The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries
Richard Hakluyt

Part 2 out of 8

had a Westerne winde, and somewhat Northerly: and thence he sailed plaine
East along the coast still so far as he was able in the space of 4. dayes.
At the end of which time he was compelled againe to stay till he had a full
Northerly winde, forsomuch as the coast bowed thence directly towards the
South, or at least wise the sea opened into the land he could not tell how
farre: so that he sailed thence along the coast continually full South, so
farre as he could trauaile in 5. dayes; and at the fifth dayes end he
discouered a mightie riuer which opened very farre into the land.
[Sidenote: The Riuer of Duina of likelihood.] At the entrie of which riuer
he stayed his course, and conclusion turned back againe, for he durst not
enter thereinto for feare of the inhabitants of the land; perceiuing that
on the other side of the riuer the countrey was thorowly inhabited: which
was the first peopled land that he had found since his departure from his
owne dwelling: [Sidenote: A Desert countrey. Fynnes.] whereas continually
thorowout all his voyage he had euermore on his steereboord, a wildernesse
and desert countrey, except that in some places, he saw a few fishers,
fowlers, and hunters, which were all Fynnes: and all the way vpon his
leereboord was the maine ocean. [Sidenote: Biarmia.] The Biarmes had
inhabited and tilled their countrey indifferent well, notwithstanding he
was afrayed to go vpon shore. [Sidenote: Terfynnes.] But the countrey of
the Terfynnes lay all waste, and not inhabited, except it were, as we haue
sayd, whereas dwelled certeine hunters, fowlers, and fishers. The Biarmes
tolde him a number of stories both of their owne countrey, and of the
countreys adioyning. Howbeit, he knew not, nor could affirme any thing for
certeine trueth; forsomuch as he was not vpon land, nor saw any himselfe.
[Sidenote: The Fynnes and Biarmes speak one language.] This onely he
iudged, that the Fynnes and Biarmes speake but one language. [Sidenote:
Horsewhales teeth commended.] The principall purpose of his traueile this
way, was to encrease the knowledge and discouerie of these coasts and
countreyes, for the more commoditie of fishing of horsewhales, [Footnote:
Or morses.] which haue in their teeth bones of great price and excellencie:
whereof he brought some at his returne vnto the king. [Sidenote: Use of the
morses skins for cables.] Their skinnes are also very good to make cables
for shippes, and so vsed. This kinde of whale is much lesse in quantitie
then other kindes, hauing not in length or aboue seuen elles. And as for
the common kind of whales, the place of most and best hunting of them is in
his owne countrey: whereof some be 48. elles of length, and some 50. of
which sort he affirmed that he himselfe was one of the sixe, which in the
space of 3. dayes killed threescore. He was a man of exceeding wealth in
such riches, wherein the wealth of that countrey doth consist. [Sidenote:
Sixe hundreth raine Deere.] At the same time that he came to the king, he
had of his owne breed 600. tame Deere, of that kinde which they call Rane
Deere: of the which number 6, were stall Rane Deere, a beast of great
value, and maruellously esteemed among the Fynnes, for that with them they
catch the wilde Rane Deere. He was among the chiefe men of his countrey
one: and yet he, had but 20. kine, and 20. swine, and that little which he
tilled, he tilled it all with horses. [Sidenote: The Fynnes trubute.] Their
principall wealth consisteth in the tribute which the Fynnes pay them,
which is all in skinnes of wilde beasts, feathers of birds, whale bones,
and cables, and tacklings for shippes made of Whales or Seales skinnes.
[Sidenote: Note. Cables of Whales and Seales skins.] Euery man payeth
according to his abilities. The richest pay ordinarily 15. cases of
Marterns, 5. Rane Deere skinnes, and one Beare, ten bushels of feathers, a
coat of a Beares skinne, two cables threescore elles long a piece, the one
made of Whales skin, the other Seales.

He sayd, that the countrey of Norway was very long and small. So much of it
as either beareth any good pasture, or may be tilled, lieth vpon the Sea
coast, which notwithstanding in some places is very rockie and stonie:
[Sidenote: A description of Norway.] and all Eastward all along against the
inhabited land, lie wilde and huge hilles and mountaines, which are in some
places inhabited by the Fynnes. The inhabited land is broadest toward the
South & the further it stretcheth towards the North, it groweth euermore
smaller and smaller. Towards the South it is peraduenture threescore miles
in bredth or broader in some places: about the middest, 30 miles or aboue,
and towards the North where it is smallest, he affirmeth that it proueth
not three miles from the Sea to the mountaines. [Sidenote: The bredth of
the mountaines.] The mountaines be in breadth of such quantitie, as a man
is able to traueile ouer in a fortnight, and in some places no more then
may be trauailed in sixe dayes. [Sidenote: Swethland. Queeneland.] Right
ouer against this land in the other side of the mountaines, somewhat
towards the South lieth Swethland, and against the same towards the North,
lieth Queeneland. The Quenes sometimes passing the mountaines, inuade and
spoile the Normans: and on the contrary part, the Normans likewise
sometimes spoile their countrey. [Sidenote: Boats caried on mens backs.]
Among the mountaines be many and great lakes in sundry places of fresh
water, into the which the Queenes vse to carie their boats vpon their backs
ouer lande, and thereby inuade and spoile the countrey of the Normans.
These boats of theirs be very little and very light.

* * * * *

The voyage of Octher out of his countrey of Halgoland into the sound of
Denmarke vnto a port called Hetha, which seemeth to be Wismer or

Octher sayd that the countrey wherein he dwelled, was called Halgoland: and
affirmed that there was no man dwelling towards the North from him. From
this countrey towards the South, there is a certeine port [Marginal note:
Or streight.] [Footnote: It seemeth to be about Elsenborg--_Original
note_.] called Scirings hall, whither, he sayth that a man was not able
to saile in a moneths space, if he lay still by night, although he had
euery day a full winde. [Sidenote: The description of the Sound of
Denmarke.] And he shall saile all the way along the coast, hauing on his
steereboord, first Iutland and the Islands which lie betwixt this countrey
& Iutland, still along the coast of this countrey, till he came to Scirings
hall hauing it on his larboord. At Scirings hall there entreth into the
land a maine gulfe of the Sea, which is so broad, that a man cannot see
ouer it: [Sidenote: Gotland.] and on the other side against the same, is
Gotland, and then Silland. This sea stretcheth many hundreth miles vp into
the land. [Sidenote: Vandals.] From Scirings hall he sayd that be sailed in
5. dayes to the port which is called Hetha, which lieth betwixt the
countries of Wendles, Saxons, and Angles, whereunto it is subiect. And as
he sailed thitherward from Scirings hall, he had vpon his steereboord
Denmarke, and on his leereboord the maine sea, for the space of 3. dayes:
[Sidenote: Hetha but two dayes sayling from Seland.] and 2. dayes before,
he arriued in Hetha, [Footnote: It seemeth to be Wismer or Rostocke--
_Original note_.] he had Gotland on leerboord, and Silland. with
diuers other Islands. In that countrey dwelt English men, before they came
into this land. And these 2. days he had vpon his leereboord the Islands
that are subiect to Denmarke.

* * * * *

Wolstans nauigation in the East sea, from Hetha to Trusco, which is about

Wolstan sayd, that he departed from Hetha, and arriued at Trusco, in the
space of 7. dayes, and 7. nights: during which time, his shippe kept her
course continually vnder saile. All this voyage Wenedland [Footnote:
Prussia.] was still vpon his steerboord, and on his leerboord was Langland,
Layland, Falster, and Sconie: all which countreyes are subiect to Denmarke.
[Sidenote: Bargenland or Borholme.] Vpon his leerboord also, was
Bargenland, which hath a priuate king, to whom it is subiect. Hauing left
Bargenland, he passed by Blekingie, Meere, Eland and Gotland, hauing them
on his leerboord: all which countreys are subiect to Sweden: and Wenedland
was all the way vpon his steerboord, vntil he came to Wixel mouth.
[Sidenote: Wixel is the riuer that falleth into the sea by Dantzig.] Wixel
is a very great riuer which runneth along betwixt Witland and Wenedland.
Witland is appertaining to the Easterlings, and the riuer of Wixel runneth
out of Wenedland into Eastmeere, which Eastmeere is at the least 15. miles
in breadth. [Sidenote: Fuso.] There runneth also another riuer called
Ilsing from the East, and falleth into Eastmeere, out of another lake vpon
the banke, whereupon is situated Fruso. So that Vsing commmg out of
Eastland, [Footnote: Lithuania.] and Wixel out of Wenedland, both fall
together into Eastmeere, and there Wixel depriueth Ilsing of his name, and
runneth thence West & North into the sea; whereof the place is called

[Sidenote: The description of Eastland.] Eastland is a very large land, and
there be many cities and townes withtn it, and in euery one of them is a
king: whereby there is continually among them great strife and contention.
There is great plentie of hony and fish.

[Sidenote: Mares milke a chiefe drinke.] The wealthiest men drinke commonly
Mares milke, and the poore people and slaues meade. There is no ale brewed
among the Easterlings, but of mead there is plentie.

* * * * *

The nauigation of King Edgar, taken out of Florentius Wigoriensis, Houeden,
and M. Dee his discourse of the Brittish Monarchie, pag. 54, 55, &c.

I haue often times (sayd he) and many wayes looked into the state of
earthly kingdomes, generally the whole world ouer (as farre as it may be
yet knowen to Christian men commonly) being a studie of no great
difficultie, but rather a purpose somewhat answerable to a perfect
Cosmographer, to finde himselfe Cosmopolites, a citizen and member of the
whole and onely one mysticall citie vniuersall, and so consequently to
meditate of the Cosmopoliticall gouernment thereof, vnder the King
almightie, passing on very swiftly toward the most dreadfull and most
comfortable terme prefixed.

And I finde (sayd he) that if this British Monarchie would heretofore haue
followed the aduantages which they haue had onward, they might very well,
yer this, haue surpassed by iustice, and godly sort, any particular
Monarchie els, that euer was on earth since mans creation, and that to all
such purposes as to God are most acceptable, and to all perfect common
wealths, most honorable, profitable, and comfortable.

But yet (sayd he) there is a little locke of Lady Occasion flickering in
the aire, by our hands to catch hold on, whereby we may yet once more
(before all be vtterly past, and for euer) discreetly and valiantly recouer
and enioy, if not all our ancient & due appurtenances to this Imperiall
Brittish monarchie, yet at the least some such notable portion thereof, as
(al circumstances duely and iustly appertaining to peace & amitie with
forrein princes being offred & vsed) this may become the most peaceable,
most rich, most puissant, & most florishing monarchie of al els (this day)
in chnstendome. Peaceable, I say, euen with the most part of the selfe same
respects that good king Edgar had (being but a Saxon) and by sundry such
meanes, as he chiefly in this Empire did put in proofe and vse
triumphantly, whereupon his sirname was Pacificus, most aptly and iustly.
This peaceable king Edgar had in his minde about six hundred yeeres past,
the representation of a great part of the selfe same IdŠa, which from aboue
onely, & by no mans deuise hath streamed downe into my imagination, being
as it becommeth a subiect carefull for the godly prosperitie of this
British Empire vnder our most peaceable Queene Elizabeth.

For, Ădgaros pacificus, Regni sui prospiciens vtilitati, pariter & quieti,
quatuor millia octingentas sibi robustas congregauit naues Ŕ quibus mille
ducentas, in plaga AngliŠ Orientali, mille ducentas in Occidentali, mille
ducentas in Australi, mille ducentas in Septentrionali pelago constituit,
vt ad defensionem regni sui, contra exteras nationes, bellorum discrimina
sustinerent. [Footnote: _Translation_: "Edgar the Pacific, looking
forward to the benefit and peace of his kingdom, collected Four Thousand
Eight Hundred powerful ships, of which he stationed One Thousand Two
Hundred on the East Coast of England, One Thousand Two Hundred on the West
Coast, One Thousand Two Hundred on the South Coast, and One Thousand Two
Hundred on the Northern Coast, in order to be prepared for war in defence
of his kingdom against foreign nations."]

O wisedome imperiall, most diligently to be imitated, _videlicet,
prospicere_, to foresee. O charitable kingly parent, that was touched
with ardent zeale, for procuring the publike profite of his kingdome, yea
and also the peaceable enioying thereof. O, of an incredible masse of
treasure, a kingly portion, yet, in his coffers remayning: if then he had,
(or late) before any warres, seeing no notable taxe, or contribution publike
is historically mentioned to haue bene for the charges leuied: if in peace
he himselfe flourished so wealthily: O marueilous politicall, & princely
prudencie, in time of peace to foresee, and preuent, (and that most
puissantly, and inuinciblly) all possible malice, fraude, force, and
mischiefe forrain. O most discreet liberalitie to such excellent vses,
powring out his treasure so abundantly. O faithfull English people (then,)
and worthy subiects, of such an Imperiall and godly Gouernour. O your true,
and willing hearts, and blessed ready hands (then,) so to impart such
abundance of victuals for those huge Names maintenance: so (I say) as
neither dearth of famine, seemed (fondly) to be feared of you, for any
intolerable want likely to ensue thereby, nor prices of victuals complained
of to be vnreasonable enhaunsed by you, finding, for their great sales so
good, and rare opportunitie.

This peaceable king Edgar, was one of the perfect Imperiall Monarches of
this British Empire, and therefore thus his fame remaineth (for euer)

[Sidenote: Charta Regis Henrici secundi.] Anglici orbis Basileus, flos, &
decus Ădgarus, non minus memorabilis Anglis, quÓm Cyrus Persis, Romulus
Romanis, Alexander Macedonibus, Arsaces Parthis, Carolus Francis, Anno vitŠ
37. Regni sui c¨m fratre, & post 21. Idibus Iulij obijt, & apud Glascon
sepelitur. [Footnote: _Translation_: "The king of the English realm,
that flower (of kings) and renowned Edgar, not less famous amongst the
English than Cyrus amongst the Persians, Romulus amongst the Romans,
Alexander amongst the Macedonians, Arsaces amongst the Parthians, Charles
(the Great) amongst the Franks, in the 37th year of his age and 21st year
of his reign with his brother and alone, died on the Ides of July, and was
buried at Glastonbary."]

