabited. Ther is not in it one Citie, ne one village
beside Cracuris. And wood in the moste parte of the country so skante, that
the enhabitauntes are faine to make their fyre, and dresse their meate with
the drie donge of neate and horses. The ayer intemperate and wonderfulle.
Thondre, and lightening in somer so terrible, that sondry do presently die
for very feare. Nowe is it broiling hote, and by and by bittre colde, and
plenty of snowe. Suche stronge windes sometime, that it staieth horse and
man, and bloweth of the rider: teareth vp trees by the rootes, and doeth
muche harme. In wintre it neuer raineth ther, and in Somer very often. But
so slendrely, that the earthe is skante wette with al. And yet is ther
great store of Cattaile: as Camelles, neate, &c. And horses and mares, in
suche plentie, as I beleue no parte of the earth hath againe. It was first
enhabited of foure peoples. Of the Ieccha Mongalles that is to saye, the
greate Mongalles. The Sumongalles, that is to say the watre Mongalles,
whiche called them selues Tartares, of the floude Tartar whose neighbours
thei are.

The thirde people ware called Merchates, and the fourthe Metrites. There
was no difference betwixte them eyther in body or language, but al aftre
one sorte and facion. Their behauour was in the beginning very brute, and
farre oute of ordre, without lawe or discipline, or any good facion. Thei
liued amonge the Scithians, and kept herdes of cattalle in very base state
and condition: and ware tributaries to all their neighbours. But within a
while aftre, thei deuided them selues as it ware into wardes, to euery of
the which was appointed a capitaine: in whose deuises and consentes
consisted thordre of the whole. Yet ware thei tributaries to the Naimannes
(their next neighbours) vntyll Canguista by a certaine prophecie was chosen
their kynge. He assone as he had receiued the gouernaunce, abolished all
worshippe of deuilles, and commaunded by commune decree that all the whole
nacion should honour the highe God euerlasting: by whose prouidence he
would seme to haue receiued the kingdome. It was further decreed that as
manye as ware of age to beare armour, should be preste, and ready with the
king at a certeyne daye. The multitude that serued for their warres, was
thus distributed. Their capitaines ouer ten (which by a terme borowed of
the Frenche, we calle Diseners) are at the commaundemente of the
Centurians. And the Centuriane obeied the Millenarie, that had charge of a
thousande. And he againe was subiecte to the grande Coronelle that had
charge ouer ten thousande: aboue the whiche nombre thei mounted no degree
of captaines.

This done, to proue the obedience of his subiectes, he commaunded seuen
sonnes of the Princes or Dukes whiche before had gouerned the people: to be
slaine by the handes of their owne fathers, and mothers. Whiche thinge
althoughe it ware muche againste their hartes, and an horrible diede, yet
did thei it. Partely vppon the feare of the residew of the people: and
partly vpon conscience of their obedience. For why, the people thoughte
when thei sawe him begyn aftre this sorte: thei had had a god amongest
them. So that in disobeyinge of his commaundemente, thei thoughte thei
should not haue disobeied a king but God him selfe.

Canguista takinge stomake with this power, firste subdued those Scithians
that bordred vpon him, and made them tributaries. And where other afore had
bene tributaries also vnto them: now receiued he in that one peoples
righte, tribute of many. Then settinge vpon those that ware further off, he
had suche prosperous successe that from Scithia to the sonne risinge, and
fro thence to the middle earthe sea, and beyonde: he broughte all together
vndre his subiection. So that he moughte nowe worthely wryte him selfe
highe Gouernour, and Emperour of the Easte.

The Tartares are very deformed, litle of bodie for the moste parte, hauyng
great stiepe eyes: and yet so heary on the eye liddes, that there sheweth
but litle in open sight. Platter faced and beardlesse, sauyng vpon the
vpper lippe, and a litle about the poincte of the chinne thei haue a feawe
heares as it were pricked in with Bodkins. Thei be communely all slendre in
the waste. Thei shaue the hindre haulfe of the heade, rounde aboute by the
croune, from one eare to another: compassyng towarde the nape of the necke
after suche a facion, that the polle behind sheweth muche like the face of
a bearded manne. On the other parte, thei suffre their heare to growe at
lengthe like our women: whiche thei deuide into two tresses, or braudes,
and bryng aboute to fasten behinde their eares. And this maner of shauyng,
do thei vse also that dwelle among theim, of what nacion so euer thei be.
Thei theim selues are very light and nimble: good on Horse, but naughte on
foote. All from the moste to the leaste, as well the women as the menne:
doe ride either vpon Geldynges, or Kien, where so euer thei become. For
stoned Horses thei occupie none, ne yet Gelding that is a striker, and
lighte of his heles. Their bridelles are trimmed with muche gold, siluer,
and precious stones. And it is compted a ioly thyng among theim: to haue a
great sort of siluer sounded belles, gynglyng aboute their horse neckes.
Their speache is very chourlishe and loude. Their singyng is like the
bawlynge of Woulues. When thei drinke, thei shake the heade: and drincke
thei do very often euen vnto dronckennesse, wherein thei glorie muche.
Their dwellyng is neither in tounes ne Bouroughes. But in the fieldes
abrode, aftre the maner of thauncient Scithians in tentes. And the
ratherso, for that thei are all moste generally catteill mastres. In the
wintre time thei are wont to drawe to the plaines, and in the Somer season,
to the mounteignes and hillie places for the better pasture. Thei make
theim Tentes, or elles rounde cotages of wickres, or of Felte vndersette
with smothe poles. In the middes thei make a round windowe that giueth them
lighte, and letteth out the smoke. In the middes of the Tent, is their
fire, aboute the whiche their wife and their children doe sitte. The menne
delight muche in dartyng, shootyng, and wrastelyng. Thei are merueilous
good hunters, to the whiche thei go armed at all pieces. And assone as thei
espie the beaste, thei come costing together rounde aboute and enclose her.
And when euery manne hath throwen his darte, or shotte his arrowe: whilest
the beast is troubled and amased with the stripes, thei steppe in to her
and slea her. Thei neither vse breade ne bakyng: table clothe ne napkin.

Thei belieue that there is one GOD that made all thynges, bodily and
ghostly, sene or vnsene, and hym thei honour: but not with any maner of
Sacrifice or ceremonie. Thei make theim selues litle pupettes of silke or
of felte, or of thrumme, like unto menne: whiche thei sette vp vpon eche
side of their Tentes, and do them muche reuerence, beseching them to take
hede to their catteille. To these thei offre the first milke of all their
milche catteill, of what kinde so euer thei be. And before thei begin
either to eate or drinke aught, thei sette a porcion thereof before theim.
Looke what beaste thei kille to be eaten, thei reserue the harte all nighte
in some couered cuppe, and the nexte mornynge seath it and eate it.

Thei worshippe also and Sacrifice to the Sonne, Moone, and elementes fowre.
To Cham also their Lorde and Kyng, thei do very deuoute honour and
Sacrifice: supposyng him to be the sonne of God, and to haue no piere in
the whole worlde: neither can they abide to heare any other manne name hym.

This people so despiseth al other men, and thincke theim selues so farre to
surmount them in wisedome and goodnes: that thei abhorre to speake to
theim, or to compaignie with theim. Thei calle the Pope and all Christen
menne, Doggues and Idolatres: because thei honour stones and blocques. And
thei theim selues (beyng giuen to deuelishe supersticions) are markers of
dreames, and haue dreame readers emong theim: as well to enterpreate their
sweuens, [Footnote: From the Saxon, meaning a dream. See Bailey's _Dict._,
London, 1737.] as to aske knoweledge of Idolles. In whom thei are perswaded
that God speaketh: and therefore acordyng to their answeres, frame them
selues to do. Thei marke many seasons, and specially haue regarde to the
chaunges of the Moone. Yet make thei for no season, ne chaunge, any
singular holidaie or obseruance: but ilike for them all indifferently. Thei
are of so gredie a coueitousenesse, and desire, that if any of them se
aughte, that he coueiteth to haue, and cannot obtein with the good wille of
the owner: if it apperteigne to no Tartarre, he will haue it by force. And
thei thincke (through a certein ordenaunce that their Kyng made) thei
offende not therein. For suche a commaundemente had thei of Canguista, and
Cham, their firste Kynges: That if it fortune any Tartarre, or Tartarres
seruaunt, to finde in his waie, horse, man, or woman, without the kinges
lettres or his saulfconduite: he should take it, him, her, or them as his
owne for euer.

To suche as lacke money thei lende, but for shamefull gaines: that is to
saie, two shillynges of the pounde for euery Monethe. And if it fortune ye
to faile to make paiemente at the dale: ye shall also be forced to paie the
enterest, acording to the rate of the Vsurie. That is to saie, of euery
tenth penie, one.

