The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries
Richard Hakluyt

Part 4 out of 5

earthe and his spattle toguether, and smereth the eyes, eares, and
nosethrilles of the childe. Thirdly, giuyng it suche name as it shall euer
aftre bee called by: he marketh it on the breaste and backe with holie
oile, aftre the facion of a crosse. Fourthly, he diepeth it thrise in the
Watre, or besprinkleth it with watre thrise, in maner of a crosse, in the
name of the holie Trinitie, the father, the sonne, and holie ghoste. In the
whiche, name also, all thother Sacramentes are ministred. Fiuethly, weting
his thumbe in the holie ointement, he maketh therewith a Crosse on the
childes foreheade. Sixthly, he putteth a white garment vppon it. Seuenthly,
he taketh it in the hande a Candle brennyng. The Iewes before thei be
Christened (by the determinacion of the counsaile holden at Agathone), are
cathechised, that is to saie, are scholers at the enstruction of our beleue
nine monethes. And are bound to fast fourtie daies: to dispossesse them
selues of all that euer thei haue, and to make free their bonde men. And
looke whiche of their children thei haue Circumcised, acording to Moses
lawe: hym are thei bounde to banishe their companie. No merueile therefore
if thei come so vnwillingly to christendome.

Bishopping, whiche the Latines calle Confirmacion, a confirming, a
ratifieng, establishyng, auethorisyng, or allowyng of that went before: is
the second Sacramente. And is giuen of the Bishoppe onely, before the
Aultare in the Churche, to suche as are of growen yeres, and fastyng (if it
maie be) aftre this maner. As many as shalbe Confirmed, come all together
with euery one a godfather. And the Bishoppe aftre he hath saied one
orasion ouer them all, wetyng his thumbe in the holie oile, maketh a crosse
vpon eche of their foreheades: In the name of the father, sonne, and holie
ghoste. And giueth hym a blowe on the lefte chieke, for a remembraunce of
the Sacrament, that he come not for it againe. The godfathers, to the ende
the enoilyng should not droppe awaie, or by negligence bee wiped awaie,
clappe on a faire filette on the foreheade, whiche ther iudge to be
unlawfully taken awaie, before the seuenth daie. The holie fathers estemed
this Sacrament so highly, that if the name giuen to the childe at his
Christendome, siemed not good: the Bishoppe at the giuyng hereof mighte
chaunge it.

The thirde Sacramente is holie Ordres whiche in the firste Churche, was
giuen likewise of the Bishoppe, onely in the monethe of Decembre. But now
at sixe seueralle tymes of the yere: that is to saie, the fowre Saturdaies
in the embre wekes (whiche ware purposely ordeined therefore) vpon the
Saturdaie, whiche the Churche menne calle Sitientes, because the office of
the Masse for that daie appoineted, beginneth with that woorde, and vpon
Easter euen. This Sacrament was giuen onely to menne: and but to those
neither, whose demeanour and life, disposition of bodie, and qualitie of
minde, ware sufficiently tried and knowen. Aftre the opinion of some, there
were seuen ordres, or degrees, wherby the holy fathers would vs to beleue
that there ware seuen speciall influences, as it ware printed in the soule
of the receiuer, wherby eche one for eche ordre, was to be compted an
hallowed manne. Aftre the mindes of other there ware nine. That is to saie,
Musicens (whiche encludeth singing and plaieng) Doore kiepers, Reders
Exorcistes, Acholites, Subdeacon, Deacon, Prieste and Bishop. And for all
this, it is compted but one Sacramente, by the reason that all these tende
to one ende, that is to saie, to consecrate the Lordes bodie. To euery one
of these did the Counsaile of Toledo in Spaine, appoinete their seueralle
liueries, and offices in the Churche. The Dorekepers had the office of our
Common Sexteine, to open the churche dores, to take hede to the churche,
and to shutte the dores. And had therfore a keie giuen vnto theim, when
thei ware admitted to this ordre. The Reader, in signe and token of
libertie to reade the Bible, and holie stories, had a greate booke giuen,
him. The Exorcistes, serued to commaunde euille sprites oute of menne, and
in token therof, had a lesse booke giuen them. The Acholite, had the
bearyng and the orderyng of the Tapers, Candelstickes, and Cruettes at the
Altare: and therfore had a Candelsticke, a Taper, and two emptie Cruorettes
deliuered hym. The Subdeacon, mighte take the offring, and handle the
Chalice, and the Patine, carie theim to the Altare, and fro the Altare, and
giue the Deacon Wine and water, out of the Cruettes. And therfore the
Bishoppe deliuereth hym an emptie Chalice with a Patine, and the Archdeacon
one Cruet full of wine, and another full of watre, and a Towelle. To the
Deacons, is the preachyng of Goddes Gospelle to the people committed, and
to helpe the priest in al holy ministracion. He hath the Gospelle booke
deliuered hym, and a towell hanged vppon his one shouldre, like a yoke. The
Prieste hath power to consecrate the Lordes bodie, to praie for sinners,
and to reconcile them againe to God by Penaunce enioined them. He hath
deliuered hym a Chalice with Wine, the Patine, with a singyng cake, a stole
vpon bothe shouldres, and a Chesible. What Ornamentes the Bisshoppe hath
giuen vnto hym, ye haue heard afore. He maie not be made Bisshoppe, but on
the Sondaie about the iii. houre aftre Prime, betwene thoffice of the Masse
and the Gospelle: at the whiche tyme twoo Bisshoppes, and a Metropolitane,
laie their handes vpon his heade and a booke. The Bisshoppes in the firste
Churche, did litle or nothyng diffre from other Priestes, and ware ruled by
the commune Counsailes of the Churche, before that dissencion and deuision
entred emong the people, causing theim in sondrie sortes, to cleaue vnto
sondrie names, euery sorte as thei fortuned to be conuerted and Christened
of a sondrie persone. As whom Paule Baptised, thei would be called
Paulines. Whom Appollo, Appollonians, Whome Cephas, Cephites, and so of
other. To auoide therefore these breaches of concorde, and for an
vniformitie, the holy fathers ware driuen to decree and stablish that
asmany as should aftreward be baptised, should be called Christianes of
Christe. And that ouer euery Countie or Shiere, there should be sette one
Prieste or moe, acordyng to the greatnesse of the same, suche as ware best
tried. Whiche should haue to name, Ouersears in Englishe: in Greke,
Episcopj. Whom we cal Bishopes, by chaungyng of P. into B. and leauing out
the E. for shortnes, acordyng to the nature of our tongue. These mighte not
then gouerne their Clergie, and other their Diocesans, at their owne
pleasure, as thei did before: but acording to the decrees of the Churche of
Rome, and the holie Counsailes of the fathers assembled. Then began thei
firste (by the suffraunce and helpe of deuoute princes) to deuide all
Christendome into Dioceses, and the Diocesse into Conuocacions or Chaptres,
and those againe into Paroches, and to set that goodly ordre, that yet
continueth, aswell emong the clergie as the laietie. That the parishe
should obeie their lawfull Persone, the Persone the Deane: the Deane the
Bishoppe: the Bishoppe, the Archebishoppe. The Archebishoppe, the Primate
or Patriarche: the Primate or Patriarche, the Legate: the Legate, the Pope:
the Pope the generalle Counsaille: the generalle Counsaile, God alone.

For the fourthe Sacramente it is holden, that euery prieste rightly
priested, acordyng to the keies of the Churche, hauing an entente to
consecrate, and obseruynge the fourme of the woordes: hathe power, of
wheaten breade to make the very bodie of Christe, and of wine to make his
very bloude.

Christe our Lorde hym selfe, the daye before he suffred, kepte it solemnly
with his disciples, and consecrated, and ordeined it continually to be
celebrated, and eaten in the remembraunce of him selfe. And about this
mattier a man had nede of a great faythe. Firste to beleue the breade to be
chaunged into the body, and the wine into the bloude of Christe. Againe
thoughe this be done euery daye that yet Christ for all that should growe
neuer a whitte the bigger for the making, nor the lesse for the eatinge.
Thirdely that the Sacrament being deuyded into many partes, Christ should
yet remaine whole in euery cromme. Fourthly that thoughe the wicked eate
it, yet should not it be defiled. Fiuethly, that it bringeth to as many
euyll as receiue it, death; and to the good euerlasting life. Sixthly that
it tourneth not into the nature of the eater to his nourisshemente as other
meate dothe: but turneth the eater contrariwise into the nature of it
selfe. And yet being eaten, that it is rapte into heauen, vnhurte or
vntouched. Seuenthly that in so smalle a syse of breade and wine, the
infinite, and incomprehensible Christe, God and manne shoulde be
comprehended. Then, that one, and the self same bodye of Christe, at one
very instaunte, shoulde be in many places, and of many menne receiued at
ones, and in sondrye parcelles. Ninethly that thoughe the bread it selfe be
chaunged into the very flesshe of Christe, and the wine into his bloude,
that yet to all the sences thei remaine breade and wine, and neither
flesshe ne bloud. Further that all these commodities conteined in these
verses folowing should happen vnto those that worthely eate it.

It putteth in mynde and kindleth, encreaseth hope, and strengtheneth.
Mainteineth; clenseth, restoreth, giues life, and vniteth. Stablissheth
beliefe, abates the foode of sinne, and all vnclennes quencheth.

Finally, to be very profitable for the saluacion aswell of those liuyng as
deade, for whom it is specially offred by the priest in the Masse. And
therefore to haue to name Eucharistia communio.

In the beginning of the Christianne faithe (and yet amonge certeine
schismatiques as thei saye) one whole lofe was consecrated, of suche
bigguenesse, as when the Priest had broken it in a platter into smalle
pieces, it, mighte suffise the whole multitude that ware at the masse to
participate of. For in time paste the Christianes came euery day to
communicate by a speciall commaundemente, and ordenaunce. Aftrewarde but
ones in a wieke and that on the Sonday. But whan it began to be skant well
kepte vppon the Sonday neither: then was it commaunded that euery manne
should receiue it thrise in the yere, or ones at the leaste, at euery
Easter. And that euery Christian manne, when he stode in any daungier of
death, beyng whole of minde, should receiue it as a waifaring viande, to
staye him by the waye: with as good preparation of bodye and soule, as he
possibly mighte.

Matrimonie (whiche is the lawefulle coupling of the manne and the woman)
broughte in by the lawe of nature, the lawe of God, the lawe of all
peoples, and the lawe ciuille, is the fiueth Sacrament. The holy fathers
woulde haue but one mariage at ones, and that not in secrete but with open
solemnitie eyther in the churche, or in the churche porche, and so that the
priest be called to the matier. Who shold firste examine the man, and then
the womanne, whether thei bothe consent to be maried together. Yf thei be
agreed (whiche is chiefely in this case requisite) he taking them bothe by
the right handes: coupleth them together in the name of the holy and
vnseperable trinitie, the father, the sonne, and the holy ghoste. And
commaundeth, and exhorteth them that thei alwaye remembring this their
coupling of their owne free wille and consent: as longe as they liue, neuer
forsake one another but loue and honour one another, be debonaire and
buxome one to another, giuing them selues to procreacion, and not to
lecherous luste. And that thei honestly and diligently bringe vp, suche
children as God sendeth them of theyr bodies. Aftre that he affiaunceth
them both with one ringe. And sprinckling holy water vpon them, reacheth
them a stole, and leadeth them into the churche, where (yf thei ware not
blessed afore) he blesseth them knieling before the altare. The woman hath
on a redde fillet or frontelette, and ouer that a white veile, withoute the
whiche it is not lawfulle for her fro that daye forwarde, to go oute of
doores abrode, or to sitte by any manne. Twelue thinges ther be, whiche the
holy fathers woulde haue to barre persons from contracting of matrimonie,
and to disseuer them againe, yf thei be contracted. Errour of person, that
is to saye, mistaking one for another. A betrowthing vpon a condicion,
Consanguinitie or kindred, An open crime, Diuersitie of secte, Force, or
constrainte, Holy ordres, a Bonde or former contracte, Commune or open
honestie, Affinitie, and Disshabilitie of engendrure.

The sixteth Sacramente is penaunce or repentaunce, giuen of Christe as it
ware for a wracke boorde, wherby men are preserued fro drowninge. Eche
Christian oughte vndoubtedly to beleue that this consisteth in foure
poinctes. To saie, in Repentaunce of our sinnes, Canonicaile confession,
Absolucion, and Satisfaction, or amendes. Firste let him sorowe, not with a
lighte forthinckinge, but with a moste earneste and bittre repentaunce in
the botome of his conscience: for the puritie and innocencie that he had
gotten eyther by baptisme or the benefite of former repentaunce, and nowe
hathe eftsones loste, and forgone throughe sinne. And let him hope with
this repentaunce, to be reconciled to the fauour of God againe. And let him
humbly, and truly with his owne mouthe, confesse to a wise prieste, in the
steade of God: all those offences wherwith he knoweth him selfe to haue
loste his innocencie and clennesse, and to haue prouoked the wrathe of GOD
againste him selfe. And let him assuredly beleue that the same prieste,
hath power giuen him of Christe (as beinge his vienre, or deputie on
earthe) to absolue him of all his sinnes. Finally, for satisfaction or
amendes making for the faulte: lette him not with grudginge, but
chierfully, and gladly doe, what so euer he shalbe commaunded. Beleuing
with vndoubted faith, that he is absolued, and quyte of all, assone as the
priest in dewe forme of wordes, hath pronounced the absolucion.