O Glastonbury, Glastonbury, the treasurie of the carcases of so famous, and
so many persons (_QuŠ olim mater sanctorum dicta es, & ab alijs, tumulus
sanctorum, quam ab ipsis discipulis Domini, Šdificatam fuisse venerabilis
habet Antiquorum authoritas_) how lamentable is thy case nowe? howe hath
hypocrisie and pride wrought thy desolation? though I omit here the names
of very many other, both excellent holy men, and mighty princes, whose
carcases are committed to thy custody, yet that Apostolike Ioseph, that
triumphant British Arthur, and nowe this peaceable and prouident Saxon king
Edgar, doe force me with a certaine sorowful reuerence, here to celebrate
thy memorie.

[Sidenote: Ranulphus Cestrinis.] This peaceable king, Edgar, (as by ancient
Recordes may appeare) his Sommer progresses, and yerely chiefe pastimes
were, the sailing round about this whole Isle of Albion, garded with his
grand name of 4000. saile at the least, parted into 4. equall parts of
petie Nauies, eche one being of 1000. ships, for so it is anciently

Idem quoque Ădgarus 4000. naues congregauit, ex quibus omni anno, post
festum Paschale, 1000. naues ad quamlibet AngliŠ partem statuit, sic,
Šstate Insulam circumnauigauit: hyeme ver˛, iudicia in Prouincia exercuit:
& hŠc omnia ad sui exercitium & ad hostium fecit terrorem. [Footnote:
_Translation_: "The same Edgar collected Four Thousand ships, of which
each year, after Easter, he placed One Thousand on each side of England,
and thus sailed round the Island in summer; but in winter he rendered
justice throughout the country; and he did all this for the practice of his
own navy and the terror of his enemies."]

Could, and would that peaceable & wise king Edgar, before need, as being in
peace and quiet with all nations about him, and notwithstanding mistrusting
his possible enemies, make his pastimes so roially, politically and
triumphantly, with so many thousand ships, and at the least with ten times
so many men as ships and that yerely? and shall we being not assured of
such neighbors friendship as may become to vs as cruel and tyrannicall
enemies as neuer king Edgar needed to dread the like, and they as many and
mighty princes, as neuer king Edgar coped with the like, shall we (said he)
not iudge it some part of wisdome, to imitate carefully in some litle
proportion (though not with so many thousands) the prosperous pastimes of
peaceable king Edgar, that Saxonicall Alexander? yea, prosperous pastimes
these may be iustly counted, by which he also made euident to the whole
world, that as he wisely knew the ancient bounds and limits of this British
Empire, so that he could and would royally, iustly, and triumphantly enioy
the same, spite of the deuil, and maugre the force of any forreine
potentate. And al that, so highly and faithfully to the glory of God
finally intended and brought to passe, as the wisest and godliest prelates
and counsellors of those dayes (so counted of and recorded) coulde best
aduise and direct him, or perchance, but sincerely commend and duetifully
incourage him in, he being of himselfe so bent, as purposing first
inuincibly to fortifie the chiefe and vttermost walles of his Islandish
Monarchie, against all forreine encombrance possible. And in that
fortification furthering and assuring to trust best his owne ouersight and
iudgement, in yerely viewing the same in euery quarter thereof, and that as
it were for his pastime Imperiall, also in Sommer time, to the ende that
afterward in all securitie, hee might in Winter time (_vacare_) be at
conuenient leisure on land, chiefly to set foorth God's due honour and
secondly to vnderstand and diligently to listen to the causes and
complaints of his commons. For as Mattheus Westmonasteriensis of him to his
Imperiall commendation hath left vs a remembrance.

Habebat autem prŠterea consuetudinem, per omnes Regni prouincias transire,
vt intelligeret quomodo legum iura, & suorum statuta decretorum, a
principibus obseruarentur, & ne pauperes Ó potentibus prŠiudicium passi,
opprimerentur diligenter inuestigare solebat; in vno fortitudini, in altero
Iustitia studens & Reipub. regnÝque vtilitati consulens in vtroque. Hinc
hostibus circumqußque timor, & amor omnium erga eum excreuerat subditorum.
[Footnote: _Translation_: "He had, besides the habit of travelling
through all the provinces of the kingdom, to ascertain how the enactments
of the law and the ordinances of his decrees were carried out by those in
authority; and he was careful that the poor who suffered injury from those
in power should have justice done them, promoting courage in one, justice
in another, in both ways benefiting the Crown and State. Thus on every side
the fear of his enemies and the love of his subiects increased."]

Thus we see how in opportunitie, this peaceable Edgar procured to this
Empire such prosperous securitie, that his true and faithfull subiects, all
maner of wayes (that is at home and also at sea, both outward and inward)
might peaceably, safely and sccurely employ their wits and trauels for the
marueilous enriching of this kingdome and pleasuring very many other,
carying forth the naturall commodities of this land, abounding here aboue
our necessity vses (and due store reserued) and likewise againe furnishing
the same with all necessary and not superfluous forreine commodities, fet
from farre or foreign countreys. This was in deed (as before is recorded) a
kingly prouidence. Reipub. Regnique vtilitati consulens, &c. besides with
great vtilitie and profite publique foreseene and by his meanes enioyed, he
himselfe vsed most gladly the aduantage of that securitie, in ministring of
iustice or causing the same to be executed all his kingdome ouer not
squemishly, frowningly or skornefully shunning the ragged and tattered
sleeue of any suppliant, holding vp to him a simple soiled bill of
complaint or petition, and that homely contriued, or afrayde at, and
timerously hasting from the sickly pale face or feeble limmed suter,
extreemely constrained so to speake for himselfe, nor parcially smoothering
his owne conscience, to fauour or mainteine the foule fault and trespasse
vnlawfull of any his subiects, how mightie or necessary soeuer, they (els)
were, but diligently made search, least Pauperes a potentibus prŠiudicium
passi, opprimerentur.

Thus did publique securitie from forrein foe abroad, and true loue of his
owne subiects, garding him at home, and the heauenly spirit directing all
his good purposes, cause iustice and equitie in all quarters of this Albion
to flourish. For which his peaceable and prosperous benefits at the
eternall king his hand obteined, hee became not insolent or declined to
tyrannicall regiment (as some princes in other countreis haue made their
liues Comicotragical) but with all his foresaide inunicible Sea-force,
aboundant wealth, triumphant peace, with securitie and Iustice ouer all his
Monarchie preuailing, his heart was continually, and most zealously bent to
set foorth the glory, laude and honour of the Almightie Creator, the
heauenly and euerlasting king, by such principall and princely meanes, as
(then) were deemed to God most acceptable, as many monuments yet to our
dayes remaining, do of him vndoubtedly testifie: As this, for one
[Footnote: Ex charta fundationis EcclesiŠ Cathedralis WigorniŠ.]

Altitonantis Dei largiflua clementia, qui est rex Regium, Ego Ădgarus
Anglorum Basileus omni˙mque Regum, Insulatum, Oceanique Britanniam
circumiacentis, cunctar˙mque nationum quŠ infra eam includuntur, Imperator,
& Dominus, gratias ago ipsi Deo omnipotenti, Regi meo, qui meum Imperium
sic ampliauit, & exaltauit super regnum patrum meorum: qui licet Monarchiam
totius AngliŠ adepti sunt a tempore Athelstani (qui primus regnum Anglorum,
& omnes Nationes, quŠ Britanniam incolunt, sibi Armis subegit) nullus tamen
eorum vltra eius fines imperium suum dilatare aggressus est. Mihi autem
concessit propitia Diuinitas, cum Anglorum Imperio, omnia regna Insularum
Oceani, c¨m suis ferocissimis Regibus, vsque Noruegiam, maximßmque partem
HyberniŠ, c¨m sua nobilissima Ciuitate Dublinia, Anglorum regno subiugare:
Duos etiam omnes, meis Imperijs colla subdere (Dei laudente gratia) coegi.
Quaproptcr & ego Christi gloriam, & laudem exaltare, & eius seruitium
amplificare deuotus disposui, & per meos fideles Fautores, Dunstanum, viz.
Archiepiscopum, Athelwoldum, & Oswaldum episcopos (quos mihi patres
spirituales, & Consiliatores elegi) magna er parte, secundum quod disposui,
effeci, &c. [Footnote: _Translation_ "By the wide-extending Grace of the
mighty God of Thunders, who is king of kings, I, Edgar, king of Angles and
of all Kingdoms, and Islands, and of the Ocean lying around Britain,
Emperor and Lord of all the nations therein contained, return thanks to
that same, all-powerful God, my king, who has thus extended my Empire and
exalted me above the state of my forefathers, who, although they held sway
ouer all England from the days of Athelstan (who first conquered the
kingdom of the Angles and all the nations which inhabit Britain) yet none
attempted to extend his empire beyond the frontiers of Athetstan's kingdom.
Favouring Providence, however, has permitted me, together with the throne
of England, to add thereto all the kingdoms of the Islands of the Ocean,
with their warlike kings, as far as Norway, and the greater part of
Ireland, with its very powerful city of Dublin, all of whom, by the help of
God, I have compelled, to bow the neck to my power. Wherefore I desire to
exalt the glory and praise of Christ, and increase His worship, and by my
faithful counsellors, viz., Dunstan the Archbishop and Athelwold and
Oswald, bishops (whom I have chosen to be my spiritual Fathers and
Aduisers), I have in a great measure performed what I intended etc."]

And againe this in another Monument. [Footnote: Fundatio EcclesiŠ
Cathedralis Eliensis.]

Omnipotentis Dei, &c. Ipsius nutu & gratia suffultus, Ego Ădgarus Basileus
dilectŠ InsulŠ Albionis, subditis nobis sceptris Scotorum, Cumbrorum, ac
Brytonum, & omnium circumcirca Regionum, quieta pace perfruens, studiosus
sollicitŔ de laudibus creatoris omnium occupo addendis. Ne nunc inertia,
nostrÝsque diebus (plus Šquo) seruitus eius tepescere videatur, &c. 18. mei
terreni Imperij anno, &c. Anno Incarnationis DominicŠ, 973.

Ego Ădgarus totius Albionis Basileus hoc priuilegium (tanta roboratum
authontate) crucis.

Thaumate confirmaui. [Footnote: _Translation_ "In the name of Almighty God,
etc. Strengthened by the favour and grace of God, I, Edgar, king of the
favoured Isle of Albion having made subject to us the kingdoms of the
Scots, the Cumbrians, the Britons, and all regions around, in the enjoyment
of quiet peace, being anxious, to increase the praise of the Creator of all
things, in order that lukewarmness may not appear to render His worship
less earnest in these our days, etc., in the 18th year of my earthly reign,
and the year of the Holy Incarnation 973. etc., I, Edgar, king of all
Albion, haue confirmed that privilege, etc."]

So that by all these rehearsed Records, it is most euident that the
peaceable king Edgar, was one of those Monarchs, in whose handes (if life
had suffised) the incredible value and priuiledge granted by God and nature
vnto this British monarchie might haue bene peaceably purchased in such
sort, as the very blessing and fauour of the diuine Trinitie hath laid
meanes for our industrie to attaine to, and enioye the same by.

And though sundry other valiant princes and kings of this land I could
recite, which in times past haue either by intent gone about or by wise and
valiant exploit, haue meetely well prospered towards this Islandish
appropriate supremacie attaining, yet neuer any other reasonable meanes was
vsed, or by humane wit, or industrie can be contriued, to al purposes
sufficient, but only by our sea forces preuailing, and so by our inuincible
enioying al within the sea limites of our British royaltie contained.

To which incredible political mysterie attaining, no easier, readier or
perfecter plat and introduction, is (as yet) come to my imagination then is
the present and continuall seruice of threescore good and tall warlike
ships, with twentie smaller barkes, and those 80. ships (great and smal)
with 6660. apt men furnished, and all singularly well appointed for seruice
both on sea and land, faithfully and diligently to be done in such
circumspect and discreet order as partly I haue in other places declared,
and further (vpon good occasion offered) may declare.

This grand name of peaceable King Edgar, of so many thousand ships, and
they furnished with an hundred thousand men at the least, with all the
finall intents of those sea forces, so inuincible, continually maintained,
the order of the execution of their seruice, the godly and Imperial
successe thereof, are in a maner kingly lessons and prophetical
incouragements to vs left, euen now to bee as prouident for publique
securitie as he was, to be as skilful of our sea right and royal limits,
and wisely to finde our selues as able to recouer and enioy the same as he
was, who could not chuse, but with the passing and yeerely sayling about
this British Albion, with all the lesser Isles next adiacent round about
it, he could not chuse I say, but by such ful and peaceable possession,
find himselfe (according to right, and his hearts desire) the true and
soueraigne Monarch of all the British Ocean, enuironing any way his empire
of Albion and Ireland, with the lesser Islands next adiacent: with memorial
whereof, as with one very precious iewel Imperial, hee adorned the title
and crowne of his regalitie, as with the testimonie annexed of the states
and nobles of his Empire, to commit to perpetuall memorie, the stile of his
chiefe worldly dignitie, in this very tenor of words before also remembred.

[Sidenote: Note the Queenes Maiesties royaltie ouer the British Ocean sea,
round about the British Empire.] Ego Ădgarus Anglorum Basileus, omni˙mque
Regum, Insularum, Oceanique Britanniam circumiacentis, cunctar˙mque
nationum, quŠ infra eam includuntur, Imperator, & Dominus.

* * * * *

The voyage of Edmund and Edward the sonnes of King Edmund Ironside into
Hungarie, Anno D. 1017. Recorded by Florentius Wigorniensis pag. 391.