Thei do so polle and oppresse their tributaries, with subsidies, taxes and
tallages, as neuer did people but thei, that euer manne redde of. It is
beyonde belief to saie. Thei euer coueite, and as Lordes of all, do rape,
and rende from other, and neuer recompence aught. No, the begger that
liueth on almose, getteth not an aguelette of hym. Yet haue thei this one
praise worthie propretie, that if he fortune to finde them at meate: thei
neither shutte the doore against hym, ne thruste him out, if he be disposed
to eate, but charitably bidde them, and parte with them suche as thei haue.
But thei fiede the vnclenliest in the worlde, as I haue saied, without
tableclothe, napkinne, or towell to couer the borde, or to wipe at meate,
or aftre. For thei neither washe hande, face, ne body, ne any garmente that
thei weare. Thei nether eate bread, nor make bread, nor sallottes nor
potage, nor any kinde of Pultz. But no maner of flesshe cometh to them
amisse. Dogges, Cattes, Horses and rattes. Yea, sometime to shewe their
crueltie, and to satisfie their vengeaunce, the bodies of suche their
enemies, as thei haue taken, thei vse to roste by a greate fire: and when
thei bee asembled a good nombre together, thei teare theim of the spittes
like Wolues, with their tiethe, and deuoure them. And aftreward drincke vp
the bloude, whiche thei reserue afore hande for the nones. Otherwise thei
vse to drincke Milke. Thei haue no wine of the countrie it self, but suche
as is brought into them thei drincke very gredilie. Thei vse to Lowse one
anothers heade, and euer as thei take a Lowce to eate her, saieng: thus
wille I doe to our enemies. It is compted a greate offence emong them to
suffre drincke, or a piece of meate to be loste. Thei neuer therfore giue
the bone to the Dogge, till they haue eaten out the marrowe. Thei neuer
eate beaste (suche vile niggardes thei are) as long as the same is sounde
and in good likyng: but when it fortuneth to be hurte, sicke, or febled by
age, then bewrie they it in their bealies. Thei are greate sparers, and
contente with smalle chaunge, and litle foode. Thei drincke in the mornyng,
a goblet full of Milke or twaine, whiche serueth theim sometyme for their
whole daies foode.

The menne and the women moste communely are appareilled ylike. The men
weare vpon their heades shallowe copin tackes, comming but behinde with a
taile of a handefull and a haulfe long, and as muche in breadth: whiche
thei fasten vnder their chinnes, for falling or blowing of, with a couple
of strynges of ribbande lace, as we doe our nighte cappes. Their married
women wear on their heades, fine wickre Basquettes of a foote and a haulf
long: rounde, and flatte on the toppe like a barrelle. Whiche are either
garnished with chaungeable silkes, or the gaiest parte of the Pecockes
feathers, and sette with golde and stones of sondrie sortes. Asfor the
residue of their bodie, thei wear acording to their abilitie, bothe men and
women, Skarlet or Veluet, or other silkes. Thei weare coates of a straunge
facion, open on the left side, whiche thei put on acordingly, and fasten
with fowre or five Buttons. Their Somer wiedes are all communely blacke:
and those that thei weare in Winter and foule weather, white: and neuer
lower then the knee. Wearing furres (wherein thei muche delight) thei weare
not the furre inwarde, as we communely doe: but contrariwise the heare
outwarde, that thei maie enioie the pleasure of the shewe.

It is harde to discerne by the appareile the maide, fro the wife, or the
woman fro the manne: so like araied do the menne and the women go. Thei
weare brieches, the one and the other. When they shal go to the skirmishe,
or to battaille, some couer their armes (whiche at all other tymes are
naked) with plates of iron, buckeled together alonge, in many pieces, that
thei may the easelier sturre their armes. Some doe thesame with many foldes
of Leather: wherwith thei also arme their head. Thei cannot handle a
target: nor but fewe of theim a launce or a long sweard. Thei haue
curtilasses of iii. quarters longe: not double edged but backed. Thei
fighte all with a quarter blowe, and neither right downe, ne foyning. Thei
be very redy on horsebacke, and very skilful archers. He is counted moste
valeaunte, that best obserueth the commaundement and the obedience dewe to
his capitaine. Thei haue no wages for their souldie, yet are they prest and
ready in all affaires, and all commaundementes. In battayle, and otherwise
wher oughte is to be done, very politike and experte. The princes and
capitaines entre not the battle, but standyng aloofe, crye vnto their men,
and harten them on: lookinge diligently aboute on euery side what is
nedefull to be done. Sometime to make the armye sieme the greater, and the
more terrible to the ennemy: thei set vpon horsebacke their wiues and their
children, yea and men made of cloutes. It is no vilany amonge them to flye:
if any thinge maye eyther be saued or wonne by it. When thei will shoote,
thei vnarme their righte arme, and then let thei flye with suche violence,
that it pearceth all kinde of armour. Thei giue the onset flockinge in
plumpes, and likewise in plompes they flie. And in the flighte thei so
shoote backe warde behinde them, that thei slea many of their ennemies
pursuinge the chase. And when thei perceiue their ennemies dispersed by
pursuinge the chase, or not to fighte any thing wholie together: soudeinly
retourninge, the beginne a newe onset with a hayle of shotte, neither
sparing horse ne man. So that oftetimes thei ouercome when thei are
thoughte to be vanquisshed. When thei come to enuade any quartre or
countrie, thei deuide their armie, and sette vpon it on euery parte: so
that the inhabitours can neither haue laisure to assemble and resiste, ne
waye to escape. Thus are thei alway sure of the victory, whiche thei knytte
vp with moste proude crueltie. Neither sparinge manne woman ne childe, olde
ne younge sauing the artificer onely, whom thei reserue for their own vses.
And this slaughter make thei aftre this maner. When they haue all taken
them, thei distribute them to their Centurians: who committe them againe to
the slaues: to euery one fewer or more acordinge to the multitude. And when
the slaues haue all slayne them as bouchers kylle hogges: then for a
terrour to al other ther about: of euery thousande of the dead thei take
one, and hange him vp by the hieles vpon a stake, amydde these deade
bodies: and so ordre his heade as though it appiered by his facion or maner
of hanginge, that he yet bothe harkened the complainte of his felowes, and
lessened them againe. Many of the Tartarres when the bodies lie freshe
bliedinge on the grounde, laye them downe alonge, and sucke of the bloud a
full gloute.

Thei kepe faithe to no manne, howe depely so euer thei binde them selues
thervnto. Thei deale yet wourse with those that thei ouer come with force.
The maidens and younge women thei deflowre, and defile as thei come to
hande, neither do thei iudge it any dishonestie. The beautifuller sorte
thei lead away with them: and in extreame misery, constraine them to be
their slaues all their lyfe longe. Of all other thei are moste vnbrideled
in leachery. For althoughe they marye as many wiues as they luste, and are
able to kepe: no degre prohibited, but mother, doughter, and sister: yet
are thei as rancke bouguers with mankinde, and with beastes, as the
Saracenes are, and no punishmente for it amonge them. The woman that thei
marie, thei neuer take as wife, ne receiue any dowrie with her, vntill she
haue borne a childe. So that if she be barren he maye caste her vp, and
mary another.

This is a notable meruaile, that though amonge theim manye women haue but
one manne: yet thei neuer lightely falle out, ne brawle one with another
for him. And yet are the menne parcialle in theyr loue: shewing muche more
fauour to one then another, and goynge fro the bedde of the one, streighte
to the bedde of an other. The women haue their seuerall tentes and
householdes: And yet liue verye chastely, and true to their housebandes.
For bothe the manne and the women taken in adultery, suffre death by the

Those that are not occupied for the warres, driue the catteile a fielde,
and there kepe them. Thei hunte, and exercise themselues in wrastlinge,
other thing doe thei not. The care of prouision for meate and drincke,
appareille and householde, they betake to the women. This people hath many
superstitious toyes. It is a heinous matter with them, to touche the fier,
or take fleshe out of a potte with a knife. Thei hewe or choppe no maner of
thing by the fire, leasse by any maner of meanes, thei might fortune to
hurte the thing which alway they haue in reuerence, and iudge to be the
clenser, and purifier of al thinges. To laye them downe to reste vppon the
whippe that thei stirre theyr horse with (for spurres thei vse none) or to
touche their shaftes therewith, in no wise thei wylle not. Thei neither
kille younge birdes, ne take them in the neste or other waies. Thei beate
not the horse with the bridle. Thei breake not one bone with another. Thei
are ware, not to spill any spone meate, or drincke, specially milke. No
manne pisseth within the compasse of their soiourning place. And if any one
of self willed stubbornesse should do it, he ware sure withoute all mercy
to die for it. But if necessitie constraine them to do it (as it often
happeneth) then the tente of hym that did it, with all that is in it, muste
be clensed and purified after this maner. They make two fires, thre strides
one from another. And by eche fire thei pitche downe a Iaueline. Vpon them
is tied a lyne stretching fro the one to the other, and couered ouer with
buckerame. Betwene these ii. Iauelins, as throughe a gate, muste all
thinges passe that are to be purified. Two women (to whome this office
belongeth) stande, on either side one, sprinckelinge on watre, and
mumblinge certaine verses. No straungier, of what dignitie so euer he be,
or of howe greate importance so euer the cause of his comming be: is
admitted to the kinges sighte before he be purified. He that treadeth vppon
the thressholde of the tente wherein their kinge, or anye of his
chiefteines lyeth, dieth for it in the place. If any manne bite a gobet,
greater than he is able to swallowe, so that he be constrained to put it
out of his mouth againe: thei by and by make a hole vndre the tent, and
ther drawe him out, and cruelly slea him. Many other thinges ther are which
thei compte for faultes beyonde all forgiuenesse. But to slea a man, to
enuade a nother mannes country, contrary to all righte and reason, to
bereue them of their goodes and possessions, to breake the preceptes of
God, thei estieme as nothinge. Thei haue a beliefe that aftre this life
thei shal liue for euer in another worlde (but what maner of worlde thei
cannot telle) and ther receiue rewarde for their well doinges. When any of
them falleth sicke, and lieth at the pointe of deathe, thei sticke vp a
Iaueline with a piece of blacke clothe at the dore of the tente wher he
lieth, that none come in as they passe by. For no manne when he seeth this,
dare entre thether vncalled.

