The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries
Richard Hakluyt

Part 3 out of 6

emeraudes and y nowe. And therefore thei ben there grettere cheep. Also
whan it reynethe ones in the somer, in the lond of Egipt, thanne is alle
the contree fulle of grete myrs. Also at Cayre, that I spak of before,
sellen men comounly bothe men and wommen of other lawe, as we don here
bestes in the markat. And there is a comoun hows in that cytee, that is
alle fulle of smale furneys; and thidre bryngen wommen of the toun here
eyren [Footnote: Eggs.] of hennes, of gees and of dokes, for to ben put in
to tho furneyses. And thei that kepen that hows covern hem with hete of
hors dong, with outen henne, goos or doke or ony other foul; and at the
ende of 3 wekes or of a monethe, they comen azen and taken here chickenes
and norissche hem and bryngen hem forthe: so that alle the contree is fulle
of hem. And so men don there bothe wyntre and somer.

Also in that contree, and in othere also, men fynden longe apples to selle,
in hire cesoun: and men clepen hem apples of paradys; and thei ben righte
swete and of gode savour. [Footnote: Melons.] And thoghe zee kutte hem in
never so many gobettes or parties, overthwart or end longes, evermore zee
schulle fynden in the myddes the figure of the Holy Cros of oure Lord Jesu.
But thei will roten within 8 days: and for that cause men may not carye of
the apples to no fer contrees. And thei han grete leves, of a fote and an
half of lengthe: and thei ben covenably large. And men fynden there also
the appulle tree of Adam, that han a byte at on of the sydes. And there ben
also fyge trees, that baren no leves, but fyges upon the smale braunches;
and men clepen hem figes of Pharoon. Also besyde Cayre, withouten that
cytee, is the feld where bawme growethe: and it cometh out on smale trees,
that ben non hyere than a mannes breek girdle: and thei semen as wode that
is of the wylde vyne. And in that feld ben 7 welles, that oure Lord Jesu
Crist made with on of his feet, whan he wente to pleyen with other
children. That feld is not so well closed, but that men may entren at here
owne list. But in that cesonne, that the bawme is growynge, men put there
to gode kepynge, that no man dar ben hardy to entre. This bawme growethe in
no place, but only there. And thoughe that men bryngen of the plauntes, for
to planten in other contrees, thei growen wel and fayre, but thei bryngen
forthe no fructuous thing: and the leves of bawme ne fallen noughte. And
men kutten the braunches with a scharp flynston or with a scherp bon,
[Footnote: Flintstone and bone.] whan men will go to kutte hem: For who so
kutte hem with iren, it wolde destroye his vertue and his nature. And the
Sarazines clepen the wode Enonch balse; and the fruyt, the whiche is as
Quybybes, thei clepen Abebissam; and the lycour, that droppethe fro the
braunches, thei clepen Guybalse. And men maken alle weys that bawme to ben
tyled [Footnote: Tilled.] of the Cristenemen, or elles it wolde not
fructifye; as the Sarazines seyn hem self: for it hathe ben often tyme
preved. Men seyn also, that the bawme growethe in Ynde the more, in that
desert where the trees of the sonne and of the mone spak to Alisaundre. But
I have not seen it. For I have not ben so fer aboven upward: because that
there ben to many perilouse passages. And wyte zee wel, that a man oughte
to take gode kepe for to bye bawme, but zif he cone knowe it righte wel:
for he may righte lyghtely be discoyved. For men sellen a gome, that men
clepen turbentyne, in stede of bawme; and thei putten there to a littille
bawme for to zeven gode odour. And some putten wax in oyle of the wode of
the fruyt of bawme, and seyn that it is bawme: and sume destyllen clowes of
gylofre and of spykenard of Spayne and of othere spices, that ben well
smellynge; and the lykour that gothe out there of, thei clepe it bawme: and
thei wenen, that thei han bawme; and thei have non. For the Sarazines
counterfeten it be sotyltee of craft, for to disceyven the Cristene men, as
I have sene fulle many a tyme. And after hem, the marchauntis and the
apotecaries countrefeten it eftsones, and that it is lasse worthe, and a
gret del worse. But zif it lyke zou, I schalle schewe, how zee schulle
knowe and preve, to the ende that zee schulle not ben disceyved. First zee
schulle wel knowe, that the naturelle bawme is fulle cleer, and of cytrine
colour, and stronge smellynge; and zif it be thykke, or reed or blak, it is
sophisticate, that is to seyne, contrefeted and made lyke it, for disceyt.
And undrestondethe, that zif zee wil putte a litylle bawme in the pawme of
zoure hond, azen the sonne, zif it be fyn and gode, zee ne schulle not
suffre zoure hand azenst the hete of the sonne. Also takethe a lytille
bawme, with the poynt of a knif, and touche it to the fuyr, and zif it
brenne, it is a gode signe. Aftre take also a drope of bawme, and put it in
to a dissche or in a cuppe with mylk of a goat; and zif it be naturelle
bawme, anon it wole take and beclippe the mylk. Or put a drope of bawme in
clere watre, in a cuppe of sylver or in a clere bacyn, and stere it wel
with the clere watre; and zif that the bawme be fyn and of his owne kynde,
the watre schalle nevre trouble: and zif the bawme be sophisticate, that is
to seyne countrefeted, the watre schalle become anon trouble: And also zif
the bawme be fyn, it schalle falle to the botome of the vesselle, as
thoughe it were Quyksylver: For the fyn bawme is more hevy twyes, than is
the bawme that is sophisticate and countrefeted. Now I have spoken of
Bawme: and now also I schalle speke of an other thing, that is bezonde
Babyloyne, above the flode of Nyle, toward the desert, betwene Affrik and
Egypt: that is to seyn, of the gerneres [Footnote: Granaries.] of Joseph,
that he leet make, for to kepe the greynes for the perile of the dere
zeres. And thei ben made of ston, fulle wel made of massones craft: of the
whiche two ben merveylouse grete and hye; and the tothere ne ben not so
grete. And every gerner hathe a zate, for to entre with inne, a lytille
hyghe fro the erthe. For the lond is wasted and fallen, sithe the gerneres
were made. And with inne thei ben alle fulle of serpentes. And aboven the
gerneres with outen ben many scriptures of dyverse langages. And sum men
seyn, that thei ben sepultures of grete lordes, that weren somtyme; but
that is not trewe: for alle the comoun rymour and speche is of alle the
peple there, bothe and nere, that thei ben the garneres of Joseph. And so
fynden thei in here scriptures and in here cronycles. On that other partie,
zif thei were sepultures, thei scholden not ben voyd with inne. For zee may
well knowe, that tombes and sepultures ne ben not made of suche gretnesse,
ne of such highnesse. Wherfore it is not to believe, that thei ben tombes
or sepultures. In Egypt also there ben dyyerse langages and dyverse
lettres, and of other manere condicioun, than there ben in other parties.
As I schalle devyse zou, suche as thei ben, and the names how thei clepen
hem; to suche entent, that zee mowe knowe the difference of hem and of
othere. Athoimis, Bunchi, Chinok, Durain, Eni, Fin, Gomor, Heket, Janny,
Karacta, Luzanim, Miche, Naryn, Oldache, Piloh, Quyn, Yron, Sichen, Thola,
Urmron, Yph and Yarm, Thoit.

Now will I retourne azen, or I procede ony ferthere, for to declare zou the
othere weyes, that drawen toward Babiloyne, where the Soudan him self
duellethe, that is at the entree of Egypt; for als moche as mony folk gon
thidre first, and aftre that to the Mount Synay, and aftre retournen to
Jerusalem, as I have seyd zou here beforn. For thei fulfillen first the
more long pilgrymage, and aftre retournen azen be the nexte weyes; because
that the more nye weye is the more worthi, and that is Jerusalem. For no
other pylgrymage is not lyk, in comparsoun to it. But for to fulle fylle
here pilgrymages more esily and more sykerly, men gon first the longer
weye. But whoso wil go to Babyloyne be another weye, more schort from the
contrees of the west, that I have reherced before; or from other contrees
next fro hem; than men gon by Fraunce, be Burgoyne and be Lombardye. It
nedethe not to telle zou the names of the cytees, ne of the townes that ben
in that Weye: for the weye is comoun, and it is knowen of many naciouns.
And there ben many havenes, that men taken the see. Sume men taken the see
at Gene, some at Venyce, and passen by the see Adryatyk, that is clept the
Goulf of Venyse; that departethe [Footnote: Separates.] Ytaylle and Greece
on that syde. And some gon to Naples, some to Rome, and from Rome to
Brandys, [Footnote: Brindisi.] and there thei taken the see: and in many
othere places, where that havenes ben. And men gon be Tussye, be Champayne,
be Calabre, be Appuille, and be the hilles of Ytaylle, Chorisqe, be
Sardyne, and be Cycile, that is a gret ile and a gode. In that ile of
Cycile there ys a maner of a gardyn, in the whiche ben many dyverse frutes.
And the gardyn is alweys grene and florisshing, alle the cesouns of the
zeer, als wel in wyntre es in somer. That yle holt in compas aboute 350
Frensche myles. And betwene Cycele and Itaylle there is not but a lytille
arm of the see, that men clepen the farde of Mescyne. And Cycile is betwene
the See Adryatyk and the See of Lombardye. And fro Cycyle in to Calabre is
but 8 myles of Lombardye. And in Cycile there is a manere of serpentes, be
the whiche men asseyen and preven, where here children ben bastardis or
none, or of lawefulle mariage. For zif thei ben born in righte mariage, the
serpentes gon aboute hem, and don hem non harm: and zif thei ben born in
Avowtrie, the serpentes byten hem and envenyme hem. And thus manye wedded
men preve, zif the children ben here owne. Also in that ile is the Mount
Ethna, that men clepen Mount Gybelle; and the Vulcanes that ben evermore
brennynge. And ther ben 7 places that brennen and that casten out dyverse
flawmes and dyverse colour. And be the chaungynge of tho flawmes, men of
that contree knowen, whanne it schalle be derthe or gode tyme, or cold or
hoot, or moyst or drye, or in alle othere maneres, how the tyme schalle be
governed. And from Itaille unto the Vulcanes nys bat 25 Myle. And men seyn,
that the Vulcanes ben weyes of Helle.

Also whoso gothe be Pyse, zif that men list to go that weye, there is an
arm of the see, where that men gon to othere havenes in tho marches. And
that men passen be the Ile of Greaf, that is at Gene: and aftre arryvethe
men in Grece at the havene of the cytee of Myrok, or at the havene of
Valone, or at the cytee of Duras: and there is a duk at Duras, or at othere
havenes in tho marces: and so men gon to Costantynoble. And aftre gon men
be watre to the Ile of Crete, and to the Ile of Rodes, ond so to Cypre, and
so to Athens, and fro thens to Costantynoble.

To holde the more righte weye be see, it is wel a 1880 myle of Lombardye.
And aftre fro Cipre men gon be see, and leven Jerusalem and alle the
contree on the left hond, onto Egypt, and arryven at the cytee of Damyete,
that was wont to be fulle strong, and it sytt at the entree of Egypt. And
fro Damyete gon men to the cytee of Alizandre, that sytt also upon the see.
In that cytee was seynte Kateryne beheded. And there was seynt Mark the
Evangelist martyred and buryed. But the Emperour Leoun made his bones to
ben broughte to Venyse. And zit there is at Alizandre a faire chirche, alle
white withouten peynture: and so ben alle the othere chirches, that weren
of the Cristene men, alle white with inne. For the Panemes and the
Sarrazynes madem hem white, for to fordon [Footnote: To destroy.--
Anglo-Saxon, _for-don_.] the ymages of seyntes, that weren peynted on the
walles. That cytee of Alizandre is wel 30 furlonges in lengthe: but it is
but 10 on largenesse. And it is a full noble cytee and a fayr. At that
cytee entrethe the ryvere of Nyle in to the see; as I to zou have seyd
before. In that ryvere men fynden many precyouse stones, and meche also of
lignum aloes: and it is a manere of wode, that comethe out of Paradys
terrestre, the whiche is good for manye dyverse medicynes: and it is righte
dereworthe. And fro Alizandre men gon to Babyloyne, where the Soudan
dwellethe; that sytt also upon the ryvere of Nyle. And this wey is most
schort, for to go streyghte unto Babiloyne.