[Sidenote: An. Dom. 1017.] Dedit consilium Edricus Canuto regi, vt
clitunculos Eadwardum & Eadmundum regis Eadmundi filios necaret. Sed quia
magnum dedecus sibi videbatur, vt in Anglia perimerentur, paruo elapso
tempore, ad regem Suauorum occidendos misit. Qui, licŔt foedus esset inter
eos, precibus illius nullaten¨s voluit acquiescere, sed illos ad regem
Hungarorum Salomonem nomine misit nutriendos vitŠque reseruandos. Quorum
vnus scilicet Eadmundus processu temporis ibidem vitam finiuit. Eadwardus
ver˛ Agatham filiam Germani Imperatoris Henrici in matrimonium accepit, ex
qua Margaretam Scotorum reginam, & Christinam Sanctimonialem, & Clitonem
Eadgarum suscepit. [Footnote: "Pus par le conseil le duc Edric aveit il en
pense de aver tue les fiz le re Edmund; cest a dire, Eduuard e Edmun. Mes
pur ceo ke il fust avis ke ceo eust este grant honte ali, si il les eust
fet tuer en Engleterre, e pur ceo ke il se duta ausi ke se il demorassent
en Engleterre ke il pensent en prendre contre lui, il les envea al rei de
Sueue, e ly manda ke il les meist ala mort: ki ne, voleit unkes fere sa
priere mes les envea a Salomon le rei de Hungrie pur nurir. E tant com il
furunt la, Edmund morust tost, e Eduuard prist a femme Agathe la filie le
emperour Henri, de la quele il engendra Margarete, ki pus fust reyne de
Escoce, e Edgar" (_Le Liuere de reis de Engleterre_, MS in Trinity College,

The same in English

Edric counselled king Kanutus to murther the young princes Edward and
Edmund the sonnes of King Edmund. But because it seemed a thing very
dishonourable vnto him to haue them put to death in England, hee sent them,
after a short space, vnto the king of Sweden to be slaine. Who, albeit
there was a league betweene them, would in no case condescend vnto Canutus
his bloody request, but sent them vnto Salomon [Footnote: An error for
_Stephen_ the Holy, who married the sister of Henry II William of
Malmesbory makes Agatha the niece of Henry and daughter of Stephen.] the
king of Hungarie to be nourished and preserued aliue. The one whereof
namely Edmund in processe of time there deceased. But Edward receiued to
wife Agatha daughter vnto the Germane Emperour Henry of whom he begot
Margaret the Queene of the Seots, and Christina a Nunne, and Clito Edgar.
[Footnote: Edgar Atheling]

* * * * *

Chronicle of the Kings of Man, taken out of M. Camdens Chorographie.

In the yeere of our Lord 1066, Edward King of England, of famous memory
deceased, whom Harald sonne of Godwin succeeded in his kingdome, against
which Harald the king of Norwaie called Harald Harfager fought a battel at
Stamford bridge, where the English winning the fielde put all the
Norwegians to flight: [Footnote: "Memes cel an Harald le rey de Norweye,
frere Seint Olaf, ariva al flum de Tine a Nof Chastel ou plus de Ve granz
neofs, a ki le connte Tostin, le frere le rey Harald de Engletere, vint ou
sa nauie, si com il aveient fet covenant en semble, e vindrunt sus a
Richale (_Richmond_) e destrurent tut le pais de Euerwyk (_York_) E Kant
ceo out oy Harald, le rei de Engletere, tant tost se mist conntre eus ou
son ost en vn liu ki hom apele Stamfordbrigge e la twa il le rey de Norweye
e Tostin son frere de meine, e grant partie del ost. Mes IX. de ses
chivalers pus le lesserent, pur ceo ke il ne les voleit ren doner de la
preye ki il prist des Norreis." (_Le Liuere de reis de Engleterre_ MS in
Trinity College, Cambridge.)] out of which flight one Godredus surnamed
Crouan (the sonne of Harald the blacke, who had before time fled out of
Island) repaired vnto Godred sonne of Syrric who then reigned in Man and
was right friendly and honourably enterteined by him.

[Sidenote: Fingal.] In the very same yeere William the Conquerour subdued
England and Godred the sonne of Syrric, king of Man, deceased, after whom
succeeded his sonne Fingal.

In the yeere 1066. Godredus Crouan gathered a fleete of ships, and sailed
vnto Man, and giuing battell vnto the people of the countrey, was
vanquished and put to flight. The second time also hauing gathered his
armie and ships together, hee came vnto Man, fought with the inhabitants,
lost the victorie, and was chaced away. Yea, the third time [Footnote: in
1077] he assembled a great multitude, and comming by night vnto the port
which is called Ramsa, [Footnote: Ramsay] hid 300. of his men in a wood
standing vpon the side of the hill called Scacafel. The Sunne was no sooner
vp, but the Mannians arranged themselues and with great furie set vpon
Godred. And in the midst of the skirmish, the foresaid 300. men rising out
of their ambush, and comming vpon the backes of the Mannians, molested them
so sore, that they were enforced to flie. But when they saw that they were
ouercome and had no place of refuge to retire vnto (for the tide of the sea
had filled the chanel of the riuer of Ramsa [Footnote: The riuer Colby])
and seeing the enemie so fiercely pursuing them on the other side, they
which remained, with lamentable outcries beseeched Godred to spare their
liues. Then hee being mooued with compassion, and pitying their extreme
calamitie, because hee had bene of late sustained and nourished among them,
sounded a retreat and forbad his souldiers to make any longer pursuit. The
day following Godred put his souldiers to their choice, whether they would
diuide Man among themselues and inhabite it, or whether they would take the
wealth of the countrey, and so returne vnto their owne home. Howbeit, it
pleased them better to waste the whole Island and to enrich themselues with
the commodities thereof, and so to returne from whence they came. Nowe
Godred himselfe with a fewe Islanders which had remained with him, tooke
possession of the South part of the Island, and vnto the remnant of the
Mannians he granted the North part thereof, vpon condition, that none of
them should at any time afterward dare once to chalenge any parcell of the
said ground by title of inheritance. Whereupon it commeth to passe, that
vnto this day the whole Island is the kings owne Fee-simple, and that all
the reuenues thereof pertaine vnto him. [Sidenote: Boats hauing not past
three yron nailes in them] Also Godredus subdued Dublin vnto himselfe & a
great part of Lainestir. And he so tamed the Scots, that none of them durst
build a ship or a boate, with aboue three yron nailes in it. Hee reigned
16. yeeres and died in the Island called Yle. [Footnote: Yell, a northern
island of the Shetland group, seventeen miles by seven.] He left behinde
him three sonnes, Lagman, Harald, and Olauus. Lagman being the eldest
chalenged the kingdome and reigned seuen yeeres. Howbeit Harald his brother
rebelled against him a long time, but being at length taken by Lagman, hee
was gelt and had his eyes put out. Afterward Lagman repenting him that he
had put out the eyes of his brother, did of his owne accord relinquish his
kingdome, and taking vpon him the badge of the crosse, he went on
pilgrimage to Ierusalem, in which iourney also he died.

In the yeere 1075. all the principall men of the Islands hauing
intelligence of the death of Lagman, sent messengers vnto Murccardus
O-Brien King of Irland, requesting him that hee would send some
wel-disposed person of his owne kinred and blood royall, vntill Olauus
sonne of Godred were come to full age. The king most willingly condescended
vnto their request, and sent vnto them one Dopnald the sonne of Tade,
charging and commaunding him that with all meekenesse and modestie, hee
should gouerne that kingdome, which of right belonged not vnto him. Howbeit
he, after he had once attained vnto the kingdome, neglecting the
commaundement of his lord, vsurped the gouernment with great tyrannie,
committing many heinous crimes, and so he reigned very disorderly for the
space of three yeeres. Then all the princes of the Islands making a
generall conspiracie, banded themselues against him, and expelled him out
of their dominions. And he flying into Irland returned no more vnto them.

In the yeere 1077. one Ingemundus was sent from the king of Norway, to take
possession of the kingdome of the Islands. And being come vnto the Island
of Leodus, [Footnote: Lewis.] he sent messengers vnto all the princes of
the Islands to come vnto him, commaunding them to assemble themselues, and
to appoint him to be their King. In the meane season he and his companions
spent their time in robbing and rioting, rauished women and virgines, and
addicted themselues to filthy pleasures and to the lustes of the flesh. And
when these things, were reported vnto the princes of the Islands, who had
assembled themselues to chuse him king, being mightely incensed thereat,
they made haste towards him, and comming vpon him in the night they burnt
the house wherein hee was and slue both him and the rest of his company,
partly with sword and partly with fire.

In the yeere 1008. the abbey of S. Manes at Cistertrum was founded. In the
same yeere also Antiochri was taken by the Chnstians and a Comet appeared.

Moreouer the same yeere there was a battel fought betweene the inhabitants
of Man at Santwat [Footnote: In the parish of Jurby.] and they of the North
obtained the victory. In which battell were slaine Earle Othor and
Mac-Maras chieftaines of both parts.

The same yeere Magnus king of Norway, sonne of Olauus, sonne of Harald
Harfagre, being desirous to view the corpse of S. Olauus king and Martyr,
gaue commaundment that his monument should be opened. But the Bishop and
the Clergie withstanding this his attempt, the king went very boldly and by
his kingly authoritie caused the cophin to be opened. And when hee had
scene with his eyes and handled with his hands the incorrupt body of the
foresaid King and Martyr, a sudden feare came vpon him and he departed with
great haste. The night following Olauus king and Martyr appeared vnto him
in a vision saying: Chuse (I say) vnto your selfe one of these two, either
within 30. dayes to lose your life with your kingdome, or else to depart
from Norway and neuer to see it againe. The King so soone as he was awaked
out of sleepe, called his princes and Senatours, and expounded the
foresaide vision vnto them. And they also being astonished thereat gaue him
this counsell, that with all speed he should depart out of Norway. Then he
without any further delay caused a Nauie of 160. ships to be prouided, and
so sailed vnto the Islands of Orkney, which hee presently subdued, and
passing along through all the Islands and conquering them at length he came
vnto the Isle of Man, where he was no sooner arriued, but hee went vnto the
Isle of S. Patric to see the place of battell, where the inhabitants of Man
had of late fought, because many of the dead bodies were as yet vnburied.
And seeing that it was a most beautifull Island, it pleased him exceeding
well, and therefore hee made choice to inhabite therein his owne selfe, and
built forts there which are at this day called by his owne name. He had the
people of Galway in such awe that he constrained them to cut downe their
owne timber, and to bring it vnto his shore for the building of his fortes.
Hee sailed on further vnto the Isle of Anglesey neere vnto Wales, and
finding two harles therein (either of them being called by the name of
Hugo) be slue the one, and the other hee put to flight, and so subdued the
Island. But the Welshmen presented many gifts vnto him, and so bidding them
farewell he returned vnto Man. Vnto Murecard king of Irland he sent his
shooes, commaunding him that he should cary them on his shoulders, vpon the
birth-day of our Lord through the midst of his Palace, in the sight of his
Embassadours, that thereby it might appeare vnto them that he was subiect
vnto king Magnus. Which when the Irishmen heard, they toke it grieuously
and disdeined much thereat. But the King being better aduised, I had rather
(said he) not onely beare his shooes, but eate his shooes, then that king
Magnus should destroy any one prouince in Irland. Wherefore he fulfilled
his commaundement, and honourably enterteined his Embassadours. Many giftes
also he sent vnto king Magnus by them, and concluded a league. But the
messengers returning vnto their lord, tolde him of the situation of Irland,
of the beautie thereof, of the fruitfulnesse of the soile, and of the
holesomnesse of the aire. Magnus hearing these things was fully resolued to
conquer all Irland vnto himselfe. And for the same purpose he commaunded
that a Fleet should be made ready. But he taking his voyage with sixteene
ships, & being desirous to view the land, when he had vndiscreetly departed
from his Nauie, he was suddenly inuironed by the Irish, and was himselfe
slaine, together with all that were with him almost. Hee was interred neere
vnto the Church of S. Patric in Armagh. Hee reigned sixe yeeres. After his
death the Princes of the Islands sent for Olauus the sonne of Godredus
Crouan, who liued in the Court of Henry King of England son vnto William
the Conquerour.

In the yeere 1102. Olauus sonne of Godredus Crouan beganne his reigne and
reigned fourtie yeeres. He was a peaceable man being in league with all the
Kings of Scotland and Irland in his time. He took to wife Affrica the
daughter of Fergusius of Galway, of whom he begat Godredus. Of his
concubines he begat Regnaldus, Lagmannus, and Haraldus, and many daughters,
whereof one married vnto Sumerledus king of Herergaidel, [Footnote:
Argyll.] which afterward occasioned the ouerthrow of the whole kingdome of
the Islands. He begat foure sonnes by her, namely Dulgallus, Raignaldus,
Engus and Olauus.

In the yeere 1134. Olaaus gaue vnto Yuo the Abbat of Furnes a portion of
his owne ground in Man to build an Abbey in the place which is called
Russin. [Footnote: Rushen] Also hee inriched with reuenues and indued with
priuiledges al places of religion within his islands.

In the yere 1142. Godredus the son of Olauus sailed vnto the K. of Norway
called Hinge, and doing his homage vnto him he remained with him, & was by
him honorably enterteined. The same vere the 3. sonnes of Harald brother
vnto Olauus, who were brought vp at the citie of Dublin, gathering together
a great multitude of people, and all the fugitiues and vagabonds of the
kingdome resorted vnto Man, and demaunded of the said king the one halfe of
al the kingdome of the Islands. Which thing when the king heard, being
desirous to pacifie them, he answered that he would consult about that
matter. And a day and place being appointed, where the consultation should
bee kept, in the meane time those miscreants conspired together, about the
murthering of the King. And when the day appointed was come, both companies
assembled themselues vnto the hauen towne called Ramsa, and they sate in
order, the king with his nobilitie on the one side, and they with their
confederates on the other side. Howbeit Regnaldus who had an intention to
slay the king, stoode a-side in the midst of the house talking with one of
the Princes of the lande. And being called to come vnto the king he turned
himselfe about as if hee would haue saluted him, and lifting vp his
glittering axe, he chopt the kings head quite off at a blow. [Sidenote:
1143.] Nowe hauing committed this outragious villanie, within a short space
they diuided the Island betweene themselues, and gathering an armie
together sailed vnto Galway, intending to subdue that also, howbeit the
people of Galway assembled themselues, and with great furie encountred with
them. Then they immediately turning their backs with great confusion fled
vnto Man. And as touching all the Galwedians which inhabited in the said
Island, some of them they slue, and the residue they banished.