Aftre what time the sicke is dead, his whole house gather together, and
priuely conueighe the corps into some place withoute the tente, chosen for
the purpose. Ther cut they out a trenche, broade and diepe enoughe to sette
vp another lytle tent in: so that the toppe of the tent maye be well within
the grounde. In that thei prepare a table with a banket: at the whiche thei
sette the deade bodye in his beste appareille. And so together, as it ware
with one hande, couer all with earth againe. Thei bewry with him also some
beaste of bourden, and a horse ready sadled and appointed to ride. The
gentlemen by their life time, appointe out a slaue (whome thei marke with
their brande) to be specially bewried with him when he dieth. And this do
thei vpon perswasion of a life in a nother worlde, wher thei woulde be loth
to lacke these necessaries. Then doe the deades friendes take another
horse, and slea him. And when they haue eaten the fleshe, thei stuffe the
hide full of haye, and sowe it againe together and sette it vp ouer the
graue vpon foure poles, in remembraunce of the deade. The bones do the two
ordenarie women burne, for the clensinge and purifienge of the soule. But
the gentlemen, and thei of higher degree, handle the hide aftre another
maner. Thei cut it out into very fine thonges, to asmuche lengthe as thei
can, and measure oute asmuche grounde about the Sepulchre as the thonge
wille stretche vnto. For so muche ground thincke thei shall the deade haue
in another worlde. At the thirtieth daye thei ende their mourning.

Certaine of the Tartarres, professing the name of Christe, yet farre from
his righteousnes: when their parentes waxe aged, to haste their death,
crame them with gobins of fatte. When thei die thei burne them to pouldre,
whiche thei reserue as a precious Iewelle, to strawe vppon their meate
euery daie. But to declare with what solempnitie and ioifulnes thei sette
vp their newe Kynge, aftre the death of tholde: because it ware to longe a
thyng, bothe for the reader and writer to set out at length, I will shewe
you in brief theffecte.

Abrode in the fieldes, in a faire plaine ordenary for the purpose: all the
Dukes, Erles, Barons, Lordes, and the reste of the nobilitie, together with
the people of the whole kyngdome, do assemble. Then take thei hym, to whom
the croune is due, either by succession, or by election. And when thei haue
set hym vp in a throne of Golde: thei all fall doune on their knees, and
together with one voice crie out a loude, aftre this maner. We require the,
yea, we will and commaunde the, to take the rule and gouernaunce of vs. He
answereth, if ye will haue me doe so, then must ye of necessitie be redy to
do whatsoeuer I commaunde ye. To come when I calle ye, to go whether so
euer I sende ye, to slea whom so euer I commaunde ye, without staieng or
stackering. And to put the whole kingdome and rule in my handes, when thei
haue aunswered, we are content: Saieth he againe, from hencefurthe then the
speache of my mouth, shalbe my swearde. To this the people yealde with
greate shoutes, and reioisynges. In the meane while the princes and the
nobles, taking the king out of his throne, spread abrode on the grounde a
piece of felte: vpon the whiche, thei cause hym in simple sorte to sitte
doune, and thus saie to hym. Looke vp, and remembre GOD aboue the. And now
looke doune also, and behold this felt vndre the. If thou gouerne welle,
thou shalte haue all euen as thou wouldest wisshe it. But if contrary wise,
thou shalt so be broughte doune againe, and so nighe be bereued of all:
that thou shalte not haue so muche, as this poore felte left the, whervpon
thou sittest. This ones saied, thei sette in to hym, of all his wiues the
dierest derlyng. And liftyng vp the felte alofte, haile hym by the name of
Emperour, and her by the name of Empresse. Then, come there presentes
streight from al countries, and peoples of his dominion: and all the
Threasoures that the kyng, his predecessour lefte, are brought him. Of the
whiche he giueth giftes to al the princes and high estates: commaundyng the
reste to be kepte for himself, and so dissolueth the Parlament as it ware.

In his hande and power is then altogether, no manne can: or though he can,
he dare not saie this is myne, or this is his. No man maie dwelle in any
part of the lande, but in that wherevnto he is appoincted. The Emperour
hymself appoincteth the Dukes: the Dukes, the Millenaries: the Millenaries,
the Centurianes: and they the Disniers: and the Disniers the residewe. The
seale that he vseth hath this superscription. GOD in heauen, and Chutchuth
Cham in earth, the force of God, and Emperour of all menne. He hath fiue
armies of greate multitude and force: and fiue chiefteines, by whom he
subdueth all that stande against hym. He hymself neuer speaketh to any
foreine ambassadours, nor admitteth them to his presence, as is aboue
saied: excepte bothe thei and their giftes (without the whiche specially
thei maie not come) bee purified by the ordenarie women. The Kyng
aunswereth by another mannes mouthe. And the persone by whome he
aunswereth, be he neuer so honourable, for the tyme that he becommeth the
kynges mouthe, kneleth on his knees and giueth so diligent care, that he
swarueth not from the Kyng in one woorde. For it is not lawefull for any
manne, to chaunge the kynges woordes: ne for any man in any wise, to replie
against suche sentence as he giueth. He neuer drincketh in open presence,
but some body first sing to hym, or plaie vpon some instrumente of

The gentlemen and menne of honour when thei ride, haue a phannell borne
afore them, on a Iauelines ende, to kiepe awaie the Sonne. And as it is
saied, the women likewise. These ware the maners and facions of the
Tartarres, for a two hundred yeres paste.

The Georgians, whom the Tartarres aboute the same tyme did subdue: ware
Christians, aftre the fourme of the Greke Churche. Thei ware neighbours to
the Persians. Their dominions stretched out a great length, from Palestine
in Iewrie to the mounteignes called Caspij. Thei had eightene Bishopries:
and one Catholicque: that is to saie, one generall bishoppe, whiche was to
them, as our Metropolitane to vs. At the firste thei ware subiecte to the
Patriarche of Antioche. Menne of greate courage and hardinesse. Thei all
shaued their crounes: the Laietie square, the Clercques rounde. Their women
(certeine of theim) had the ordre of Knighthode, and ware trained to the
warres. The Georgianes when thei ware sette, ordered, and raunged in the
fielde, and ware at poinct to ioyne the batteill: vsed to drincke of a
gourdfull of strong wine, aboute the bigguenes of a mannes fiste. And to
sette vpon their ennemies: muche amended in courage.

Their Clercques, whiche we calle the Spiritualtie, mighte vse bothe Simonie
and vsurie at their wille. There was continuall hatred betwixte Tharmenians
and them. For the Armenians ware also Christians, before the Tartarres had
subdued the Georgianes and them. But thei differed in many thinges, from
the belief and facions of the true Churche. Thei knewe no Christemas daie,
no vigilles, nor the fowre quartre festes, whiche we call Embryng dales.
Thei fasted not on Easter euen, because (saie thei), that Christ rose that
daie aboute euen tide. Vpon euerie Saturdaie, betwixte Easter and
Whitsontide, thei did eate flesshe. Thei ware greate fasters, and beganne
their Lente thre wekes afore vs: and so streightly fasted it, that vpon the
Wednesdaie and Fridaie, thei neither eate any kinde of fisshe, ne aughte
wherin was wine, or oile. Belieuing that he that drancke wine on those twoo
daies: synned more then if he had bene at the stewes with a whore. On the
Monedaie thei absteined from all maner of meate. On Tewsdaie and Thursdaie,
thei did eate but one meale. Wedensdaie and Fridaie, nothyng at al.
Saturdaie and Sondaie, thei eate flesshe and made lustie chiere. Throughe
their whole Lente, no manne said Masse but on Saturdaies and Sondaies. Nor
yet on the Fridaies throughout the whole yere: for thei thought then, that
thei brake their fast. Thei admitted to the houseale, aswell children of
two monethes olde, as all other indifferently. When thei went to Masse,
thei vsed to put no watre in the wine. Thei absteined from Hares flesshe,
Beaws flesshe, Crowes, and suche other as the Grekes did, and Iewes do.
Their Chalices ware of Glasse, and of Tree. Some said Masse without either
albe or vestement, or any maner suche ornament. Some onely with
thornamentes of Deacon or Subdeacon. Thei ware all busie vsurers, and
Simonites: bothe spirituall and Temporall, as the Georgianes ware. Their
priestes studied Sothesaieng and Nigromancie. Their Spiritualtie vsed
Iunckettyng oftener then the Laietie.