The seuenth, and the laste Sacrament is the laste enoynting, by an oyle
that is made to this vse, by the bishope in euery diocesse, by an yerely
custome vpon Maundy Thursdaie, like as the chrismatory oyle is. And this by
the precepte of sainte Iames the Apostle, and by the ordinaunce of Felix,
the fourthe Pope after Sainte Peter: was giuen only to them that laie in
dyeng, being of full age, and requyring it. Thei vse to enoynte with a
prescripte fourme of wordes; and with often inuocacion of sainetes: those
partes of the bodie, wher our fiue wittes or senses: the hearing, seyng,
smelling, tasting and touching, beare moste stroke, and with whiche man is
iudged chiefely to sinne. That is, the eares, the eyes, the nosthrilles,
the mouthe, the handes, and the fete. Whereby the holy fathers would vs to
beleue, that there was not onely purchased cleane forgiuenesse of all
smaller offences, or venialle sinnes: but also either presente recouerie,
or a riper and gentler deathe. All the feastes and holydaies, throughout
the yere, which the churche hath commaunded to be obserued and kept:
beginne at the Aduente, or approache of Christe our Lorde. Whiche Peter the
Apostle instituted to be obserued in Decembre, with fasting and praier,
thre wiekes and a haulfe before Christemas, when we close vp the last.
viii. daies of that moneth, with greate ioye and feaste. Thei deuided the
yere into two and fiuetie wekes, and xii. seueral monthes. The monethes
commonly into xxx. daies. The firste daye of Ianuary the churche recordeth
how Christe was circumcised acordinge to Moyses lawe. The iii. daye aftre,
howe he was worshipped of the thre Sages, with thre sondry presentes: and
howe beinge baptissed of Iohn in Iordaine the floude, he laide the
foundacion of the newe Lawe. The seconde of Februarie, how his mother
vnspotted, obeyeng the maner of her country: brought hym into the temple,
and suffred her self to be purified or clensed, whiche we calle churching
of childe. In memorie wherof the churche vseth that daye, solempne
procession, and halowing of candles, The fiue and twentieth of Marche, how
the aungel brought woorde to the virgin Marie, that Christ shoulde be borne
of her, being conceyued in her wombe; by the ouershadowing of the holy
ghoste. At the whiche time they willed vs to faste the fourtie daies that
he fasted him selfe, being with vs vppon earth, and to renewe the
remembraunce of his passion, and deathe, which he willingly susteined to
deliuer vs fro the yoke and bondage of the deuell. The laste day of that
faste, which oftentimes falleth in Aprille, to celebrate the highest featte
in althe yere: in remembraunce howe he ouer came deathe, descended into
helle, vanquisshed the deuell, and retourned againe on liue, and appeared
in glorious wyse vnto his scholers, or disciples. In Maye, how all those
his scholers loking vpon him, he by his owne vertue and mighte, stied vp
into the heauens. At the whiche time, by thordenaunce of saincte Mamerte,
bishoppe of Vienne: there be made ganginges with the lesse Letanies from
one Churche to another, all Christendome ouer. In Iune, and somtime in
Maie, how the holy ghoste, promised to the disciples, giuen from aboue,
appered to them like glowing tongues: and gaue them to vndrestande, and to
speake the tonges of al nacions. Theight daie folowing, Trinitie Sondaie.
The fiueth daie aftre that, how Christe in his laste supper, for a
continualle remembraunce of himself, instituted the moste holsome
Sacramente of his bodie and bloud, vndre the fourme of breade and wine
leauyng it to be sene and eaten of his. The fiuetenth of Iuly, how the
blessed Apostles, acordyng as thei ware commaunded, the twelueth yere aftre
the Ascension of their Master into heauen: wente their waies into the
vniuersalle worlde, to Preache vnto all people. The departyng of Christes
mother out of this life, the fiuetenth daie of Auguste. And her Natiuitie,
theight of Septembre. And thone and twentie of Nouembre, how she from, thre
yeres of age (at the whiche tyme she was presented to the temple) vntill
she was mariage able, remained there seruing God stil a peace. And theight
of Decembre, how she was of her parentes begotten, that longe afore had
bene barreine. The second daie of Iulie, how Elisabethe passyng the
Mounteines, visited her kindeswoman.

There ware also certeine holie daies appoincted to the xii. Apostles. To
certeine Martyres, Confessours, and Virgines As the fowre and twentieth of
Februarie to saincte Matthie. To saincte Marke the Euangeliste, the xxv. of
Aprille. Vpon the whiche daie, Gregorie ordeined the greate Letanies to be
songe. The firste of Maie is hallowed for Philippe and Iames the more. The
xxix. of Iune, for Petre and Paule: and the xxiiii. of the same, for the
Natiuitie of S. Ihon Baptiste. The xxv. of Iuly, for Iames the lesse. For
Bartholomewe the fowre and twentie of August. For Mathewe, the one and
twentie of Septembre. And the eight and twentie of Octobre, for Simon and
Iude. The last of Nouembre, for S. Andrewe. The one and twentie of
Decembre, for saincte Thomas. And the vii. and twentie of thesame moneth
for Ihon the Euangeliste. The daie before, for Stephin the firste Martire.
And the daie aftre for the Innocentes. The tenth of August for sainct
Laurence. And the thre and twentie of Aprille, for saincte George. Of all
the Confessours, there are no moe that haue holidaies appoincted, but S.
Martine and saincte Nicholas. The firste, on the eleuenth of Nouembre: and
the other the sixteth of Decembre. Katherine the virgine, the fiue and
twentie of Nouembre, and Marie Magdalene the twentie and two of Iuly. There
is also vndre the name of saincte Michael alone, the xxix. of Septembre: a
holy daie for all blessed Angelles. And one other in commune for all the
sainctes, and chosen of GOD, the firste of Nouembre.

Thei would also that euery seuenthe daie, should be hallowed of the
Christianes, by the name of Sondaie, as the Iewes doe their Sabboth:
restyng from all worldly woorke, and beyng onely occupied with praising of
GOD, and the deuine Seruice in the Churched. To learne by the Priestes
preachyng, the Gospelle and the commaundementes of our faith. And by what
meanes so euer we thinke in our conscience we haue prouoked the wrathe of
God against us all the wieke afore: that, this daie to amende, to sette
cliere, and aske pardone for. In time past euery Thursdaie also was kepte
as the Sondaie. But because we might sieme therein, somewhat to gratifie
the Heathen (whiche that daie kepte solempne holie daie, to Iupiter their
Idolle) it was laied doune againe. More ouer the clerkes and the people,
vsed bothe Thursdaie and Sondaie before Masse, to go rounde aboute the
Churche a Procession, and the Prieste, to sprinckle the people with holy
watre. Agapitus instituted the one and the other. The Thursdaie, in
remembraunce of Christes Ascencion, and the Sondaie, of his glorious
Resurrection: which we celebrate fro Sondaie to Sondaie continually, ones
euery eight daies. The night afore euery ordenary holidaie or feastefull
daie: the whole clergie, and the people, ware bounde to kiepe Vigile in
euery churche. That is to saie, to wake all nighte, in deuine seruice and
praier. But vpon consideracion of many slaunderous crimes and offences,
that ware by diuers naughtie and malicious persones committed, by the
oportunitie of the darke: this maner was taken awaie, and ordeined that the
daie before the feaste, should be fasted, whiche yet kiepeth stille the
name of Vigile. The fathers decreed that the churche in the whole yere
should renue the memorie of fiue thynges.

Fro the Sondaie called Septuagesima (because there are seuentie daies,
betwiene that and the octaues of Easter) thei would vs to renue the memorie
of Christes Fasting, Passion, Death and Bewrialle. The miserable falle also
of our first parentes, and those extreme errours of mankinde, by the whiche
thei ware ledde awaie fro the knowledge and worshippe of one verie GOD: to
the wicked supersticion and honour of Idolles and deuelles. And further,
the greuous and intollerable bondage that the people of Israeli suffred
vndre the Pharao of Egipte. Vpon whiche consideracion, the bookes of
Genesis and Exodus be redde in the seruice of the churche. Whiche sheweth
then in all her demeanour, and appareilyng, heauinesse and sorowe.

From the octaues of Easter, to the octaues of Whitsontide, Christes
Resurrection, and Ascencion, with the commyng of the holy Ghoste. And
together with that, the redempcion, reconclliacion, and atonement of
mankinde with God the father, throughe Iesus Christe: and the restoryng
againe of the children of Israeli, to the lande of beheste. Wherein was
prefigured our reconciliacion and redempcion aforesaid. For that cause is
all the seruice out of the newe Testament, and al thinges done with ioie
and gladnes.

From the octaues of Whitsontide, till Aduente, xx. wiekes space, and more,
thei would haue to bee celebrated the conuersation of Christ here in the
worlde, with his miracles and woorkes of wondre. And ouer and beside that,
the longe pilgrimage, that mankinde, by longe reuolucion maketh, from one
generacion to another, from the tyme of our redempcion, saluacion, and
sauing, vntill the laste daie of time. Wherefore duryng this while, vpon
consideracion of the diverse happe and hasarde, wherwith the Churche is
tossed, like a Shippe in the troubled Seas, she neither greatly reioiceth,
ne sorroweth, but redeth grcate chaunge of bookes, oute of the olde and
newe Testamente: to the ende she maie walke the warelier, and the bettre
wijnde her self out of the stormes, that are ready to assaile her.

From Aduente to Christemas, to remembre the tyme from Moses, to the commyng
of Messias. In the whiche mankinde certefied of saluacion, bothe by the
lawe and the Prophetes, awaited with moste earneste desires for his
comming, and the kingdome that he shold haue. Wherefore thei ordeined that
the Prophecies should be redde, and fasting exercised. That the churche the
bettre enstructed, and abled by these, mighte the worthelier receiue the
Birthe daie of Christ her Lorde (whiche euer falleth the fowerth wieke
aftre) and from thens holde on with feaste, and continuall gladnesse vntill
Septuagessima. Reioisyng that he was now come: whiche should bee the
sauluiour of the worlde. Their oratories Temples, or places of praier
(whiche we calls Churches) might not be built without the good will of the
Bisshoppe of the Diocese. And when the Timbre was redy to be framed, and
the foundacion digged: it behoued; them to send for the Bishoppe, to
hallowe the firste corner stone of the foundacion, and to make the signe of
the crosse thervpon, and to laie it, and directe, it iuste Easte and Weste.
And then might the Masons sette vpon the reste, but not afore. This Churche
did thei vse to builde, aftre the facion of a crosse, and not vnlike the
shape of a manne. The Chauncelle (in the whiche is conteined the highe
Altare and the Quiere) directe full into the East, representeth the heade.
And therefore ought to be made somwhat rounde, and muche shorter then the
body of the churche. And yet vpon respecte that the heade is the place for
the eyes, it ought to be of more lighte, and to bee separate with a
particion, in the steade of a necke, from the body of the Churche. This
particion the Latine calleth Cancelli; and out of that cometh our terme,
Chauncelle. On eche side of this chauncelle peraduenture (for so fitteth it
beste) should stand a Turret, as it ware for two eares. And in these the
Belles to be hanged, to calle the people to Seruice, by daie and by night.
Vndre one of these Turretes, is there commonly a voulte, whose doore
openeth into the quiere. And in this are laid vp, the hallowed vesselles
and ornamentes, and other vtensiles of the church. We calle it a vestrie.
The other parte oughte so to be fitted, that hauing as it ware on eche side
an arme, the reste maye resemble the bodye with the fete stretched in
breadthe, and in lengthe. On eche side of the bodye the pillers to stonde.
Vpon whose coronettes or heades the vaulte or rophe of the churche maye
reste. And to the foote beneth, aulters to be ioyned.

Those aulters to be ordrely alway couered with two aulter clothes, and
garnisshed with the crosse of Christe, or some little cofre of reliques. At
eche ende a canlesticke: and a booke towarde the myddes. The walles to be
parieted without, and within, and diuersly paincted. That thei also should
haue in euery parisshe a faire sounde stone, made holowe and fitte to holde
water: in the whiche the water consecrate for baptisme, may be kept for the
christening of children. Vpon the right hande of the highe aulter, that
ther should be an almorie, either cutte into the walle, or framed vpon it:
in the whiche thei woulde haue the Sacrament of the Lordes bodye, the holy
oyle for the sicke, and the Chrismatorie, alwaie to be locked. Furthermore
thei woulde that ther should be a pulpite in the middes of the churche,
wherein the prieste maye stonde vpon Sondaies and holidayes, to teache the
people those thinges that it behoueth them to knowe. The chauncelle to
serue onely for the priestes, and clerkes. The rest of the temporalle
multitude to be in the body of the church. Separate notwithstonding, the
men on the ryghte side, and the women, on the lefte. And eche of them to be
sobre and honest in apparelle and behauour. Whatsoeuer is contrary to good
facion or Christiane religion, with greate dilligence to shonne it. It was
the maner in the first churche, both among men and women, to lette their
heare growe, to shewe out their naked skinne, and very litle or nothing to
diffre in apparelle. Sainct Peter put first ordre, that women should couer
their heades, and menne rounde their heare, and either of them to go in
seueralle and sondrye apparelle. Moreouer that to euery churche, shold be
laid out a churchyarde, of the grounde adioyning, in the whiche all
Christen mennes bodies mighte indifferently bebewried. The same to be
consecrate, or halowed by the bishoppe, and to enioye all the priuilegies
that the churche may enioye.

The funeralle for the deade, thei kepe not in euery place ylike. Some
mourne and kiepe dirige and Masse seuen daies continualle together, some
ix. some xxx. or fourtye some, fiuetie, and a hundred, and other a whole
yere, wrapped vp in blacke. The counseile of Toledo ordeined that the corps
beinge firste wasshed, and then wrapped vp in a shiete, shoulde be caried
forthe with singing by menne of his owne condicion or sorte, clerkes by
clerkes, and laye menne of laye menne. And aftre what time the priest hath
sensed the corps, throwen holy water vppon it, and said certeine prayers,
to laye it into the graue with the face vpwarde, and the heade into the
Weaste. Then to throwe in the earth again, and in token that ther is a
Christian ther bewried, to sette vp a crosse of wodde, garnisshed with
yvie, cipres, or laurelle. These be the ordres and facions of the
Christiane religion.