Now schall I seye zou also the weye, that gothe fro Babiloyne to the Mount
of Synay, where Seynte Kateryne lythe. He moste passe be the desertes of
Arabye; be the whiche descries Moyses ladde the peple of Israel: and thanne
passe men be the welle, that Moyses made with his hond in the desertes,
whan the people grucched, [Footnote: Grumbled.] for thei fownden no thing
to drynke. And than passe men be the welle of Marache, of the whiche the
watre was first byttre: but the children of Israel putten there inne a
tree; and anon the watre was swete and gode for to drynke. And thanne gon
men be desart unto the Vale of Elyn; in the whiche vale be 12 welles: and
there ben 72 trees of palme, that beren the dates, the whiche Moyses fond
with the children of Israel. And fro that valeye is but a gode journeye to
the Mount of Synay.

And whoso wil go be another weye fro Babiloyne, than men gothe be the Rede
See, that is an arm of the see occean. And there passed Moyses, with the
children of Israel, overthwart the see, alle drye, whan Pharao the Kyng of
Egypt chaced hem. And that see is wel a 6 myle of largenesse in bredthe.
And in that see was Pharao drowned and alle his hoost, that he ladde. That
see is not more reed than another see; but in some place thereof is the
gravelle reede: and therfore men clepen it the Rede See. That see reunethe
to the endes of Arabye and of Palestyne. That see lastethe more than 4
journeyes. And then gon men be desert unto the Vale of Elyn: and fro thens
to the Mount of Synay. And zee may wel undirstonde, that be this desert, no
man may go on hors back, be cause that there nys nouther mete for hors ne
watre to drynke. And for that cause men passen that desert with camelle.
For the camaylle fynt alle wey mete in trees and on busshes, that he
fedethe him with. And he may well faste fro drynk 2 dayes or 3: and that
may non hors don.

And wyte wel, that from Babiloyne to the Mount Synay is wel a 12 gode
journeyes: and some men maken hem more: and some men hasten hem and peynen
hem; and therefore thei maken hem lesse. And alle weys fynden men latyneres
[Footnote: Men who speak Latin.] to go with hem in the contrees, and
ferthere bezonde, in to tyme that men conne [Footnote: Know.] the langage.
And it behovethe men to here vitaille with hem, that schalle duren hem in
tho desertes, and other necessaries for to lyve by.

And the Mount of Synay is clept the Desert of Syne, that is for to seyne
the bussche brennynge: because there Moyses sawghe oure Lord God many
tymes, in forme of fuyr brennynge upon that hille; and also in a bussche
brennynge; and spak to him. And that was at the foot of the hille. There is
an abbeye of monks, wel bylded and wel closed with zates of iren, for drede
of the wylde bestes. And the monkes ben Arrabyenes, or men of Greece: and
there is a grot covent; and alle thei ben as heremytes; and thei drynken no
wyn, but zif it be on principalle festes: and thei ben fulle devoute men,
and lyven porely and sympely, with joutes [Footnote: The original note
reads 'Gourds', but joutes are actually herbs--KTH.] and with dates: and
thei don gret absteynence and penaunce. There is the Chirche of Seynt
Kateryne, in the whiche ben manye lampes brennynge. For thei han of oyle of
olyves y now, bothe for to brenne in here lampes, and to ete also: and that
plentee have thei be the myracle of God. For the ravenes and the crowes and
the choughes, and other foules of the contree assemblen hem there every
zeer ones, and fleen thider as in pilgrymage: and eyeryche of hem bringethe
a braunche of the bayes or of olyve, in here bekes, in stede of offryng,
and leven hem there; of the whiche the monkes maken gret plentee of oyle;
and this is a gret marvaylle. And sithe that foules, that han no kyndely
wytt ne resoun, gon thidre to seche that gloriouse virgyne; wel more
oughten men than to seche hire and to worschipen hire. Also behynde the
awtier of that chirche is the place where Moyses saughe oure Lord God in a
brennynge bussche. And whanne the monkes entren in to that place, thei don
of bothe hosen and schoon or botes alweys; be cause that oure Lord seyde to
Moyses, _Do of thin hosen and thi schon: for the place that thou stondest
on is lond holy and blessed._ And the monkes clepen that place Bezeleel,
that is to seyne, the schadew of God. And besyde the highe awtiere, 3
degrees of heighte, is the fertre [Footnote: Bier.] of alabastre, where the
bones of Seynte Kateryne lyzn. And the prelate of the monkes schewethe the
relykes to the pilgrymes. And with an instrument of sylver, he frothethe
the bones; [Footnote: Rubbeth.] and thanne ther gothe out a lytylle oyle,
as thoughe it were a maner swetynge, that is nouther lyche to oyle ne to
bawme; but it is fulle swete of smelle: And of that thei zeven a litylle to
the pilgrymes; for there gothe out but litylle quantitee of the likour. And
aftre that thei schewen the heed of Seynte Kateryne, and the clothe that
sche was wrapped inne, that is zit alle blody. And in that same clothe so y
wrapped, the aungeles beren hire body to the Mount Synay, and there thei
buryed hire with it. And thanne thei schewen the bussche, that brenned and
wasted nought, in the whiche oure Lord spak to Moyses, and othere relikes y
nowe. Also whan the prelate of the abbeye is ded, I have undirstonden, be
informacioun, that his lampe quenchethe. And whan thei chesen another
prelate, zif he be a gode man and worthi to be prelate, his lampe schal
lighte, with the grace of God, withouten touchinge of ony man. For everyche
of hem hathe a lampe be him self. And be here lampes thei knowen wel whan
ony of hem schalle dye. For whan ony schalle dye, the lyghte begynnethe to
chaunge and to wexe dym. And zif he be chosen to ben prelate, and is not
worthi, his lampe quenchethe anon. And other men han told me, that he that
syngethe the masse for the prelate that is ded, he schalle fynde upon the
awtier the name writen of him that schalle be prelate chosen. And so upon a
day I asked of the monkes, bothe on and other, how this befelle. But thei
wolde not telle me no thing, in to the tyme that I seyde, that thei scholde
not hyde the grace, that God did hem; but that thei scholde publissche it,
to make the peple to have the more devocioun; and that thei diden synne, to
hide Goddis myracle, as me seemed. For the myracles, that God hathe don,
and zit dothe every day, ben the wytnesse of his myghte and of his
merveylles; as Dayid sethe in the Psaultere; _Mirabilia testimonia tua,
Domine_: that is to seyn, _Lord, thi merveyles ben thi wytnesse_. And
thanne thei tolde me, bothe on and other, how it befelle fulle many a tyme:
but more I myghte not have of hem. In that abbeye ne entrethe not no flye
ne todes ne ewtes, ne suche foule venymouse bestes, ne lyzs ne flees, be
the myracle of God and of oure lady. For there were wont to ben many suche
manere of filthes, that the monkes werein in wille to leve the place and
the Abbeye, and weren gon fro thens, upon the mountayne aboven, for to
eschewe that place. And oure lady cam to hem, and bad hem tournen azen: and
fro this forewardes nevere entred suche filthe in that place amonges hem,
ne nevere schalle entre here aftre. Also before the zate is the welle,
where Moyses smot the ston, of the whiche the watre cam out plenteously.

Fro that abbeye men gon up the mountayne of Moyses, be many degrees: and
there men fynden first a Chirche of oure Lady, where that sche mette the
monkes, whan thei fledden awey for the vermyn aboveseyd. And more highe
upon that mountayne is the chapelle of Helye the prophete. And that place
thei clepen Oreb, where of Holy Writt spekethe. _Et ambulavit in
fortisudine cibi illius usque ad Montem Oreb_: that is to seyne, _And he
wente in strength of that mete, unto the hille of God, Oreb_. And there
nyghe is the vyne that Seynt John the Evaungeliste planted, that men elepen
reisins, _staphis_. And a lytille aboven is the Chapelle of Moyses, and the
roche where Moyses fleghe to, for drede, when he saughe oure Lord face to
face. And in that roche is prented the forme of his body; for he smot so
strongly and so harde him self in that roche, that alle his body was dolven
with inne, thorghe the myracle of God. And there besyde is the place where
oure Lorde toke to Moyses the 10 commandementes of the lawe. And there is
the cave undre the roche, where Moyses duelte, whan he fasted 40 dayes and
40 nyghtes. And from that mountayne men passen a gret valeye, for to gon to
another mountayne, where Seynt Kateryne was buryed of the aungeles of oure
Lord. And in that valey is a chirche of 40 martyres; and there singen the
monkes of the abbeye often tyme. And that valey is right cold. And aftre
men gon up the mountayne of Seynt Kateryne, that is more highe then the
mount of Moyses. And there, where Seynt Kateryne was buryed, is nouther
chirche ne chapelle, ne other duellynge place: but there is an heep of
stones aboute the place, where the body of hire was put of the aungeles.
There was wont to ben a chapelle: but it was casten downe, and zit lyggen
the stones there. And alle be it that the collect of Seynte Kateryne seye,
that it is the place where oure Lord betaughten the Ten Comandementes to
Moyses, and there where the blessed virgyne Seynte Kateryne was buryed;
that is to undrestonde, in o contree, or in o place berynge o name. For
bothe that on and that othre is clept the Mount of Synay. But there is a
grete weye from that on to that othre, and a gret deep valeye betwene hem.

Of the desert bet wen e the chirche of Seynte Kateryne and Jerusalem. Of
the drie Tre; and how roses cam first in the world.

[Sidenote: Cap. VI.] Now aftre that men had visited tho holy places, thanne
will thei turnen toward Jerusalem. And than wil thei take leve of the
monkes, and recommenden hem to here preyeres. And than thei zeven the
pilgrimes of here vitaylle, for to passe with the desertes, toward Surrye.
And tho desertes duren wel it 13 journeyes. In that desert duellyn manye of
Arrabyenes, that men clepen Bedoynes and Ascopardes. And thei ben folke
fulle of alle evylle condiciouns. And thei have none houses, but tentes;
that thei maken of skynnes of bestes, as of camaylles and of othere bestes,
that thei eten; and there benethe thei couchen hem and duellen, in place,
where thei may fynden watre, as on the Rede See or elles where For in that
desert is fulle gret defaute of watre: and often time it fallethe, that
where men fynden watre at o tyme in a place, it faylethe another tyme. And
for that skylle, thei make none habitaciouns there. Theise folk, that I
speke of, thei tylen not the lond, ne thei laboure noughte; for thei eten
no bred, but zif it be ony that dwellen nyghe a gode toun, that gon thidre
and eten bred som tyme. And thei rosten here flesche and here fische upon
the hote stones azenst the sonne. And thei ben stronge men and wel
fyghtynge. And there is so meche multytude of that folk, that thei ben
withouten nombre. And thei ne recchen of no thing, ne don not, but chacen
afere bestes, to eten hem. And thei recchen no thing of here lif: and
therefore thei dowten not the Sowdan, ne non othre prince; but thei dar wel
werre with hem, zif thei don ony thing that is grevance to hem. And thei
han often tyme werre with the Soudan; and namely, that tyme that I was with
him. And thei beren but o scheld and o spere, with outen other armes. And
thei wrappen here hedes and here necke with a gret quantytee of white
lynnen clothe. And thei ben righte felonouse and foule, and of cursed