Thei maried, but aftre the death of the wife, it was not lawefull for the
housebande to marie againe, nor for the wife, aftre the death of the
housebande. If the wife ware a whore, the Bisshoppe gaue hym leaue to put
her awaie, and marie another. As for the fire of Purgatorie thei knewe
nothing of it. Thei denied also verie stifly, that there ware two natures
in Christe. The Georgianes saied that thei swarued from the truthe of
Christes Religion, in thirtie poinctes or articles.

The xi. Chapitre.

Of Turcquie, and of the maners, Lawes, and Ordenaunces of the Turcques.

The lande, whiche now is called Turcquie: hath on Theaste Armenia the more,
and ronneth endelong to the Sea of the Cilicians: hauyng on the Northe, the
Sea named Euxinus. There are in it many countries conteined. As Lichaonia,
whose heade citie is Iconium. Cappadocia with her heade citie, named
Cesarea. Isauria, whiche hath for the chief citie Seleucia. Licia, whiche
now is called Briquia. Ionia: now called Quisquoun, in the whiche standeth
Ephesus. Paphlagonia, and in it Germanopolis. And Leuech: that hath for the
heade Citie Trapezus. All this countrie that now is called Turcquie, is not
enhabited by one seuerall nacion, but there be in it Turcques, Grekes,
Armenians, Saracenes, Iacobites, Nestorians, Iewes and Christians. Whiche
liue for the moste parte, acording to the Tradicions and Ordenaunces, that
Mahomet the counterfeict Prophete, gaue vnto the Saracenes (a people of
Arabie) the yere of our Lorde and Sauiour Iesus Christe. vi. hundred and.
xxix. A manne whome I can not telle whether I maye calle an Arabiane or a
Persian. For ther be aucthorities of writers on either behaulfe. His father
was an idolastre aftre the maner of the heathen. His mother an Ismalite
leaning to the lawe of the Iewes. And whilest in his childehode, his mother
taught him aftre one sorte, and his father aftre another: thei printed in
hym suche a doubtfull belief, that when he came to age he cleaued to
neither. But as a manne of subtyle and guilefull witte, aftre what time he
had bene longe conuersaunte amongest menne of the Christian religion: he
draue a drifte, deuised out of both lawes (the olde and the newe) how he
mighte notably enfecte the worlde.

He said the Iewes did wickedly to denie Christe to be borne of the virgine
Mary, seinge the prophetes (men of great holinesse, and enspired with the
holy ghost) had foreshewed the same, and warned men of many yeres passed to
looke for him. Contrariwyse he said to the Christians thei ware very fonde
to beleue that Iesus, so dierly beloued of God, and borne of a virgine,
would suffre those vilanies and tormentes of the Iewes.

Martinus Segonius Nouomontanus, in his booke of the Sepulchre of Christe
our king, writeth that the Turkes, and Saracenes by an auncient opinion
receiued from Machomet: do laughe Christian menne to skorne, that seke
thether with so greate reuerence. Sayeng that Christ the prophet of all
prophetes endewed with the spirite of God, and voyde of all earthly
corruption: had there no sepulchre in very diede, for that he being a
spirituall body conceiued by the breathe of the holy ghost coulde not
suffre, but should come againe to be iudge of the Gentiles: This saieth
Segonius, and many other thinges sounding to like effecte: whiche the
Mahometeines are wonte to throwe out against the Christians, bothe
foolisshely and wickedly. When this counterfeicte prophet had saused his
secte with these wicked opinions: he gaue them his lawe, and sorte of
religion. Against the whiche lesse any man of righte iudgemente should
aftrewarde write or dispute (as against a pestilent and filthie perswasion)
he wrote a lawe in his Alcorane that it shoulde be deathe to as many as
should reason or dispute vppon it. Wherby he euidentlie declared, that ther
was nothing godly or goodly therin. For why shoulde he elles haue so raked
it vp in the ashes, and forbidden it to be examined: so that the people
coulde neuer come to knowledge what maner of thinge it is that thei beleue
in. In the giuing of his lawe, he vsed muche the counselle and helpe of the
moncke Sergius: of the wicked secte of the Nestorianes. And to the ende it
might please the more vniuersally: he patched it vp together with peces of
all maner of sectes. He thoughte it good to sette out Christe with the
beste, affirminge that he was a manne excelling in all holinesse and
vertue. Yea he extolled him to a more heigth then was appliable to the
nature of man, calling him the woorde, the spirite, the soule of GOD, borne
out of a virgines wombe, whome he also with many wondrefull praises
magnified. He confirmed with his consente, the miracles, and story of the
gospel, as farre as it varieth not from his Alcorane.

The Godspelles said he ware corrupte by the disciples of the Apostles. And
ther fore it behoued his Alcorane to be made, for to correcte and amende
them. Thus fauning into fauour with the Christians, he would haue bene
christened of Sergius. Then to procure, and moue other also to fauour his
procedinges: he denied with the Sabellians the Trinitie. With the Manicheis
he made two goddes. With Eunomius, he denied that the father and the sonne
ware equal. With Macedonius he said that the holy ghoste was a creature, or
substaunce created. With the Nicholaites He allowed the hauinge of many
wiues at ones. He allowed also the olde testament. Althoughe sayd he, it
were in certain places faultie. And these fondenesses did he beswiete with
a wondrefull lure of the thinges that menne in this lyfe mooste desire.
Lettinge louse to as many as helde of him, the bridle of al lechery and
luste. And for that cause doth this contagious euil sprede it self so wide
into innumerable contries. So that if a man at this day compare the nombre
of them that are by him seduced, with the other that remaine in the
doctrine of faithe: he shal easeli perceiue the great oddes, ware it but
herin. That wher Europe alone, (and not al that by a great deale) standeth
in the belief of Christe: almoste all Asie, and Aphrique, yea and a greate
pece of Europe standeth in the Turkisshe belief of Mahomete.

The Saracenes that firste receiued the brainesicke wickednesse of this
countrefeicte prophete, dwelte in that parte of Arabia, that is called
Petrea: wher it entrecommuneth with Iewry on the one side, and with Egipt
on the other. So named of Serracum, a place nere vnto the Nabatheis, or
rather as thei woulde haue it them selues, of Sara, Abrahams wife.

Wherupon thei yet sticke faste in this opinion, that thei onely of al men
are the lawfull heires of Goddes beheste. Thei gaue themselues to tilthe,
to cattle, and to the warres. But the greater parte to the warres. And
therefore at what time they ware hired of Heraclius in the warres againste
the Persians: when he had gotten the victory, and thei perceiued them
selues to be defrauded by him: kindled with the angre of the villanye thei
had done vnto them, by the counsell and persuasion of Mahomet (who tooke
vppon him to be their captaine) thei forsoke Heraclius. And going into
Siria, enuaded Damasco. Wher when thei had encreased them selues bothe in
nombre, and purueiaunce necessary for them, thei entred into Egipte. And
subdued firste that: then Persis, then Antioche, and then Ierusalem. Thus
their power and fame daily so encreaced, and grewe: that men muche feared,
that any thing afterwarde shoulde be able to resiste them. In the meane
season, the Turkes: a ferce and a cruell people, of the nacion of the
Scithiens, driuen out by their neighbours fro the mountaines called Caspij,
came downe by the passage of the mounte Caucasus, firste into Asia the
lesse, then into Armenia, Media, and Persis. And by stronge hande wanne all
as they came. Against these the Saracenes went forth as to defende the
bordres of their gouernaunce. But forasmuche as this newecome power was to
harde for them, the Saracenes within a while felle into such despaire of
their state: that vppon condicion that the other would receiue Mahometes
belief: thei ware content thei shold reigne felowlike together with them,
in Persis. Wherto when thei had agreed, it was harde to saye whether of the
peoples had receiued the greater dammage. The Saracenes, in yelding to them
the haulf right of their kingdome: or the other, whiche for coueteousnes
thereof yelded them selues to so rancke, and wicked a poyson of all vertue
and godlynes.