In the yeere 1143. Godredus sonne of Olauus returning out of Norway was
created king of Man, who in reuenge of his fathers death, put out the eyes
of two of Haralds sonnes and slue the thirde.

In the yeere 1144. Godredus began his reigne, and hee reigned thirtie
yeeres. In the thirde yeere of his reigne the citizens of Dublin sent for
him and created him king of Dublin, against whom Murecardus king of Irland
made warre, and encamping himselfe at the citie called Coridelis, he sent
his brother Osibel with 3000. horsemen vnto Dublin, who was slaine by
Godred and the Dubliners, the rest of his company being put to flight.
These things being thus finished, Godredus returned vnto Man, and began to
exercise tyrannie, disinheriting certaine of his nobles, of whome one
called Thorfinus the sonne of Oter, being mightier then the rest, went vnto
Sumerledus, and named Dubgal the sonne of Sumerledus, king of the Islands,
and subdued many of the said Islands on his behalfe. Whereof when Godred
had intelligence by one Paulus, prouiding a Nauie, hee went to meete
Sumerledus comming against him with 80. ships: [Sidenote: 1156.] and in the
yeere 1156. vpon the night of the feast of Epiphanie, there was a
Sea-battell fought, and many being slaine on both parts, the day folowing
they were pacified, and diuided the kingdome of the Islands among
themselues, and it continued two kingdomes from that day vnto this present
time. And this was the cause of the ruine of the monarchie of the Islands,
from which time the sonnes of Sumerled inioyed the one halfe thereof.

In the yeere 1158. Sumerled came vnto Man with 53. ships, putting Godred to
flight and wasting the Island: and Godred sailed vnto Norway to seeke for
aide against Sumerled. In the yere 1164. Sumerled gathered a fleete of 160.
ships together; and arriued at Rhinfrin, [Footnote: Renfrew] intending to
subdue all Scotland vnto himselfe: howbeit, by Gods iust iudgement being
ouercome by a few, together with his sonne, and an innumerable multitude of
people, he was slaine. The very same yere there was a battel fought at
Ramsa, betweene Reginald the brother of Godred, and the inhabitants of Man,
but by the stratageme of a certaine Earle the Mannians were put to flight.
Then began Reginald to vsurpe the kingly authoritie. Howbeit his brother
Godred, within foure dayes after comming out of Norway with a great power
of armed men, apprehended his brother Reginald, gelt him, and put out his
eyes. The same yeere deceased Malcolme the king of Scots and his brother
William succeeded in the kmgdome.

In the yeere 1166. two Comets appeared in the moneth of August before the
rising of the Sunne, one to the South and another to the North.

In the yeere 1171. Richard earle of Penbroke sailed into Irland, and
subdued Dublin with a great part of Irland.

In the yere 1176. Iohn Curcy conquered Vlster vnto himselfe. And at the
same time also Viuianus legate from the sea of Rome came into Man, & caused
king Godred to bee lawfully wedded vnto his wife Phingola, daughter of
Maclotlen son of Murkartac king of Irland, mother of Olauus, who was then
3. yeeres old. Siluanus the abbat married them, vnto whom the very same
day, king Godred gaue a portion of ground in Mirescoge, where he built a
Monastery: howbeit, in processe of time, the said land with the monkes, was
granted vnto the abbey of Russin.

In the yere 1172. Reginaldus the son of Eacmarcat (a man descended of the
blood royal) comming into Man with a great multitude of people, in the
absence of the king, at the first conflict hee put to flight certaine
watchmen which kept the shoare, & slue about 30. persons. Whereupon the
very same day the Mannians arranging themselues put him, & almost almost al
his folowers to the sword.

In the yere 1183. O-Fogolt was vicount of Man.

In the yere 1185. the Sunne was ecclipsed vpon the feast of S. Philip and

In the yere 1187. deceased Godred king of the Islands, vpon the 4. of the
Ides of Nouember, and the next sommer his body was translated vnto the
island of Hy. He left 3. sonnes behinde him Reginaldus Olauus, and Yuarus.
In his life time he ordeined his sonne Olauus to be his heire apparant
because he onely was borne legitimate. But the Mannians, when Olauus was
scarce ten yeeres olde, sent vnto the islands for Reginald and created him

In the yeere 1187. began Reginald the sonne of Godred to reigne ouer the
islands: and Murchardus a man of great power throughout all the kingdome of
the islands was put to death.

In the yere 1192. there was a battel fought betweene Reginald and Engus the
two sonnes of Sumerled: but Engus obtained the victory. The same yere was
the abbey of Russin remooued vnto Dufglas, [Footnote: Douglas] howbeit
within foure yeeres after the monkes returned vnto Russin.

In the yere 1203. MichŠl bishop of the islands deceased at Fontanas, and
Nicholas succeeded in his roome.

In the yere 1204. Hugo de Lacy inuaded Vlster with an armie and encountered
with Iohn de Curcy, tooke him prisoner & subdued Vlster vnto himselfe.
Afterward he permitted the said Iohn to goe at libertie, who comming vnto
king Reginald was honourably enterteined by him, because he was his sonne
in lawe, for Iohn de Curcy had taken to wife Affrica the daughter of
Godredus, which founded the abbey of _S. Mary de iugo domini_, and was
there buried.

In the yeere 1205. Iohn de Curcy & Reginald king of the islands inuading
Vlster with a hundreth ships at the port which is called Stranfeord did
negligently besiege the castle of Rath: but Walter de Lacy comming vpon
them with his armie, put them to flight, & from that time Curcy neuer
recouered his land. In the yeere 1210. Engus the son of Sumerled & his 3.
sonnes were slaine.

[Sidenote: King Iohn passed into Irland with 500. sailes] At the same time
Iohn king of England conducted a fleet of 500. ships into Irland, and
subdued it vnto himselfe and sending a certaine earle named Fulco, vnto the
isle of Man, his souldiours almost vtterly wasted it the space of 15.
dayes, and hauing taken pledges they returned home into their owne
countrey. King Reginald and his nobles were at this time absent from Man.

In the yere 1217. deceased Nicolas bishop of the islands, and was buried in
Vlster, in the house of Benchor, whom Reginald succeeded.

I thinke it not amisse to report somewhat more concerning the two foresaid
brethren Reginaldus and Olauus.

Reginald gaue vnto his brother Olauus, the island called Lodhus or Lewes,
which is saide to be larger then the rest of the islands, but almost
destitute of inhabitants, because it is so ful of mountaines & quarreis,
being almost no where fit for tillage. Howbeit the inhabitants thereof do
liue for the most part vpon hunting and fishing. Olauus therefore went to
take possession of this Island, and dwelt therein leading a poore life; and
when he saw that it would by no meanes suffice for the sustentation of
himselfe & his folowers hee went boldly vnto his brother Reginald, who as
then remained in the islands, & spake on this wise vnto him. My brother
(said he) and my lord and king you know that the kingdom of the islands
pertained vnto me by right of inheritance, howbett because the Lord had
chosen you to beare the scepter, I doe not enuie that honour vnto you,
neither doeth it any whit grieue me that you are exalted vnto this royall
dignitie. Nowe therefore I beseech you to prouide mee some portion of land
in the islands, whereby I may honestly liue. For the island of Lewis which
you gaue me is not sufficient for my maintenance. Which his brother
Reginald hearing said that he would consult about the premisses. And on the
morow when Olauus was sent for to parle, Reginald comanded him to be
attached, and to be caried vnto William king of Scotland and with him to
remame prisoner: and Olauus remained in prison almost for the space of 7.
yeres. But at the 7. yeres end William king of Scots deceased, and
Alexander his sonne reigned in his stead. The foresaid William, before his
death, commanded that all prisoners should be set at libertie. Olauus
therefore being at libertie came vnto Man, and immediatly with a great
company of nobles tooke his iourney vnto S. Iames: and his brother Reginald
caused the said Olauus to take vnto wife, the daughter of a certaine noble
man of Kentyre, cousine german vnto his owne wife, & by name being called
Lauon, and he granted vnto him the possession of Lewis. After a few dayes
Reginald the bishop of the Islands hauing gathered a Synod, separated
Olauus and Godred his sonne, and Lauon his wife, namely because shee was
cousin german vnto his former wife. Afterward Olauus maried Scristina
daughter vnto Ferkarus earle of Rosse.

Hereupon the wife of Reginald Queene of the Islands being incensed, sent
letters vnto the Island of Sky in K. Reginald his name to her sonne Godred
willing him to take Olauus. Which comandement Godred putting in practise, &
entring the isle of Lewis for the same purpose, Olauus fled in a little
skiffe vnto his father in law the earle of Rosse, & in the meane time
Godred wasted the isle of Lewis. At the very same time Pol the son of Boke
vicount of Sky, being a man of power in al the islands, because he would
not consent vnto Godred, fled, & dwelt together with Olauus in the
dominions of the earle of Rosse, & making a league with Olauus, they went
both in a ship vnto Sky. To be short, sending certaine spies, they were
informed that Godred remained secure with a smal company in a certaine Isle
called the isle of S. Colomba. [Footnote: Iona.] And vniting vnto
themselues their friends and acquaintance, & others that would goe
voluntarily with them, in the dead of the night, hauing lanched 5. ships
from the next sea-shore, which was distant about the space of 2. furlongs
from the foresaid Island, they enuironed the said Island on all sides. Now
Godred and his company rising early in the morning, and seeing themselues
beset with their enemies on all sides, they were vtterly astonied. Howbeit
arming themselues they began stoutly to make resistance, but altogether in
vaine. For about 9. of the clocke in the morning, Olauus and the foresaid
vicount Pol, with al their souldiers, entred the Island, and hauing slaine
all whom they found without the precincts of the Church, they apprehended
Godred, gelding him, and putting out his eyes. Vnto which action Olauus
gaue not his consent, neither could he withstand it, by reason of the
forenamed vicount the son of Boke. This was done in the yere of Christ
1223. The next sommer folowing Olauus hauing receiued pledges from all the
chiefe men of the Islands, with a fleet of 32 ships sailed vnto Man, and
arriued at Rognolfwaht. [Footnote: Peel.] [Sidenote: The Isle of Man
aduanced to a kingdome] At the same time Reginald and Olauus diuided the
kingdome of the Islands betweene themselues, Man being granted vnto
Reginald, & besides his portion the name of a king also. Olauus hauing
recieued certaine victuals of the people of Man, returned, together with
his company, vnto his owne portion of Islands. The yeere folowing Reginald
taking vnto him Alanus lord of Galway, together with his subiects of Man,
sailed vnto the Islands, that hee might take away that portion of ground
from his brother Olauus, which he had granted vnto him, and subdue it vnto
himselfe. Howbeit, by reason that the people of Man had no list to fight
against Olauus or the Islanders, because they bare good will towards them,
Reginald and Alanus lord of Galway being defeated of their purpose,
returned home vnto their owne. Within a short space after Reginald, vnder
pretense of going vnto the Court of his lord the king of England, receiued
an 100. markes of the people of Man, and tooke his iourney vnto Alanus lord
of Galway. Which the people of Man hearing tooke great indignation thereat,
insomuch that they sent for Olauus, and appointed him to be their king.

In the yeere 1226. Olauus recouered his inheritance, that is to say the
kingdome of Man and of the Islands, which Reginald his brother had gouerned
for the space of 38. yeeres, and he reigned two yeeres in safetie.

In the yeere 1228. Olauus with all his nobles of Man, and the stronger part
of his people, sailed vnto the Islands. A short space after Alanus lord of
Galway, Thomas earle of Athol, & king Reginald came vnto Man with a mightie
army, and wasted all the South part of Man, spoiled the Churches, and slue
all the men whom they coulde take, insomuch, that the Southpart of the
saide Island was brought almost into desolation. And then Alanus returned
with his army into his owne land, leauing behind him bailiffes and
substitutes in Man, which should gather vp and render vnto him the tribute
of the countrey. Howbeit king Olauus came suddenly vpon them, chaced them
away and recouered his kingdome. And the Mannians which of late were
dispersed and scattered abroad, began to vnite themselues, and to inhabite
without feare. The same yeere, in the time of Winter, vpon the sudden, and
in the very dead of the night came king Reginald out of Galway with fiue
ships, & burnt all the ships of his brother Olauus and of the nobles of
Man, at the isle of S. Patric, & concluding a peace with his brother,
remained at the port of Ragnolwath 40. dayes; in the meane while hee
allured vnto himselfe all the Islanders vpon the South part of Man, who
sware, that they would aduenture their liues, vntill hee had gotten the one
halfe of his kingdome: contrary wise Olauus ioyned vnto himselfe them of
the North part, & vpon the 14. of February in the place called Tingualla,
[Footnote: Tynwald Mount.] a field was fought betweene the two brothers,
wherein Olauus got the victory, and Reginald the king was by certaine
souldiers slaine without the knowledge of his brother. Also certaine
pirates comming to the South part of Man, wasted & spoiled it. The monkes
of Russin conueyed the body of K. Reginald, vnto the abbey of S. Mary of
Fournes, & there he was interred in the place, which his owne selfe had
chosen for the purpose. After these things Olauus traueiled vnto the king
of Norway, but before he was arriued there, Haco king of Norway appointed a
certaine noble man named Husbac the son of Owmund to be king of the Islands
of the Hebrides & called his name Haco. Then came the said Haco with Olauus
& Godred Don the son of Reginald and a multitude of Noruegians, vnto the
Islands, and while they were giuing an assault vnto a castle in the Island
of Both. [Footnote: Bute.] Haco being hit with a stone died, and was buried
in Iona.