And whan men passen this desert, in comynge toward Jerusalem, thei comen to
Bersabee, that was wont to ben a fulle fair town and a delytable of
Cristene men: and zit there ben summe of here chirches. In that town
dwelled Abraham the patriark, a long tyme. In that toun of Bersabee,
founded Bersabee the wife of Sire Urye, the knyghte; on the whiche Kyng
David gatt Salomon the wyse, that was king aftre David, upon the 12
kynredes of Jerusalem, and regned 40 zeer. And fro thens gon men to the
cytee of Ebron, that is the montance [Footnote: Amount.] of a gode myle.
And it was clept somtyme the Vale of Mambree, and sumtyme it was clept the
Vale of Teres, because that Adam wepte there, an 100 zeer, for the dethe of
Abelle his sone, that Cayn slowghe. Ebron was wont to ben the princypalle
cytee of Philistyenes; and there duelleden somtyme the geauntz. And that
cytee was also Sacerdotalle, that is to seyne, seyntuarie, of the tribe of
Juda: and it was so fre, that men resceyved there alle manere of fugityfes
of other places, for here evyl dedis. In Ebron, Josue, Calephe, and here
companye comen first to aspyen, how thei myghte wynnen the lond of Beheste.
In Ebron regned first Kyng David, 7 zeer and an half: and in Jerusalem he
regnede 33 zeer and an half. And in Ebron ben alle the sepultures of the
patriarkes, Adam, Abraham, Ysaac, and of Jacob; and of here wyfes, Eve,
Sarre, and Rebekke, and of Lya: the whiche sepultures the Sarazines kepen
fulle curyously, and han the place in gret reverence, for the holy fadres,
the patriarkes, that lyzen there. And thei suffre no Cristene man entre in
to that place, but zif it be of specyalle grace of the Soudan. For thei
holden Cristen men and Jewes as dogges. And thei seyn, that thei scholde
not entre in to so holy place. And men clepen that place, where thei lyzn,
double spelunke, or double cave or double dyche; for als meche as that on
lyethe above that other. And the Sarazines clepen that place in here
langage Karicarba; that is to seyn, the place of patriarkes. And the Jewes
clepen that place Arbothe. And in that same place was Abrahames hous: and
there he satt and he saughe 3 persones, and worschipte but on; as Holy
Writt seyethe, _Tres vidit et unum adoravit_: that is to seyne, _He soughe
3, and worschiped on_: and of tho same resceyved Abraham the aungeles in to
his hous. And righte faste by that place is a cave in the roche, where Adam
and Eve duelleden, whan thei weren putt out of Paradyse; and there goten
thei here children. And in thai same place, was Adam formed and made; aftre
that that sum men seyn. For men werein wont for to clepe that place, the
feld of Damasce; because that it was in the lordschipe of Damask. And fro
thens was he translated in to paradys of delytes, as thei seyn: and aftre
that he was dryven out of Paradys, he was there left. And the same day that
he was putt in Paradys, the same day he was putt autt: for anon he synned.
There begynnethe the Vale of Ebron, that durethe nyghe to Jerusalem. There
the Aungelle commaunded Adam, that he scholde duelle with his wyf Eve: of
the whiche he gatt Sethe; of whiche tribe, that is to seyn, kynrede, Jesu
Crist was born. In that valeye is a feld, where men drawen out of the erthe
a thing, that men clepen cambylle: and thei ete it in stede of spice, and
thei bere it to selle. And men may not make the hole ne the cave, where it
is taken out of the erthe, so depe ne so wyde, but that it is, at the zeres
ende, fulle azen up to the sydes, thorgh the grace of God.

And 2 myle from Ebron is the grave of Lothe, that was Abrahames brother.
And a lytille fro Ebron is the Mount of Mambre, of the whiche the yaleye
takethe his name. And there is a tree of oke, that the Sarazines clepen
dirpe, that is of Abrahames tyme, the whiche men clepen the drye tree. And
thei seye, that it hathe ben there sithe the beginnynge of the world; and
was sumtyme grene, and bare leves, unto the tyme that oure Lord dyede on
the cros; and thanne it dryede; and so dyden alle trees, that weren thanne
in the World. And summe seyn, be here prophecyes, that a Lord, a prynce of
the west syde of the world shalle wynnen the lond of promyssioun, that is
the Holy Lond, withe helpe of Cristene men; and he schalle do synge a masse
undir that drye tree, and than the tree schalle wexen grene and bere bothe
fruyt and leves. And thorghe that myracle manye Sarazines and Jewes schulle
be turned to Cristene feythe. And therfore thei don gret worschipe thereto,
and kepen it fulle besyly; And alle be it so, that it be drye, natheles zit
he berethe gret vertue: for certeynly he that hathe a litille there of upon
him, it helethe him of the fallynge evylle: and his hors schalle not ben a
foundred: and manye othere vertues it hathe: where fore men holden it fulle

From Ebron, men gon to Bethelem, in half a day: for it is but 5 myle; and
it is fulle fayre weye, be pleynes and wodes fulle deletable.

CAPVT. 13.

De ciuitate Bethleem, et semita vsque in Ierusalem.

Bethleem Ciuitas longa sed parua, firmata est vndique fossatis fortibus:
cuius modò habitatores quasi omnos sunt Christiani. In illa ad orientem
honesta, et placida habetur Ecclesia: (nescio an aliquam eiusdem
quantitatis viderim placentiorem,) extrinsecus habens turres saltaturas,
pinnacula, et propugnacula nobili artificio fabricata, et intrinsecus 44.
de marmore decoro columnas. Ad principalis autem turris dextram in descensu
16. graduum, est diuersorij locus, vbi ex intacta et benedicta Virgine
nascebatur Christus homo Deus. Hic locus est multùm artificiosè operatus
marmore, et generosè depictus auro et argento, variòque colore, cui propè
ad tres passus est præsepe in quo reclinabatur natus Dominus, ibíque
videtur puteus quidam, in quo aliqui putare volunt cecidisse stellam
ductricem trium Magorum, post eius peractum officium.

Est etiam ante præsepe Domini, tumba beati Interpretis Hieronymi, et extra
Ecclesiam monstratur cathedra, in qua residere solebat. Sub clausura huius
ecclesiæ ad dextram, per 18. gradus apparet fossa, quæ dicitur ossium
innocentium causa Christi ab Herode impio occisorum. Hinc ad quingentos,
vel cítra pedes habetur alia Ecclesia nomine Sancti Nicholai, in quo
scilicet loco, post recessum Magorum beata Virgo tempus sui puerperij
obseruauit. [Sidenote: Taxat simplicitatem vulgi.] Ibíque monstrantur rubra
saxa albis respersa maculis, quòd simpliciores narrant saxis euenisse de
abundantia lactis virginis ab vberibus eiecti. In via Bethleem ab Helya
miliario contra meridianam plagam iuxta viam quæ ducit Ebron, Christiani de
Bethleem colunt circa ciuitatem multam copiam vinearum, ad potum sub
ipsorum. [Sidenote: Saraceni non bibunt vinum in manifesto.] Nam Sarraceni
non colunt vineas, nec vina vendunt neque in manifesto bibunt, eò quòd
liber legis Mahomet, facit super hoc prohibitionem, et interpretatur

[Sidenote: Sanctæ Charitatis.] De Bethleem in Austrum duabus leucis habetur
claustrum Sanctæ Charitatis, ibidem suo tempore Abbatissæ. A Bethleem
tendendo Ierusalem inuenitur ad dimidiam leucam Ecclesia, in cuius loco
Angelus dixit pastoribus, Annuncio vobis gaudium magnum, quod natus est
nobis Saluatur qui est Christus Dominus. Est et tumba Rachel Patriarchæ,
vbi etiam coaceruata iacent 12. saxa magna, quæ quidam autumant illic
tumulasse Iacob, eò quòd Beniamin duodecimus sibi filius nascebatur ibidem.
Sícque venitur in Sanctam Ciuitatem Ierusalem. [Sidenote: Bethel] Notandum,
Bethel vicus est 12. ab Helya ad dextram euntibus Neapoli, quæ primùm Luza
vocabatur. Sed ex eo tempore quo ibat ad Ieroboam, filium Nebat, vituli
aurei fabricati sunt, et à decem tribubus adorata, vocata est Bethauen, id
est, Domus Idoli, quæ antè vocabatur Domus Dei. Ieronymus. Sed et Ecclesia
ædificata est vbi dormiuit Iacob, pergens Mesopotamiam, vbi et ipsi loco
Bethel, id est, domus Dei nomen imposuit.

CAPVT. 14.

De Ecclesia gloriosi Sepulchri Domini in vrbe Ierusalem.

Ierusalem cum tota terra prommissionis, est quasi vna de quinque prouincijs
vel pluribus, quibus Regnum Syriæ distinguitur. Iungitur autem Iudeæ ad
Orientem Regno Arabiæ, ad meridiem Aegypto, ad Occidentem mari mago, et ad
Aquilonem Rego Syriæ. Iudeæ terra per diuersa tempora à diuersis possessa
fuit nationibus, Cananæorum, Iudæorum, Assyriorum, Persarum, Medorum,
Macedonum, Græcorum, Romanorum, Christianorum, Sarracenorum, Barbarorum,
Turcorum, and Tartarurum. Cuius rei causa meritò potest æstimari, quod non
sustinuit Deus magnos peccatores longo tempore permanere in terra sibi tam
placita, et tam sancta.

[Sidenote: Templum Sepulchri.] Itaque perigrinus veniens in Ierusalem primo
expleat suam peregrinationem, ad reuerendum et sacrosanctum Domini nostri
Iesu Christi sepulchrum: cuius Ecclesia est in vltima ciuitatis
extremitate, ad partem aquilonarem, cum proprio sui ambitus muro ipsi
ciuitati adiuncto. Ipsa verò Ecclesia est pulchra et rotundæ formæ cooperta
desuper cum tegulis plumbeis, habens in Occidente turrim altam et firmam,
in pauimenti Ecclesiæ medio ad figuram dimidij compassi habetur nobili
opere Latonico ædificatum paruum Tabernaculum quasi 15. pedum tam
longitudinis quàm latitudinis, et altitudinis miro artificio intus extràque
compositum, ac multùm diligenter diuersis coloribus ornatum. Hoc itaque in
Tabernaculo seu Capella, ad latus dextrum, continetur incomparabilis
thesaurus gloriosissimi sepulchri, habentis octo pedes longitudinis, et
quinque latitudinis. Et quoniam in toto habitaculo nulla est apertura
præter paruum ostium, illustratur accedentibus peregrinis pluribus
lampadibus, (quarum ad minus vna coram sepulchro iugiter ardere solet)

[Sidenote: Melech Mandybron Soldanus.] Sciendum, quòd ante breue tempus
solebat sepulchrum esse ingressis peregrinis accessibile, ad tangendum et
osculandum, sed quia multi vel effringebant, vel conabantur sibi effringere
aliquid de petra sepulchri, iste Soldanus Melech Mahdybron fecit illud
confabricari, vt nec osculari valeat, nec adiri, sed tantummodo intueri, Et
ob illam causam in sinistro pariete in altitudine quinque pedum immurari
effracturam petræ sepulchri ad quantitatem capitis humani, quod tanquam pro
sepulchro ibi ab omnibus veneratur, tangitur, et osculatur.

Dicitur ibi quoque communiter præfatam lampadem coram sepulchro singulis
annis in die Sanctæ Parascheues, hora nona extingui, et in media nocte
Paschæ sine humano studio reaccendi. [Sidenote: Mandeuillus de hoc
dubitat.] Quod (si ita est) euidens diuini beneficii miraculum est. Et
quamis id plurimi Christiani simpliciter in magno pietatis merito credant,
plerísque tamen est in suspicione. Fortè talia Sarraceni custodes sepulchre
fingentes diuulgauerunt, pro augendo emolumenta tributi, quod inde
resultaret, seu oblationum quæ dantur.

Singulis autem annis in die coenæ Domini in Parascheue, et in vigilia
Paschæ, tribus his diebus manet Tabernaculum hoc apertum continuè, et patet
omnibus Christianis gentibus accessus, aliàs verò non per annum sine
redditione tributi. Intra Ecclesiam, propè parietem dextrum, est Caluariæ
locus, vbi crucifixus pependit Christus Dominus. [Sidenote: Tumba Godefridi
de Bollion.] Per gradus ascenditur in hunc locum, et est rupis velut albi
coloris, cum aliqua rubedine per loca commixta, habens scissuram, quam
dicunt Golgotha, in qua maior pars preciosi sanguinis Christi dicitur
influxisse: vbi et habetur altare constructum, ante quod consistunt tumbæ
Godefridi de Bullion, et aliorum Regum Christianorum, qui circa annum
incarnationis Domini, 1100. debellauerunt et obtinuerunt sanctam vrbem cum
tota patria ex manibus Sarracenorum, et per hoc conquisierunt sibi magnum
nomen, vsque in finem sæculi duraturum. [Sidenote: Psal. 74. 12.] Propè
ipsius crucifixionís locum continetur literis. Græcis hoc scriptum: [Greek:
ho theos basileus hæmon pro aionos eirgasato sotærian en mesoi tæs gæs].
hoc est dicere, Deus Rex noster ante secula operatus est salutem in medio
terræ. Item directè in loco, vbi crux sancta stetit cum Christo rupi
infixa, habetur hoc exaratum in saxo rupis: [Greek: ho horais esi basis tæs
piseos ton kosmon], hoc est, quod vides fundamentum est fidei mundi.