One bonde of belief then so coupled and ioyned them: that for a space it
made to them no matier whether ye called them all by one name, Saracenes,
or Turkes. But nowe as ye se, the name of the Turkes hath gotten the bettre
hande, and the other is out of remembraunce. This people vseth moe kindes
of horsemen then one. Thei haue Thimarceni, that is to saye Pencioners,
aboute a foure skore thousande. These haue giuen vnto them by the kinge,
houses, villages, and Castles euery one as he deserueth, in the steade of
his wages or pencion. And thei attende vppon the Sensacho, or capitaine of
that quarter, wher their possessions lye. At this daye the Turkes are
deuided into two armies: the one for Asie, and the other for Europe. And
either hath a chiefteine, at whose leading thei are. These chiefteines in
their tongue be called Bassay. Ther are also another sorte muche lyke to
our aduenturers, that serue withoute wages, called Aconizie. And these euer
are spoiling afore when the campe is yet behynde. The fiueth parte of their
butine is due vnto the king. And these are aboute a fourty thousande. Their
thirde sorte of horsemen is deuided into Charippos Spahiglauos, and
Soluphtaros. The beste, and worthiest of these, are the Charippie: of an
honourable ordre of knighthode, as it ware for the kinges body. And those
be euer about him, to the nombre of eyghte hundred, all Scythians and
Persians, and elles of none other kinde of menne. These, when niede is,
being in the sighte of the kinge: fight notably, and do wondrefull feates
on horsebacke. Spahy, and Soluphtary be those whiche haue bene at the
kinges bringing vp from their childehode, to serue his filthy abhominacion.
And when thei are come to mannes state, thei marye at the kynges pleasure:
And be enriched both with dowery of their wife, and a stipende. These for
the moste parte serue for embassadours, deputies, lieutenauntes and suche
other dignities, and are nexte vnto the kinge on bothe sides of him, when
he goeth any whether as a garde. Thei are in nombre a thousande and thre

Among the footemen are three sortes, Ianizarie, these be chosen all the
Empire ouer, of xii. yeres of age, or there aboute, by certein that haue
Commission for the purpose: And are for a space enstructed in the feactes
of warre, in commune schooles. And then aftrewarde are thei chosen into
souldie, and haue giuen them a shorter garmente, and a white cappe, with a
tarfe tourned vpwarde. Their weapon is a Targette, a Curtilase, and a Bowe.
Their office is to fortifie the campe, and to assaulte cities. Thei are in
nombre aboue twentie thousande.

The seconde sorte are called Asappi, and are all footemen of light
harnesse, weaponed with swearde, target, and a kinde of long Iauelines,
wherewith thei slea the horses of their enemies, in the skirmishe and
battaile. These, to be knowen fro the Ianizaries, weare redde cappes. These
are appoincted in nombre, accordyng as the case shall require. But thei are
euer at the leaste fouretie thousande. When the warres are finished, for
the whiche thei ware hired: these are no longer in wages. Tharmie roialle
hath about two hundred thousande armed menne, beside a greate rable of
footemen aduenturers, that take no wages, and suche other as be called out
of Garrisons. And amonge these, Pioners and Cookes, Carpenters, Armourers,
and suche other as thei must niedes haue to make the waye, wher the place
is combresome: to dresse victualles, to amende harnesse, to make bredges
ouer floudes, to trenche aboute their ennemies, to plante battries, make
Ladders, and suche other thinges necessarie for the siege. Ther foloweth
the armie also, sondrye sortes of money Masters: some for lone, some for
exchaunge, some to buy thinges. And sondrie sortes of occupiers, such as be
thought nedeful in such cases.

But there is nothing in all that nacion more to be marueiled at, then their
spiedinesse in doeyng of thinges: their constantnes in perilles, and their
obedience and precise obseruinge of all commaundementes. For the least
fault, of goeth the heade. Thei passe ouer raginge floudes, mounteignes and
rockes: roughes and plaines, thicke and thinne, if thei be commaunded. Not
hauing respecte to their lyfe, but to their rulers. No men maie awaie with
more watche, no men with more hongre. Among them is no mutinyng, no
vproures, no sturres. In theyr fyght thei vse no cries, not shoutes, but a
certeine fiercenes of brayeng. Thei kepe suche precise scilence in the
night, through out their campe: that thei wil rather suffre such as they
haue taken prisoners, to run their waie, then to make any sturre. Of all
the peoples at this daie, thei onely doe warre, acording to the ordre of
armies. So that no manne niedeth to meruayle how it cometh that no people
this two hundred yeare and aboue, haue had like successe vnto them. Yea, it
may truely be sayd, that excepte it be by some plague or murreyn, or
discorde among them selues, they can not be subdued. The apparail that the
souldiours do vse, is most comely and honeste. In their sadles and bridles,
there is neither curiositie, ne yet superfluitie. No man emong them weareth
his Armour, but when niede is to fight. They carry their harnesse behynde
theim, at their backes. They vse neither banner, standerde, ne flaggue: but
certein Iauelins that haue streamynge out fro the toppe, diuers coloured
thriedes, by the whiche euery hande knoweth his capiteine. Thei vse a
dromme and a fiphe, to assemble their Bandes, and to sturre them to the
batteile. When the batteile is done, all the armie is presented to the
Regestour (whiche is some one of the nobles) bothe that it maye bee knowen
who is slain, and what nombre: and that newe may be entred in their places.
In all assemblies and mietinges, feaste, or other: thei praie for their
souldiours, and menne of warre. But specially aboue all other, for those
that haue suffred death for the commune quarelle of their countrie: calling
them happie, fortunate, and blessed, that thei yelded not vp their liues at
home, amidde the lamentacions and bewailynges, of their wiues and children,
but loste them, abrode, amonge the shoutes of their enemies, and the
ratling of the Harneis, and Launces. The victories of their forefathers and
eldres, thei put into Balade, and sing theim with greate honour and
praises: for that thei thinke the courages of the souldiours and menne of
warre be muche quickened, and kindled thereby.

Their dwelling houses are communely of timbre and claie, very fewe of
stone: for of them are the noble mennes houses their temples, and Batthes.
And yet are there amonge the communes, men able of them self alone, to set
furthe an whole armie, furnisshed at all poinctes. But because thei are
naturally giuen to sparing and to abhorre all sumptuousenesse, embrasing a
lowe and simple state: thei wel beare this voluntarie pouertie, and rude
homelinesse. For this cause also, doe thei not set by any kinde of Painters
Imagerie. As for the other imagerie of coruen grauen, or molten worke, thei
do so hate and abhorre: that they call vs Christians for delighting so
muche in them, verie Idolatours and Image worshippers. And do not onely so
calle vs, but wil earnestly argue, that we are so in dede. Thei vse no
Seales to their Lettres, of what sorte so euer thei be, the kynges or
other. But they credite the matier, assone as thei haue red the
superscription, or heard the name of the sender. Thei occupie no belles,
nor suffre not the Christianes that dwelle among them to do. Thei game not
for money, or any valewe elles. And if it fortune that any manne be founde
to do, in many sundrie wise thei reuile him, and baite him with shames and

No man among them, of what degree or dignitie so euer he be: requireth
forme chaire, stoole, or other kinde of seate to sitte vpon. But foldinge
bothe him selfe and his clothes, aftre a mooste comely sorte: rucketh downe
vpon the grounde, not muche vnlike to the sitting of our gentlewomen ofte
times here in Englande. The table wherupon thei eate, is for the mooste
parte of a Bullockes hide, or a Hartes skinne. Not dressed, but in the
heare, facioned rounde, beyng a fowre or fiue spanne ouer, and so set
rounde about on the bordre, or verge, with ringlettes of iron: that putting
a couple of stringes throughe the ringes, it maye be drawen together, and
shutte and opened like a purse. House, or Churche, or any other place wher
they entende to sitte, no man entreth with his shoes on. For it is compted
a very dishonest and vnmanerly facion, to sitte shoed. Wherfore they vse a
maner of slippe shooes, that may lightly be putte of and on. The place
where thei sitte, either at home, or at Churche, is in some place matted,
and in some place ouerspred with course woollen Carpette. And some places
also, either for the lowenes, moistenes, or vncleanelinesse therof are
plancked with boorde.

The garmentes aswell of the menne, as the women, are large and longe, and
open afore: that thei may the more honestlie and couertly hide all, when
nature craveth to be eased. And in doeyng those niedes, thei take greate
hiede, that their face be not into the Southe, as it is when thei praye. As
also that thei discouer no priuie parte, that any myghte fortune to see.
The menne make water sitting, aswell as the women. For if a man amonges
them, ware sene to make water standing: he should be iudged of all, a
foole, or an hertique.

From wine (as from a prouoker of al sinne and vnclennesse) thei absteine by
their lawe. And yet eate they the Grapes, and drincke muste. Thei also
forbeare to eate any thinge, that commeth of the Hogge: or any thinge elles
that dieth of sickenesse, or by aduenture vnslain. But any other thinges,
being mannes meate, thei refuse not to eate. Thei worshippe the Fridaie,
laieng all labour and businesse aparte, with as greate solempnitie and
deuocion, as we doe the Sondaie, or as the Iewes doe the Sabboth daie. In
euery citie there is one principall or head Churche. In the whiche vppon
the Fridaie at aftre Noone, thei all assemble together. And aftre solempne
praiers, heare a sermone. Thei acknowledge one God, to whome thei make no
like, nor equalle: and Mahomet to be his trustie and welbeloued, Prophete.
All the Saracenes are bound to praie fiue times on the daie, with their
faces toward the South. And before thei so do, to the ende thei maie be
cleane from all filthe of bodie: to wasshe them selues toppe and taile,
heade, eares, eyes, nose, mouthe, armes, handes, bealy, colions, legges and
fiete. Specially, if he haue bene late at the soile with a woman or stouped
on his taile to vnburden his bealie. Except he haue some lette of iournie,
or sickenesse. But if he lacke watre to doe this withall (as that sieldome
or neuer can happen, for that thei haue in all cities, bathes, ordenarie
for the purpose) thei supplie the defaulte with the moulde of fresshe
cleane earthe, wherewith thei rubbe ouer their whole bodies. Who is so
polluted in any maner wise: suffreth no man before this clensing, to speake
with hym, or to see him, if it be possible. Euery yere for the space of
fiue wiekes continually together, thei faste al daie as presicely as is
possible, bothe from meate, drincke and women. But aftre the sonne is ones
doune, till the next daie he riseth, thei neither spare eatyng ne
drinckyng, ne pressyng of pappes. In thende of their lente, and againe the
sixtieth daie aftre: Thei kiepe their passeouer or Easter, in remembraunce
of the Rambe shewed vnto Abraham, to be Sacrificed in the steade of his
sonne, and of a certaine nighte in the whiche thei doe beleue that the
Alcorane was giuen them from heauen.