In the yere 1230. came Olauus with Godredus Don and certeine Noruegians
vnto Man, and they parted the kingdome among themselues, Olauus stil
reteining Man. Godred as he was going vnto the Islands, was slaine in the
Isle of Lewis, & Olauus inioyed the kingdome of the islands also.

In the yere 1237. vpon the 12. of the kalends of Iune, Olauus sonne of
Godred king of Man deceased in the isle of S. Patric, and was interred in
the abbey of Russin. He reigned 11. yeres, two while his brother was aliue,
and nine after his death.

Haraldus his sonne being of the age of 14. yeres, succeeded, and he reigned
12. yeeres. The first yere of his reigne taking his iourney vnto the
islands, he appointed one Loglen his kinsman to be his deputie in Man. The
Autumne folowing Haraldus sent the three sonnes of Nel, namely Dufgaldus,
Torquellus, & Molmore, and his friend Ioseph vnto Man, that they might
enter into cosultation together. Wherefore the 25. day they assembled
themselues at Tingualla: and malice growing betweene the sonnes of Nel, and
Loglen they fel to blowes and skirmished sore on both parts, Molmore,
Dufgald, and the foresaid Ioseph being all slaine in the fray. The Spring
folowing, king Harald came into the Isle of Man, and Loglen fleeing into
Wales, was himselfe, together with Godred the sonne of Olauus his pupil,
and 40. others, drowned by shipwracke.

In the yere 1238. Gospatricius and Gillescrist sonne of Mac-Kerthac came
from the king of Norway vnto Man, expelling Harald out of the said island,
and taking tribute on the behalfe of the Noruegian king, because the said
Harald refused to come vnto his Court.

In the yere 1240. Gospatricius deceased and was buried in the abbey of

In the yere 1239. Haraldus went vnto the king of Norway who within two
yeres confirmed vnto him, his heires and successors, vnder seale, all the
islands which his predecessors enioyed.

In the yeere 1242. Haraldus returned out of Norway vnto Man and being
honorably receiued by the inhabitants he liued in peace with the kings of
England and Scotland.

In the yere 1247. Haraldus (like as his father also before him) was
knighted by the king of England, and so being rewarded with many gifts he
returned home. The same yere he was sent for by the king of Norway, and he
maried his daughter. And in the yere 1249. as he was returning home with
his wife, with Laurence the elect of Man, and with many other nobles, neere
vnto the confines of Radland, he was drowned in a tempest.

In the yere 1249. Reginald the sonne of Olauus and brother vnto Harald
began to reigne the day next before the nones of May: and vpon the 30. day
of the same moneth he was slaine by Yuarus a souldier, and other of his
complices in the South part of a certaine medow neere vnto the Church of
the holy Trinitie, and he was buried at the Church of S. Marie at Russin.

The same yere Alexander king of Scots prouided a great nauie of ships that
he might conquere the islands vnto himselfe, howbeit falling into an ague
at the isle of Kenwary [Footnote: Query, Kerrera.] he deceased.

Then Haraldus the sonne of Godred Don vsurped the name of a king ouer the
islands, hee banished also all the princes of Harald the sonne of Olauus
and ordeined his fugitiues to bee princes and nobles in their stead.

In the yere 1250. Haraldus the son of Godred Don being summoned by letters
went vnto the king of Norway who deteined him in prison because he had
vniustly possessed the kingdome. The same yeere Magnus the sonne of Olauus,
and Iohn the sonne of Dugalt arriued at Roghalwhat, which Iohn named
himselfe king, but the Mannians taking it grieuously, that Magnus was not
nominated, draue them from their shoare, and many of the company perished
by shipwracke.

In the yeere 1252. came Magnus the sonne of Olauus vnto Man, and was
ordained king. The yere folowing he tooke his iourney vnto the king of
Norway & there he remained one whole yere.

In the yeere 1254. Haco king of Norway ordeined Magnus the sonne of Olauus
king of the islands, confirming them to him and to his heires, and by name
vnto Harald his brother.

In the yere 1256. Magnus tooke his iourney into England, and was by the
king of England created knight.

In the yere 1257. the Church of S. Maries of Russin was dedicated by
Richard bishop of Soder.

In the yeere 1260. Haco king of Norway came into the parts of Scotland, and
without atchieuing ought, turning his course towards the Orcades he there
deceased at Kirwas, [Footnote: Kirkwall. The date is an error Hacos
expedition took place in 1263. He sailed from Herdle-Voer on the 5th of
July, and died Saturday, 15th December (_Det Norske Folks Historie_, by P.
A. Munch.)] and was buried at Bergen.

In the yeere 1265. Magnus the sonne of Olauus king of Man and of the
Islands died at the castle of Russin, and was buried at the Church of St.
Mary at Russin.

In the yere 1266. the kingdome of the Islands was translated vnto Alexander
king of Scots.

* * * * *

That which followeth was written in a new character or letter, and of a
diuers kinde from the former.

In the yeere 1270. vpon the seuenth day of October the Fleete of Alexander
king of Scots arriued at Roghalwath, and the next day before the sunne
rising there was a battell fought betweene the Mannians and the Scots, in
the which conflict there were slaine 535. Mannians: whereupon a certaine
versifier writeth to this effect:

Fiue hundreth fourtie men are slaine:
against ill haps,
Yee Mannians arme your selues, for feare
of afterclaps.

In the yeere 1313. Robert king of Scots beseiged the castle of Russin,
which Dingaway Dowil held against him howbeit at the last the king tooke
the castle.

In the yeere 1316. vpon the feast of Ascension, Richard le Mandeuile and
his brethren, with diuers great personages of Irland arriued at Ramaldwath,
demaunding to haue victuals and money ministred vnto them, because they had
bene spoyled by their enemies, which made continuall warre vpon them. But
when the whole company of the Mannians answered that they would giue
nothing, they proceeded against them in warlike maner with two bands, till
they were come vnder the side of the hill called Warthfel, in the fielde
where Iohn Mandeuile remained, and there hauing fought a battell, the Irish
ouercame the people of Man, and spoiled the Island and the Abbey of Russmin
also: and when they had reueled a whole moneth in the Island, lading their
ships they retained home.

* * * * *

The mariage of the daughter of Harald, slaine by William the conquerour,
vnto Ieruslaus duke of Russia, taken out of the 9. booke of the Danish
historie written by Saxo Grammaticus. An. D. 1067.

[Sidenote: 1067.] Haraldo cŠso, filij eius duo confestim in Daniam cum
sorore migrarunt. Quos Sweno, paterni illorum menti oblitus consanguineŠ
pietatis more accepit, puellamque Ruthenorum regi Waldemaro, (qui & ipse
Iarislaus a suis est appellatus) nuptum dedit. Eidem postmod¨m nostri
temporis dux, vt sanguinis, ita & nominis hŠres, ex filia nepos obuenit.
Itaque hinc Britannicus, indŔ Eous sanguis in salutarem nostri principis
ortum confluens communem stirpem duaram gentium ornamentum effecit.

The same in English.

Harald being slaine his two sonnes with their sister sped themselues
immediatly into Denmarke. Whom Sweno forgetting their fathers deserts
receiued in most kinde and friendly maner, and bestowed the yong damosell
in mariage vpon Waldemarus king of Russia who was also called by his
subiects Iarislaus. Afterward the said Waldemarus had by his daughter a
nephew being duke at this present, who succeeded his predecessour both in
lineal descent and in name also. Wherefore the English blood on the one
side and the Russian on the other side concurring to the ioyful birth of
our prince, caused that mutual kinred to be an ornament vnto both nations.

* * * * *

The state of the shipping of the Cinque ports from Edward the Confessour
and William the Conquerour, and so downe to Edward the first, faithfully
gathered by the learned Gentleman M. William Lambert in his Perambulation
of Kent, out of the most ancient Records of England.

[Sidenote: The antiquity of the Ports. 1070.] I finde in the booke of the
generall suruey of the Realme, which William the Conquerour caused to bee
made in the fourth yeere of his reigne, and to be called Domesday, because
(as Matthew Parise saith) it spared no man but iudged all men
indifferently, as the Lord in that great day wil do, that Douer, Sandwich,
and Rumney, were in the time of K. Edward the Confessour discharged almost
of all maner of imposicions and burdens (which other townes did beare) in
consideration of such seruice to bee done by them vpon the sea, as in their
special titles shall hereafter appeare.

Whereupon, although I might ground reasonable coniecture, that the
immunitie of the hauen Townes (which we nowe call by a certaine number, the
Cinque Ports) might take their beginning from the same Edward: yet for as
much as I read in the Chartre of K. Edward the first after the conquest
(which is reported in our booke of Entries) A recitall of the graunts of
sundry kings to the Fiue Ports, the same reaching no higher then to William
the Conquerour, I will leaue my coniecture, and leane to his Chartre:
contenting my selfe to yeelde to the Conquerour, the thankes of other mens
benefits, seeing those which were benefited, were wisely contented (as the
case then stood) to like better of his confirmation (or second gift) then
of K. Edwards first graunt, and endowment.

And to the ende that I may proceed in some maner of array, I will first
shewe, which Townes were at the beginning taken for the Fiue Ports, and
what others be now reputed in the same number: secondly, what seruice they
ought, and did in times passed: and lastly, what priuiledges they haue
therefore, and by what persons they haue bene gouerned.

If I should iudge by the common, and rude verse,

Douer, Sandwicus, Ry, Rum, Frigmare ventus,
[Sidenote: Which be the Fiue Ports.]

I must say that Douer, Sandwich, Rie, Rumney, and Winchelsey, (for that is,
Frigmare ventus) be the Fiue Ports: Againe, if I should be ruled by the
Rolle which reciteth the Ports that send Barons to the Parliament, I must
then adde to these, Hastings and Hyde, for they also haue their Barons as
well as the other and so should I not onely, not shew which were the first
Fiue, but also (by addition of two others) increase both the number, and
doubtfulnesse. Leauing the verse therefore, for ignorance of the authour
and suspition of his authoritie, and forsaking the Rolle (as not assured of
the antiquitie) I will flee to Henry Bracton, [Sidenote: 1250.] a man both
ancient, learned, and credible, which liued vnder K. Henry the thirde and
wrote (aboue three hundreth yeeres since) learnedly of the lawes of this

[Sidenote: Citizens were called Barons in old time.] He (I say) in the
third booke of his worke, [Footnote: _De Legibus et Consuetudinibus
AngliŠ_.] and treatise of the Crowne taking in hand to shewe the
articles inquirable before the Iustice in Eire, (or Itinerent as we called
them because they vsed to ride from place to place throughout the Realme,
for administration of iustice) setteth forth a special fourme of writs, to
be directed seuerally to the Bailifes of Hastings, Hithe, Rumney, Douer,
and Sandwich, commanding them that they should cause twentie & foure of
their Barons (for so their Burgesses, or townesmen, and the citizens of
London likewise, were wont to be termed) to appeare before the Kings
Iustices at Shipwey in Kent (as they accustomed to do) there to enquire of
such points, as should be giuen in charge. [Sidenote: Contention betwtene
Yarmouth and the Fiue Ports. 1250. Antiquitie of Yarmouth fishing.] Which
done, hee addeth moreouer, that forsomuch as there was oftentimes
contention betwene them of the Fiue Ports, & the inhabitants of Yarmouth in
Norfolke, and Donwich in Suffolke, there should be seuerall writs directed
to them also, returnable before the same Iustices at the same day and
place, reciting, that where the King had by his former writs sommoned the
Pleas of the Fiue Ports to bee holden at Shipwey, if any of the same townes
had cause to complaine of any (being within the liberties of the said
Ports) he should be at Shipwey to propound against him, and there to
receiue according to law and Iustice.

Thus much I recite out of Bracton, partly to shew that Shipwey was before
K. Edward the firsts time, the place of assembly for the Plees of the Fiue
Ports: partly to notifie the difference, and controuersie that long time
since was betweene these Ports, and those other townes: But purposely, and
chiefly, to proue, that Hastings, and Hithe, Douer, Rumney, and Sandwich,
were in Bractons time accompted the Fiue principall hauens or Ports, which
were endowed with priuiledge, and had the same ratified by the great
Chartre of England.

Neither yet will I deny, but that soone after, Winchelsey and Rie might be
added to the number. [Sidenote: 1268.] For I find in an old recorde, that
king Henry the third tooke into his owne hands (for the better defence of
the Realme) the townes of Winchelsey, and Rie, which belonged before to the
Monasterie of Fescampe in Normandie, and gaue therefore in exchange, the
Manor of Chiltham in Gloucestershire, & diuers other lands in
Lincolneshire. This he did, partly to conceale from the Priors Aliens the
intelligence of the secret affaires of his Realme, and partly because of a
great disobedience & excesse, that was committed by the inhabitants of
Wincelsey, against Prince Edward his eldest sonne. And therefore, although
I can easily be led to thinke, that he submitted them for their correction
to the order, and gouernance of the Fiue ports, yet I stand doubtfull
whether hee made them partners of their priuiledges or no, for that had
bene a preferment, and no punishment vnto them: [Sidenote: Winchelsey first
builded 1277] but I suspect rather, that his sonne king Edward the first,
(by whose encouragement and aide, olde Winchelsey was afterward abandoned,
and the newe towne builded) was the first that apparelled them with that

By this therefore let it appeare, that Hastings, Douer, Hithe, Rumney, and
Sandwich, were the first Ports of priuiledge: which (because they were 5.
in number) both at the first gaue, and yet continue, to all the residue,
the name of Cinque Ports, although not onely Winchelsey and Rie, be (since
that time) incorporated with them as principals, but diuers other places
also (for the ease of their charge) be crept in, as partes, lims, and
members of the same.