[Sidenote: Iterum taxit ignorantiam vulge. Regina Helena Anglia.] Haud
remotè ab hoc Caluariæ monte, habetur et aliud altare, vbi iacet columna
flagellationis Domini, cui stant de propinque et ali coælumnæ quatuor de
Marmore aquam iugiter resundantes, et (secundum opinionem simplicium)
passionem innocentem Christie deflentes. Est sub isto altari crypta, 42.
granduum profunda, vbi sancta Helena Regina reperit tres cruces, videlicet
Christi, et latronum cum eo crucifixorum, ac etiam clauos crucis Domini in
cryptæ pariete.

In medio autem chori huius Ecciesiæ, est locus pauimenti stratus mirè et
pulchrè, ad integram compassi figuram vbi depositum corpus Christi de cruce
Ioseph ab Aramathia cum suis adiutoribus lauit et condiuit aromatibus. Item
infra Ecclesiam à septentrionali parte ostenditur locus, vbi Christus
Magdalenæ apparuit post suam resurrectionem, quando eum credidit

[Sidenote: Indorum Capella sive subditorum præsbiteri Ioannis.] A dextro
autem latere ad ingressum Ecclesiæ, habentur gradus 18. sub quibus est
Capella Indorum, vbi soli peregrini de India per sacerdotes suos cantant
iuxta ritum suum Missas, celebràntque diuina. Missam faciunt quidem
breuissimam, conficientes in principio verbis debitis sacramentum corporis
et sanguinis Christi de pane et vino, ac posteà paucis orationibus additis,
totum oratione Dominica concludunt officium. Hoc autem verum est, quod cum
maxima attentione, reuerentia, humilitate et deuotione se gerunt et
continent diuinis.

[Sidenote: An Ierusalem sit in medio mundi.] Porrò illud, quod quidam
peruulgauerunt, aut opinati sunt, Iudæam aut Ierusalem, vel Ecclesiam istam
consistere in medio totius mundi, propter prædictam scripturam, (in medio
terræ) hoc intelligi non potest localiter ad mensuram corporis terræ: Nam
si ad terræ latitudinem, quam æstimant inter duos polos, respiciamus,
certum est Iudæam non esse in medio, quod tunc esset sub circulo æquatoris,
et esset ibi semper æquinoctium, et vtrumque polorum staret iis in
horizonte. Quod vtique non est ita, quod existentibus in Iudæa eleuatur
multùm polus arcticus.

Rursus si ad terræ longitudinem spectemus, quæ æstimari potest à Paradiso
terrestri, scilicet à digniori et latiori terræ loco, versus eius Nadir,
scilicet versus locum sibi in Sphæra terræ oppositum, tunc Iudæa esset ad
Antipodes paradisi, quod apparet ita non esse, quod tunc esset viatori de
Iudæa ad Paradisum tendentis æqua itineris mensura, siue tenderet versus
Orientem, siue versus Occidentem. Sed hoc non est verisimile nec verum,
sicut probatum constat per experientiam multorum. Mihi autem videtur, quod
præfata Prophetæ scriptura, potest exponi, in medio terræ, id est, circa
medium nostri habitabilis, videlicet vt Iudæa sit circa medium inter
Paradisum et Antipodes Paradisi, distans tantum ab ipso Paradiso in oriente
96. gradibus, prout ego ipse per viam orientalem tentaui; quanquam de hoc
non videtur de facili plena certitudo haberi; eo quòd in longitudine coeli
nullæ stellæ manent immobiles, sicut in latitudine manent poli sempèr fixi.
Vel potest ita exponi, quòd Dauid qui erat Rex Iudæa, dixit in medio terræ,
hoc est, in principali ciuitate terræ suæ Ierusalem, quæ erat ciuitas
regalis, siue sacerdotalis terræ Iudeæ: vel fortè spiritus sanctus, qui
loquebatur per os prophetæ in hoc verbo vult intelligi non corporeum aut
locale, sed totum spirituale, de quo intuitu nihil ad præsens est

CAPVT. 15.

De tribus alijs Ecclesijs, et specialiter de templo Domini.

Vltrà duo stadia ab Ecclesia ad Meridiem sancti sepulchri habetur magnum
hospitale sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani, qui caput et fundamentum esse
dignoscitur ordinis hospitaliorum modò tententium Rhodum insulam: in quo
recipi possunt omnes Christiani perigrini cuiuscunque sint conditionis, seu
status, vel dignitatis. Nam Sarraceni pro leui cura anxij rumoris,
prohibent ne apud quenquam suorum Christianus pernoctet. Ad sustentationem
ædificij huius hospitalis, habentur in eo 124. columnæ marmoreæ, et in
parietibus distincti 54. pilarij. Satis propè hunc locum in orientem, est
Ecclesia quæ dicitur, de Domina nostra magna: et indè non remotè alia, quæ
dicitur nostræ Dominæ latinorum, ædificata super locum, vbi Maria
Magdalene, et Maria Cleophæ cum alijs pluribus, dum Christus cruci
affigebatur, flebant et dolores lamentabiles exercebant.

Item ab Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri in orientem ad stadium cum dimidio
habetur ædificium mirabile, ac pulchrum valdè, quod templum Domini
nominatur, quod constructum est in forma rotunda, cuius circumferentiæ
diameter habet 64 cubitos, et altitudo eius 126, et intrinsecus pro
sustentatione ædificij, multi pilarij. In medio autem templi est locus
altior 14. gradibus, qui et ipse columnis vndíque est stipatus: et secundum
quatuor mundi plagas habet templum quatuor introitus per portas Cypressinas
artificiosè compositas, nobiliterque sculptas, et excisas. Et ante portam
aquilonarem intra templum fontem aquæ mundæ, qui quamuis olim exundabat,
tamen nunc minimè fluit. In toto circuitu ædificij extrinsecus est valdè
pro atrio latum spacium loci, stratum per totum pauimentum marmoribus. Hoc
templum non ducitur stare in eodem loco vbi templum Dei stetit in tempore
Christi, quo post resurrectionem a Romanis destructo, istud longo post
tempore Adrianus Imperator extruxit, sed non ad formam templi prioris:
prædictum tamen excelsum in medio templi locum vocant Iudæi sanctum

Sciatis itàque quòd Sarraceni magnam exhibent huic templo reuerentiam, et
honorem sæpius illud discalceati intrantes, et positis genibus deuotè Deum
omnipotentem exorantes, nulla enim ibidem habetur imago, sed multæ lampades
relucentes. [Sidenote: Literæ Soldani traditæ Mandiuillo.] Neminem
Christianorum seu Iudæorum ingredi sinun, templum, reputantes eos indignos
ad hoc, et nimium immundos, vndè nisi virtute literarum quas habui a
Soldano, nec ego fuissem ingressus. Ingrediens autem cum meis sodalibus
deposuimus calciamenta, recogitantes cum multa cordis deuotione, nos magis
id facere debere, quàm incredulos Sarrcenos.

Et verè meritò est iste locus in magna reuerentia habendus: dum enim Rex
Salomon primum in illo templo per Dei iussionem, et Dauidis patris sui
commissionem ædificasset, exorauit præsente cuncto populo Israel, vt
quicúnque illic Deum pro iusta causa rogaret audiretur; et Dominus
monstrauit exauditionis signum per nebulam de coelo emissam, proùt narrat
historia veritatis 3. Regum libro.

Porrò in eo loco vbi statuerat idem Rex ante templum altare holocausti,
videlicet extra portam templi occidentalem, habetur et nunc altare, sed non
ad instar, nec ad vsum primi: Nam Saraceni, quasi nihil curantes, traxerunt
in eo lineos tanquam in astrolabio figentes in linearum centro batellum, ad
cuius vmbram per lineas discernuntur diei horae.

Etiam in hac atrij parte apparent adhuc vestigia portæ speciosæ, vbi Petrus
Apostolus, cum Euangelista Ioanne dixit contracto, In nomine Christi Iesu
Nazareni surge, et statim consolidabantur illi plantæ.

CAPVT. 16.

De pluribus locis sacris iuxta vrbem.

[Sidenote: Templarij à templo Salomonis dicti.] Viaturo ad dextram satis de
propinquo habetur et alia Ecclesia, quæ nunc appellatur schola Salomonis:
rursusque ad Meridiem est et aliud templum siue Ecclesia, quæ vocatur
Templum Salomonis, quòd olim fuit caput, et fundamentum totius ordinis

[Sidenote: Regina Helena Angla.] A claustro huius templi extrinsecus in
Aquilonem habetur decora Ecclesia beatæ Annæ, in cuius loco creditur virgo
Maria in eiusdem matris suæ vtero fuisse genita, et concepta, parentunque
illius, scilicet, Ioachim et Annæ, tumba saxea monstratur in descensu
Ecclesiæ, per 22. gradus, vbi et adhuc patris eius ossa putantur quiescere,
sublato inde per reginam Helenam korpore sanctæ Annæ, et recondito (vt
prædictum est) in Ecclesia Constantinopoli sanctæ Sophiæ.

[Sidenote: Probatica piscina.] Est et intra hanc Ecclesiam probatica
piscina, vbi quondam post motionem Angeli, omnes accedentes primi, a
quocúnque languore sanabantur infirmi, quæ tamen nunc temporis ita neglecta
iacet, et deformata, vt videtur immunda cistrina. Habetur et ante Ecclesiam
arbor grandis, et antiqua, de qua nonnulli fabulantur, quod ad beatæ Mariæ
natiuitatem principium accepit, et ortum.

[Sidenote: Mons Sion.] Mons Sion est excelsior locus in vrbe ad cuius
radicem, est castrum spectabile constructum per aliquem Soldanorum. In
montis autem cacumine videntur multæ sepulturæ regum Indeæ, videlicet
Dauid, Salomonis, et quorundam de successoribus suis. Ad introitum montis
habetur capella, et in illa lapis monumenti quem Ioseph de Arimathea
obuoluit ad ostium sepulchri est valde magnus, et est ibidem aliqua pars
columnæ flagellationis, ac pars mensæ super quam Dominus vltimò cænauit cum
Apostolis, et instituit noui Testamenti sacramentum sui venerandi corporis,
et sanguinis. Sub hac capella ad aliquos gradus monstratur locus eiusdem
cænationis, videlicèt cærnaculí magni, et in eo vas, aquarum, in quo
Christus lauabat pedes Apostolorum: iuxta quod vas a Gamaliele, et alijs
viris timoratis primus sepultus fuit protomartyr Stephanus.

In eo quoque loco intrauit post resurrectionem suam Dominus ianuis clausis
ad discipulos dicens pax vobis, et agens alia, quæ plenius Euangelica
pandit Historia, ac tandem in die Pentecostes ijsdem spiritum sanctum in
linguis igneis misit ibidem. Ab hoc monte Sion versus ciuitatem habetur
Ecclesia dedicata sancto saluatori, in quo nunc dicuntur seruari ossa S.
Stephani supradicti, et sinistrum brachium S. Ioannis Chrisostomi, cuius
corpus vt dictum est requiescit Constantinopoli.

Item ab hoc monte versus Austrum ab opposito plateæ, est pulchra Ecclesia
nostræ Dominæ, in cuius loco diu morabatur post ascensionem filij sui,
quamius pro parte eiusdem temporis in valle Iosaphat manserit: nam in ista
defungebatur, et in illo ab Apostolis honorificè sepulta fuit. [Sidenote:
Natatoria Siloe.] Itemque ab hoc monte in vico eundi versus vallem Iosaphat
inuenitur fons aquæ dictus Natatoria Siloe, vbi cæcus natus à Christo
missus lauabat oculos, et regressus est videns. Et dicunt quidam ibidem
sepultrum Isaiam Prophetam.

Porro mons olim dictus Moria de quo loquitur Scriptura sacra est rupis haud
longè a supradicto templo Domini in ipsius meredie, in cuius rupis loco
excelso velut emenenti sed edito Dominus noster Iesus Christus frequentèr
instruebat suos discipulos, et populos, magnáque miracula exhibebat, atque
deprehensae mulieri in adulterio omnia peccata dimittebat. [Sidenote:
Iohan. 8.]