Euery yere ones, the Saracenes also are bound of duetie to visite the house
of God, in the citie of Mecha: bothe to acknowledge their homage, and to
yelde vnto Mohomete his yerely honour at his Sepulchre there. The Saracenes
compelle no man to forsake his opinion or belief: ne yet labour so to
perswade any countrie to do. Although their Alcorane commaunde theim to
treade doune and destroie all menne of the contrary beliue yea them and
their prophetes. But through this sufferaunce, ther are to be founde
enhabiting in Turkie, peoples of all opinions, and beleue: euery man vsinge
suche kinde of worshippe to his God, as to his religion apperteineth. Their
priestes do not muche diffre from the commune people, nor yet their
churches from their dwelling houses. Yf thei knowe the Alcorane, and the
praiours and ceremonies or their lawe, it suffiseth. Thei are neither giuen
to contemplacion ne yet schole study. For why thei are not occupied with
any churche seruice or cure of soules. Sacramentes haue thei none, nor
reliques, nor halowinges of foutes, Aulters, and other necessaries. But
prouidinge for their wiues, their children, and householdes, thei occupie
their time in husbondrie, marchaundise, huntinge, or some other meane to
get the penie, and mainteyne their liuing, euen as the temporall men doe.
Ther is nothing forbidden them, nothing is for them vnlawfull. Thei be
neither burdoned with tillage, ne bondage. Thei be muche honoured of al
men, for that thei are skilfull in the ceremonies of the lawe, teache them
to other, and be the gouernours of the churches.

They haue many schooles and large, In the which great nombres are taught
the lawes there giuen by kinges, for the ciuile gouernance and defence of
the Realme. Of the whiche some are afterwarde sette fourth to be men of the
churche, and some to be temporalle officers. Their spiritualtie is deuided
into many and sondry sortes of religions. Of the whiche some liue in the
wooddes and wyldernes shonnyng all companye. Some kiepe open hospitalitie
in cities, and yet liue by almose them selues. These if they lacke meate to
refreshe the niedy straunger and pelligrine, yet at the least waie they
giue him herbour and lodgyng. Other, roumyng the cities vp and downe and
caryeng alway in bottles faire watre and fresshe, if any man be disposed to
drinke, vnasked they willingly proffre it him, and refuse not to take, if
he for their gentlenesse offre aught vnto them agayn. Otherwise they craue
nothyng, but in al their woordes, gesture, behauour, and diedes: shewe
theim selues aungelles raither then menne. And euery one of these hath one
knowledge or other, of difference from the reaste. The Saracenes or Turkes
are very precise executours of Iustice. Who so committeth bloudshed: hath
in like sorte his owne shedde againe. Taken in adultery, both parties are
streight without mercy stoned to deathe. Thei haue also a punisshement for
fornication, whiche is to the manne taken with the diede, foure score
ierkes or lasshes with a skourge. A thief for the first and the seconde
time, escapeth with so many stripes. But at the thirde time, hathe his
hande cut of, and at the fourthe his foote. He that endamageth any manne:
as the losse or hinderaunce shalbe valewed, so muste he of force
recompence. In claiming of goodes, or possessions, the claimer muste proue
by witnesse that the thing claimed is his: and the denier shalbe tried by
his othe. Witnesses they admitte none, but persones of knowen honestie, and
suche as mighte be belieued withoute an othe. Thei haue also certeine
spiefaultes ordinarilye appoincted (muche like to our Sompnours) that spie
in euery shiere for suche as be necligent, and let slippe suche oraisons
and seruice as thei be bounde to. Those if thei fortune to finde them: do
thei punishe aftre this maner. Thei hange a borde about their neckes, with
a great many of foxe tailes, and togginge them vp and downe the stretes:
all ouer the citie, thei neuer lette them go vntyll they haue compounded by
the purse. And in this also nothing vnlike to our Sompnours. It is lawfull
for no manne, beinge come to mannes state, to liue vnmaried. It is compted
amonge them as lawfull to haue iiii. wiues, as it is amonge vs to haue one.
Marie what soeuer is aboue this nombre (as thei may if thei liste, and be
able to kepe them, no degree excepted, but mother and sister, marie a
hundred) thei are not iudged so lawfulle. The children that thei haue bothe
by the one, and the other haue equalle porcion in the fathers enheritaunce.
Sauing that ii. women children are compted in porcion but for one man
childe. Thei haue not ii. of their wiues together in one house, ne yet in
one citie. For the busines, and disquietinges that might happen therby, but
euery wife in a seuerall towne. The housebandes haue libertye to put them
away thrise, and thrise to take them againe. But yet when he hath ones
putte her awaie, if any manne haue taken her, and she lust to abide with
hym, she maie.

Their women are moste honestlie appareiled. And vpon their heades doe vse a
certeine attire, not muche vnlike the veluet bonette of olde Englande:
wherof the one lappe so hangeth vppon whiche side semeth her good: that
when she is disposed to go out of the doores, or to come amongest menne
within the house, she maie hide therwith by and by her whole face, sauyng
her eyes.

The Saracenes woman, neuer dare shewe her self wher there is a company of
menne. To go to the marchate to occupy byeng or sellyng in any wise: is not
syttyng for their women. In the head church they haue a place farre a part
fro the men: so close that no manne canne looke into them. Into the which
notwithstandyng it is not laufull for euery mans wyfe to entre: but for the
nobilitie onely. Ne yet for them neyther, but on Friday, at the onely houre
of noone praier: whiche as I haue aforesayd, is kept amonge them high and

To see a man and a woman talke together ther, in the open strete or abrode:
is so straunge, and so vnwonte a thing, that in a whole yere it skante
happeneth ones. For a man to sitte with his wyfe in open sighte, or to ride
with any woman behinde him: amongest them ware a wondre. Maried couples
neuer dally together in the sighte of other, nor chide or falle out. But
the menne beare alwaies towarde the women a manly discrete sobrenes, and
the women, towarde them a demure womanlie reuerence. Greate menne, that
cannot alwaie haue their wiues in their owne eye, appoincte redgelinges, or
guelte menne to awaite vppon them. Whiche waite them in diede so narrowlye,
that it ware impossible for any man beside the housebande to speake with
the wyfe vnsene: or the wyfe by any stealthe to false her trouth and
honestie. Finally the Saracenes do so full and whole beleue their Mahomete
and his lawes: that thei doubte no whitte, but the kepers of them shall
haue euerlasting blessednesse. That is to saye, after their opinion, a
paradise of pleasure, a gardein plotte of delighte, full of swiete rindles
of Christalline watre. In whose botomes the grauelle, popleth like
glisteryng golde. The ayre alwaie so attempre and pure, that nothyng can be
more swiete, more pleasaunte, nor healthsome. The grounde couered and
garnisshed with natures Tapesserie, neither lacking any colour that
pleasaunte is to the eye, or sauour that maie delight the nose. Birdes
syngyng with suche armonie, as neuer mortalle eare heard. Briefly flowyng
in all pleasure that any harte can aftre thincke. Disshes for the mouthe,
of all deinties. All maner of Silkes, Veluettes, Purples, Skarlettes, and
other precious apparelle. Godly younge damoselles, with graie rowlyng eyes,
and skinne as white as Whales bone, softe as the Silke, and breathed like
the Rose, and all at their becke. Vesselles of siluer and golde. Angelles
for their Butlers that shall bryng theim Milke in Goblettes of golde, and
redde wine in siluer. But contrariewise, thei threaten vnto the breakers of
them, helle, and euerlastyng destruccion. This thei also beleue, that be a
manne wrapped in neuer so many synnes, yet if at his death, he beleue vpon
God, and Machomete, he shalbe saued.

The xii. Chapitre.