Now therefore, somewhat shalbe said, as touching the seruices that these
Ports of duetie owe, and in deed haue done, to the Princes: whereof the one
(I meane with what number of vessels, in what maner of furniture, and for
how long season, they ought to wait on the king at the Sea, vpon their owne
charges) shall partly appeare by that which we shall presently say, and
partly by that which shall followe in Sandwich, and Rumney: The other shall
bee made manifest by examples, drawne out of good histories: and they both
shall be testified by the words of king Edward the first in his owne

The booke of Domesday before remembred, chargeth Douer with twentie vessels
at the sea, whereof eche to be furnished with one and twentie men for
fifteene dayes together: and saith further, that Rumney and Sandwich
answered the like seruice. But now whether this (like) ought to be
vnderstoode of the like altogether, both in respect of the number and
seruice, or of the (like) in respect of seruice according to the proportion
of their abilite onely, I may not hereby take vpon me to determine. For on
the one side, if Rumney, Sandwich, and the residue should likewise finde
twentie vessels a piece, then (as you shall anone see) the fiue Ports were
subiect to a greater charge at that time then King Edward the first layd
vpon them: And on the other side if they were onely chargeable after their
proportion, then know I not how farre to burthen them, seeing the Record of
Domesday it selfe bideth them to no certeintie. And therefore leauing this
as I find it I must elsewhere make inquisition for more lightsome proofe.
And first I will haue recourse to king Edward the first his Chartre, in
which I read, that At ech time that the King passeth ouer the sea, the
Ports ought to rigge vp fiftie and seuen ships, (whereof euery one to haue
twentie armed souldiers) and to mainteine them at their owne costes, by the
space of fifteene dayes together.

And thus it stoode with the Ports for their generall charge, in the sixt
yeere of his reigne, for then was this Chartre sealed. But as touching the
particular burthen of ech one, I haue seene two diuers testimonies, of
which the first is a note in French (bearing the countenance of a Record)
and is intituled, to haue bene renued in the two and twentie yeere of the
Reigne of the same king, by Stephan Penchester, then Constable of Douer
Castle, in which the particular charge is set downe in this maner.

The Port of Hastings ought to finde three ships.
The lowie of Peuensey one.
Buluerhithe and Petit Iahn, one.
Bekesborne in Kent, seuen.
Grenche at Gillingham in Kent, two men and armour, with the ships of
The towne of Rie, fiue.
To it was Tenterdene annexed, in the time of King Henrie the sixt.
The towne of Winchelsey, tenne.
The Port of Rumney, foure.
Lydde, seuen.
The Port of Hythe, fiue.
The Port of Douer, nineteene.
The towne of Folkestone, seuen.
The towne of Feuersham, seuen.
The Port of Sandwich, with Stonor, Fordwich, Dale, &c. fiue.

These ships they ought to finde vpon fortie dayes summons, armed and
arrayed at their owne charge, and in ech of them twentie men, besides the
Master of the Mariners: all which they shall likewise mainteine fiue dayes
together at their owne costs, giuing to the Maister sixe pence by the day,
to the Constable sixe pence, and to ech other Mariner three pence. And
after those fiue dayes ended, the King shall defray the charges.

The other is a Latine Custumall of the towne of Hyde, the which although it
pretend not so great antiquity as the first, yet seemeth it to me to import
as much or more likelihood and credit: It standeth thus.

These be the Fiue Ports of our soueraigne Lord the King hauing liberties,
which other Ports haue not: Hasting, Romenal, Heth, Douer, Sandwich, the
chiefe Townes. The seruices due by the same.

Hasting shall finde 21. ships, in euery ship 21. men, and a Garcion, or
Boy, which is called a Gromet. To it perteine (as the members of one towne)
the Seashore in Seford, Peuenshey, Hodeney, Winchelsey, Rie, Ihame,
Bekesbourne, Grenge, Northie, Bulwerheth.

Romenal 5. ships, in euery ship 21. men, and a Garcion: To it perteine, as
members thereof, Promhell, Lede, Eastwestone, Dengemareys, olde Rumney.

Hethe 5. ships, as Romenal before. To it perteineth the Westhethe.

Douer 21, ships, as Hasting before. To it pertaine, Folkstane, Feuersham,
and S. Margarets, not concerning the land, but for the goods and cartels.

Sandwich 5. ships, as Romenal and hethe. To it perteine Fordwich, Reculuer,
Serre, and Dele, not for the soile, but for the goods.

Summe of ships 57.

Summe of the men 1187. and 57. Garcions.

This seruice, the Barons of the Fiue Ports doe acknowledge to owe to the
King, vpon summons yerely (if it happen) by the space of 15. dayes
together, at their owne costs and changes, accounting that for the first
day of the 15. in which they shall spread their sailes to goe towards those
parts that the King intendeth: and to serue so long after 15. dayes, as the
King will, at his owne pay and wages.

Thus much out of these ancient notes, whereby your selfe may easily
discerne the difference: but whether the one or the other, or (by reason of
some latter dispensation) neither of these, haue place at this day, I must
referre it to them that be priuie, and of counsell with the Ports: and so
leauing this also vndecided, holde on the way, wherein I am entred.

This duetie of attendance therefore (being deuised for the honourable
transportation, and safe conduct of the Kings owne person or his armie ouer
the narrow Seas) the Ports haue not onely most diligently euer since that
time performed, but furthermore also valiantly behaued themselues against
the enemie from time to time, in sundrie exploits by water, as occasion
hath bene proferred, or the necessitie of the Realme required.

[Sidenote: The good seruice of the fiue ports. 1217] And amongst other
feats not vnwoorthy perpetuall remembrance, after such time as Lewes (the
eldest sonne of the French King) had entred the Realme to aide Stephan
Langton the Archbishop, and the Nobilitie, in the life of King Iohn, and
had sent into France for new supply of Souldiers after his death, Hubert of
Borough (then captaine of Douer) following the opinion of Themistocles in
the exposition of the oracle of the wooden walles, by the aide of the Port
townes, armed fortie tall ships, and meeting with eightie saile of
Frenchmen vpon the high seas, gaue them a most couragious encounter, in
which he tooke some, sunke others, and discomfited the rest.

King Henrie the third also, after that he came to riper age, had great
benefit by the seruice of the Cinque Ports: [Sidenote: 1278.] And king
Edward the first in his Chartre, maketh their continuall faithfull seruice
(and especially their good endeuour, then lately shewed against the
Welshmen) the principall cause, and motiue of that his liberall grant.

[Sidenote: 1293.] Furthermore, about the midst of the reigne of the same
king, an hundreth saile of the Nauie of the Ports fought at the Sea with a
fleet of 200. French men, all which (notwithstanding the great oddes of the
number) they tooke, and slew, and sunke so many of the Mariners, that
France was thereby (for a long season after) in maner destitute, both of
Seamen, and shipping.

[Sidenote: 1406.] Finally, and to conclude this part, in the dayes of king
Henrie the the fourth, the name of the Fiue Ports, vnder the conduct of one
Henrie Paye, surprised one hundreth and twentie French ships, all laden
with Salt, Iron, Oile, and no worse merchandize.

[Sidenote: Priuiledges of the fiue ports.] The priuiledges of these Ports
being first granted by Edward the Confessour, and William the Conquerour,
and then confirmed and increased by William Rufus, Henrie the second,
Richard the first, Henrie the third, and king Edward the first be very
great, considering either the honour and ease, or the freedome and
exemption, that the inhabitants haue by reason of the same.

Part of the great Charter granted by king Edward the first to the Barons of
the Cinque portes, in the sixt yeere of his reigne 1278. for their good
seruices done vnto him by sea, wherein is mention of their former ancient
Charters from Edward the Confessor, William the Conqueror, William Rufus,
Henry the second, king Richard the first, king Iohn, and Henry the third
continued vnto them.

Edward by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, & duke of
Gastcoigne, to all Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Earles, Barons,
Iustices, Shirifs, Prouosts, Officers, & to all Bayliffes and true subiects
greeting. You shall knowe that for the faithfull seruice that our Barons of
the fiue Ports hitherto to our predecessors kings of England, & vnto vs
lately in our armie of Wales haue done, and for their good seruice to vs
and our heires kings of England, truly to be continued in time to come, we
haue granted & by this our Charter confirmed for vs and our heires, to the
same our Barons and to their heires, all their liberties and freedomes. So
that they shall be free from all toll, and from all custome; that is to say
from all lastage, tallage, passage, cariage, riuage, asponsage, and from
all wrecke, and from all their sale, carying and recarying through all our
realme and dominion, with socke and souke, toll and theme. And that they
shall haue Infangthefe, and that they shall be wreckefree, lastagefree, and
louecopfree. [Sidenote: The fishing at great Yarmouth.] And that they shall
haue Denne and Strande at great Yarmouth, according as it is contayned in
the ordinance by vs thereof made perpetually to bee obserued. And also that
they are free from all shires and hundreds: so that if any person will
plead against them, they shall not aunswere nor pleade otherwise then they
were wont to plead in the time of the lord, king Henrie our great
grandfather. And that they shall haue their findelles in the sea and in the
land. And that they be free of all their goods and of all their
marchandises as our freemen. And that they haue their honours in our court,
and their liberties throughout all the land wheresoeuer they shall come.
And that they shall be free for euer of all their lands, which in the time
of Lord Henrie the king our father [Sidenote: Henry the third.] they
possessed: that is to say in the 44. yere of his reign, from all maner of
summonces before our Iustices to any maner of pleadings, iourneying in what
shire soeuer their lands are. So that they shall not be bound to come
before the Iustices aforesaid, except any of the same Barons doe implead
any man, or if any man be impleaded. And that they shall not pleade in any
other place, except where they ought, and where they were wont, that is to
say, at Shepeway. And they that haue their liberties and freedomes from
hencefoorth, as they and their predecessors haue had them at any time
better, more fully and honourably in the time of the kings of England,
Edward [Sidenote: Edward the confessor.], William the first, William the
second, Henrie the king our great grandfather, and in the times of king
Richard, and king Iohn our grandfathers, and lord king Henrie our father,
by their Charters, as the same Charters which the same our Barons thereof
haue, and which we haue seene, doe reasonably testifie. And we forbid that
no man vniustly trouble them nor their marchandise vpon our forfeyture of
ten pounds. So neuerthelesse, that when the same Barons shall fayle in
doing of Iustice or in receiuing of Iustice, our Warden, and the wardens of
our heires of the Cinque Portes, which for the time shall be, their Ports
and liberties may enter for to doe their full Iustice. [Sidenote: 57. Ships
of the Cinque Ports bound to serue the king 15. dayes at their owne costs.]
So also that the sayd Barons and their heires, do vnto vs and to our heirs
kings of England by the yeare their full seruice of shippes at their costs
by the space of fifteene dayes at our somounce, or at the somounce of our
heires. We haue granted also vnto them of our speciall grace that they haue
Outfangthefe in their lands within the Ports aforesayd, in the same maner
that Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Earles and Barons, haue in their manours
in the countie of Kent. And they be not put in any Assises, Iuries, or
Recognisances by reason of their forreine tenure against their will: and
that they be free of all their owne wines for which they do trauaile of our
right prise, [Footnote: Prisage--one cask in ten, on wine, was the first
customs-duty levied in England.] that is to say, of one tunne before the
mast, and of another behind the maste. We haue granted furthermore vnto the
said Barons for vs and our heires, that they for euer haue this liberty,
that is to say, That we or our heires shall not haue the wardship or
mariages of their heires by reason of their landes, which they holde within
the liberties and Portes aforesayde, for the which they doe their seruice
aforesayd: and for the which wee and our progenitors had not the wardships
and marriages in time past. But we our aforesayd confirmation vpon the
liberties and freedomes aforesayde, and our grants following to them of our
especiall grace, of newe haue caused to be made, sauing alwaies in al
things our kingly dignitie: And sauing vnto vs and to our heires, plea of
our crowne, life and member. Wherefore we will and surely command for vs
and our heires that the aforesaid Barons and their heires for euer haue all
the aforesaid liberties and freedomes, as the aforesaid Charters do
reasonably testifie. And that of our especial grace they haue outfangthefe
in their lands within the Ports aforesaid after the manner that
Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Earles and Barons haue in their manours in
the county of Kent. And that they be not put in Assizes, Iuries, or
recognisances by reason of their forreine tenure against their will. And
that they bee free of their owne wines for which they trauaile of our right
price or custome, that is to say of one tunne of wine before the maste, and
of another tunne behinde the maste. And that likewise for euer they haue
the libertie aforesayde: that is to say: That wee and our heires haue not
the worships or mariages of their heires by reason of their landes which
they holde within the liberties and Portes aforesayd, for the which their
seruice aforesaid, and for which wee and our predecessors the wardships and
mariages haue not had in times past, But our aforesayd confirmation of
their liberties and freedomes aforesaid and other grants following to them
of our especiall grace of new we haue caused to bee made. Sauing alwayes
and in all things our regall dignity. And sauing vnto vs and our heires the
pleas of our crowne of life and member as is aforesayd. These being
witnesses, the reuerend father Robert of Portuens Cardinall of the holie
Church of Rome, frier William of Southhampton Prior prouincial of the
friers preachers in England, William of Valencia our vncle, Roger of the
dead sea, Roger of Clifford, Master Robert Samuel deane of Sarum, Master
Robert of Scarborough the Archdeacon of East Riding, Master Robert of
Seyton, Bartholomew of Southley, Thomas of Wayland, Walter of Hoptan,
Thomas of Normannel, Steuen of Pennester, Frances of Bonaua, Iohn of
Lenetotes, Iohn of Metingham and others. Giuen by our hand at Westminster
the fourteenth day of Iune, in the sixth yeare of our reigne.

[Sidenote: Thomas Walsingham writeth that he had once 1100. strong
shippes.] The roll of the huge fleete of Edward the third before Calice,
extant in the kings wardrobe in London, whereby the wonderfull strength of
England by sea in those days may appeare.

The South fleete.