Imprinted at London


John Kyngston and Henri Sutton.

The xxii daye of December

Anno Domini










THE 10 OF SEPTEMB. 1599.

At London:




The following very curious and interesting pamphlet was not included in the
edition of 1598-1600. It was, however, inserted in the fifth volume of the
small edition, 4to., of 1812, and is here transposed to that part of the
Voyages relating to the Canaries, etc. Originally printed for "W. Apsley,
dwelling in. Paules Church-Yard, at the signe of the Tygers Head" in 1599,
it is of the utmost rarity, and for that reason I have thought it right to
give the original title-page.--_E. G._





Tuesday the 25. daie of Maie the wind being Northe and Northe-east, we in
the fleete of Roterdam, being 20. saile of ships, the sunne beeing
Southe-west and by West, came before Flushing, and ankered neere vnto
Cleiburch; our generall at his comming found the fleetes of North-Holland,
and Zealand ready.

Wednesday, the 26. daie wee remained there at anchor.

Thursday the 27. daie of Maie, we tooke into our ships (by the Generals
commandement) two gentlemen and foure souldiours.

Friday the 28. of May 1599, the wind being northerly, we waied our anchors,
and sailed from the Weelings with 73. ships, hauing faire weather, setting
our course West, Southwest. Wee had 3. Admirals in this fleete, whereof the
chiefe Admirall was the ship of William Derickson Cloper, wherein was
embarked the honourable gentleman Peter Van Doest being generall of the
fleete. This ship was called the Orange, carying in her top a flag of
Orange colour, vnder whose squadron was certaine Zelanders, with some South
and North Hollanders; Ian Geerbranston caried the white flag vnder whom the
Zelanders and ships of the Maze were appointed. And Cornelius Gheleinson of
Vlyshing wore in his maine top the blew flag, vnder whom were appointed
certaine ships of the Maze with some North Hollanders. Thus were wee
deuided into sondry squadrons, but to what ende it was so done, it is to
me, and many others vnknowne.

Saturday the 29. of Maie, hauing sight of Callis, the ships lay to the lee
ward, and staied for the rereward. The Lord generall shot off a peece, and
afterward hung out the princes flag, in signe that the captains shold come
aboord him, presently al the captains entred into their boates, and rowed
aboord the General, at which time were two pinnaces sent out of the fleet,
whereof one was the Generals Pinnace, but vnto what place they sailed, wee
were altogether ignorant. And when the boates rowed from the Generall, some
of them went aboord the victualers, and tooke out of them certaine
fire-workes. The sunne Southwest, the Generall discharged an other peece of
ordinance, and put out the Princes flag, wherevpon presently the captaines
went aboord him, and when our captaine returned, he had in his hande a
letter closed vp, which hee brought from the Generall, and wee imagined
that euery captaine had receiued the like, and then wee sailed altogether
toward the higth of Blacknesse, where wee anchored, (which caused vs
greatly to wonder, seeing we had so faire a wind,) but we perceiued
afterwards, that this was done, to the ende we should there abide the
coming of the great new ship of Amsterdam: for the soldiours which were
appointed for her, were all with vs in a ship of our company.

Sunday, the 30. of Maie, where lying at anchor al that night, the next
morning we set saile altogether hauing the winde at North East, wee set our
course West Northwest, the weather being faire. The same morning our
captain read vnto vs those very articles which before had bin read vnto vs
in the prince Mauritz his Court, and afterwards we altogether, and with one
accord were sworne to the keeping of them: At noone we were neere vnto
Beuersier hauing a fine gale out of the East Northeast, the euening was
calme, the foremost shippes slacked their sailes, attending the comming in
of the hindermost.

Wednesday the ninth of Iune by the breake of daie we were hard vnder the
coast of Spaine neere to Viuero, the winde being westerly, we sailed North
West and by North, and North Northwest, the sunne Southwest and by West, we
were ouer against the cape Ortegael, we sailed North West and by North, to
fetch the wind: we were in 44. degrees 20. minuts, at twilight, we had the
foresaid Cape of vs about 5. miles South West and by West.

Thursday the 10. of Iune, the winde being at East South East, wee directed
our course towardes the shore, and might certainly discerne that it was the
coast of Ortegall, we bore in West Southwest directly with the land, and
ordered all thinges as if we presently should haue had battell, and about
noone wee had sight of the Groyne, namely the tower which standeth neere
the Groine.

Friday, the 11. of Iune, at the breake of day the winde being at North East
and by East, sixe of our ships sailed forwarde South Southwest, meaning to
enter the Groine, and there to learne how al things stood. The sunne being
Southeast, Cape Prior was East from vs, wee bare South, presently after we
spied two boates comming out of Veroli to learn what ships we were, the
rather because that the day before they had seen our fleete at sea: we
sailed by the wind, and lay in the wind to stay for their comming. The one
doubting vs woulde not come neere vs, the other boat also durst not approch
neere vs; wee called to one of the Spaniardes, saying wee came from
Hamborch laden with cordage and other goods, desiring and praying him to
let vs haue a Pilot to bring vs into the Groine, wherewith the boate came
aboord vs, so that by our great haste, and policie we got one Spaniard, the
other which remained in the boate would not come into our ship, but
presently thrust off their boate, making all possible speede to get from
vs. Hauing nowe gotten this Spaniarde, hee was presently deliuered into the
handes of the Generall, who confessed that there were about 4000.
souldiours come into the towne, with certaine horsemen, 36. waggons with
money, and 300. pipes of wine, to furnish the Spanish fleet, that he lay
the night past in the Groine, and was the Kings seruant. [Sidenote: The
whole fleet cometh before the Groine.] The sun South South-West, we came
with fleet our whole fleete before the Groine, where wee found the great
newe ship of Amsterdam vnder the Towne.

At 12. 13. and 10. fadome we cast anchor, so that wee might behold much
people both on the shoare and vpon the wals of the town: from the castle
and town both, they shot mightely with their great ordinance into our
fleet, so that there were aboue 200. cannon shot discharged, wherewith some
of our ships were hit, but not one man lost, and little hurt done
otherwise. There lay an other castle East ward from the towne, which shot
also most terribly, but altogether vncertainly, for we know not that they
touched any one ship more then Moy Lambert, which was greatly, to bee
wondered at, seeing our fleete lay so thicke together, and so neere vnder
the castle. There laie hard vnder the castle 12. great Gallions, with some
French ships, which also nowe and then shot among our fleete, but they lay
so neere the walles that wee could do them no harme at all. The Lord
Generall worthy of al praise, wisely be thinking himselfe, caused all his
captaines and counsell to come aboorde him, that they might together
conferre vpon this busines, and what meanes might best bee found, to inuade
the towne and the enemy, but they concluded not to meddle with the land
there: seeing the enemy was there, strong vpon his guard, and that 5.
weekes past both from Amsterdam, and by a French man, they had knowledge of
our comming; by reason of the calme, wee were constrained to towe out our
ships with the boates in dispite of al their shot, thus we parted from the
Groyne without profit, or effecting of any thing, leauing the Papists of
Groyne as wee founde them, from thence (the winde being at South Southwest)
wee bent our course towarde Cape Saint Vincent, meaning to goe to Saint
Lucars, hoping to fal vpon them at vnawares, and ere they looked for vs.

Saturday the 12. of Iune, hauing got a fine gale we ran along the coast of
Galicia, at noone wee were before the Iland of Cesarian, and set our course
towards Cape Finister.

Sunday the 13. of Iune, the lorde Generall gaue sharpe commandement by his
letters, forbidding al men aboorde the ships to vse any play, with tables,
cards, or dice, either for money, or for pastime, or vpon credit.

Munday the 14. of Iune, the wind blew so harde out of the North, that wee
could not beare our topsailes with our forecourse which sailed South, the
sunne was southward we had Port a Porte of vs, being in 41. degrees and 20

Tuesday the 15. of Iune, as soone as day appeared, we had sight of Cape
Roxent, and then we sailed making small way, staying for the comming
together of the fleete: the wind as before we sailed South Southwest, and
were in 36 degrees.

Wednesday the 16. of Iune, towardes the euening we had sight of two strange
ships eastward of our fleete, certain of our ships made towards them and
tooke them, the one was an English man of war; the other was a Spanish
barke with three missens: at his comming before the Generall, he said, he
had already sent 2. prises into Englande, and woulde now with this prise
returne home: for his victuals were almost spent.

Thursday the 17. of Iune, it was very still and calme weather.

Friday the 18. of Iune, the wind being at North Northeast, we sailed South
Southwest. The Lord Generall caused all the Captaines with the Pilots to
come aboord him: demanding of them which of them was best acquainted in the
Isles of Canaria: and further, by what meanes, they might conquer and force
the said Ilands, and land their people. And about noone the captaines were
chosen and appointed which shoulde commande on lande. The Generall gaue out
newe ensignes, to the number of 9. or 10. according to the number of the
ships. The Lord Generall appointed to each new captaine, an Ancient bearer,
a Lieutenant, and other officers, with 130. souldiers and mariners, and
instructions how euery one of them should gouerne himself on the land.

Saturday the 19. of Iune, the Generall commanded that the captaines should
deliuer out victuals but twice a day, to wit, 6. and 6. to a messe: for 6.
men, 5. cans of beere of Roterdams measure euery day, 5. pounde of breade
and no more; a cheese of 6. l. euery weeke, one pound of butter weekely,
likewise pease, beanes, or Otemeale twise a day, according to the order.
Captaine Harman, and captaine Pije, had each of them commission to commande
on the land as captaines ouer two companies of saylers, each company
containing 130. men. Harman Thunesson was appointed Ancient to captaine
Henricke Pije, and de Blomme Ancient to captaine Hendricke Hertman. The
ancients were deliuered the same day.

The 20. 21. 22. daies, wee sailed South Southwest, the wind being

Wednesday the 23. of Iune, the wind was North Northeast. The Generall
commaunded all the captaines both for the sea and land to come aboord him,
where it was ordained and determined how the battell should be ordered,
after they were landed. According to the latitude, we found our selues to
be 36. miles from great Canaria.

Thursday the 24. of Iune, we ranne our foresaid course. The sun being West
Northwest, we sawe the land East and by South off vs: wee sailed East and
by South, and with great labour and diligence bore all that might with the

Friday The 25. of Iune, we continued our course to the land for our assured
knowledge thereof, and perceiued it to be Lancerot; we saw also a small
land (which lay between both) called Allegrania, and also the Iland
Forteuentura, which is 24. miles great, afterward we sailed Southwest along
the Coast of Forteuentura, which is a lande that hath very high hils.
[Sidenote: The whole Netherlandish fleet commeth before the Island and town
of Grand Canaria.] The sun Southwest, we were past the Iland Forteuentura,
and were sailed out of sight thereof, running as yet Southwest: about ii. a
clocke in the afternoone wee had sight of the Iland of great Canaria, for a
while wee kept our way, but when the Generall was assured that it was the
grand Canaria, wee all tooke in our sailes, and lay to the lee ward, and so
remained vntill it was past midnight, then wee set saile againe and made to
the lande, our course westwarde.

Saturday the 26. of Iune, in the morning the whole fleet sailed West
directly to the land the winde North and by East, and made all thinges
ready to land; being now neere the shore, the whole fleete let fall their
anchors harde by the great castle, which lieth North Northwest from the
town, from whence they began to shoot mightily against the ships. The lord
Generall and the vize Admirall with the other ships that had the greatest
ordenance, anchored close vnder the castle, and for a certain time they
plied each other with their great shot; the Generals main mast, and his
missen mast were shot thorow, and his vize Admirall, namely the great new
ship of Amsterdam was shot thorow 6. or 7. times; so that some of the
souldiours and maryners also were slaine before they entered their long
boates to rowe to the shore: But the ships for their parts, had so well
bestowed their shot on the castle, that they of the castle began to faint,
wherby they discharged not so thicke and often as before. Our men rowed to
the land in the long boates, euery one full of souldiours, and the ships
which could not discharge their ordenance against the castle, bent them
against the shore, (for the enemy had three brasse peeces lying vpon the
strand) and many people were there gathered together where our souldiours
shoulde land. Nowe as soone as the Generall with the most parte of the long
boates were come together, they all at one instant rowed toward the shore,
maintaining for a while the fight on both sides with their shot. But the
General perceiuing that the enemie woulde not abandon the place, with a
valiant courage made to the shore, and altogether leaping into the water vp
to the middle, maintained the fight with the enemy. Notwithstanding the
enemy no lesse couragious, would not yet leaue the strond, so that some of
our souldiours and mariners lost their liues before the enemy would retire:
for the place was discommodious, and hard to lande, but most of the enemy
were slaine, to the number of 30. or 36. and the Gouernor his right leg was
shot off, sitting on his horse. The lord General Peter von der Doest
leaping first on land, was thrust in his leg with a pike, and had in his
body 4. wounds more, and was in great danger to haue lost his life but that
one of the souldiours slewe the Spaniarde which meant to haue don it; but
his wounds were of small moment, and his ancient bearer was slain with a
shot, the Lieutenant Generall was shot in his throte, captaine Kruye in the
heade, 4. soldiours were slain, and 15. hurt in the generals pinnace before
they could come to land: But when our people now with one courage all
together rushed vpon the enemie, (leauing their ordenance behinde them,)
they forsooke the strond, and ran together into the town, carying with them
their Gouernour, whose leg was shot off, and he was a knight of the order
of the crosse, and leauing behind them 36. deade carcases on the strond,
were presently by our people ransacked, and our dead people buried. Our men
now hauing won the strond, put themselues presently in battell ray; the
empty boates returned to the ships, but after our people had taken the
strond, the castle did neuer shoot shot. [Sidenote: Twenty foure companies
strong of Netherlanders.] After the boates were returned aboord, presently
they rowed againe to the shore full of soldiours; our people being all
landed, they which for the first time had commandement, set vs in 7.
troupes, or battalions, being xxiiii. companies strong, of soldiours and
Mariners, with twentie foure Auncientes. At which time we marched a little
forward twenty one a brest, and standing altogether in battell; [Sidenote:
The first castle taken.] suddainly three mariners came running to the
Generall, (which had bin at the castle) telling him that the Spaniards
desired to deliuer him the castle, so their liues and goods might be saued:
the generall with some of the captaines and souldiours went first thither,
and presently the castle was deliuered into his possession, hoping on his
pitty and mercy, and leauing behind them all the great ordenance, namely 9.
peeces of brasse, and 6. Iron peeces, and also al their weapons. In the
castle were about 80. Spaniards, some cannoniers, some soldiors, and some
people of the countrey, for the defence thereof: beside powder, shot and
match accordingly, for the artillery, and also thirty small peeces or
caliuers. Also wee founde 58. prisoners, the rest were slaine with shot in
the fury, and some were run away. The prisoners (which our people had taken
in the road with two Barkes, and a ship sunke with our ordenance, as they
lay all 3. hard before the castle) were sent altogether aboorde the ships
except 3. of the principals which the lord General reserued by him, to the
end he might the better knowe the state of all things. Presently 80.
soldiours were sent into the castle, who tooke down the kings flag, and set
vp the princes colours. At the same instant two Negros were brought to the
General, which were fetched out of the mountains, they said that they had
lien there a sleepe, and knew nothing of any matter. But now when it began
to wax dark, we marched altogether a great way towards the town, 4.
companies of soldiors approached hard vnder the towne, and other 4.
companies had the rereward: those of the Maze, with the Amsterdammers
remained a pretty way from the town, vnder the hils; and the Zealanders,
with the North Hollanders lay neere the waters side, so wee remained al
that night in order of battell.