Ab opposito autem prædicti fontis natatorij habetur imago lapidea, rudi et
vetusto opere sculpta, deformitérque detrita, quae manus Absalon
nuncupatur, cuius ratio lib. 2. Regum monstratur. Vbi de propè vidi Arborem
Sambucum, ad quam vel citrà cuius locum (vt dicitur) Iudas traditor per se
suspensus crepuit medius, et diffusa sunt viscera eius.

Præterea à monte Sion versus Meridiem vltrà vallem ad iactum lapidis est
locus Aceldema, in quo emptus ager 30. denarijs proditionis est, Et in quo
sunt plures sepulturæ peregrinorom, et vestigia cellularum, de quondam
illic commorantibus Heremitis.

CAPVT. 17.

De sacris locis extra muros Ciuitatis.

[Sidenote: Vallis Iosaphat.] Extra muros ciuitatis Ierusalem ad plagam
orientalem, est vallis Iosaphat contigua, ac si esset fossata muris ipsius
ciuitatis, et Ecclesia vbi sanctus Stephanus lapidabatur, et obdormiuit in
Domino. Hinc non longè est porta ciuitatis, quæ dicitur aurea, quæ nunc
sempèr obfirmata seruatur. Per hanc intrauit Christus sedens asino, et
adhuc ostenditur rupis seruare vestigia animalis in tribus aut pluribus sui
locis. [Sidenote: Mons Oliuarum. Torrens Cedron.] Statim vltrà vallem
Iosaphat aspicitur mons Oliueti, sic dictus à pluribus, quia ibi sunt
oliuarum Arbores. In planicie huius vallis decurrit riuulus dictus torrens
Cedron, secus quem habetur pulchra, et honorificata Ecclesia sacrosanctæ
sepulturæ beatæ, et gloriosæ matris Christi: descenditur autem in Ecclesiam
per gradus 44. quòd extrinsecus est vallis inculta per fluxum fortassè
torrentis, seu per alios euentus proptèr Antiquitatem temporis. Ibique
monstratur sepulchrum eius vacuum. Habentur iuxta sepulchrum duo altaria,
sub vno est fons Aquæ quæ putatur exire de vno Paradisi flumine.

Satis propè ab hac Ecclesia ad rupem Gethsemane habetur capella, vbi
scilicet Iudæis traditus fuit Christus à Iuda. In ipsa quóque rupe
ostendebatur mihi figura impressæ manus ad digitorum extensionem, quo
artificiosius humanano studio sculpi non posset, quam referunt Christum sua
venerabili manu inclinando ad rupem efficisse dum Iudæi impuras manus ad
capiendum iniecerunt in eum. Hic ad iactum lapidis in meridie orauit
['oraiit' in source text--KTH] ad suum patrem, et pro vehementi orationis
intentione sanguineum exudauit sudorem: atque ibi non remotè videtur tumba
regis Iudeæ Iosaphat, á quo et vallis sibi nomen assumpsit: et credimus in
hanc vallem Christum venturum ad nouissimum, et generalissimum iudicium,
vbi (Iohele propheta testante) disceptabit de omni actione mortalium.
[Sidenote: S. Iacobi sepultura.] Ad tractum sagittæ de hac tumba, est
Ecclesia vbi sanctus Iacobus maior Apostolus primo post martyrium fuit
sepultus, cuius modo sacrata ossa venerantur Compostellæ in Galizia.

Vltra vallem in supremo montes Oliueti apice discipulus cernentibus,
Dominus noster Iesus Christus eleuatis manibus ascendit in coelum, et super
eundem locum digna habetur Ecclesia, in qua eiusdem Ascensione tale
seruatur in rupe pauimenti indicium, quod sinistri pedis Christi videtur
vltimum vestigium.

Hinc satis propè habetur et capella medio montis, vbi Christus sedens
prædicauit octo beatitudines, vbi et creditur docuisse discipulos orationem
Dominicam, scilicet, Pater noster, &c. Ab eo quoque loco non distat multum
Ecclesia beatæ Maaiæ Aegyptiacæ, in qua et eius tumba videtur: et haud
procul inde est vicus Bethphage, vbi Christus misit ante passionis suæ
tempus duos de discipulis pro asina et pullo eius. In cliuo vero huius
montis Oliueti versus ciuitatem, monstratur locus, de quo videns Dominus
Ierusalem, fleuit super illam, dicens, quod si cognouisses et tu, &c.
[Sidenote: Bethania.] Atque vltrà montem in discensu eius in orientem est
villa siue castellum Bethaniæ, distans quasi ad leucam ab vrbe vbi in domo
cuiusdam Symonis inuitatu Christus condonauit omnia peccata Mariæ
Magdalenæ. Et in ipso castello, quod erat sororis Marthæ, et Mariæ
rescuscitauit fratrem earum Lazarum quatriduanum mortuum.

[Sidenote: Ierico.] De Bethania in Ierico sunt 5. leucæ, quæ quondam fuit
ciuitas speciosa sed iam est villa modica: ibi Diues Zacchæus ascendit in
arborem Sycomorum, vt videret transeuntem Dominum, et restituens fraudata
quadraplum, obtinuit peccatorum remissionem omnium.

Item de Bethania ad flumen Iordanis est iter ferè octo leucarum, per
montes, ac valles deuios, et desertos. [Sidenote: Christiani Georgici.]
Porrò de Bethania in orientem ad 6 leucas venitur in montem magnum, vbi
Christus expleto 40. dierum, ac noctium ieiunio temptatus est à diabolo,
fuítque in eodem loco quandoque Ecclesia, sed modo habetur ibi quasi
coenobium quorundam Christianorum, qui Georgici vocantur. Sciendum enim
est, quod vbique intra terram Saracenorum, et similiter multorum Paganorum
inueniuntur Christiani dispersi, habitantes sub tributo, qui licet sint
baptizati omnes, et beatissimam Trinitatem credentes, diuersificantur tamen
nominibus, moribus, ritibus, fide, et opinionibus: ita vt semper vel in
multis vel in aliquibus dissentiant à Romanæ Ecclesiæ consuetudinibus.

[Sidenote: Iacobitæ. Syrij. Georgica. Cordelarij. Indi. Nubij. Nestorini.
Arriani.] Aliqui námque eorum dicuntur Christiani Iacobitæ: hij errant
circa peccatorum remissionem, dicentes, non debere confiteri homini sed
soli Deo. Alij Syrij, Isti in fermentato pane conficiunt Sacramentum
altaris ritu Græcorum. Alij Indi, Nubij, Nestorini, et Arriani. Præfatus
autem mons magnus, vocatur hortus Abrahæ, ex eo quod Abraham patriarcha ibi
dicitur commoratus, et currit propè montem riuulus, in cuius aqua vel fonte
Deus sal per Helizeum prophetam mitti iussit, vt sanaretur sterilitas, id
est, amaritudo aquæ. Nec distat hic mons à Ierico vltra grandem leucam.

CAPVT. 18.

De notabilibus alijs locis, et mari mortuo.

Rursum de ciuitate sanctæ Ierusalem versus Occidentem itinere leucæ,
habetur pulchra satis Ecclesia, in loco vbi dicitur creuisse arbor crucis
salutiferæ. Arbor excelsa, digno stipite sacra Christi membra tangere.
[Sidenote: Nota.] Tenetur istud quidem pro certa veritate: nam et hoc satis
testatur constructio tantæ, et talis Ecclesiæ, quamuis multa aliena, et
incerta scripta de crucis arbore ferantur per orbem. Hinc ad duas leucas
est et alia Ecclesia, vbi obuiauerunt sibi Maria virgo, et Elizabeth eius
cognata, et ad saluationem Mariæ Christi baiulæ exultauit Iohannes in vtero
Elisabeth grauidæ.

[Sidenote: Emaus Castellum.] De isto quoque ad leucam est Emaus castellum,
distans in spacio stadiorum 60. ab Ierusalem, vbi discipuli in coena die
resurrectionis Domini cognouerant eum in fractione panis. [Sidenote:
Cosdrus Imperator.] Porrò ab Ierusalem ad alium exitum, ad duo stadia
videtur spelunca grandis de qua dicitur quod tempore Cosdri Imperatoris
Persarum, fuerunt circa Ierusalem 12. mille martyrum occissi, quorum,
omnium corpora leo habitans in spelunca congregauit ibidem voluntate
diuina, tanquam pro singulorum sepultura obsequiosa.

[Sidenote: Mons Exultationis.] Item ab vrbi ad leucas duas habetur in monte
tumba sepulturæ sancti Samuelis prophetæ, qui mons nunc vocatur
exultationis vel læticiæ, eò quod peregrinis ab illa parte intrantibus
reddit primum sanctæ ciuitatis aspectum. Ab oppido autem Ierico in 30.
stadiorum spacio venitur ad Iordauis fluuij locum, vbi beatus Iohannes
Baptista Christum sacri baptismatis merebatur tingere lymphis. Et in cuius
reuerendi mysterij venerationem habetur ad dimidiam leucam à fluuio
ædificium honestæ Ecclesiæ consecratum in nomine eiusdem venerabilis
baptistæ ministri. Ab hac Ecclesia de propè vidi domum de qua patiebar mihi
narrari, quòd in eodem loco olim fuerit Ieremiæ sancti habitatio prophetæ.

[Sidenote: Iordanis descriptio.] Notandum est. Iordanis fluuius quamuis
grandis non sit, bonorum tamen piscium copiam nutrit, ortum accipiens sub
monte Libanon ex duobus fontibus, scilicet Ior, et Dan, quæ nomina simul
mixta nomen Iordanis efficiunt. Decurrit autem per quendam locum dictum
Maron, ac secus stagnum quod diciter Mare Tyberiadis, ac subter montes
Gylboe per amoenissima loca, atque in subterraneis meatibus per longum
spacium se occultans tandem exit in planitie, quæ dicitur Meldam, id est,
forum, quod certis temporibus ibi Nundinæ exercentur, et ad extremum se
iactat in mare mortuum.

[Sidenote: Mare mortuum.] Hoc stagnum quod vocatur mare mortuum habet
longitudinis 600. ferè stadia, et latitudinis 150. et appropinquat aliqua
pars huius maris ad quatuor leucas propè Ierico, videlicet ad latus
camporum Engadi, ex quibus (vt supra dictum est) eradicatæ fuerunt abores
Balsami, quæ modò sunt in agro Cayr Ægypti. [Sidenote: Nota.] Istud mare
dicitur mortuum.

[Sidenote: Cur mare mortuum dicatur.] Primo quidem quòd non viuidè currit,
sed est quasi lacus.

Secundò quod amara est eius aqua, et foetidum reddit odorem. Tertio quòd
propter eius amaritudinem terra adiacens littori nil viride profert.

Quartò (prout dicitur) si cadat in ea bestia, vel aliud quid viuens, vix
poterit plenè mori siue submergi in octo diebus, nec nutrit in se pisces
aut quid simile.

Littora quoque sua variant quam sæpè colorem, et sine vlla agitatione
ventorum eijcit in quibusdam locis se aqua, extra proprios terminos. Per
huiusmodi aquam dicitur Deus pro indicibili vitio Pentapolim submersisse,
Sodomam, Gomorram, Adamam, Seboim, et Segor.

Quidam vocant hoc mare lacum Asphaltidis, alij fluuium Dæmonum, aut flumen
Putre. Quod autem olim propheta interpretans dixit, montes Gilboe, nec ros
nec pluuia veniat super vos, magis spiritualitèr quàm literalitèr videtur
intelligendum. [Sidenote: Nota.] Nam ibi crescunt altissimi cedri, et
arbores poma ferentes, ad capitis quantitatem humani, ex quibus valdè
saporosus fit potus.

Mare istud mortuum determinat fines terræ promissionis, et Arabiæ. Ideoque
vltra ipsum mare condidit quondam, vnus successorum Godfridi de Bollion
forte et spectabile castrum, ponens illic copiosam Christianorum militiam
ad terram promissionis custodiendum. Nunc verò, temporis, est Soldani, et
appellatur Caruth, id est mons Regalis. Sub hoc monte est villa dicta
Sobal: habitat in illis partibus magna Christianorum multitudo.