Of the Christians, of their firste commyng vp, their Ceremonies, and

Christe Iesu, the eternalle and verie sonne of thalmightie father, the
seconde persone in the holie inseparable, equalle, and euerlastyng
Trinitie: Of a sette purpose, and spiritualle secrete, not reuealed from
the beginning of tyme, and aboue mannes capacitie: was by the meane of the
holy ghost, conceiued and borne manne. In Iewrie, of a Virgine, of the
stocke of Dauid, a thousande fiue hundred, and twentie yeres gone
[Footnote: It appereth by this place that this was written xxxv. yeres
gone.]. To sette vs miserable, and vnhappie menne on foote againe, whiche
ware in Adam and Eue, by the sinne of disobedience ouerthrowen. And to
bryng vs againe, vnto our heauenlie natiue countrie, from the whiche we
haue by so many ages, for that presumpcion bene banished. Finally, to
repaire and supplie in heauen againe ones, the ruine and fal of those
spirites, whiche a space afore our creacion, ware thurste doune fro thence.
For the whiche purpose, we chiefly ware made. This Iesus, from thirtie
yeres of age, vntill thirtie and fowre (in the whiche, throughe the
maliciousnes of the Iewes, he suffred on the galowe tree) traueillyng all
Iewrie ouer: first moued and exhorted the Iewes, and then other peoples,
from the olde Lawe of Moses, and their wicked Image worshippe, to his newe
ordenaunce and trade. And as many as would folowe, and doe aftre hym, he
called theim his scholers or disciples. Out of the whiche, he gaue vnto
xij. that he had specially chosen, Commission aftre his death (when he had
appered to them on liue again, as he had forwarned them that he would) to
go as Legates, or Embassatours into the whole world, and to preache vnto
all creatures, what so euer thei had sene or learned of him. Simon Petre
(to whom longe afore he had surrendred the gouernaunce and chiefteinshippe
of his Church, as in reuercion aftre him) when aftre the comyng of the holy
ghoste some wente into one coste, and some into another, euery manne his
waie, as thei ware allotted and commaunded: came first vnto Antioche. And
there setting vp the first and chief chaire of the Churche, kepte a
counsaille with the other Apostles, whiche often tymes came to hym. In this
Counsaille among other thinges it was decreed, that asmany as should
receiue, and cleaue vnto the doctrine, and righte perswasion of Christes
godlines: should fro thence furthe be called Christianes. This Seate of
superioritie, beyng afterwarde translated to Rome: bothe he and his
Successours, tooke it for their chief charge and businesse, to put the rude
and rawe secte of their Christe, and the folowers of the same, in some good
ordre and trade of gouernaunce. Bothe aftre the manor of Moses Lawe (whiche
Christe came not to breake, but to consummate and finishe) and the state of
the Romain gouernaunce, the Greke, and Egipcian: and also by paterne of the
Ceremonies, obseruances, lawes, and ordenaunces Ecclesiasticalle and
Temporalle, of many other peoples: But specially aftre the doctrine, of
Christe Iesu, and the woorkyng of the holy ghoste, to bring them in to
frame and facion. When thei ware entred in the mattier: As thei sawe that
men not emong the Hebrues alone, but emong other peoples also, ware diuided
into Ecclesiasticalle and Temporalle Spiritualtie and Laietie: and eche of
them in mooste goodly wise, into their dignities and degrees (The Romain
Emperour then being gouernour of the whole worlde alone) to haue Consulles,
Fathers or Senatours: at whose becke all thinges ware deuised and doone:
And in the residewe of the earthe to bee many Kynges, many Dukes, Erles,
Presidentes, and Deputies of countries, and their Lieutenauntes:
Maresshalles of the fielde, and highe Conestables for the communes,
Pretours or Prouostes, Standerdbearers roialle, Centurianes, and Disners,
Seriauntes, Conestables, Collectours, Serueiours, Porters, Scribes,
Listers, and many other persones without office, bothe menne and women. And
in the Temples of their Goddes, a Sacrificer roialle, whiche is to saie in
effecte, a highe Prieste of the dignitie of a kyng. Archeflamines, Flamines
of honour, and other Flamines inferiour and laste in degree their Priestes.
And by like ordre emong the Hebrues: an highe Bisshoppe, and interiour
Priestes, Leuites, Nazareis, candle quenchers, commaunders of Spirites,
Churche Wardeines, and Syngers, whiche wee calle Chantours aftre the
Frenche. And among the Grekes: Capiteines, or heades ouer a thousands, ouer
an hundred, ouer fiuetie, ouer tenne, and ouer fiue. And that there ware
yet beside these, bothe emong the Hebrues, and the Romaines, many couentes,
or compaignies of menne and women religious. As Sadduceis, Esseis, and
Phariseis emong the Hebrues: Salios, Diales, and Vestalles, emong the
Romaines: The moste holy Apostles did all consente, that Petre, and thei
that should folowe him in the seate of Rome, should for euermore be called
Papa. As who would saie, father of fathers, the vniuersalle,
Apostollicalle, moste holy, and moste highe bisshoppe. And that he should
at Rome be Presidente ouer the vniuersalle Churche, as the Emperour there,
was ruler of the vniuersall worlde. And to matche the Consulles (which ware
euer twaine) thei appoincted fowre head Fathers, in the Greke named
Patriarches, one at Constantinople, another at Antioche, a thirde at
Alexandrie, and the fowrthe at Hierusalem. In the place of the Senatours,
thei took the Cardinalles. To matche their kynges, whiche had three Dukes
at commaundemente, thei deuised Primates: To whom ware subiecte thre
Archebishoppes. So that the Archebishoppe or Metropolitane, standeth in the
place of a Duke. For as the Duke had certein Erles or Barones at his
commaundemente: so haue the Archbisshoppes, other inferiour Bisshopes at
theirs, which also by reason muste countreuaile an Erle. The Bisshoppes
coadiutor or Suffragane, came into the Presidentes place. Thordenarie into
the Deputies, then did the Officialle matche with the Mareshalle. And with
the high conestable for the communes, the Bisshoppes Chauncelour. And for
the Pretour or Prouoste, thei sette vp an Archedeacon. In stede of the
Centuriane, was a Deane appoincted. And for the Disnere, the Persone or
Vicare. For the Aduocates, crepte in the Parisshe Prieste, Soule Prieste,
Chaunterie Prieste, Morowe Masse Prieste, and suche other. The Deacon
standeth for the Surueiour. The Subdeacon for the Serieaunte. For the two
Conestables, came in the two Commaunders of Spirites, called Exorcista in
the Greke. The Collectours office, was matched with the Churche wardeines.
The Porter became the Sexteine. The Chauntour, scribe, and Lister, kiepe
stille their name. The Acholite, whiche we calle Benet and Cholet,
occupieth the roume of Candlebearer.

All these by one commune name, thei called Clerj, of the Greke woorde
Cleros, that is to saie, a Lotte. For that thei ware firste from among the
people, so alloted vnto God. Thereof cometh our terme Clerque, and his
cosine Clergie. Neuerthelesse, this name Clergie, was not so commune vnto
all: but that it siemed moste proprely to reste in the seuen degrees, that
the Pope of Rome vsed for his Ministres, when he saied Masse in persone him
self. That is to saie, the Bishoppe, the Priest, the Deacon, and subdeacon,
the Acholite, and the Chauntour. Vnto euery of these gaue thei in the
churche their seueralle dignities officies, and appareile.

To the Bishoppe was giuen aucthoritie, to ordeine and make other Clerckes.
To enueile virgines, and to hallow them. [Sidenote: That is to saie, to
make Nunnes.] To consecrate their likes, and their superiours also. To laie
handes vpon them. To confirme and Bisshoppe children. To hallowe Churches.
To put Priestes from their Priesthode: and to degrade theim, when thei
deserue it. To kiepe Conuocacions and Sinodes. To make holy oile: to
hallowe the ornamentes and vess [Transcriber's note: gap in text about 3-4
words long. vess(els)...?] And to do also other thinges, that the inferiour
Priestes doe. To enstructe those that be newly come to the faithe. To
Christiane, to make the Sacramente of the Altare, and to giue it to other.
To absolue the repentaunte of their sinnes, and to fettre the stubberne
more streighte. To shewe furthe the Gospelle. To enioyne all Priestes to
shaue their heades in the croune, like a circle of iiij. fingres brode,
after the maner of the Nazareis. To kepe their heare shorte, to weare no
bearde. And to liue chaste for euer.