Sunday the 27. of Iune, after we had now stood al night in battel order,
early in the morning we marched with al our 7. troupes: hard vnder the town
of Canarie, where we remained a while in that order: but because they of
the castle (which lieth to the towne) shot so mightily among vs; 2. of the
troupes retired vnder a hill, where we were a little freede from the
castle: for while our people stood imbattailed before the town, the castle
did vs great hurt, for sometimes they shot fiue or sixe men with one shot,
ere we could entrench our selues before the castle: but after they
perceiued that our people had made a small trench against the shot of the
castle, they placed on the hill fiue or sixe small peeces of brasse called
falconets (which shoote about a pounde of pouder) and sometimes they shot
boules of wood, wherewith in the beginning they slew manie of our people:
so aduantagiouslie had they placed their ordenaunce to shoot among vs. Ten
or twelue of our Souldiours ranne vp the hill, whereof the enemy tooke one,
and presently cut him in foure peeces. Our people seeing that they so
tyranouslie dealte with them, about the euening tooke a Spaniarde prisoner,
and vsed him after the same maner. The lorde, Generall perceiuing that many
men were slaine with the ordenance, caused fiue peeces of brasse to bee
brought from the castle which we had taken the daie before, and towarde the
euening we beganne to make a battery, and the same euening brought into it
three peeces, whereof two were placed presentlie to play vppon the Castle
and the hill; but that euening were but fiue or sixe shotte made. While
that our men made the batterie, and planted or placed the ordenaunce, the
enemy placed his ordenance in counter-battery: and before our battery could
be finished, and the ordenance placed, many of our men were shot, among
whom Peter vanden Eynde commissioner, had his leg shot off, whereof he died
within three daies after. After that it was dark, al they which lay there
before the towne were againe set in order of battel, 15. on a ranke, and so
remained all that night.

The 28. of Iune, early in the morning euery man retired to his quarter, and
then were two peeces more brought to the battery, which also were presently
placed on the Rampire, and so wee began to shoot against the castle with 4.
peeces, and with the fifth we plaied vpon the small ordenance which lay
vpon the hils. The enemie in the castle laid many sackes of wooll, and
placed many tonnes or barrels filled with stones vpon the castle walles
supposing thereby to make some little defence from our ordenance; but when
an Iron bullet chanced to hit the barrels so filled with stones, it did
them mightie hurt, for the stones would scatter maruailouslie abroad,
whereby many of them that were in the castle were slaine. Our men hauing
now with their shot almost abated the force of the castle, 4. companies
marched vp the hils, intending to beate the enemy from thence, which lay
there with the ordenance. But the enemy perceiuing himselfe to bee
assaulted on all partes, (for most of the ordenance of the castle were
dismounted and made vnprofitable, the gate of the towne set one fire by the
Generals commandement) about noone they forsooke both the castle, hill, and
town, and with all their wiues, children, money and Iewels, and all other
things that they coulde carry with them, fled into the mountaines. Which
when our men perceiued, they put themselues in order of battle xv. in a
ranke. [Sidenote: The second castle and town of Grand Canaria taken.] The
lord Generall seeing the Spaniards shamefullie to flie, caused 2. ladders
belonging to the enemies, to be brought out of a church which stood without
the towne, whereof the one was too shorte, notwithstanding himselfe with
one of the ladders climed vp the walles, one man at once followed, and by
this meanes entered the towne ouer the wals. About noone some of our men
ran into the castle without any reencounter: the enemy had vndermined the
gate, but as we approched the wall, it tooke fire, but not one of our
people was therewith hurt. They had also skattered powder in sundrie
places, but our men themselues did fire the same: and as soone as our
people were entred the castle, the kinges colours were taken downe, and the
prince of Oranges set vp, and we found fiue peeces of brasse therein. When
wee were all entered into the towne, we put our selues againe into order of
battell 15. in a ranke in a low ground within the towne: and the souldiours
which entered the towne by the hils side, brought to the Generall a man of
Flushing, which they had taken out of prison: as soone as the Generall sawe
him, he went presently with him to the prison, accompanied with some of our
captaines, where they found 36. prisoners, which presently were discharged.
And further they declared, that the Spaniards had taken with them 2.
prisoners into the mountaines, which were condemned to be burnt, the one
was an English man, the other a Dutchman, which had lien in the holy house.
Thus with the helpe of God about noone, wee won the great Iland of Canaria,
and the town of Allegona, battered with their owne artillery, and skaled
with their owne ladders. Towards the euening wee were quartered in the
housen, those wherein the Generall was, were by writing freed, that no man
might take out any goods, in the rest euery one might go, and take what
pillage he could find: but the Spaniards had caried all the best things
with them into the mountaines, and in the euening all our people entered
the town. Euery captaine with his company were seuerallie lodged, but yet
we appointed watch on the hils, as well as in the towne, for the enemy
shewed himselfe often vpon the hils, whereby we were forced to keep very
good watch.

The 29. of Iune, this morning some of the mariners climed vp the hils, but
the enemy (to whom the passage were better known, then to our people)
suddainly set vpon them, and killed 20. of them. Towards the euening some
300. of our Soldiours marched towardes a small castle which lay halfe an
houres iourney from the towne: but the enemy seeing our people to approch,
forsooke the place and fled into the mountaines, our men being ascended,
they founde in the castle three brasse peeces: and after they had appointed
a Corporall with certaine soldiours to keepe the watch, the rest returned
to the citty. The same night the Spaniards tooke one of our soldiors
appointed for a forlorne Sentinel, whom they presently put to the sword.

The last of Iune, as soone as day appeared, wee began to cary the pillage
aboorde belonging to the General, and captaines, as wines and other goods.
About noone 3. cheefe men of the Spaniards came to our people, which kept
watch on the hils with a flag of truce in their handes, which were straight
brought before the Generall, and within a while after, there were 2. more
brought vnto him; but after they had bin a while with him they departed
again towards the mountaines: and in the euening came other 7. Spaniardes
to our watch with a flag of truce, desired to speake with the Generall: but
they were sente backe againe into the Mountaynes.

The first day of Iuly, 1599. in the morning (our people being on the hils)
2. friers with three other Spaniards came vnto vs, desiring to be brought
to the Generall, which our men accomplished: but the General denied to
talke with them, wherefore they were presently sent backe againe from
whence they came, for we were then labouring to send the goods a shipboord.
Also at that instant was a sermon in the great church of great Canaria,
made by the preacher of Ysilmond with great deuotion, and giuing thanks
vnto God for our great victory, desiring him that it would please him daily
to increase the same, to the honour of his name: at which Sermon the Lorde
Generall was present with foure hundred persons.

The second of Iuly 1599. wee were forbidden by sounde of the drum that no
man should go beyond the forelorne sentenell placed on the Mountaines: and
to sende backe againe into the hilles all such Spaniardes which came with a
flag of truce, to speake with the Generall, and to put all such to the
sworde as came with weapons. One of our Pinnaces tooke a fisherman fishing
vnder the Ilande Forteauentura, wherin were 7. Spaniardes, which were
brought before the General, and prently committed to prison.

The 3. of Iuly in the morning we began to sende aboord our ships all the
bels, ordenance and munition which the enemies had left behinde them, at
which time 2000. soldiors were appointed to march to the hils, to seeke the
enemy, which lay hid there with their wiues, children and goods, as they
were fled out of the towne: and as soone as they approched each other, they
began the fight on both sides with great courage, but the enemy was forced
to flie, beeing better acquainted with the passages of the mountains then
our people were. Our men returned with the losse of some 70. persons: among
whom captain Iacques Dierickson with his boatson were slaine: the rest came
into the towne againe into their appointed quarters.

The 4. of Iuly, in the morning we began to burn the towne, and with pouder
blewe vp the castle which lay by the towne, and we burned likewise all the
cloisters and churches which were without the towne, lying neere the water
side. The town burning, our people were set in battell, and in that order
marched out of the towne, vntill they came to Gratiosa, the castle, which
we first tooke, lying about halfe an houres iourney from the towne, where
the long boates receiued our men, and caried them againe aboorde. Presently
after wee were departed out of the towne, the enemy entered, endeuoring by
all meanes possible to quench the fire. And while we were shipping our
people, the enemy shewed him selfe sometimes 5. or 6. in a company, but
they durst not approch vs. The rereward of our men being shipped, we put
fire to the castle which we tooke first, and blew it vp: This done,
captaine Quit imbarked himselfe also with his soldiours and pillage, which
he had taken in the rode, for his ship wherein he was before was ready to

The 5. of Iuly, lying in the roade, in the morning the Generall discharged
two peeces of ordenance, and afterward put out 2. flags of the princes
colours, thereby giuing to vnderstand, that all land captaines, and sea
captaines also with one of their Pilots should resort to him, whereupon
presentlie they all rowed aboorde the Generall; the Pilots which were best
acquainted with the coast, were demanded by the Generall which were the
weakest Ilands, and where they might most commodiouslie land: Towards the
euening captaine Quyt his ship was fired, and suffered to driue towarde the
strond. At which time a newe captaine was appointed to captaine Iaques
Dirriksons ship aforesaide, who was slaine in the mountaines, namely
captaine Kloyers Lieutenant. And the Generals Clarke of the band was
appointed Lieuetenant to captain Kloyer.

The 6. of Iuly, by reason of the contrary winds, and other inconueniences
which happened at this present, and also because such ships, which before
were sent to sea, and could not returne by reason of the contrary windes;
we remained in the road, vnder the castle of Graciosa. About noone 4.
Spaniards came out of the towne with a flag of truce to the strond,
directly ouer against our ships, whereof 2. were brought aboorde the
Generall in one of our long boates, (the other two with their flag of truce
were left behinde on the stronde) which remained with the Generall vntil
the euening, and then were set on shore, and so the 4. Spaniardes returned
to the towne.

The 7. day riding in the roade, in the morning 4. Spaniards with a flag of
peace, came to the shore from the towne, directly ouer against our ships:
the fleet seeing them, sent a long boate to the shore, and brought the said
4. Spaniards aboord the General, these men brought with them the ransome of
certaine Spaniards, which had deliuered vp the castle of Graciosa at the
Generals pleasure, which were set to ransome, euery one according to his
habilitie and office: and thus all the Spaniardes which were ransomed,
together with the 4. Spaniardes which brought the ransoms, were set on
shore with a long boat, and departed to the towne.

The 8. day of Iuly, two howers after sun rising, the Generall with all the
ships set saile, carying with him all the Spaniardes that were not
ransomed, sailing along the coast of great Canaria; in which time Ian
Cornelesson Zwartekeys departed this worlde, whose leg was shot off at the
taking of the Iland of great Canaria. Hauing nowe sailed from the hight of
the said Iland, which lay southerly from vs, we had sight of captaine
Hertmans ship, and of 3. others which rode there at anchor: who, so soone
as they perceiued our fleete, waied their anchors, and sailed along the
coast with vs, which were the ships that the Generall had sent to sea.
Sailing thus together vntill the sun was in the West, the wind began to
rise more and more, so that we coulde not keep our direct course, but were
forced to put to the Southwest of the great Iland of Canaria, where we
anchored: wee had sight of the Iland Teneriffe, and of an other of the
Ilands of Canaria, wherein is the hie mountaine called the Pyck. This hil
was from vs 14. miles, but by the great hight thereof it seemed to bee
within foure or fiue miles off vs, but in the daie time when the sun shined
wee could not see it.

The 9. of Iuly, lying thus at anchor, in the morning most of the long
boates went a shore to fetch fresh water, such as they could there find and
caried with them the deade corps of Ian Cornelesson aforesaid, the
Constables son of the Admiralty of Roterdam, called Zwertkeys, which was
there honorably buried on the high and drie land. This done, we set on fire
the woode which lay on the shore piled and heaped in the woods, but in this
place we found not any Spaniards.