CAPVT. 19.

De Nazareth, et Samaria.

Nazareth in prouincia Galileæ in qua nutritus, et de qua cognominatus est
Dominus vniuersorum, distans ab Hierosolymis ad tres circiter dietas, erat
quondam ciuitas, quæ nunc est dispersa, et rara domorum, quod vix villæ
sibi competit nomen: et in loco Annunciationis, vbi Angelus ad Mariam
dixit, Aue gratia plena, Dominus tecum, habebatur olim bona Ecclesia, pro
qua paruum Saraceni restituerunt habitaculum, in colligendas peregrinorum

A Nazareth redeundo per terrain Galileæ, transitur per Ramathaym Sophim,
vbi nascebatur fidelis Samuel propheta Domini, et per Sylo, vbi locus
orationis erat antequam in Ierusalem: et per Sichem magnæ vbertatis vallem,
itur in prouinciam Samariæ, vbi habetur et bona ciuitas nunc dicta
Neapolts, distans, à sancta vrbe spacio solius dietæ, ac per fontem Iacob,
super quem Iesus fatigatus ab itinere colloquebatur Samaritonæ, vbi et
apparet ruina destructæ Ecciesiæ quondam illic habitæ. Et est ibi villa
adhuc vocata Sychem, et in eo est mausoleum Ioseph patriarchæ filij Iacob:
ad cuius ossa visitanda sub deuotione non minus peregrini Iudæi adueniunt,
quàm Christiani.

[Sidenote: Samaria nunc Sebaste.] Hinc satis propè est mons Garizin cum
vetusto templo orationis Samaritanorum: ex tunc intratur Samaria quæ modò
appellatur Sebaste, et est illius principalis ciuitas pronunciæ. In qua
fuit primum terræ mandatum corpus beati Ioannis Baptistæ inter sacra
corpora Helizæi, et Abdiæ Prophetarum, vt quorum assimilibatur virtutibus
in vita, corporibus iungeretur in sepultura. Hæc quoque distat ab
Hierosolymis: fortassis a dietas.

[Sidenote: Nota.] Habetur et alius puteus aut fons intra illa montana, quem
plerique similiter fontem Iacob appellant, cuius aqua secundum quatuor anni
tempora variatur à suo colore, vt sit quandòque clara, quandòque turbida,
nunc viridis, et nunc rubra. [Sidenote: Ogerus Dux Danus.] Certum est autem
tempore Apostolorum cum Samaria recepisset verbum Dei, illos fuisse
conuersos, et baptizatos, in nomine Domini Iesu, et tamen postea per
quendam Caliphorum peruersos, Ogerus dux Danorum per Templariorum virtutem
rursum subiugauit Christianitati: sicque post plures euentus, et
variationes, illi qui nunc sunt Samaritæ, finxerunt sibi hæresim propriam,
et ritum ab omnibus nationibus singularem.

[Sidenote: Tegumenti capitis differentia.] Fatentur autem se credere in
Deum, qui cuncta creauit: recipiuntque pentateucum scripturæ, cum Psalterio
Dauidis, acerrimè contendentes, se solos dilectissimos Dei filios qui etiam
pro nobili differentia inuoluunt capita linteo rubeo, Saraceni autem albo,
Indi croceo, et Christiani ibi manentes Indico, hoc est, æreo, seu

Porrò à Nazareth quatuor leucis, est ciuitas olim dicta Naym, in 2. milario
Thahor montis contra Meridiem iuxta Endor. Ieronimus. Ante cuius portam
resuscitauit Christus defunctum filium vnicum matris suæ, præsentibus
duabus turmis hominum copiosorum. Hinc quoque ad leucas duas, est ciuitas
Israel, vbi olim morabatur pessima regina Iezabel, quam Dei iudicio equorum
vngulis conculcatam, canes ferè vsque ad caluariam comederunt.

CAPVT. 20.

De territorio Gallileæ, et Samariæ, et de villa Sardenay.

Item à Nazareth ad leucæ dimidum, monstrantur in rupe vestigia pedum, quæ
dicuntur esse Domini nostri Iesu Christi vbi de manibus Iudæorum, ipsum de
alta rupe præcipitare volentium desiluit in istam. De quo saltu quidam
intelligunt illud scriptum Euangelicum, Iesus autem transiens per medium
illorum ibat.

Ad quatuor autem leucas de Nazareth, est Cana Galileæ, vbi Christus ad
vrbanas matris preces, mutauit vndam in vinum optimum.

[Sidenote: Mons Thabor.] Ad distantiam quatuor leucarum à Nazareth, venitur
in Thabor, montem spectabilem, vbi transfigurabatur Christus, coram
quibusdam suis Apostolis, apparentibus ibidem, Mose, et Helia, prophetis,
vocéque dilapsa à magnifica Patris gloria, et videbatur Petro bonum ibi
esse: quondam in hoc monte habebatur ciuitas, cum pluribus Ecclesijs;
quarum nunc sola restant vestigia, excepto quod ille locus
transfigurationis est inhabitatus, qui est Schola Dei nominatus. [Sidenote:
Obserueretur.] Notandum. Thabor est in medio Galileæ, campus mira
iucunditate sublimis, distans à Diotesaria 3. milliaribus contra Orientem.

Item de Nazareth in tres leucas est villa, seu castrum Zaffara, de quo
recolo me supradixisse capite 4. Et inde venitur in Mare Galileæ, quod
quamuis dicatur mare, est lacus aquæ dulcis longus.

[Sidenote: Mare Tyberiadis.] Vltra centum 60. forsitan stadia est lacus,
bonorum piscium ferax et vber, qui etiam in alio loco sui vocatur mare
Tyberiadis, et in alia mare Genezareth, varians sibi nomen, secundum
ciuitas, et terras, propinquas. Circa hoc mare Christus frequentèr, et
libentèr ambulasse videtur: hic vocauit ad sui discipulatum, Petrum, et
Andream, Iacobum, et Ioannem: hic super vndam siccis ambulabat vestigijs,
et præcipitem Petrum filium tentantem, verbo increpationis releuat ne
mergatur, hic denique rediuiuus à morte repleuit discipulorum rete magnis
piscibus 153.

Item in ciuitate Tiberiade, quæ est propè hoc mare habetur in veneratione
mensa illius coenæ, quam in Emaus castello Christus cænauit, cum ab oculis
commensalium euanuit. Hic de propè monstratur mons ille fertilis, mons ille
pinguis, in quo de paucis panibus, et de paucioribus piscibus iussu Christi
fuerunt saturati, quinque millia hominum.

Ad initium autem prædicti maris iuxta villam Capernaum habetur fortius
castrum totius terræ promissionis, in quo dicitur nata fuisse sancta Anna
mater virginis Mariæ.

[Sidenote: Damascus.] Prædictis itaque Christi vestigijs, et terræ sanctæ
locis à peregrino cum deuotione cordis et reuerentia debita visitatis, si
desiderat reuerti, posit illud facere per Damascum; quæ est ciuitas longa,
nobilis, et grandis, ac plena omnium rerum mercimonijs, cum tamen distat à
portu maris tribus plenè dietis, per quod spacium itineris, cuncta
traijciuntur à suis equis, Dromedarijs, et Camelis: et putatur à plerisque
narrantibus fundata in loco vbi Cain protoplaustorum filius Abel fratrem
suum occidit.

A Damasco de propinquo est mons Seyr, ciuitas grandis firmata duplicibus
muris ac populosa nimis, in qua sunt multi in arte Physica famosi professi.
Item à Damasco haud remotè distat castrum satis munitum, et firmum, quod
Derces est nominatum. Habent autem in illis, et vlterioribus partibus hunc
vsum: si quando castrum ab hostibus fuerit sic obsessum, quòd Dominus eius
non possit emittere nuncium amico suo remotè moranti, recipit columbam olim
in castro, vel domo amici natam, vel educatam, quam hic sibi per certam
prouisionem allatam detinuit incaueatam, et scriptas quas vult literas
alligans collo columbæ, dimittit liberam volare, quæ protinus festinat ad
focum propriæ natiuitatis. Sicque videtur cognosci in illo castro quid
agatur in isto.

[Sidenote: Villa Sardenay.] Cæterum peregrinus à Damasco reuertendo, in
quinque leucis venit Sardenay, quæ est villa in alta rupe, cum multis
Ecclesijs religiosorum Monachorum, et sanctarum monialium fidei Christianæ.
In quarum vna coram maiori altari in tabula lignea erat olim imago
beatissimæ virginis Mariæ non sculpta sed depicta in plano spacio. Ex hoc
reditur per valles Bokar fertiles et pro pascendis pecorum gregibus
exuberantes: et intratur in montana vbi copiositas est fontium qui effluunt
impetu de Libano. Ibique decurrit fluuius Sabbatayr, sic dictus quod diebus
Sabbatis euidentèr rapidius transit, quàm alijs sex diebus.

Peruenitur hinc ad satis altum montem, propè Tripolim ciuitatem, in qua ad
præsens plures Christiani Catholicæ fidei habitant iugo infidelium nimis
oppressi. [Sidenote: Sur, vel Tyrus.] Ex hoc loco sibi deliberet
peregrinus, quem sibi maris portum accipiat ad repatriandum, videlicet
Beruth, an Sur vel Tyrum.

Postremò sciendum, quod terra promissionis in totali longitudine sui à Dan
qui est sub Libano vsque ad Berseba in Austrum continet circiter centum, et
80. leucas Lombardicas, et ab Hierico in totali latitudine circiter 60.
Notandum, Dan est viculus in quarto à Pennea de Miliario euntibus, contra
Septentrionem: vsque hodiè sic vocatur terminus Iudeæ, contra Septentrionem
est etiam et fons Ior, de quo et Iordanis fluuius erumpens alterum sortitus
nomen Ior. Termini Iudeæ terræ à Bersabe incipiunt vsque ad Dan, qui vsque
Peneaden terminatur, Ieronimus.

CAPVT. 21.

De secta detestabili Saracenorum et eorum fide.

[Sidenote: Diligentia Mandevillu.] Iam restat vt de secta Saracenorum
aliquid scribam vel compendiosè, secundum quòd cum ijs frequentèr,
colloquendo audiui, et liber Mahometi, quem Alcaron, vel Mesahaf, vel Harmè
vocant, ijs præcipit, sicut illum sæpè inspexi, et studiosè perlegi.

[Sidenote: Fides Saracenorum.] Credunt itaque Saraceni in Deum creatorem
coeli et terræ, qui fecit omnia in ijs contenta, et sine quo nihil est
factum. Et expectant diem nouissimum iudicij, in quo mali cum corpore et
anima descensuri sunt in infernum perpetuò cruciandi, et boni equidem cum
anima et corpore intraturi Paradisum foelicitatis æternæ. Et hæc quidem
fides poenè inest omnium mortalium nationibus, lingua et ratione vtentibus.
Verumtamen de qualitate Paradisi est magna diuersitas inter credentes.

Nam et Saraceni et Pagani, et omnes sectæ præter Iudæos et baptizatos
Christianos sentiunt bonorum Paradisum fore terrestrem illum de quo fuit
expulsus Adam propter inobedientiam protoplaustus: qui (vt putant) fluit,
vel tunct fluet pluribus riuis lactis et mellis, et vbi in domibus et
mansionibus nobiliter iuxta meritum vniuscuiusque ædificatur auro, et
argento et gemmis, perfruentur omnibus corporalibus delicijs, in
oblectatione animæ æternaliter sine fine. Ille ergò qui fide sanctæ
Trinitatis carent, et Christum qui est vera lux ignorant, in tenebris
ambulant. Iudæi vero et omnes baptizati rectè sentiunt Paradisum coelestem
et spiritualem, vbi quilibet secundum meritum Diuinitati vnietur, per
cognitionem, et amorem. Attamen Iudæi quod contra Scripturas suas sanctæ
Trinitati contradicunt, et Christo obloquuntur, qui est vera via, nesciunt
quo vadunt. De baptizatis autem, qui firmiter fidem Catholicam in
humilitate cordis sub Ecclesiæ præceptis seruauerunt, hi soli filij sunt
lucis, et in via veniendi ad coelestem Paradisum quem Christus verbo
prædicauit, et ad quem corpore et anima, videntibus discipulis, de facto

Credunt etiam Saraceni, omnia esse vera, quæ Deus ore prophetarum est
locutus, sed in diuersitate, quia nesciunt specificari, imo specificanti
contradicerent defacili, vel negarent. Inter omnes prophetas ponunt quatuor
excellentiores, quorum supremum et excellentissimum fatentur Iesum Mariæ
Virginis filium, quem et asserunt, sermonem, vel loquelam, vel spiritum
Dei, et pronunciatorem sententiarum Dei, in iudicio generali futuro, et
missum à Deo ad Christianos docendos.