Their liuyng onely to rise of the firste fruictes, tenthes, and offringes:
and vttrely to be voide of all temporalle and Laiemennes cares and
businesse. To be honestlie appareiled, and accordyngly to vse their passe
and conuersacion. Onely to serue God and the churche. Diligently, to plye
the reading of holy scripture, that they themselues mighte perfectly knowe
all thinges perteining to Christian religion, wherin thei are bound to
enstructe other. The companies or couentes of religious, aswel men as
women: are Benedictines, Preachers, Franciscanes, Augustines, Barnardines,
Anthonines, Iohannites, Cisternois, and innumerable other. Whiche al haue
their habite, and maner of liuing by them selfe: acordinge to the rule that
echeone priuately prescribed to them selues. And liued for the moste parte
a solitary life, professing chastitie, pouretie, and perpetualle obedience.
And for their solitarines the Greke called them Monarchi. Some of these
haue for the heades Abbotes, some Priours: whiche are either subiecte to
the Pope onely, or to the bishoppes. Al these vsed coules, much aftre one
facion, but in colour diuers, and abstained fro fleshe. The bisshoppes when
thei say masse, haue xv. holy garmentes, aftre the maner of Moyses lawe,
for the perfection of them. His boatewes, his Amice, an Albe, a Girdle, a
Stole, a Maniple, a Tunicle of violette in graine fringed, his gloues,
ringe, and chesible or vestimente, a Sudari, a cope, a mitre and a crosse
staffe. [Marginal Note: The Latine calleth it a shiepe hooke.] And a chaire
at the Aultares ende, wherein he sitteth. Of the whiche, vi. are commune to
euery inferiour prieste: the Amice, the Albe, the girdle, the stole, the
Maniple, and the vestiment. But ouer, and aboue all these the Pope, by the
gifte of Constantine the greate, hath libertie to weare al the ornamentes
Imperialle. That is to saye a kirtle of skarlet, a robe of Purple, a
sceptre, and a close corone. With the whiche aftre he hath rauisshed him
selfe in the vestrie, vppon solempne feastes, when he entendeth to do
masse: he commeth forth to the aultare, hauing on the right side a prieste,
on the lefte side a Deacon, a Subdeacon going before him with a booke faste
shutte, two candle bearers, and an encensour with the censoure in his hande
smoking. When he is comen to the griessinges, the stayers, or foote of the
aultare: putting of his mitre, he maketh open confession [Marginal note:
That is, he saieth confiteor.] of his sinnes together with his company.

That done he goeth vp to the aultare, openeth the booke, lieng vpon the
lefte corner of the same, kysseth it, and so procedeth in the
Solempnisacion of the Masse. The subdeacon readeth the epistle, and the
Deacon the godspelle. Priestes of al degrees, are charged to prayse God
seuen times a daie, and to praye with ordenarie oraisons. Towarde the
eueninge, euensonge: and compline more late. Matines in the morninge, and
incontinente prime, and howres, in ordre of tyme, as thei stande in ordre
[Footnote: Hora prima, tertia, sexta, nona.] of name. And this humbly
before the aultare, if he maye conueniently, with his face towarde the
Easte. The pater nostre and the Crede, said thei, onely at the beginning of
their seruice, as the commune people do nowe a daies also. Saincte Ierome,
at the vrgent request of Pope Damasus, parted out the Psalmes acording to
the daies of the wieke. And appoincted for euery houre a porcion of propre
psalmes. For the nighte houres on the holy daye, ix. and on the working
daye, xii. For laudes in the morning, v. for euensonge as many, and for
eche other houre but thre. He also ordeined the Epistles, Godspelles, and
other seruice, vsed to be red out of the olde or newe testament, in maner
altogether, sauing the note. The Anthemes (which Ambrose, Bysshoppe of
Millayne wrate, and endited) Damasus put ordre that the quiere should sing
side aftre side, and added to euery psalmes ende. Gloria patri, &c. The
lessons and Himpnes that go before eche one of the howres did the
counceiles of Thoulouse and Agathone aucthorise. The orisons, the grailes,
the tractes, the Alleluya, thoffertorie, the Communions in the Masse, the
Anthemes, Versicles, repitions, and other thinges, either songe or redde by
nyghte or by daye, to the beautifieng, and praysing of God: did Gregory,
Gelasius, Ambrose, and many other holy fathers, deuise, and put furthe, not
at one time but at sondry. The Masse (so terme thei the sacrifice) was
firste vsed to be done in suche simple sorte, as yet is accustomed, vppon
good Friday, and Easter euen, with certeine lessons before it. But then
Pope Celestinus put to the office of the Masse. Thelesphorus, Gloria in
excelsis: But Hilarius of Pictauia made the Et in terra. Simachus ordeined
it to be songue. The Salutacions, which by the terme of Dominus vobiscum,
be made seuen tymes in a Masse, ware taken out of the booke of Ruthe, by
Clemente and Anaclete, and put in, in their places. Gelasius made vp all
the reste to the Offertory, in the same ordre thei be vsed. Excepte the
Sequences and the Crede: wherof Nicolas put in the firste, and Damasus the
nexte: acordinge to the Sinode of Constantinople. The bidding of the
beades, with the collacion that was wonte to be made in the pulpite on
Sondaies, and halydaies: raither grewe to a custome by the example of
Nehemias, and Esdras, then was by any aucthorised. In this collation at the
firste comming vp therof, when so many as ware presente at the Masse did
receiue the communion, acording as was ordeyned by a decree: thei that ware
at any discorde ware exhorted to concorde, and agremente. And that thei
should receiue the sacrament of the aulter cleane from the filthe of sinne,
vppon the whiche consideracion at this daye it endeth with confiteor, or an
open confession. There ware thei wonte to teache the instrumentes of the
olde lawe, and the newe. The ten commaundementes. The xii. articles of our
beleue. The seuen sacramentes, holy folkes liues, and Martirdomes, holy
dayes, doctrines, and disciplines: vertues, and vices, and what soeuer are
necessary beside forthe, for a Christiane to knowe. Gregory linked on the
offertorie. Leo the prefaces. Gelasius the greate Canon, and the lesse. The
Sanctus blessed Sixtus. And Gregory the Pater noster out of the Gospelle of
sainte Mathewe. Martialle the scholer of blessed Peter, deuised that
Bysshoppes should gyue their benediction at the Agnus. And as for other
inferiour priestes, Innocentius commaunded them to giue the paxe, that is
to saye peace. Sergius tacked on the Agnus, and Gregory the poste
communion. The closing vp of all with Ite missa est, Benedicamus, Deos
gratias: was Leoes inuencion.

The xii. articles of our beleue, whiche the blessed Apostles would euery
manne not onely to confesse with mouthe, but to beleue also in harte, are

Firste, that ther is one God in Trinitie, the father almighty maker of
heauen and earthe. The seconde, Iesus Christe, his onely sonne our Lorde.
The thirde, the same beinge conceiued of the holye ghoste, to haue bene
borne of the Virgine Marie. The fourthe, to haue suffred vndre Ponce
Pilate, to haue bene crucified, deade, bewried, and to haue descended in to
helle. The fiueth, to haue risen agayne the thirde daye fro the deade. The
sixteth, to haue ascended vp into the heauens, and to sitte on the right
hande of God the father almighty. The seuenth, that he shall come fro
thence like a triumpher, to iudge the quicke and the deade. The eight, that
ther is an holy ghoste. The nineth, that there is an holy churche
vniuersalle, the communion of the godly and good. The tenthe, forgiuenesse
of sinnes. Thee eleuenth, the rising againe of the flesshe. The twelueth,
aftre our departing, life in another worlde euerlasting.

The tenne commaundementes, which God wrate with his owne finger, and gaue
vnto the Israelites by Moses, whiche thapostles willed vs also to kiepe.
The firste, thou shalte haue none other Goddes but me. The seconde, thou
shalte not make any grauen Image, or likenesse of any thing that is in
heauen aboue, in the earthe benethe, or in the water vnder the earthe, thou
shalt not bowe doune to them, nor worshippe them. The third, thou shalt not
take the name of thy lorde God in vaine. The fowrthe, remembre that thou
kiepe holie thy Sabboth daie. The fiueth, honour thy father and mother. The
sixteth, thou shalte doe no murdre. The seuenth, thou shalte not commit
adulterie. The eight, thou shalte not steale. The nineth, thou shalt beare
no false witnesse against thy neighbour. The tenthe, thou shalte not desyre
thy neighbours home, his wife, his seruaunte, his maide, his Oxe, nor his
Asse, nor any thing that is thy neighbours.

The seuen Sacramentes of the churche, which are contained in the fiue laste
Articles of our beleue, and commaunded vs by the holie fathers to be

The firste, diepyng into the water, called Baptisyng, aftre the Greke.
This, by canonicalle decree, in time paste was not wonte to be giuen
(excepte greate necessitie soner required it) but to those that had bene
scholers a space afore, to learne the thinges appertinent to Christendome.
Yea, and that aftre thei had bene exceadingly welle enstructed in the
faithe: and proufe taken of their profityng, by seuen examinations, which
ware made vpon seuen seueralle daies in the Lente, and so ware thei
Baptissed vpon Easter euen, and Whitesondaie euen. Vpon whiche daies, thei
ware accustomed to hallowe the christening watre, in euery Paroche. But
because this specially of all other, is chiefly necessarie vnto euerlasting
saluation: leasse any bodie should die without it, thei decreed that assone
as the childe was borne, godfathers should be sought for it, as it ware for
witnesses or sureties whiche should bryng the childe vnto the Churche
doore, and there to stande without. And then the Priest should enquire,
before the childe be dieped in the Fonte, whether it haue renounced Sathan
and all his pompe and pride. If it beleue certeinely and wholie, all the
Articles of the Christiane faithe. And the Godfathers answering, yea: for
it, the Prieste breathyng thrise vpon his face, exorciseth it, and
catechiseth it. Aftre that, doeth he seuen thinges to the childe in ordre.
Firste, he putteth into the mouth hallowed salt. Secondely, he mingleth


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