The tenth of Iuly, the boates being all returned to their ships with their
people, euery one wayed their anchors and hoised their sailes, the winde at
Northwest; but being vnder saile together, the wind slacked and by reason
of the great calme the ships lay a drift for want of wind.

The 11. of Iuly, in the morning it blewe a stout gale in our topsailes out
of the Northeast, but as we approched the Iland of Teneriffa, the winde
altered often; sixe or seuen of our shippes, and the rest which were next
vnto the shore, had sometimes a gale in their topsailes, and sometimes
againe without wind: so that we lay a drift, and could keepe no reckoning
either of the wind or course, and were forced to alter our course more than
12. times a day.

A declaration of the taking of Gomera one of the Ilands in Canaria, and how
we afterwardes left it.

The 12. day of Iuly sailing thus with great variety of wind, vnder the
great Iland Teneriffa, the day appearing, we had the wind more certain,
filling our topsailes with a full gale from the Northwest: And when it was
faire day light we saw our fleet scattered far one from another, by meanes
of the foresaid mutable windes. Some ships lay driuing by reason of the
calme, and other some had a little gale, but the most part of our fleet
were West of vs, towards whom with all speed, we with the rest of the ships
made. Being al come together, wee endeuored to reach the Ilande Gomera,
wherein is a little towne: towardes the euening many of our ships were
neere the Iland, but the most part were to the lee ward; so that before it
grew toward the euening none of vs could come neere the towne.
Notwithstanding in the twilight and shutting vp of the euening: Ian
Garbrantson Admirall of the white flag, his vize Admirall, and a Pinnace
following, were come neere the town. Thus the Admirall sayling so neere to
the Iland, they of Gomera discharged 2. pieces at him, but touched him not.
The saide Admirall seeing this, passed on a little farther with the other
ships which were neere him, and then tooke in their sailes, and cast their
anchors. The other ships which were behinde, laboured all they might to
come also vnder the Iland to them.

The 13. of Iuly, the Admirall of the white flag lying thus at anchor neere
to Gomera, the greatest part of the fleete were yet in the morning betweene
the Iland of Teneriffa and Gomera, so that parte of the ships were beyonde
the towne, and must sometimes cast about to conducte the others in, which
were in the lee of vs. When wee had nowe for the most part passed the hight
of the Iland, the Generall gaue a signe to all captaines to come aboorde
him, being vnder saile, directing his course to the Iland of Gomera, and
the other ships did their endeuour to follow him and anchored about the
necke of the valley, lying North North East off the towne. The ships being
all come to anchor, the captaines entered presently into the long boates,
and aboorde the Generall to know his minde: and after they had beene a
while in the Generals ship, they returned to their ships, and 4. companies
of souldiours were chosen out, and landed in the valley. Which done, al the
ships waied their anchors, and sailed directly toward the towne, and then
came to anchor againe. After that all our ships lay thus together in the
road neere the valley, before the town: we discharged certaine peeces
against the town, but they made no shewe at all of resistaunce, for they
had buried foure brasse peeces as soone as they had sight of vs, which lay
on the strond neere vnto a small castle; the other sixe companies were also
set on land in the long boates, without any resistance: for the Spaniardes
with their wiues, children, and all their goods whiche they coulde carry
with them were fled into the mountains. [Sidenote: The towne of Gomera
abandoned by the Spaniards.] The first 4. companies that were landed, as
they marched along the hils side towards the towne, perceiuing that the
enemy fled with all his goods towards the hils, sent out a certaine number
of soldiours to intercept them, and to take from them the goods which they
caried away. And to accomplish this enterprise, our souldiours descended
the hill into the valley, meaning suddainly to set vpon the Spaniardes; but
the enemie perceiuing their intent, hid themselues in caues which were
neere vnto them, vntill our souldiours were in the valley. The Spaniardes
perceiuing that they were strong enough to encounter with our people,
suddainly leapt out of their dens, and beset our souldiours on both sides.
[Sidenote: Eighty Netherlanders and diuers Spaniards slaine.] Our people
seeing themselues thus compassed with their enemies, behaued themselues
most valiantly, so that many of the Spaniards lost their liues, and 80. of
ours were slaine in this valley: among whom were 2. Lieutenants (the one
was Meerbecks sonne, and the other was Lieutenant to captaine Bynon) which
had receiued aboue 50. wounds in their bodies, so pittifullie were they
massacred, thus were these worthie champions intercepted. The rest of those
4. companies, which were not present at this fury of the Spaniardes,
towardes the euening, descended the hills, and marched into the towne.
Presently after this, watch was appointed in al places of the towne, and
some of the soldiours began to dig the ground, to seeke for such goods as
the Spaniardes had buried, but at that instant they founde nothing, except
only certain pipes of wine.

About the sunne setting was brought in a Spanish prisoner, which was de
deliuered to the Prouest marshal, by the Generals commandement, to the end
he might bring them to all such places in the Ilande, whereas the
Spaniardes had hidden their goods: But because nothing could then be
effected by reason that the euening approched, and it began, to bee too
dark, the Spaniard was committed to a keeper vntil the next morning for the
purpose aforesaide. But the night being far spent, and the keeper taking
small regard to his charge, the Spaniard secretlie stole awaie and ran to
the mountaines.

The 14. of Iuly, in the morning the long boates rowed againe to the shore,
and caried aboorde such goods as the enemy had left behind them, which for
the most, part were wines, for they had caried clean awaie all other things
into the mountains, and had left almost nothing in the towne, but only the
wines which they had buried in the earth: In the afternoone our people
found 3. bels, which they had buried in the fields, where corne had growne.

The 15. of Iuly in the morning our people running vp to the hils 10. or 12.
in a company to hunt and seeke for pillage were suddainly inuironed by the
enemy, and 6. or 8. of them slaine; the rest saued themselues by flight.
About noone there was a generall muster taken of all the soldiours, to see
how many wee had lost: and such ships as were appointed to returne home,
began to deliuer out the victuals. The same day were two copper peeces
founde: whereof the one was 16. foot and halfe long, and the other about
14. foot.

The 16. day in the morning the Lord Generall gaue notice to all captaines
to resort to him aboord his ship, because some of the captaines had not
sent victuals vnto the soldiors that were on land, whereby they suffered
hunger, and sundry of the soldiours had complained to the General thereof:
At afternoone, the enemy came to the hill which lieth ouer the towne,
crying and calling vnto our men to come and fetch againe their muskets, and
towards the euening many marriners with their weapons landed, and at that
instant also all things were ordered to march very early the next morning
vp the hils to fetch againe our muskets, caliuers, and other weapons, which
the Spaniards before had in mockery, and gibing wise willed vs to fetch
from them. But now when all things were ordered for this seruice: the same
night arose a strong gale of winde, encreasing more and more, that in the
ende it grewe to a mightie tempest, that notwithstanding our fleet did ride
vnder the Iland Gomera in the road before the towne, some were forced to
way their anchors and to put to sea, to preuent the mischiefe like to
happen to the ships, by reason they lay so neere one another. And when
those shipps were a little way in the Sea, they cast their anchors, and
there remained. By this occasion the generals aforesaid enterprise was kept
backe: we iudging it as a warning, that the Generall should spare and
preserue his people from the bloud-thirsty Spaniards, which had their holes
and dens in the hils, and perhaps might haue taken away many of our liues.
And heere by the way; by the name of the Iland Canaria, the Spaniards may
rightly bee called Canarians or Canes, for Canaria is by interpretation,
dogs kinde, for they ran as swift as dogs, and were as tyrannicall and
bloud thirsty as the rauening Wolfe, or any other wild beast, which they
sufficiently manifested, for as soon as they could lay handes on any of our
people (like vnto mad curs, agreeing with their name Canarians) they would
presently woary them.

The 17. this hurtfull night ended, and the tempest ouer passed, and alaid,
the couragious soldiors were all in redines, desirous to execute this peece
of seruice, exspecting and desiring nothing more, then to march vp the
hils, and to incounter their idolotrous enemies. But vpon good
consideration, this enterprise was staied, and some 300. soldiours sent
into the same valley, where 3. daies before our people had beene suddainly
compassed, intrapped, and slaine by the Spaniards. Our soldiours being come
to the valley aforesaid found no resistance, neither could once see a
Spaniard; but found a smal peece of brasse about a fadome long, and two
barrels of gunpowder; and when our souldiours perceiued that there was no
good to bee done (forbearing to mount the hils, because they had no
commission so to do) with such thinges as they had they returned to the
towne. The euening now approaching, the Generall commanded to carry aboord
the ships, such goods as they had there found, and digged out of the
ground, which was accordingly done and accomplished, among which things
were three brasse peeces, some bels and other goods.

Sunday the 18. of Iuly, we remained at anchor in the road of the Iland

Munday the 19. of Iuly, remaining yet in the Iland Gomera, and seeing that
the Spaniardes continued in their secret holes, and dens of the mountaines,
wee set fire on the towne, and as neere as we could burnt down all places,
as Cloisters churches, hermitages and houses, remaining yet in the towne
vntill it was noone. After that all this was accomplished: we the vnited
soldiours forsooke the towne, and presently the Lord General, with al his
company, went aboord the ships. Thus we left the Iland Gomera burning,
which was neuer before done by any nation. The Spaniardes seeing that the
soldiours were departed out of the Iland, with all speed possible, in great
heapes came running out of their secret caues and holes, to quench the
fire, like as they of Allegona in the Iland of great Canaria before had

Wednesday the 20. of Iuly, we lay stil in the road before Gomera, in this
time 2. of our soldiours were put into captain Cloiers ship, and in lew of
them, we receiued out of his ship 2. others, which were hurt, with two

The summary or briefe declaration of the Admirals departing towardes the
West Indies.

Aftre that the Generall had left the Ilands, he giueth order to the fleete,
taketh his leaue of all the Captaines and officers in most honorable
sort: he aduanceth the voyage to the West Indies with his Nauy: the rest
of the ships returne into the low Countries, euery one from whence he

After that the Iland of great Canaria was by the vnited soldiours taken,
and won by force of armes, and the Iland Gomera conquered, for sundry
reasons they were forsaken, after they had caried to their ships such
things as they found, fired the townes, churches, cloisters, and houses,
and rased their Castles. The Lord Generall commanded all Captaines and
officers of the fleete to resorte vnto him aboord his ship. The same
principals being come accordingly, he welcommed them and shewed them al
friendship he could, thanking them for their good and faithfull endeuours
which they had shewed in this seruice, which he performed with a singular
oration, praying Almighty God that he woulde vouchsafe to be his only
loadsman and merciful defender, in all his enterprises, to the honor of his
name, and happy successe of the vnited Netherlandish prouinces. After this,
the lorde Generall againe in most friendly sort, and kind speeches,
perswaded and desired all the saide captaines and officers, (alleadging
many reasons and examples) to perseuer in their good beginning of true and
faithfull seruice for God, and for their good Lords and principall
magistrates, the honorable gentlemen and states of the vnited Netherland;
and to the good liking of their valiant and high borne gentleman, and
gouernour General prince Mauritz, their principal lorde and commander, &c.
with these and such like matters the daie was spent.

Wednesday the 21. of Iuly, the wind was northerly: The lord Generall
commanded all the captaines and officers to resort vnto him: and in most
curteous maner againe the second time, tooke leaue of them all, ordaining
and appointing in his place as Admirall Generall ouer all those shippes
which were to returne home, the valiant captaine Ian Gerbrantson, desiring
and straightly charging them at there present, to shew all obedience and
duty vnto him, as to his owne person, and that they should make his minde
knowne to all others which had not beene there present. After these
speeches, and leaue taken, [Marginal note: The Netherlandish fleet diuide
themselues into two companies, whereof the one returneth homewardes, and
the other proceedeth for the West Indians.] the Admirall Ian Gerbrantson
put out the princes colours in the maine top: and the honorable gentleman
Peter von der Doest presentlie caused the princes flag also to be spread;
and as soone as the sunne was Southwest, all the ships at one instant waied
their anchors, and hoised their sailes, taking leaue nowe the third time
one of another, in most braue and triumphant sort, and in this maner
departed the one from the other. The lord General with his fleet, set this
course South Southwest, with 36. ships, and the Admirall Ian Gerbrantson
ran East by the wind, with 35. ships with intent to returne home.

[Sidenote: Two Spanish prizes taken.] Wednesday the 18. of August, sixteene
ships of our fleet which were sent to returne home, being in company
together in the latitude of 36. degrees and 10. minutes, the wind Southwest
sailing Northeast, before it was noone, we perceiued 2. strange ships vnder
saile comming out of the Northwest, towards whom we made, and at afternoone
we ouertooke them, and made them our prises: they were both Spaniardes, the
one was a small Barke, and came from Cape de Blanco in 21. degrees, loaden
for Woluis in the Condate where they dwelled. In the same ships was a
marchant of Cyuill with 47. men, each of their ships hauing two cast
peeces, and euery man his musket, but they made no shewe of defence, or
offending. There was also found laden in the same ships, sixty thousand
drie hides or skins, esteemed to bee worth 6000. duckets as they reported,
there were also found two bags with mony, in the one was 11. hundred single
rials, and in the other 10. hundred and forty single rials, with two Buts
of traine oile, and two barrels of gum Arabique.

Thursday the 19. day, we the abouesaid 16. ships were together, beside the
two Spanish ships, 4 ships of war of North Holland, 4 ships of Warres of
Zeland and one ship of war of the Maze: the captain wherof was Antony
Leonardson, al the rest were victualers. The wind West Northwest, we sailed
Northeast, and by North in 36. degrees and 45. minutes. The captaines had
beene all aboord the Admirall in councell aduising what were best to bee
done in this matter of the Spaniards prises.