Secundo loco Abrahamum dicunt fuisse verum Dei cultorem, et amicum.

Tertium dant Mosi locum tanquam prolocutori Dei Misso specialiter, ad
instruendos Iudæos.

Quartum volant esse Mahomet, sanctum, et verum Dei nuncium ad seipsos
missum, cum lege diuina in dicto libro plene contenta. Tenent itaque
indubitate, quod beata Maria Iesum peperit, et concepit virgo manens
intacta, ac libentèr loqui audiunt de incarnatione in ipsa facta per
annunciationem Gabrielis Archangeli. Nam et Alcharon eorum dicit, ad
salutationem Angeli virginem expauisse, quod tunc erat in partibus Galileæ
incantator, Turquis nomine, qui per susceptam sibi formam Angeli plures
virgines deflorauerat, et beatam Virginem conuenisse Angelum, an esset
Turquis. Refert quoque eam peperisse sub palma Arbore, vbi habebatur
præsepe bouis, et asinæ, et illic præ confusione puerperij, et verecundia
ac dolore, fuisse in proximo desperatam, et infantulum in consolationem
matris dixisse, mater ne timeas, Deus in te effudit secreta ad saluationem
Mundi. Hæc et his similia multa ibi scribuntur figmenta, et isti plura
inter se narrando componunt, quæ hoc loco ventilanda non sunt.

Et dicit liber Iesum sanctissimum omnium Prophetarum fuisse veracem in
dictis et factis, benignum, pium, iustum, et ab omni vitio penitus alienum:
Sanctum quoque Ioannem Euangelistam post prædictos Prophetas fuisse alijs
Sanctiorem, cuius et Euangelium fatentur esse plenum salutari, ac veraci
doctrina, et ipsum Sanctum Ioannem illuminasse cæcos, leprosos mundasse,
suscitasse mortuos, et in coelum volasse viuentem. Erat enim (prout dicit)
plus quàm Propheta, et absque omni peccato, contradicente eodem de seipso,
si dixerimus quòd peccatum non habemus, veritas in nobis non est: vnde et
si quando Sarraceni tenent scriptum Euangelij Sancti Ioannis, aut illud
beati Lucæ, missus est Angelus Gabriel, eleuant ambabus manibus pro
reuerentia super caput et super oculos id ponentes, et osculantur quàm sæpè
cum summa deuotione. Nonnulli etiam eorum in Græco, aut Latino literati
consueuerunt cum deuotione cordis id lectitare.

Idem liber dicit Iudæos perfidos fuisse, quod Iesu eis primùm misso a Deo,
et multa miracula facienti credere noluerunt, quodque per ipsum tota gens
Iudæorum fuit dignè decepta, et meritò illusa hoc modo. Iesus in hora dum
Iudas eum pro signo traditionis osculabatur, posuit per Metamorphosin
figuram suam, in ipsum Iudam, sícque Iudæi in ambiguo lumine nocturni
temporis, pro Iesu Iudam capientes, ligantes, trahentes, deridentes, in
fine crucifixerunt, putantes se omnia facere Iesu, qui protinus capto et
ligato Iuda, viuus ascendit in cæelum, descensurus iterum viuus ad iudicium
in die finali.

Et addit, Iudæos falsissimè vsque hodie nos Christianos suo mendacio
decipere, quo dícunt se Iesu crucifixisse quem non tetegerunt. Hinc errorem
tenent Sarraceni obstinati: et quoddam argumentum inire conantur. Nam si
Deus (aiunt) permisisset Iesum, innocentem, et iustum ita miserabiliter
occidi, censuram suæ summæ iustitiæ minuisset. [Sidenote: Conuersio
Saracenorum non desperanda.] Sed cùm ipsi, vt supradictum est, in tenebris
ambulant, idcircò ignorantes Dei iustitiam, statuere volunt iustitiam, imo
iniustitiam quam fabricant in corde suo, quia nos de cruce Christi scriptum
nouimus, benedictum est lignum per quod fit iustitia. Isti tamen quod in
aliquibus appropinquant veræ fidei, multi quandoque eorum inuenti sunt
conuersi, et plures adhuc de facili conuerterentur, si haberunt
prædicatores, sincerè eis verbum tractantes, quippe cùm iam fateantur legum
Mahometi quandoque defecturam, sicut nunc perijt lex Iudæorum, et legem
Christianorum vsque in finem seculi permansuram.


De vita, et nomine Mahometi.

Promisi in superioribus aliquid narrare de vita Mahometi legislatoris
Sarracenorum, prout vidi in scriptis, vel audiui in partibus illis. Itaque
Macho, siue Machon, vtrum in secunda syllaba scribatur N, litera, vel non
idem refert: et si tertia syllaba addatur, et dicatur Machomet, vel etiam
quarta, Machometus, nihil differt, quòd semper idem nomen representat. Ipsi
tamen illum sæpiùs nominant Machon. Putatur autem istum Mahomet habuisse
generationis ortum de Ismael Abrahæ filio naturali de concubina Agar, vnde
et vsque hodie quidam Sarracenorum dicuntur Ismaelitæ, alij Agarení: sed et
quidam Moabitæ, et Ammonitæ, à duobus Loth filijs Moab et Amon, genitis per
incestum de proprijs filiabus.

[Sidenote: Tempus Natiuitatis Mahometi.] Hic verò Machon, circa annum
incarnationis Domini sexcentissimum natus, in Arabia pauper erat gratis
pascens camelos, et interdum sequens Mercatores in Aegyptum fordellos
illorum proprio collo deferens pro mercede. Et quoniam tunc temporis tota
Aegyptus erat Christianæ fidei, didicit aliquid de fide nostra, quod
diuertere solebat ad cellulam Heremitæ commorantis in deserto. [Sidenote:
Fabulæ Saracenorum.] Et quodammodo fabulantur Sarraceni, quod illo
quandoque ingrediente cellulam, cellulæ ostium mutatum in ianuam valdè
patentem, velut ante palatium, et gloriantur hoc primum miraculum. Qui ex
tunc conquerendo sibi pecunias, et discendo seculi actus diues est
effectus, et prudens ab omnibus reputatus, in tantum, vt postmodum in terræ
gubernatorem Corrozæn, (quæ est vna prouinciarum regni Arabiæ) assumeretur,
ac de inde defuncto principe Codige per coniugium illius relictæ in eiusdem
prouinciæ principem eleuaretur. Erat autem satis formosus, et valens, et
vltra modum in verbis et factis maturus, et principalis, et satis
diligebatur à suis, magis tamen metuebatur, et erat epilepticus, nemine
tamen sciente. Sed tandem ab vxore comperto contristabatur, se tali morbido
nuptam, qui versutus fefellit, et consolabatur moestam figmento mendacij
excogitati, dicens sanctum Dei Archangelum Gabrielem ad colloquendum et
inspirandum sibi, quædam arcana et diuina interdum venire, et pro virtute
aut claritate veniente se subito cadere et iacere ad intendendum

[Sidenote: Incrementum authoritatis Mahometi.] Post hoc autem, mortuo etiam
Rege Arabiæ, tanta egit per simulationem sanctitatis, per donorum
effusionem, et copiam promissionum, quod electus est et assumptus, in
totias Arabiæ Regem.

[Sidenote: Tempus promulgationis Alcharani.] Confirmato igitur Mahometo in
regnationis suæ maiestate suprema, transactis à conceptione Domini nostri
Iesu Christi annis solaribus 612. in die Iouis feria quinta Hebdomadæ
promulgauit præfatum detestandæ legis suæ librum, plenum perfidiæ et
erroris, et à subditis tempore vitæ suæ seruari coegit, qui et vsque hodie
in tanto æuo, et tot populis non sine iusto Dei iudicio colitur et
seruatur, quamuis miserabile, et miserandum videtur, quod tot animæ in illo
perduntur. Erat quoque tempore regni eius et alius Heremita in deserto
Arabiæ, quem etiam quasi pro deuotione frequentare solebat, ducens secum
aliquos de principibus et famlia. Super quo plures eorum attediati
tractabant occidere Heremitan. [Sidenote: Occasio vina, interdicendi
Sarracenis.] Accedit tandem vna noctium, vt rex Heremitam et seipsum
inebriaret, et inter loquendum ambo consopiti dormirent. Et ecce habita
occasione comites gladio de latere Regis clam extracto Heremitam
interfecerunt, iterum clam condentes cruentum gladium in vagina: ac ille
euigilans virum videns occisum, magno furore succensus imposuit familiæ
factum, volens omnes per iustitiam condemnari ad mortem. Cumque coram
iudicibus et sapientibus ageretur, hi omnes pari concordia, simili voce, et
vno ore testabantur tam diuisim quam coniunctim, Regem in ebrietate sua
hominem occidisse, quamuis fortassis esset facti oblitus. Et in plenariam
rei probationem, dixerunt ipsum reposuisse mucronem in loculo nudum
intersum, sed calido cruore madentem. Quo ita inuento, ac tantis rex
obrutus testificationibus nimiùm erubuit, plenè obmutuit, et confusus
recessit. Et ob hoc omnibus diebus suis vina bibere renunciauit: et in lege
sua à cunctis bibi vetuit, ac vniuersis bibentibus, colentibus, et
vendentibus maledixit. Cuius maledictio couertatur in caput eius, et in
verticem ipsius iniquitas eius descendat, cum de vino scriptum constet,
quòd Deum et homines lætificet. [Sidenote: Potus Sarracenorum.] Igitur de
eo Sarraceni in sua superstitione deuoti vinum non bibunt, quanquam plures
eorum quòd timent in publico non verentur in secreto.

Est autem communis potus eorum dulcis, delectabilis, et nutritiuus de
Casaniel confectus, de qua et Saccarum fieri solet.

[Sidenote: Alias Mecca.] Mahometus iste post mortem suam pessimam (mors
enim peccatorum pessima) conditus fuit honorificè in capsa, ditissimo auro,
et argento, et saxis perornata in vna ciuitate regni sui Arabiæ, vbi et pro
sancto, et vero Dei nuncio incepit deuotè coli à suis per annos ducentos
sexaginta, atque ex tunc circa annum Domini nongentissimum cum veneratione
multa cadauer eius translatum est, in digniorem ciuitatem dictam Merchuel
Iachrib, vbi iam longe lateque pro maximo sanctorum, à cordibus à diabolica
fraude deceptis colitur, requiritur et adoratur.

[Sidenote: Oregus a Templarijs proditus.] In ipsius translatione ipsa
ciuitas restaurabatur, et firmabatur multò honorificentiùs, et fortiùs
destructione sua, quæ per Carolum magnum Regem Franciæ antea fuit plenè
annihilata, dum Ogerus dux Danorum præfatus in ea tenebatur captiuus, quem
Templarij ad filios Brehir Regis Sarracenorum cum traditione vendiderant,
eò quòd ipse Ogerus dictum Brehir in proelio occiderat, iuxta Lugdunum
Franciæ ciuitatem. Et si quando nationis alterius quis ad legem conuertitur
Sarracenorum, dum a flamine eorum recipiendus est, dicit et facit eum Dei
nuncium, et repetit sic: Lællech ella alla Mahomet zoyzel alla heth: quod
valet tantum: Non est Deus nisi vnus, et Mahomet fuit eius nuncius.

CAPVT. 23.

De colloquio Authoris cum Soldano.