The Kings /Shippes 25. Lyme /Ships 4.
\Mariners 419. \Mariners 62.
London /Shippes 25. Seton /Ships 2.
\Mariners 662. \Mariners 25.
Aileford /Shippes 2. Sydmouth /Ships 3.
\Mariners 24. \Mariners 62.
Hoo /Shippes 2. Exmouth /Ships 10.
\Mariners 24. \Mariners 193.
Maydstone /Shippes 2. Tegmouth /Ships 7.
\Mariners 51. \Mariners 120.
Hope /Shippes 2. Dartmouth /Ships 31.
\Mariners 59. \Mariners 757.
New Hithe /Shippes 5. Portsmouth /Ships 5.
\Mariners 49. \Mariners 96.
Margat /Shippes 15. Plimouth /Ships 26.
\Mariners 160. \Mariners 603.
[1]Motue /Shippes 2. Loo /Ships 20.
\Mariners 22. \Mariners 315.
Feuersham /Shippes 2. Yalme /Ships 2.
\Mariners 25. \Mariners 47.
Sandwich /Ships 22. [2]Fowey /Ships 47.
\Mariners 504. \Mariners 770.
Douer /Ships 16. Bristol /Ships 22.
\Mariners 336. \Mariners 608.
Wight /Ships 13. Tenmouth /Ships 2.
\Mariners 220. \Mariners 25.
Winchelsey /Ships 21. Hasting /Ships 5.
\Mariners 596. \Mariners 96.
Waymouth /Ships 15. Romney /Ships 4.
\Mariners 263. \Mariners 65.
Rye /Ships 9. Swanrey /Ships 1.
\Mariners 156. \Mariners 29.
Hithe /Ships 6. Ilfercombe /Ships 6.
\Mariners 122. \Mariners 79.
Shoreham /Ships 20. [4]Patricke- /Ships 2.
\Mariners 329. stowe \Mariners 27.
[3]Soford /Ships 5. Polerwan /Ships 1.
\Mariners 80. \Mariners 60.
Newmouth /Ships 2. Wadworth /Ships 1.
\Mariners 18. \Mariners 14.
Hamowl /Ships 7. Kardife /Ships 1.
hooke \Mariners 117. \Mariners 51.
Hoke /Ships 11. Bridgwater /Ships 1.
\Mariners 208. \Mariners 15.
Southhapton /Ships 21. Kaermarthen /Ships 1.
\Mariners 576. \Mariners 16.
Lymington /Ships 9. Caileches- /Ships 1.
\Mariners 159. worth \Mariners 12.
Poole /Ships 4. Mulbrooke /Ships 1.
\Mariners 94. \Mariners 12.
Wareham /Ships 3. Summe of the /Ships 493.
\Mariners 59. South fleete \Mariners 9630.

[Footnote 1: Or, Morne.]
[Footnote 2: Or, Foy.]
[Footnote 3: Or, Seford.]
[Footnote 4: Or, Padstow.]

The North fleete

Bamburgh /Ships 1. Waynefleet /Ships 2.
\Mariners 9. \Mariners 49.
Newcastle /Ships 17. Wrangle /Ships 1.
\Mariners 314. \Mariners 8.
Walrich /Ships 1. [2]Lenne /Ships 16.
\Mariners 12. \Mariners 382.
Hertilpoole /Ships 5. Blackney /Ships 2.
\Mariners 145. \Mariners 38.
Hull /Ships 16. Scarborough /Ships 1.
\Mariners 466. \Mariners 19.
Yorke /Ships 1. [3]Yearnmouth /Ships 43.
\Mariners 9. \Mariners 1950. or 1075.
Ranenser /Ships 1. Donwich /Ships 6.
\Mariners 27. \Mariners 102.
Woodhouse /Ships 1. Orford /Ships 3.
\Mariners 22. \Mariners 62.
[1]Stokhithe /Ships 1. Goford /Ships 13.
\Mariners 10. \Mariners 303.
Barton /Ships 3. Herwich /Ships 14.
\Mariners 30. \Mariners 283.
Swinefleete /Ships 1. Ipswich /Ships 12.
\Mariners 11. \Mariners 239.
Saltfleet /Ships 2. Mersey /Ships 1.
\Mariners 49. \Mariners 6.
Grimesby /Ships 11. [4]Brightlingsey /Ships 5.
\Mariners 171. \Mariners 61.
Colchester /Ships 5. Boston /Ships 17.
\Mariners 90. \Mariners 361.
Whitbanes /Ships 1. Swinhumber /Ships 1.
\Mariners 17. \Mariners 32.
Malden /Ships 2. Barton /Ships 5.
\Mariners 32. \Mariners 91.
Derwen /Ships 1. The Summe /Ships 217.
\Mariners 15. of the North \Mariners 4521.

The summe totall of /Ships 700.
all the English fleete \Mariners 14151.

[Footnote 1: Stockhith]
[Footnote 2: Or, Linne]
[Footnote 3: Or, Yermouth]
[Footnote 4: Now Brickelsey]

Estrangers their ships and mariners

Bayon /Ships 15. Flanders /Ships 14.
\Mariners 439. \Mariners 133.

Spayne /Ships 7. Gelderland /Ships 1.
\Mariners 184. \Mariners 24.

Ireland /Ships 1.
\Mariners 25.

The summe of all the Estrangers /Ships 38.
\Mariners 805.

The summe of expenses aswell of wages & prests as for the expenses of the
kings houses, and for other gifts and rewards, shippes and other things
necessary to the parties of France and Normandie, and before Calice, during
the siege there, as it appeareth in the accompts of William Norwel keeper
of the kings Wardrobe from the 21. day of April in the 18 yeere of the
reigne of the said king vnto the foure and twentieth day of Nouember in the
one and twentieth yeere of his reigne, is iii. hondreth xxxvii. thousand
li. ix. s. iiii. d.

* * * * *

A note out of Thomas Walsmgham [Footnote: Thomas Walsingham, a native of
Norfolk and Benedictine monk of St. Albans. He wrote _A History of
England, from 1273 to the Death of Henry V_, and _Ypodigma
NeustriŠ_. His writings contain very little original information.]
touching the huge Fleete of eleuen hundred well furnished ships wherewith
King Edward the third passed ouer vnto Calais in the yeere 1359.

Anno gratiŠ 1359. Iohannes Rex FranciŠ sub vmbra pacis, & dolose obtulit
Regi AngliŠ Flandriam, Picardiam, Aquitaniam, aliasque terras quas
equitauerat & vastarat: pro quibus omnibus ratificandis, idem Rex Edwardus
in Franciam nuncios suos direxit: quibus omnibus Franci contradixerunt.
Vnde motus Rex AngliŠ, celeriter se & suos prŠparauit ad transfretandum,
ducens secum principem WalliŠ Edwardum suum primogenitum, ducem Henricim
LancastriŠ & ferŔ proceres omnes, quos comitabantur vel sequebantur poene
mille currus, habuitque apud Sanwicam instructas optime vndecies centum
naues, & cum hoc apparatu ad humiliandum Francorum fastum Franciam
nauigauit, relicto domino Thoma de Woodstock filio suo minore admodum
paruulo Anglici regni custode, sub tutela tamen.

The same in English.

In the yeere of our Lord 1359. Iohn the French king craftily, and vnder
pretence of peace offered vnto Edward the third king of England, Flanders,
Picardie, Gascoigne, and other territories which he had spoyled and wasted,
for the ratifying of which agreement the foresaid king Edward sent his
ambassadors into France, but the Frenchmen gainsaied them in all their
articles and demaunds. Whereupon the king of England being prouoked,
speedily prepared himselfe and his forces to crosse the seas, carying with
him Edward Prince of Wales his heire apparant, and Henry duke of Lancaster
and almost all his Nobles, with a thousand wagons and cartes attending vpon
them. And the said king had at Sandwich eleuen hundred ships exceedingly
well furnished: with which preparation he passed ouer the seas, to abate
the Frenchmens arrogancie, leauing his yonger sonne Thomas of Woodstocke,
being very tender of age as his vicegerent in the Realme of England, albeit
not without a protectour, &c.

* * * * *

The voyage of Nicholas de Lynna a Franciscan Frier, and an excellent
Mathematician of Oxford, to all the Regions situate vnder the North pole,
in the yeere 1360. and in the raigne of Edward the 3. king of England.

[Sidenote: The words of Gerardus Mercator in the foote of his general Map
vpon the description of the North partes.] Quod ad descriptionem partium
Septentrionalium attinet, eam nos accipimus ex Itinerario Iacobi Cnoyen
Buscoducensis qui quŠdam ex rebus gestis Arthuri Britanni citat, maiorem
autem partem & potiora, a Sacerdote quodam apud Regem NoruegiŠ, An. Dom.
1364. didicit. Descenderat is ex illis quos Arthurus ad has habitandas
insulas miserat, & referebat, An. 1360. Minoritam quendam Anglum Oxonieasem
Mathematicum in eas insulas venisse, ipsisque relictis ad vlteriora arte
Magica profectu descripsisse omnia, & Astrolabio dimensum esse in hanc
subiectam formam ferŔ, vti ex Iacobo collegimus, Euripos illos quatuor
dicebat tanto impetu ad interiorem voraginem rapi, vt naues semel ingressŠ
nullo vento retroagi possent, neque ver˛ vnquam tantam ibi ventum esse, vt
molŠ frumentariŠ circumagendŠ sufficiat. Simillima his habet Giraldus
Cambrensis (qui floruit, An. 1210.) in libro de mirabilibus HyberniŠ, sic
enim scribit. Non procul ab insulis Hebridibus, Islandia, &c. ex parte
Boreali, est maris quŠdam miranda vorago, in quam Ó remotis partibus omnes
vndique fluctus marini tanquam ex condicto fluunt, & recurrunt, qui in
secreta naturŠ penetralia se ibi transfundentes, quasi in Abyssum vorantur.
Si ver˛ nauem hac fortŔ transire contigerit, tanta rapitur, & attrahitur
fluctuum violentia, vt eam statim irreuocabiliter vis voracitatis

Quatuor voragines huius Oceani, a quatuor oppositis mundi partibus
Philosophi describunt, vnde & tam marinos fluctus, quÓm & Ăolicos flatus
causaliter peruenire nonnulli coniectant.

The same in English.

Touching the description of the North partes, I haue taken the same out of
the voyage of Iames Cnoyen of Hartzeuan Buske, which alleageth certaine
conquests of Arthur king of Britaine: and the most part, and chiefest
things among the rest, he learned of a certaine priest in the king of
Norwayes court, in the yeere 1364. This priest was descended from them
which king Arthur had sent to inhabite these Islands, and he reported that
in the yeere 1360, a certaine English Frier, a Franciscan, and a
Mathematician of Oxford, came into those Islands, who leauing them, and
passing further by his Magicall Arte, described all those places that he
sawe, and tooke the height of them with his Astrolabe, according to the
forme that I (Gerard Mercator) haue set downe in my mappe, and as I haue
taken it out of the aforesaid Iames Cnoyen. Hee sayd that those foure
Indraughts were drawne into an inward gulfe or whirlepoole, with so great a
force, that the ships which once entred therein, could by no meanes be
driuen backe againe, and that there is neuer in those parts so much winde
blowing, as might be sufficient to driue a Corne mill.

Giraldus Cambrensis (who florished in the yeere 1210, vnder king Iohn) in
his booke of the miracles of Ireland, hath certaine words altogether alike
with these videlicet:

[Sidenote: There is a notable whirlepoole on the coast of Norway, caled
Malestrando (MŠlstrom), about the latitude of 68.] Not farre from these
Islands (namely the Hebrides, Island &c.) towards the North there is a
certaine woonderful whirlpoole of the sea, whereinto all the waues of the
sea from farre haue their course and recourse, as it were without stoppe:
which, there conueying themselues into the secret receptacles of nature,
are swallowed vp, as it were, into a bottomlesse pit, and if it chance that
any shippe doe passe this way, it is pulled, and drawen with such a
violence of the waues, that eftsoones without remedy, the force of the
whirlepoole deuoureth the same.

The Philosophers describe foure indranghts of this Ocean sea, in the foure
opposite quarters of the world, from whence many doe coniecture that as
well the flowing of the sea, as the blasts of the winde, haue their first

* * * * *

A Testimonie of the learned Mathematician master Iohn Dee, [Footnote: Born
in London in 1537. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge. He
was a man of vast erudition, but being, in Mary's reign, suspected of
devoting himself to the "black art," a mob broke into his house and
destroyed his library, museum, and mathematical instruments, said to be
worth ú2,000; and he himself was cast into prison. He was in great favour
with Queen Elizabeth, who is said to haue paid him a salary, employed him
on secret political missions, and visited him at Mortlake. He professed
to be able to raise the dead, and had a magic ball (in reality a lump of
black lead), in which he pretended to read the future, and which was
afterwards in Horace Walpole's collection at Strawberry Hill. In 1596. he
was made Warden of Manchester College, and died in 1608.] touching the
foresaid voyage of Nicholas De Linna.

Anno 1360. (that is to wit, in the 34. yeere of the reigne of the
triumphant king Edward the third) a frier of Oxford, being a good
Astronomer, went in companie with others to the most Northren Islands of
the world, and there leauing his company together, hee transited alone, and
purposely described all the Northerne Islands, with the indrawing seas: and
the record thereof at his returne he deliuered to the king of England.
[Sidenote: Inuentio Fortunata.] The name of which booke is Inuentio
Fortunata (aliter fortunŠ) qui liber incipit a gradu 54. vsque ad polum.
Which frier for sundry purposes after that did fiue times passe from
England thither, and home againe.

It is to be noted, that from the hauen of Linne in Norfolke (whereof the
foresaid Francisan frier tooke his name) to Island, it is not about a
fortnights sailing with an ordinarie winde, and hath bene of many yeeres a
very common and vsuall trade: which further appeareth by the priuileges
granted to the Fisher men of the towne of Blacknie in the said Countie of
Norfolke, by king Edward the third for their exemption and freedome from
his ordinary seruice in respect of their trade to Island. [Sidenote: An 2.
& 4. & 31. Edwardi tertij.]