Saturday, Sunday, the 21. and 22. of August, our said fleet of 18. ships
kept yet together, we found our selues to bee in 39. degrees, 6. minuts.
The sun South and by West, the winde blew vp at West Northwest, wee sailed
North Northeast, and North and by East, Lysborne was East of vs.

Munday the sixt of September, the winde westerly, we ran East, at noone wee
sounded, the depth was 50. fadome water, we found small white shels with
needles therein, in the hight of 49. degrees 20. minuts, the sun Southwest,
wee had sight of Vshant, we ran Northeast and by North.

Tuesday the 7. of September, the sun East South East, wee saw England, a
mighty blustering gale of winde from the South Southwest, wee sailed North
Northeast. The sunne Southwest, came to land at Gawstert. Afterwarde wee
turned and sailed East Southeast: In the euening it blewe so much winde,
that wee were forced to strike our maine top mast, and we ranne the whole
night with two courses by the wind.

Wednesday the 8. of September, the foule weather continued, the sunne East
and by South, we had sight of the Ile of Wight North Northwest of vs, and
ranne the whole day, East Northeast with the foresaile by the wind: as the
evening approached we saw Beuersier, in the night and second quarter we
passed by Douer.

Thursday the 9. of September, as soone as the daie began to appeare it was
calme weather, and darke, the sun Southeast, we lay still before Newport
all the ebbe, The wind easterly, in the after noone the wind came
Northwest, we set saile againe, running al night by the wind with our

Friday the 10. of September 1599, by the break of day wee were before the
Maze, the sun Southwest, we arriued by the helpe of God's mercy and grace
before the Brill.

Since then, there is arriued at Texell another ship of war, whereof one
Cater of Amsterdam was captain, the wich was seuered from the fleet in this
voiage by tempest, and thought to be lost. The said captaine met with some
prises, and in company of two English shippes tooke a Caruell of Aduiso,
verie richly laden comming out of India, and hauing more men then the
English, shared halfe of the goods with them, and so came home this present
month of Octob.


* * * * *

The Worldes Hydrographical Discription.




ANNO 1595. MAY 27.






My most honorable good Lords for as much as it hath pleased God, not only
to bestow vpon your Lordships, the excellent gifts of natures benefite, but
hath also beautified the same with such speciall ornamentes of perfection:
As that thereby the mindes and attentiue industrie of all, haue no small
regard vnto your honorable proceedings. And so much the rather, because to
the great content of all her maiesties most louing subiectes; it hath
pleased her highnes in her stately regard of gouernment, to make choise of
your honours as speciall members in the regall disposition of the
mightinesse of her imperiall command: Emboldeneth me among the rest to
humble myself at your honorable feete, in presenting vnto the fauour of
your excellent iudgementes this short treatise of the Worldes
Hydrographicall bands. And knowing that not onely your renowned places, but
also the singularitie of your education, by the prudent care of your noble
progenitors hath and still doth induce and drawe you to fauour and imbrace
whatsoeuer beareth but a seeming of the commonweales good: Much more then
that which in substantiall truth shal be most beneficiall to the same. I am
therefore the more encouraged not to slacke this my enterprise, because
that through your honorable assistance when in the ballance of your
wisedomes this discouery shall haue indifferent consideration, I knowe it
will be ordered by you to bee a matter of no small moment to the good of
our countrie. For thereby wee shall not onely haue a copious and rich vent
for al our naturall and artificiall comodities of England, in short time by
safe passage, and without offence of any, but also shall by the first
imployment retourne into our countrey by spedie passage, all Indian
commodities in the ripenes of their perfection, whereby her Maiesties
dominions should bee the storehouse of Europe, the nurse of the world and
the glory of nations, in yielding all forrayne naturall benefites by an
easie rate: In communicating vnto all whatsoeuer God hath vnto any one
assigned: And by the increase of all nations through the mightinesse of
trade. Then should the merchant, tradesman, and poore artificer, haue
imployment equall to their power and expedition, whereby what notable
benefites would growe to her Maiestie, the state, and communaltie, I refer
to your perfect iudgementes. And for that I am desirous to auoyde the
contradiction of vulgar conceipts, I haue thought it my best course, before
I make profe of the certaintie of this discouerie, to lay downe whatsoeuer
may against the same be obiected, and in the ouerthrowe of those conceipted
hinderances the safenes of the passage shall most manifestly appeare, which
when your wisdomes, shall with your patience peruse, I doe in no sort
distruct your fauorable acceptance and honorable assistance of the same.
And although for diuers considerations I doe not in this treatis discouer
my full knowledge for the place and altitude of this passage, yet
whensoeuer it shall so please your honours to commaund I will in few wordes
make the full certainty thereof knowne vnto your honours being alwaies
redie with my person and poore habilitie to prosecute this action as your
honours shall direct, beseeching God so to support you with all happines of
this life, fauour of her Maiestie, loue of her highnes subiectes, and
increase of honour as may be to your best content.

I most humbly take my leaue from Sandrudg by Dartmouth

this 27. of May 1595.

Your Honors in all dutifull seruice to command

I. D.


All [Footnote: Hakluyt has published an extract from this treatise in his
Collection of Voyages; but the original work is so very rare and occupies
so small a space that it has been deemed eligible to reprint it entire.
EDIT.] impediments in nature, and circumstances of former practises duly
considered. The Northerly passage to China seme very improbable. For first
it is a matter very doubtfull whether there bee any such passage or no,
sith it hath beene so often attempted and neuer performed, as by historical
relation appeareth, whereby wee may fully perswade our selues that America
and Asia, or some other continent are so conioyned togeather as that it is
impossible for any such passage to be, the certaintie whereof is
substantially proued vnto vs by the experience of Sebastian Gabota an
expert Pylot, and a man reported of especiall iudgement, who being that
wayes imployed returned without successe. Iasper Corteriallis a man of no
meane practise did likewise put the same in execution, with diuers others,
all which in the best parte haue concluded ignorance. If not a full consent
of such matter. And therfore sith practise hath reproued the same, there is
no reason why men should dote vpon so great an incertayntie, but if a
passage may bee prooued and that the contenentes are disioyned whereof
there is small hope, yet the impedimentes of the clymate (wherein the same
is supposed to lie) are such, and so offensiue as that all hope is thereby
likewise vtterly secluded, for with the frozen zone no reasonable creature
will deny, but that the extremitie of colde is of such forceable action,
(being the lest in the fulnes of his owne nature without mitigation,) as
that it is impossible for any mortall creature to indure the same, by the
vertue of whose working power, those Northerly Seas are wholly congealed,
making but one mas or contenent of yse, which is the more credible because
the ordenary experience of our fishermen geueth vs sufficient notice
thereof, by reason of the great quantitie of yse which they find to be
brought vpon the cost of newefound land from those Northerne regions. By
the aboundance whereof they are so noysomly pestred, as that in many weekes
they haue not beene able to recouer the shore, yea and many times recouer
it not vntill the season of fishing bee ouer passed. This then being so in
the Septentrionall latitude of 46, 47 and 48 degrees, which by natures
benifit are latitudes of better temperature than ours of England, what hope
should there remayne for a nauegable passing to be by the norwest, in the
altitude of 60, 70 or 80 degres, as it may bee more Northerly, when in
these temperate partes of the world the shod of that frozen sea breadeth
such noysome pester: as the pore fishermen doe continually sustain. And
therefore it seemeth to be more then ignorance that men should attempt
Nauigation in desperate clymates and through seas congeled that neuer
dissolue, where the stiffnes of the colde maketh the ayre palpably grosse
without certainty that the landes are disioyned.

All which impediments if they were not, yet in that part of the world,
Nauigation cannot be performed as ordenarily as it vsed, for no ordenarie
sea chart can describe those regions either in the partes Geographicall or
Hydrographicall, where the Meridians doe so spedily gather themselues
togeather, the parallels beeing a verye small proportion to a great circle,
where quicke and vncertayne variation of the Compasse may greatly hinder or
vtterly ouerthrow the attempt. So that for lack of Curious lyned globes to
the right vse of Nauigation; with many other instruments either vnknowne or
out of vse, and yet of necessitie for that voyage, it should with great
difficultie be attayned. All which the premises considered I refer the
conclusion of these obiections and certainty of this passage to the
generall opinion of my louing countrymen, whose dangerous attemptes in
those desperate uncertainties I wish to be altered, and better imployed in
matters of great probabilitie.

To prove a passage by the Norwest, without any land impedimentes to hinder
the same, by aucthoritie of writters, and experience of trauellers,
contrary to the former obiections.

Homer an ancient writer affirmeth that, the world being diuided into Asia,
Africa, and Europe is an Iland, which is likewise so reported by Strabo in
his erst book of Cosmographie, Pomponius Mela in his third booke, Higinius,
Solinus, with others. Whereby it is manifest that America was then
vndiscovered and to them vnknowne, otherwise they would haue made relation
of it as of the rest. Neither could they in reason haue reported Asia,
Africa and Europa to bee an Iland vnles they had knowne the same to be
conioyned and in all his partes to be inuironed with the seas. And further
America being very neere of equall quantitie with all the rest could not be
reported as a parte either of Africa, Asia, or Europa in the ordenarie
lymites of discretion. And therefore of necessitie it must be concluded
that Asia, Africa and Europa the first reueiled world being knowne to bee
an Iland, America must likewise be in the same nature because in no parte
it conioyneth with the first.

By experience of Trauellers to proue this passage.

And that wee neede not to range after forrayne and ancient authorities,
wherat curious wittes may take many exceptions, let vs consider the late
discoueryes performed, within the space of two ages not yet passed, whereby
it shall so manifestly appeare that Asia, Africa, and Europa are knit
togeather, making one continent, and are wholy inuironed with the seas, as
that no reasonable creature shall haue occasion thereof to doubt. And first
beginning at the north of Europe, from the north cape in 71 degrees,
whereby our merchantes passe in their trade to S. Nicholas in Rouscia
descending towardes the South, the Nauigation is without impediment to the
cape of Bona Esperanca, ordenarilie traded and daily practised. And
therefore not to be gaynesayd: which two capes are distant more then 2000
leagues by the neerest tract, in all which distaunces America is not founde
to bee any thing neere the coastes either of Europe or Afric, for from
England the chefest of the partes of Europa to Newfoundland being parte of
America it is 600. leagues the neerest distance that any part thereof
beareth vnto Europa. And from cape Verde in Gynny being parte of Africa,
vnto cape Saint Augustine in Brasill beeing parte of America, it wanteth
but little of 500 leagues the neerest distance betweene Africa and America.
Likewise from the sayd North Cape to Noua Zemla by the course of East and
West neerest, there is passable sayling, and the North partes of Tartaria
are well knowne to be banded with the Scithian Seas to the promontory Tabin
so that truely it is apparant that America is farre remooued and by a great
sea diuided from any parte of Africa or Europa. And for the Southerne
partes of the firste reueiled worlde it is most manifest that from the cape
of Bona Esperanca towardes the east, the costes of Safalla, Mosombique,
Melinde, Arabia, and Persia, whose gulfes lye open to the mayne occian: And
all the coastes of East India to the capes of Callacut and Malacca, are
banded with a mightie sea vpon the South whose lymmates are yet
vndiscouered. And from the cape of Malacca towardes the North so high as
the Ile of Iapan, and from thence the cost of China being part of Asia
continueth still North to the promontory Tabin, where the Scithian sea and
this Indian sea haue recourse togeather, no part of America being neere the
same by many 100 leages to hinder this passage.

For from the Callafornia beeing parte of America, to the yles of Philippina
bordering vpon the coastes of China being parte of Asia is 2100 leages and
therefore America is farther separated from Asia, then from any the sea
coastes either of Europe or Africa. Whereby it is most manifest that Asia,
Africa and Europa are conioyned in an Iland. And therefore of necessity
followeth that America is contained vnder one or many ylands, for from the
septentrionall lat. of 75 deg. vnto the straights of Magilan it is knowne
to be nauigable and hath our west occian to lymet the borders thereof, and
through the straightes of Magillane no man doubteth but there is Nauigable
passage, from which straightes, vpon all the Westerne borders of America,
the costs of Chili, Chuli, Rocha, Baldiuia, Peru to the ystmos of Dariena
and so the whole West shores of Noua Hispania are banded out by a long and
mightie sea, not hauing any shore neere vnto it by one thousand leagues
towardes the West, howe then may it be possible that Asia and America
should make one contenent:

To proue the premisses by the attemptes of our owne Countreymen, besides

But lest it should be obiected that the premises are conceites, the acting
aucthors not nominated, I will vse some boldnes to recyte our owne
countreymen by whose paynefull trauells these truthes are made manifest
vnto vs. Hoping and intreting that it may not bee offensiue, though in this
sorte I make relation of their actions. And firste to begin with the North
partes of Europe, it is not vnknowne to all our countrymen that from the
famous citie of London Syr Huge Willobie, knight, gaue the first attempt
for the North estren discoueries, which were afterward most notably
accomplished by master Borrowes, a Pylot of excellent iudgemente and
fortunate in his actions, so farre as Golgoua Vaygats and Noua Zemla, with
trade thereby procured to S. Nicholas in Rouscia. Then succeded master
Ginkinson who by his land trauell discouered the Scithian sea to lymit the
North coastes of Tartaria, so farre as the riuer Ob. So that by our
countrymen the North partes of Europe are at full made knowne vnto vs: and
prooued to ioyne with no other continent to hinder this passage. The common
and ordenary trade of the Spanyard and Portingall from Lysbome to the
coasts of Guyny, Bynny, Mina, Angola, Manicongo, and the cost of Ethiopia
to the cape of Bona Esperanca, and all the cost of Est India and Illes of
Molucca, (by which wonderfull and copious trade, they are so mightily
inriched, as that now they challeng a monarchy vnto themselues vpon the
whole face of the earth) that their trade I say, prooueth that America is
farre separated from any parte of Africa or the South of Asia. And the same
Spaniard trading in the Citye of Canton within the kingdome of China,
hauing layd his storehouse of aboundance in Manellia a Citye by him erected
in Luzon one of the Illes of Philippa bordring vpon the cost of China, doth
by his common and ordenarie passages to Iapan and other the borders of the
coast, knowe that the Est continent of Asia lieth due North and South so
high as the promontory Tabin, wher the Scithian sea and his maine occian of
China are conioyned. But with what care they labour to conceale that matter
of Hydrographie for the better preseruation of their fortunate estate, I
refer to the excellent iudgement of statesmen, that painefully labour in
the glorious administration of a well gouerned Common weale, so that by
them Africa and Asia are proued in no parte to ioyne with America, thereby
to hinder this passage.

By late experience to prone that America is an Iland, and may be sayled
round about contrary to the former obiection.

Asia, Africa and Europa being prooued to be conioyned and an Iland, it now
resteth to bee knowne by what authoritie America is proued to be likewise
an Iland, so that thereby all land impedimentes are remoued, which might
brede the dread or vncertaynty of this passage. The first Englishman that
gaue any attempt vpon the coastes of West India being parte of America was
syr Iohn Hawkins knight: who there and in that attempt as in many others
sithins, did and hath prooued himselfe to be a man of excellent capacity,
great gouernment, and perfect resolution. For before he attempted the same
it was a matter doubtfull and reported the extremest lymit of danger to
sayle vpon those coastes. So that it was generally in dread among vs, such
is the slownes of our nation, for the most part of vs rather ioy at home
like Epicures to sit and carpe at other mens hassardes, our selues not
daring to giue any attempt. (I meane such as are at leisure to seeke the
good of their countrie not being any wayes imployed as paynefull members of
a common weale,) then either to further or giue due commendations to the
deseruers, howe then may Syr Iohn Hawkins bee esteemed, who being a man of
good account in his Country, of wealth and great imployment, did
notwithstanding for the good of his Countrey, to procure trade, giue that
notable and resolute attempt. Whose steps many hundreds following sithins
haue made themselues men of good esteeme, and fit for the seruice of her
sacrid maiestie.

And by that his attempt of America (wherof West India is a parte) is well
prooued to be many hundred leagues distant from any part of Afric or

Then succeeded Syr Francis Drake in his famous and euer renowned voyage
about the world, who departing from Plimouth directed his course for the
straightes of Magillane, which place was also reported to be most dangerous
by reason of the continuall violent and vnresistable current that was
reported to haue continuall passage into the straightes, so that once
entring therein there was no more hope remayning of returne, besides the
perill of shelues, straightness of the passage and vncertayne wyndinges of
the same, all which bread dread in the highest degree, the distance and
dangers considered. So that before his revealing of the same the matter was
in question, whether there were such a passage or no, or whether Magillane
did passe the same, if there was such a man so named, but Syr Frauncis
Drake, considering the great benefit that might arise by his voyage through
that passage, and the notable discoueries, that might be thereby performed,
regarded not these dastardly affections of the idle multitude, but
considering with iudgement that in nature there cold be no such perpetuitie
of violence where the occian is in no sorte straighted, proceeded with
discreet prouision and so departing from England arriued vnto the same, and
with good sucesse (through Gods most fauorable mercy passed through)
wherein his resolution hath deserued euerlasting commendations. For the
place in viewe is dangerous and verye vnpleasing, and in the execution to
passe Nothing may seeme more doubtful, for 14 leagues west within the cape
of Saint Maria lyeth the first straight, where it floweth and ebbeth with
violent swiftnes, the straight not half a mile broad, the first fall into
which straight is verye dangerous and doubtfull. This straight lasteth in
his narrownes, 3 leages, then falling into another sea 8 leages broad and 8
leages through there lyeth the second straight due west. South West from
the firste, which course being vnknowne it is no small perill in finding
this second straightes, and that agayne is not a myle broad and continueth
the bredth 3 or 4 leages Southwest, with violent swiftnes of flowing and
reflowing, and there agayne he falleth into another Sea, through which due,
South South West, lyeth the cape Froward, and his straight (so rightly
named in the true nature of his peruersnes, for be the wind neuer so
fauorable, at that cape it will be directly agaynst you with violent and
daungerous flaughes) where there are three places probable to continue the
passage. But the true straight lyeth from this cape West Nor West, where
the land is very high all couered with snowe, and full of dangerous
counter-windes, that beate with violence from those huge mountaines, from
which cape the straight is neuer broder then 2 leages and in many places
not halfe a mile, without hope of ancorage, the channell beeing shore deepe
more then tow hundreth fadomes, and so continueth to the South sea forty
leages only to bee releued in little dangerous coues, with many turnings
and chang of courses; how perilous then was this passage to Syr Frauncis
Drake, to whom at that time no parte thereof was knowne. And being without
reliefe of ancorage was inforced to follow his course in the hell darke
nights, and in all the fury of tempestious stormes. I am the bolder to make
this particuler relation in the praise of his perfect constancy and
magnanemitye of spirite, because I haue thrise passed the same straights
and haue felt the most bitter and mercyles fury thereof. But now knowing
the place as I doe (for I haue described euery creke therein) I know it to
be a voiage of as great certaynty, pleasure and ease, as any whatsoeuer
that beareth but 1/4 the distaunce from England that these straightes doe.
And this straight is founde to be 1200 leages from any parte of Africa so
that truely it is manifest that these two landes are by no small distance

And after that Syr Frauncis was entred into the South Seas he coasted all
the Westerne shores of America vntill he came into the Septentrionall
latitude of forty eight degrees being on the backe syde of Newfound land.
And from thence shaping his course towardes Asia found by his trauells that
the Ills of Molucca are distant from America more then two hundreth leages,
howe then can Asia and Africa be conioyned and made one continent to hinder
the passage, the men yet liuing that can reproue the same, but this
conceipt is the bastard of ignorance borne through the fornication of the
malitious multitude that onely desire to hinder when themselues can doe no

Now their onely resteth the North parts of America, vpon which coast my
selfe haue had most experience of any in our age: for thrise I was that
waye imployed for the discouery of this notable passage, by the honourable
care and some charge of Syr Francis Walsingham knight, principall secretary
to her Maiestie, with whom diuers noble men and worshipfull marchants of
London ioyned in purse and willingnesse for the furtherance of that
attempt, but when his honour dyed the voyage was friendlesse, and mens
mindes alienated from aduenturing therein.

[Sidenote: The 1 voyage.] In my first voyage not experienced of the nature
of those climates, and hauing no direction either by Chart, Globe, or other
certaine relation in what altitude that passage was to be searched, I
shaped a Northerly course and so sought the same toward the South, and in
that my Northerly course I fell vpon the shore which in ancient time was
called Groenland, fiue hundred leagues distant from the Durseys
Westnorthwest Northerly, the land being very high and full of mightie
mountaines all couered with snow, no viewe of wood, grass or earth to be
seene, and the shore two leagues off into the sea so full of yce that no
shipping could by any meanes come neere the same. The lothsome view of the
shore, and irksome noyse of the yce was such, as that it bred strange
conceites among vs, so that we supposed the place to be wast and voyd of
any sensible or vegitable creatures, whereupon I called the same
Desolation: so coasting this shore towards the South in the latitude of
sixtie degrees, I found it to trend towards the West, I still followed the
leading therof in the same height, and after fifty or sixtie leagues it
fayled and lay directly North, which I still followed, and in thirtie
leagues sayling vpon the West side of this coast by me named Desolation, we
were past al the yce and found many greene and pleasant Isles bordering
vpon the shore, but the mountaines of the maine were still couered with
great quantities of snow, I brought my ship among those Isles and there
mored to refresh ourselues in our weary trauell, in the latitude of sixtie
foure degrees or there about. The people of the countrey hauing espyed our
shippes came downe vnto vs in their Canoas, and holding vp their right hand
to the Sunne and crying Yliaout, would strike their breasts: we doing the
like the people came aboard our shippes, men of good stature, vnbearded,
small eyed and of tractable conditions, by whome as signes would permit, we
vnderstood that towards the North and West there was a great sea, and vsing
the people with kindenes in giuing them nayles and kniues which of all
things they most desired, we departed, and finding the sea free from yce
supposing our selues to be past al daunger we shaped our course
Westnorthwest thinking thereby to passe for China, but in the latitude of
sixtie sixe degrees we fell with another shore, and there found another
passage of twenty leagues broad directly West into the same, which we
supposed to be our hoped straight, we entered into the same thirty or
fortie leagues, finding it neither to wyden nor streighten, then
considering that the yeere was spent (for this was in the fine of August)
not knowing the length of the straight and dangers thereof, we tooke it our
best course to returne with notice of our good successe for this small time
of search. And so returning in a sharpe fret of Westerly windes the 29. of
September we arriued at Dartmouth. And acquainting master Secretary with
the rest of the honourable and worshipfull aduenturers of all our
proceedings, I was appointed againe the second yere to search the bottome
of this straight, because by all likelihood it was the place and passage by
vs laboured for. [Sidenote: The 2 voyage.] In this second attempt the
marchants of Exeter, and other places of the West became aduenturers in the
action, so that being sufficiently furnished for sixe moneths, and hauing
direction to search these straights, vntill we found the same to fall into
another sea vpon the West side of this part of America, we should againe
returne: for then it was not to be doubted, but shipping with trade might
safely be conueied to China and the parts of Asia. We departed from
Dartmouth, and arriuing vnto the South part of the coast of Desolation
coasted the same vpon his West shore to the latitude of sixetie sixe
degrees, and there ancored among the Isles bordering vpon the same, where
we refreshed our selues, the people of this place came likewise vnto vs, by
whom I vnderstood through their signes that towards the North the sea was
large. At this place the chiefe ship whereupon I trusted, called the
Mermayd of Dartmouth, found many occasions of discontentment, and being
vnwilling to proceed, shee there forsook me. Then considering how I had
giuen my faith and most constant promise to my worshipfull good friend
master William Sanderson, who of all men was the greatest aduenturer in
that action, and tooke such care for the performance thereof that he hath
to my knowledge at one time disbursed as much money as any fiue others
whatsoeuer out of his owne purse, when some of the companie haue bene
slacke in giuing in their aduenture: And also knowing that I should loose
the fauour of M. Secretary Walsingham, if I should shrink from his
direction; in one small barke of 30 Tunnes, whereof M. Sanderson was owner,
alone without farther comfort or company I proceeded on my voyage, and
arriuing at these straights followed the same 80 leagues, vntill I came
among many Islands, where the water did ebbe and flow sixe fadome vpright,
and where there had bene great trade of people to make traine. [Sidenote:
The North parts of America all Islands.] But by such things as there we
found, wee knew that they were not Christians of Europe that had vsed that
trade: in fine by searching with our boat, we found small hope to passe any
farther that way, and therefore retourning agayne recouered the sea and
coasted the shore towards the South, and in so doing (for it was too late
to search towards the North) we found another great inlet neere 40 leagues
broad, where the water entered in with violent swiftnesse, this we also
thought might be a passage: for no doubt the North partes of America are
all Islands by ought that I could perceiue therein: but because I was alone
in a small barque of thirtie tunnes, and the yeere spent, I entred not into
the same, for it was now the seuenth of September, but coasting the shore
towardes the South wee saw an incredible number of birds: hauing diuers
fishermen aboord our barke they all concluded that there was a great skull
of fish, we being vnprouided of fishing furniture with a long spike nayle
made a hooke, and fastening the same to one of our sounding lines, before
the bait was changed we tooke more than fortie great Cods, the fish
swimming so abundantly thicke about our barke as is incredible to bee
reported, of which with a small portion of salt that we had, we presented
some thirtie couple, or thereaboutes, and so returned for England. And
hauing reported to M. Secretarie Walsingham the whole successe of this
attempt, he commanded me to present vnto the most honourable Lord high
Treasurour of England, some part of that fish: which when his Lordship saw,
and heard at large the relation of this second attempt, I receiued
fauourable countenance from his honour, aduising me to prosecute the
action, of which his lordship conceiued a very good opinion. The next yere,
although diuers of the aduenturers fell from the Action, as all the
Westerne marchants, and most of those in London: yet some of the
aduenturers both honorable and worshipfull continued their willing fauour
and charge, so that by this meanes the next yere two shippes were appointed
for the fishing and one pinnesse for the discouerie.