* * * * *

The voyage of Henry Earle of Derbie, after Duke of Hereford and lastly king
of England by the name of Henry the fourth, An. Dom 1340. into Prussia
and Lettowe against the infidels, recorded by Thomas of Walsingham

[Sidenote: An. Dom. 1390.] Dominus Henricus Comes de Derbie per idem tempos
profectus est in le Pruys, vbi cum adjutorio marescalli dictŠ patriŠ &
cujusdam Regis vocati Wytot deuicit exercitum Regis de Lettowe, captis
quatuor ducibus, & tribus peremptis & amplius quam trecentis, de
valentioribus exercitus sapradicti pariter interemptis. Ciuitas quoque
vocatur [Marginal note: Alias Vilna] Will in cujus castellum Rex de Lettowe
nomine Skirgalle confugerat, potenti virtute dicti Comitis maximŔ atque
suorum capta est. Namque qui fuerunt de familia sua primi murum ascenderant
& vexillum ejus super muros, cŠteris vel torpentibus vel ignorantibus,
posuerunt. Captaque sunt ibi vel occisa quatuor millia plebanorum, fratre
Regis de Poleyn inter cŠteros ibi perempto, qui aduersarius nostri fuit
Obsessumque fuit castrum dictŠ Ciuitatis per quinque hebdomadas: Sed
propter infirmitates, quibus vexabatur exercitus magistri de Pruys & de
Lifland noluerunt diuti¨s expectare. Facti sunt Christiani de gente de
Lettowe octo. Et magister de Lifland duxit secum in suam patriam tria
millia captiuorum.

The same in English.

About the same time L. Henry the Earle of Derbie trauailed into Prussia,
where, with the helpe of the Marshall of the same Prouince, and of a
certaine king called Wytot, hee vanquished the armie of the king of
Lettowe, with the captiuitie of foure Lithuanian Dukes, and the slaughter
of three, besides more then three hundred of the principall common
souldiers of the sayd armie which were slaine. The Citie also which is
called Wil or Vilna, into the castle whereof the king of Lettow named
Skirgalle fled for his sauegard, was, by the valour of the sayd Earle
especially and of his followers, surprised and taken. For certaine of the
chiefe men of his familie, while others were slouthfull or at least
ignorant of their intent, skaling the walles, aduanced his colours
thereupon. And there were taken and slaine foure thousand of the common
souldiers, and amongst others was slaine the king of Poland his brother,
who was our professed enemie. And the castle of the foresaid Citie was
besieged for the space of fiue weekes: but by reason of the infirmities and
inconueniences wherewith the whole armie was annoyed, the great masters of
Prussia and of Lifland would not stay any longer. There were conuerted of
the nation of Lettowe eight persons vnto the Christian faith. And the
master of Lifland carried home with him into his countrey three thousand

* * * * *

The voyage of Thomas of Woodstocke Duke of Glocester into Prussia, in the
yeere 1391. written by Thomas Walsingham.

Eodem tempore dux GlouerniŠ Dominus Thomas de Woodstock [Marginal note:
Filius natu minimus Edwardi 3.], multis moerentibus, iter apparauit vers¨s
le Pruys: quem non Loudinensium gemitus, non communis vulgi moeror retinere
poterant, quin proficisci vellet. Nam plebs communis tÓm Vrbana quÓm
rustica metuebant qu˛d eo absente aliquod nouum detrimentum succresceret,
quo prŠsente nihil tale timebant. SiquidŔm in eo spes & solatium totus
patriŠ reposita videbantur. Ipse ver˛ m˛x, vt fines patriŠ suŠ transijt,
illic˛ aduersa agitatus fortuna, nunc hÓc nunc illÓc turbinibus procellosis
circumfertur; & in tantum destituitur, vt de vita etiam desperaret.
[Sidenote: Reditus.] Tandem post Daciam, post Norwagiam, post Scoticam
barbariem non sine mortis pauore transcursam, peruenit Northumbriam, & ad
castellum se contulit de Tinnemutha velut assylum antiquitus notum sibi:
vbi per aliquot dies recreatus iter assumpsit versus manerium suum de
Plashy, magnum apportans gaudium toti regno, tam de eius euasione, quÓm de
aduentu suo.

The same in English.

At the same time the Duke of Glocester Lord Thomas of Woodstock (the
yongest sonne of Edward the third) to the great griefe of many, tooke his
iourney towards Prussia: whom neither the Londoners mones nor yet the
lamentation of the communaltie could restraine from his intended
expedition. For the common people both of the Citie and of the countrey
feared lest in his absence some newe calamitie might happen; which they
feared not while he was present. For in him the whole nation seemed to
repose their hope and comfort. Howbeit hauing skarce passed as yet the
bounds of his owne countrey, he was immediatly by hard fortune tossed vp
and downe with dangerous stormes and tempests, and was brought into such
distresse, that he despaired euen of his owne life. At length, hauing not
without danger of death, sailed along the coastes of Denmarke, Norway, and
Scotland, he returned into Northumberland, and went to the castle of
Tinmouth as vnto a place of refuge knowen of olde vnto him; where, after
hee had refreshed himselfe a fewe dayes, hee tooke his iourney toward his
Mannour of Plashy, bringing great ioy vnto the whole kingdome, aswell in
regard of his safetie as of his returne.

* * * * *

The verses of Geofrey Chaucer in the knights Prologue, who liuing in the
yeere 1402. [Footnote: Chaucer died 25. October, 1400, according to the
inscription on his tombstone at Westminster. Urry, in his edition of
Chaucer, folio, 1721, p. 534, attributes the _Epistle to Cupid_ to Thomas
Occleue, Chaucer's scholar, but does not give his authority.] (as hee
writeth himselfe in his Epistle of Cupide) shewed that the English
Knights after the losse of Acon, were wont in his time to trauaile into
Prussia and Lettowe, and other heathen lands, to aduance the Christian
faith against Infidels and miscreants, and to seeke honour by feats of

The English Knights Prologue.

[Sidenote: Long trauaile.]
A Knight there was, and that a worthie man,
that from the time that he first began
to riden out, he loued Cheualrie,
trouth, honour, freedome, and Curtesie.
full worthy was he in his lords warre:
and thereto had hee ridden no man farre,
As well in Christendome as in Heathennesse,
and euer had honour for his worthinesse.

[Sidenote: Alexandria.]
At Alisandre hee was, when it was wonne:
full oft time hee had the bourd begon
abouen all nations in Pruce,
In Lettowe had hee riden, and in Ruce,
no Christen man so oft of his degree:
In Granade at the siege had he bee
At Algezer[1]: and ridden in Belmarye:
At Leyes [2] was hee, and also at Satalye,[3]
when they were wonne: and in the great see
at many a Noble armie had hee bee.
At mortall battailes had he bin fifteene,
And foughten for our faith at Tramissen,[4]
in listes thries, and aye slayne his foe:

This ilke worthie Knight had bin also,
sometime with the lord of Palathye [5]
ayenst another Heathen in Turkie.

Written in the lustie moneth of May
in our Palace, where many a million
of louers true haue habitation,
The yeere of grace ioyfull and iocond,
a thousand, foure hundred and second.

[Footnote 1: Algezer in Granado.]
[Footnote 2: Layas in Armenia. Froysart. lib. 3. cap. 40.]
[Footnote 3: Satalie in the mayne of Asia neere Rhods.]
[Footnote 4: Tremisen is in Barbarie.]
[Footnote 5: Or, Palice. Froysart lib. 3. cap. 40.]

* * * * *

The original proceedings and successe of the Northren domestical and forren
trades and traffique of this Isle of Britain from the time of Nero the
Emperour, who deceased in the yeere of our Lord 70. vnder the Romans,
Britons, Saxons, and Danes, till the conquest: and from the conquest,
vntill this present time, gathered out of the most authenticall histories
and records of this nation.

* * * * *

A testimonie out of the fourteenth Booke of the Annales of Cornelius
Tacitus, proouing London to haue bene a famous Mart Towne in the reigne
of Nero the Emperour, which died in the yeere of Christ 70.

At Suetonius mira constantia medios inter hostes Londinium perrexit,
cognomento quidem coloniŠ non insigne, sed copia negociatorum & commeatu
maxime celebre.

The same in English.

But Suetonius with wonderfull constancie passed through the middest of his
enemies, vnto London, which though it were not honoured with the name and
title of a Romane Colonie, yet was it most famous for multitude of
Marchants and concourse of people.

* * * * *

A testimome out of Venerable Beda (which died in the yeere of our Lord
734.) proouing London to haue bene a Citie of great traffike and
Marchandize not long after the beginning of the Saxons reigne.

Anno DomminŠ incarnationis sexcentesimo quarto Augustinus Britanniarum
Archiepiscopus ordinauit duos Episcopos, Mellitum videlicet & Iustum:
Mellitum quidem ad prŠdicandum prouinciŠ Orientalium Saxonum, qui Tamesi
fluuio dirimuntur Ó Cantia & ipsi Orientali Mari contigui, quorum
Metropolis Londonia Ciuitas est super ripam prŠfati fluminis posita & ipsa
multorum emporium populorum, terra marique venientium. [Footnote: Beda
EcclesiasticŠ historiŠ Gentis Anglornm lib. 2. cap 3.]

The same in English.

In the yeere of the incarnation of Chnst 604. Augustine Archbishop of
Britaine consecrated two Bishops, to wit Mellitus and Iustus. He appoynted
Mellitus to preach to the East Saxons which are diuided from Kent by the
riuer of Thames, and border vpon the Easterne sea, whose chiefe and
Metropolitane Citie is London seated vpon the banke of the aforesaid riuer,
which is also a Marte Towne of many nations, which repayre thither by sea
and by land.

* * * * *

The league betweene Carolus Magnus and Offa King of Mercia concerning safe
trade of the English Marchants in all the Emperours Dominion. This Offa
died in the yeere of our Lord 795.

Offa interea Carolum magnum Regem Francorum frequentibus legationibus
amicum parauit: quamuis non facile quod suis artibus conduceret in Caroli
animo inuenerit. Discordarunt antea, adeo vt magnis motibus vtrobique
concurrentibus, etiam negociatorum commeatus prohiberentur. Est Epistola
Albini huiusce rei index, cuius partem hic apponam.

Nescio quid de nobis venturum sit. [Sidenote: Nauigatio interdicta.]
Aliquid enim dissentionis diabolico fomento inflammante, nuper inter Regem
Carolum & Regem Offam exortum est: ita vt vtrinque nauigatio interdicta
negociantibus cesset. Sunt qui dicant nos pro pace in illas partes
mittendos. Et nonnullis interpositis, Nunc, inquit, ex verbis Caroli foedus
firmum inter eum & Offam compactum subijciam. Carolus gratia Dei Rex
Francorum, & Longobardorum, & patricius Romanorum, viro venerando & fratri
charissimo OffŠ Regi Mercioram salutem. Primo gratias agimus omnipotenti
deo, de salute animarum, de CathocŠ fidei sinceritate, quam in vestris
laudabiliter paginis reperimus exaratam. De peregrinis vero qui pro amore
Dei, & salute animarum suarum beatoram Apostolorum limina desiderant adire,
cum pace sine omni perturbatione vadant. Sed si aliqui, non religioni
seruientes, sed lucra sectantes, inueniantur inter eos, locis opportunis
statuta soluant telonia. [Sidenote: Negociatorum Anglicanorum patrocinium.]
Negociatores quoque volumus vt ex mandato nostro patrocinium habeant in
Regno nostro legitime. Et si aliquo loco iniusta affligantur oppressione,
reclament ad nos vel nostros indices, & plenam videbimus iustitiam fieri.
[Footnote: Malmsbur. de gestis Regum Anglorum lib. 1. cap 4.]

The same in English.

In the meane season Offa by often legacies solicited Charles le maigne the
king of France, to be his friend: albeit he could not easily finde king
Charles any whit enclined to further and promote his craftie attempts.
[Sidenote: Traffique prohibited] Their mindes were so alienated before,
that bearing hauty stomacks on both parts, euen the mutuall traffique of
their Marchants was prohibited. The Epistle of Albmus is a sufficient
testimony of this matter part whereof I will here put downe.

I know not (quoth he) what will become of vs. [Sidenote: Nauigation
forbidden.] For there is of late, by the instigation of the deuill, some
discord and variance sprung vp betweene king Charles and king Offa:
insomuch that sailing to and fro is forbidden vnto the Marchants of both
their dominions. Some say that we are to be sent, for the obtaining of a
peace, into those partes. And againe, after a fewe lines. Nowe (quoth he)
out of Charles his owne words, I will make report of the league concluded
betweene him and Offa.

[Sidenote: A league between Carol. Mag. and K. Offa.] Charles by the grace
of God king of the Franks and Lombards and Senatour of the Romanes, vnto
the reuerend and his most deare brother Offa king of the Mercians sendeth
greeting. First we doe render vnto almightie God most humble thankes for
the saluation of soules, and the sinceritie of the Catholique faith, which
we, to your great commendation, haue found signified in your letters. As
touching those pilgrimes, who for the loue of God and their owne soules
health, are desirous to resort vnto the Churches of the holy Apostles, let
them goe in peace without all disturbance. But if any be found amongst them
not honouring religion, but following their owne gaine, they are to pay
their ordinarie customes at places conuenient. [Sidenote: Protection of the
English marchants] It is our pleasure also and commandement, that your
marchants shall haue lawfull patronage and protection in our dominions.
Who, if in any place they chance to be afflicted with any vniust
oppression, let them make their supplication vnto vs, or vnto our Iudges,
and we will see iustice executed to the full.

* * * * *

An ancient testimonie translated out of the olde Saxon lawes, containing
among other things the aduancement of Marchants for their thrise crossing
the wide seas, set downe by the learned Gentleman Master William Lambert
pagina 500. of his perambulation of Kent.

It was sometime in English lawes, that the people and the lawes were in
reputation: and then were the wisest of the people worship worthy, euery
one after his degree: Earle, and Churle, Thein, and vnder-Thein. And if a
churle thriued so, that hee had fully fiue hides of his owne land, a Church
and a Kitchin, a Belhouse, and a gate, a seate, and a seuerall office in
the Kings hall, then was he thenceforth the Theins right worthy. And if a
Thein so thriued, that he serued the king, and on his message rid in his
houshold, if he then had a Thein that followed him, the which to the kings
iourney fiue hides had, and in the kings seate his Lord serued, and thrise
with his errand had gone to the king, he might afterward with his foreoth


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