[Sidenote: The 3 voyage.] Departing from Dartmouth, through Gods mercifull
fauour, I arrived at the place of fishing, and there according to my
direction I left the two ships to follow that busines, taking their
faithful promise not to depart vntill my returne vnto them, which should be
in the fine of August, and so in the barke I proceeded for the discouerie:
but after my departure, in sixteene dayes the two shippes had finished
their voyage, but so presently departed for England, without regard of
their promise: my selfe not distrusting any such hard measure proceeded for
the discouerie, and followed my course in the free and open sea betweene
North and Northwest to the latitude of 67 degrees, and there I might see
America West from me, and Desolation, East: then when I saw the land of
both sides I began to distrust it would prooue but a gulfe: notwithstanding
desirous to know the full certainty I proceeded, and in 68 degrees the
passage enlarged, so that I could not see the Westerne shore: thus I
continued to the latitude of 73 degrees, in a great sea, free from yce,
coasting the Westerne shore of Desolation: the people came continually
rowing out vnto me in their Canoas, twenty, forty, and one hundred at a
time, and would giue me fishes dryed, Salmon, Salmon peale, Cod, Caplin,
Lumpe, Stonebase and such like, besides diuers kinds of birds, as Partrige,
Fesant, Guls, Sea birds and other kindes of flesh: I still laboured by
signes to know from them what they knew of any sea toward the North, they
still made signes of a great sea as we vnderstood them, then I departed
from that coast, thinking to discouer the North parts of America: and after
I had sailed towards the West 40 leagues, I fel vpon a great banke of yce:
the winde being North and blew much, I was constrained to coast the same
toward the South, not seeing any shore West from me, neither was there any
yce towards the North, but a great sea, free, large very salt and blew, and
of an vnsearcheable depth: So coasting towards the South I came to the
place where I left the ships to fish, but found them not. Then being
forsaken and left in this distresse referring my self to the mercifull
prouidence of God, I shaped my course for England, and vnhoped for of any,
God alone releeuing me, I arriued at Dartmouth. By this last discouery it
seemed most manifest that the passage was free and without impediment
toward the North: but by reason of the Spanish fleet and vnfortunate time
of M. Secretaries death, the voyage was omitted and neuer sithens
attempted. The cause why I vse this particular relation of all my
proceedings for this discouery, is to stay this obiection, why hath not
Dauis discovered this passage being thrise that wayes imployed? How far I
proceeded and in what form this discouery lieth, doth appeare vpon the
Globe which M. Sanderson to his very great charge hath published, for the
which he deserueth great fauor and commendations. Made by master Emery
Mullineux a man well qualited of a good iudgment and very experte in many
excellente practises, in myselfe being the onely meane with master
Sanderson to imploy master Mulineux therein, whereby he is now growne to a
most exquisite perfection.

Anthony de Mendoza viceroy of Mexico, sent certayne of his captaynes by
land and also a nauy of ships by sea to search out the Norwest passage, who
affirmed by his letters dated from Mexico in anno 1541 vnto the Emperour
being then in Flaunders, that towardes the Norwest hee had founde the
Kingdome of Cette, Citta, Alls, Ceuera, seuen cities and howe beyond the
sayd Kingdome farther towardes the Norwest, Francisco Vasques of Coronado
hauing passed great desarts came to the sea side, where he found certayne
shippes which sayled by that sea with merchandize, and had in their banners
vpon the prows of their shippes, certayne fowles made of golde and siluer,
named Alcatrazzi, and that the mariners signified vnto him by signes that
they were thirtie dayes comming to the hauen, whereby he vnderstoode that
those could be of no other country but of Asia, the next knowne continent
towardes the West. And farther the sayd Anthony affirmed that by men wel
practised hee vnderstoode that 950. leages of that country was discouered
vpon the same Sea, now if the cost in that distance of leages should lye to
the West, it would then adioyne with the Northe partes of Asia, and then it
would be a far shorter voyage then thirtie dayes sayling, but that it is
nothing neere Asia by former authoritie is sufficiently expressed, then if
it should lie towardes the North, it would extend itself almost vnto the
pole, a voiage ouer tedious to be perfourmed by land trauell. Therefore of
necessity this distance of 950 leages must lie betweene the North and East,
which by Anthony de Especio in his late trauells vpon the North of America
is sufficiently discouered, then this beeing so, the distance is very small
betweene the East parte of this discouered Sea and the passage wherein I
haue so painefully laboured, what doth then hinder vs of England vnto whom
of all nations this discouery would be most beneficiall to be incredulous
slow of vnderstanding, and negligent in the highest degree, for the search
of this passage which is most apparently prooued and of wonderfull benefit
to the vniversal state of our countrey. Why should we be thus blinded
seeing our enemies to possess the fruites of our blessednes and yet will
not perceiue the same. But I hope the eternall maiestie of God the sole
disposer of all thinges will also make this to appeare in his good time.

Cornelius Nepos recyteth that when Quintus Metellus Casar was proconsull
for the Romanes in Fraunce, the King of Sueuia gaue him certayne Indians,
which sayling out of India for merchandize were by tempest driuen vpon the
coastes of Germany, a matter very strange that Indians in the fury of
stormes should ariue vpon that coast, it resteth now carefully to consider
by what winde they were so driuen, if they had beene of any parte of Africa
how could they escape the ylls of Cape Verd, or the ylles of Canaria, the
coastes of Spayne, Fraunce, Ireland or England to arriue as they, but it
was neuer knowne that any the natyues of Afric or Ethiopia haue vsed
shippings. Therefore they could not bee of that parte of the worlde, for in
that distance sayling they would haue been starued if no other shore had
giuen them relefe. And that they were not of America is verye manifest, for
vpon all the Est parte of that continent, beeing now thereby discouered, it
hath not at any time beene perceiued that those people were euer accustomed
to any order of shipping, which appeareth by the arriual of Colon vpon
those coastes, for they had his shipping in such wonderfull admiration that
they supposed him and his companie to haue descended from heauen, so rare
and strange a thing was shipping in their eyes. Therefore those Indians
could not bee of America safely to bee driuen vpon the coastes of Germany,
the distance and impedimentes well considered.

Then comming neither from Afric nor America, they must of necessitie come
from Asia by the Noreast or Norwest passages. But it should seme that they
came not by the Noreast to double the promontory Tabin, to bee forced
through the Scithian Sea, and to haue good passage through the narrow
straight of Noua Zemla and neuer to recouer any shore is a matter of great
impossibilitie. Therefore it must heedes be concluded that they came by the
North partes of America through that discouered sea of 950 leages, and that
they were of those people which Francisco Vasques of Coronado discouered,
all which premises considered there remaineth no more doubting but that the
landes are disioyned and that there is a Nauigable passage by the Norwest,
of God for vs alone ordained to our infinite happines and for the euer
being glory of her maiestie, for then her stately seate of London should be
the storehouse of Europe: the nurse of the world: and the renowne of
Nations, in yielding all forraine naturall benifits, by an easie rate, in
short time returned vnto vs, and in the fulnes of their natural perfection:
by natural participation through the world of all naturall and artificiall
benefites, for want whereof at this present the most part liue distressed:
and by the excellent comoditie of her seate, the mightines of her trade,
with force of shipping thereby arising, and most aboundant accesse and
intercourse from all the Kingdomes of the worlde, then should the ydle hand
bee scorned and plenty by industry in all this land should be proclamed.

And therefore the passage prooued and the benefites to all most apparant,
let vs no longer neglect our happines, but like Christians with grilling
and voluntary spirits labour without fainting for this so excellent a

To prooue by experience that the sea fryseth not.

Hauing sufficiensly prooued that there is a passage without a land
impediments to hinder the same, contrary to the first obiection, it nowe
resteth that the other supposed impediments bee likewise answered. And
firste as touching the frost and fresing of the seas, it is supposed that
the frozen zone is not habitable, and seas innauigable by reason of the
vehemencie of cold, by the diuine creator allotted to that part of the
world, and we are drawn into that absurdity of this opinion by a
coniectural reason of the sunnes far distance and long absence vnder the
horizon of the greatest parte of that zone, whereby the working power of
colde perfourmeth the fulnesse of his nature, not hauing any contrary
disposition to hinder the same and when the Sunne by his presence should
comfort that parte of the world, his beames are so far remoued from
perpendicularitie by reason of his continuall neerenes to the horizon, as
that the effectes thereof answere not the violence of the winters cold. And
therefore those seas remayne for euer vndissolued. Which if it be so, that
the nature of cold can congeale the seas, it is very likely that his first
working power, beginneth vpon the vpper face of the waters, and so
descending worketh his effect, which if it were, howe then commeth it to
passe that shippes sayle by the North cape, to Saint Nicholas fiue degrees
or more within the frozen zone, and finde the seas from pester of yse, the
farther from the shore the clearer from yse. And myselfe likewise howe
coulde I haue sayled to the septentrionall latitude of seuentie fiue
degrees, being nine degrees within the frozen zone, betweene two lands
where the sea was straightened not fortie leages broade in some places, and
thereby restrained from the violent motion and set of the maine occian and
yet founde the same Nauigable and free from yse not onely in the midst of
the chanell, but also close aborde the estern shore by me name Desolation,
and therefore what neede the repetition of authorities from writers, or
wrested philosophical reasons, when playne experience maketh the matter so
manifest, and yet I deny not but that I haue seene in some part of those
seas, tow sortes of yse, in very great quantity, as a kind of yse by seamen
name ylands of yse, being very high aboue the water, fortie and fiftie
fadomes by estimation and higher, and euery of those haue beene seuen times
as much vnder the water, which I haue proued by taking a peece of yse and
haue put the same in a vessell of salt water, and still haue found the
seuenth part thereof to bee aboue the water, into what forme soeuer I haue
reduced the same, and this kind of yse is nothing but snow, which falleth
in those great peeces, from the high mountains bordering close vpon the
shore depe seas. (For all the sea coastes of Desolation are mountains of
equall height with the pike of Tenerif with verye great vallies betweene
them) which I haue seene incredible to bee reported, that vpon the toppe of
some of these ylls of yse, there haue beene stones of more then one
hundreth tonnes wayght, which in his fall, that snowe hath torne from the
clyffe, and in falling maketh such an horible noyse as if there were one
hundreth canons shot of at one instant, and this kind of yse is verye
white, and freshe, and with shore winds is many times beaten far of into
the seas, perhaps twentie leages and that is the farthest distance that
they haue euer bin seene from the shore. The other kind is called flake
yse, blue, very hard and thinne not aboue three fadomes thick at the
farthest, and this kinde of yse bordreth close vpon the shore. And as the
nature of heate with apt vessels diuideth the pure spirit from his grosse
partes by the coning practice of distillation: so doth the colde in these
regions deuide and congeale the fresh water from the salt, nere such shores
where by the aboundance of freshe rivers, the saltnes of the sea is
mittigated, and not else where, for all yse in general beeing dissolued is
very fresh water, so that by the experience of all that haue euer trauelled
towardes the North it is well knowne that the sea neuer fryseth, but wee
know that the sea dissolueth this yse with great speede, for in twentie
foure houres I haue seen an ylande of yse turne vp and downe, as the common
phrase is, because it hath melted so fast vnder water that the heauier
parte hathe beene vpwarde, which hath beene the cause of his so turning,
for the heuiest part of all things swiming is by nature downwards, and
therefore sith the sea is by his heate of power to dissolue yse, it is
greatly against reason that the same should be frozen, so that the
congealation of the seas can bee no hinderance to the execution of this
passage, contrary to the former obiection, by late experience reprooued,
yet if experience wanted in ordenary reason men should not suppose nature
to bee monstrous, for if all such yse and snowe as congealeth and
descendeth in the winter did not by natures benefit dissolue in the sommer,
but that the cold were more actual then the heate, that difference of
inequalitie bee it neuer so little would by time bread natures ouerthrowe,
for if the one thousand parte of the yse which in winter is congealed, did
the next sommer remayne vndissolued, that continual difference sithins the
worldes creation, would not onely haue conuerted all those North Seas into
yse, but would also by continuall accesse of snow haue extended himselfe
aboue all the ayers regions by which reason all such exalations as should
be drawn from the earth and seas within the temperate zones and by windes
driuen into these stiffe regions, that moysture was no more to bee hoped
for that by dissolution it should haue any returne, so that by time the
world should be left waterlesse. And therefore how ridiculous this
imagination of the seas frysing is, I refer to the worlds generall opinion.

That the ayre in colde regions is tollerable.

And now for a full answer of all obiections, if the ayre bee proued
tollerable then this most excellent and commodious passage is without al
contradiction to be perfourmed. And that the ayre is tollerable as well in
the winter as in the Sommer is thus proued. The inhabitantes of Moscouia,
Lapland, Swethland, Norway and Tartaria omit not to trauel for their
commodity: in the deepest of winter, passing by sleades ouer the yse and
congealed snowe being made very slipperie and compact like yse by reason of
much wearing and trading, hauing the vse of a kind of stag by them called
Reen to drawe those their sleades.

Groynland (by me lately named Desolation) is likewise inhabited by a people
of good stature and tractable conditions, it also mayntayneth diuers kinde
of foules and beastes which I haue their seene, but know not their names,
and these must trauell for their food in winter, and therefore the ayre is
not intolerable in the extremest nature of coldnes: and for the quality
thereof in Sommer by my owne experience I knowe that vpon the shore it is
as hot there as it is at the ylls of cape de Verde in which place there is
such aboundance of moskeetes, (a kind of gnat that is in India very
offensiue and in great quantitie) as that we were stong with them like
lepers, not beeing able to haue quiet being vpon the shore.

And vnder the clyfe in the pooles vnto which the streames aryse not, I haue
found salt in great plenty as whyte as the salt of Mayo congeled from the
salt water which the spryng tyds bring into those poles, which could not be
but by the benefit of a noble heat, of which salt I brought with me and
gaue to master Secretory Walsingham and to master Sanderson, as a rare
thing to be found in those parts and farther the same was of an
extraordenary saltnes. And therefore it is an idle dreame that the ayre
should there be insufferable, for ourselues haue with the water of those
seas made salt, because we desired to know whether the benefit of the sunne
were the cause of this cogulation, what better confirmation then can there
be then this.

Island is likewise inhabited and yeldeth haukes in great store, as falcons,
Ierfalcons, lanardes and sparrow haukes, rauens, crowes, beares, hares and
foxes, with horses and other kinde of cattell, vpon which coast in August
and September the yse is vtterly dissolued, all which the premises are
certainly verified by such as trade thither from Lubec, Hambro, Amsterdam
and England yerely, then why should wee dread this fayned distemperature:
from cold regions come our most costly furres as sables beeing esteemed for
a principall ornament and the beastes that yeld us those furres are chiefly
hunted in the winter, how grieuous then shall we thinke the winter to be,
or howe insufferable the ayre, where this little tender beast liueth so


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