Finaliter Sarraceni ponunt Iudæos malos, eò quod legem Dei violauerunt sibi
missam, et commissam per Mosem. Et à simili probant Christianos malos, quod
non seruant legem Euangelij Christi, quam seruandam susceperint. [Sidenote:
Error eorum qui putant vnumquemque in sua religione posse beari.] Inest
enim ijs falsa persuasio ita vt putent vnumquemque in ea qua natus est
secta posse beari, si susceptam seruauerit illibatè: ideoque probant ab
opposito se esse bonos, quia, sicut dicunt, obseruant scripta legis
præcepta et ceremonias sancti libri sui à Deo sibi transmissi per beatum
nuncium suum Mahomet. Vnde et ego non tacebo quid mihi contigit.

Dominus Soldanus quodam die in castro, expulsis omnibus de camera sua, me
solùm retinuit secum tanquam pro secreto habendo colloquio. [Sidenote:
Colloquium Soldani cum Mandeuillo.] Consuetum enim est ijs eijcere omnes
tempore secretorum: qui diligenter à me interrogauit qualis esset
gubernatio vitæ in terra nostra, breuiter respondebam, bona, per Dei
gratiam, qui recepto hoc verbo dixit ita non esse. [Sidenote: Reprehensio
Sacerdotum.] Sacerdotes (inquit) vestri, qui seipsos exhibere deberent
alijs in exemplum, in malis iacent actibus, parùm curant de Templi
seruitio: habitu et studijs se conformant mundo: se inebriant vino,
continentiam infringentes, cum fraude negotiantes, ac praua principibus
consilia ingerentes. [Sidenote: Reprehensio vulgi iustissima.] Communis
quoque populus, dum festus diebus intendere deberent deuotioni in templo,
currit in hortis, in spectaculis, in tabernis vsque ad crapulam, et
ebrietatem, et pinguia manducans et bibens, ac in bestiarum morem, luxuriam
prauam exercens. [Sidenote: Vestimentorum varietas reprehensa.] In vsura,
dolo, rapina, furto, detractione, mendacio et periurio viuunt plures eorum
euidenter, ac si qui talia non agant, vt fatui reputantur, et pro nimia
cordis superbia nesciunt ad libitum excogitare, qualiter se velint habere,
mutando sibi indumenta, nunc longa, nunc curta nimis, quandoque ampla,
quandoque stricta vltra modum, vt in his singulis appareant derisi potiùs
quam vestiti: pileos quoque, calceos, caligas, corrigias sibi fabricante
exquisitas, cùm etiam è contra deberent secundùm Christi sui doctrinam
simplices, Deo deuoti, humiles, veraces, inuicem diligentes, inuicem
concordantes, et inluriam de facili remittentes. Scimus etiam eos propter
peccata sua perdidisse hanc terram optimam quam tenemus, nec timemus eam
amittere, quamdiu se taliter gubernant. Attamen non dubitamus, quin in
futurum per meliorem vitæ conuersatíonem merebuntur de nostris eam manibus

Ad hoc ego vltra confusus et stupefactus, nequiui inuenire responsum;
verebar enim obloqui veritati, quamuis ab Infidelis ore prolatæ, et vultu
præ rubore demisso percunctatus sum, Domine, salua reuerentia, qualiter
potestis ita plenè hoc noscere? De hominibus (ait) meis interdum mitto ad
modum Mercatorum per terras, et regiones Christianorum, cum Balsamo,
gemmis, sericis, ac aromatibus, ac per illos singula exploro, tam de statu
Imperatoris, ac Pontificum, Principum, ac Sacerdotum, quàm Prælatorum, nec
non æquora, prouincias, ac distinctiones earum.

Igitur peracta collocutione nostra satis producta, egressos principes in
cameram reuocauit, ex quibus quatuor de maioribus iuxta nos aduocans, fecit
eos expressè ac debitè, per singulas diuisiones in lingua Gallicana
destinguere per partes, et singuarum nomina partium, omnem regionem terræ
Angliæ, ac alias Christianorum terras multas, acsi inter nostros fuissent
nati, vel multo tempore conuersati.

Nam et ipsum Soldanum audiui cum ijs bene et directè loquentem idioma
Francorum. Itaque in omnibus his mente consternatus obmutui, cogitans, et
dolens de peccatis singulis, rem taliter se habere.

Nunc piè igitur (rogo) consideremus, et corde attendamus, quantæ sit
confusionis, et qualis opprobrij, dum Christiani nominis inimici nobis
nostra exprobrant crimina. [Sidenote: Insignis Mandeuilli peroratio.] Et
student quilibet in melius emendare, quatenus (Deo propitio) possit in
breui tempore, hæc, de qua loquimur, terra Deo delecta, hæc sacrosancta
terra, hæc filijs Dei promissa, nobis Dei adoptiuis restitui: vel certè,
quod magis exorandum est, ipsi Sarraceni ad fidem Catholicam, et
Christianam obedientiam, Ecclesiæ filijs aggregari, vt simul omnes per
Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum consubstantialem Dei filium perueniamus ad
coelestem Paradisum.

Explicit prima pars huius operis.

The English Version.

Betheleem is a litylle cytee, long and narwe and well walled, and in eche
syde enclosed with gode dyches; and it was wont to ben cleped Effrata; as
Holy Writt seythe, _Ecce audivimus cum in Effrata_; that is to seye, _Lo,
we herde him in Effrata_. And toward the est ende of the cytee, is a fulle
fair chirche and a gracyouse; and it hathe many toures, pynacles and
corneres, fulle stronge and curiously made: and with in that chirche ben 44
pyleres of marble, grete and faire. And betwene the cytee and the chirche
in the felde floridus; that is to seyne, the feld florisched: for als moche
as a fayre mayden was blamed with wrong, and sclaundred, that sche hadde
don fornycacioun; for whiche cause sche was demed to the dethe, and to be
brent in that place, to the whiche sche was ladd. And as the fyre began to
brenne about hire, sche made hire preyeres to oure Lord, that als wissely
as sche was not gylty of that synne, that he wold helpe hire, and make it
to be knowen to alle men, of his mercyfulle grace. And whan sche hadde thus
seyd, sche entred in to the fuyer: and anon was the fuyr quenched and oute:
and the brondes that weren brennynge, becomen rede roseres; and the brondes
that weren not kyndled, becomen white roseres, fulle of roses. And theise
weren the first roseres and roses, both white and rede, that evere ony man
saughe. And thus was this mayden saved be the grace of God. And therfore is
that feld clept the feld of God florysscht: for it was fulle of roses. Also
besyde the queer of the chirche, at the right syde, as men comen dounward
16 greces, [Footnote: Steps.] is the place where oure Lord was born, that
is fulle welle dyghte of marble, and fulle richely peynted with gold,
sylver, azure, and other coloures. And 3 paas besyde, is the crybbe of the
ox and the asse. And besyde that, is the place where the sterre fell, that
ladde the 3 kynges, Jaspar, Melchior and Balthazar: but men of Grece clepen
hem thus, Galgalathe, Malgalathe and Saraphie: and the Jewes clepen in this
manere, in Ebrew, Appelius, Amerrius and Damasus. Theise 3 kynges offreden
to oure Lord, gold, ensence and myrre: and thei metten to gedre, thorghe
myracle of God; for thei metten to gedre in a cytee in Ynde, that Men
clepen Cassak, that is 53 journeyes fro Betheleem; and thei weren at
Betheleem the 13 day. And that was the 4 day aftre that thei hadden seyn
the sterre, whan they metten in that cytee: and thus thei weren in 9 dayes,
fro that cytee at Betheleem; and that was gret myracle. Also undre the
cloystre of the chirche, be 18 degrees, at the righte syde, is the
charnelle of the innocentes, where here bones lyzn. And before the place
where oure Lord was born, is the tombe of Seynt Jerome, that was a preest
and a cardynalle, that translatede the Bible and the psaultere from Ebrew
in to Latyn: and witheoute the mynstre; is the chayere that he satt in,
whan he translated it. And faste besyde that chirche, a 60 fedme,
[Footnote: Fathom.] is a chirche of Seynt Nicholas, where oure Lady rested
hire, aftre sche was lyghted of oure Lord. And for as meche as sche had to
meche mylk in hire pappes, that greved hire, sche mylked hem on the rede
stones of marble; so that the traces may zit be sene in the stones alle
whyte. And zee schulle undrestonde, that alle that duellen in Betheleem ben
Cristene men. And there ben fayre vynes about the cytee, and gret plentee
of wyn, that the Cristene men han don let make. But the Sarazines ne tylen
not no vynes, ne thei drynken no wyn. For here bokes of here lawe, that
Makomete betoke hem, whiche thei clepen here Alkaron, and sume clepen it
Mesaphe; and in another langage it is cleped Harme; and the same boke
forbedethe hem to drinke wyn. For in that boke, Machomete cursed alle tho
that drynken wyn, and alle hem that sellen it. For sum men seye, that he
sloughe ones an heremyte in his dronkenesse, that he loved ful wel: and
therefore he cursed wyn, and hem that drynken it. But his curs be turned in
to his owne hed; as Holy Wrytt seythe; _Et in verticem ipsius iniquitas
ejus descendet_; that is for to seye, _Hi wykkednesse schalle turne and
falle in his owne heed_. And also the Sarazines bryngen forthe no pigges,
nor thei eten no swynes flessche: for thei seye, it is brother to man, and
it was forboden be the olde lawe: and thei holden hem alle accursed that
eten there of. Also in the lond of Palestyne and in the lond of Egypt, thei
eten but lytille or non of flessche of veel or of beef; but he be so old,
that he may no more travayle for elde; for it is forbode: and for because
the have but fewe of hem, therfore thei norisschen hem, for to ere here
londes. In this cytee of Betheleem was David the kyng born: and he hadde 60
wyfes; and the firste wyf hihte Michol: and also he hadde 300 lemmannes.

An fro Betheleem unto Jerusalem nys but 2 myle. And in the weye to
Jerusalem, half a myle fro Betheleem is a chirche, where the aungel seyde
to the scheppardes, of the birthe of Crist. And in that weye is the tombe
of Rachelle, that was Josephes modre, the patriarke; and sche dyede anon,
aftre that sche was delyvered of hire sone Beniamyn; and there sche was
buryed of Jacob hire husbonde: and he leet setten 12 grete stones on here,
in tokene that sche had born 12 children. [Footnote: Rachel had only two
children, but twelve grandchildren.] In the same weye, half myle fro
Jerusalem, appered the sterre to the 3 kynges. In that weye also ben manye
chirches of Cristen men, be the whiche men gon towardes the cytee of

Of the Pilgrimages in Jerusalem and of the Holy Places thereaboute.

[Sidenote: Cap. VII.] After for to speke of Jerusalem, the holy cytee, zee
schulle undirstonde, that it stont fulle faire betwene hilles: and there
ben no ryveres ne welles; but watre comethe be condyte from Ebron. And zee
schulle undirstonde, that Jerusalem of olde tyme, unto the tyme of
Melchisedeche, was cleped Jebus; and aftre it was clept Salem, unto the
tyme of Kyng David, that putte theise 2 names to gidere, and cleped it
Jebusalem; and aftre that Kyng Salomon cleped it Jerosoloyme: and aftre
that, men cleped it Jerusalem; and so it is cleped zit. And aboute
Jerusalem is the kyngdom of Surrye: and there besyde is the lond of
Palestyne: and besyde it is Ascolone: and besyde that is the lond of
Maritaine. But Jerusalem is in the lond of Judee; and it is clept Jude, for
that Judas Machabeus was kyng of that contree; and it marchethe estward to
the kyngdom of Arabye; on the southe syde, to the lond of Egipt; and on the
west syde, to the grete see; on the north syde, towarde the kyngdom of
Surrye, and to the See of Cypre. In Jerusalem was wont to be a patriark,
and erchebysshoppes and bisshoppes abouten in the contree. Abouten
Jerusalem ben theise cytees: Ebron, at 7 myle; Jerico, at 6 myle; Bersabee,
at 8 myle; Ascalon, at 17 myle; Jaff, at 16 myle; Ramatha, at 3 myle; and
Betheleem, at 2 myle. And a 2 myle trom Betheleem, toward the sowthe, is
the chirche of Seynt Karitot, that was abbot there; for whom thei maden
meche Doel [Footnote: Mourning.] amonges the monkes, whan he scholde dye;
and zit thei ben in moornynge, in the wise that thei maden here
lamentacioun for him the firste tyme: and it is fulle gret pytee to

This contree and lond of Jerusalem hathe ben in many dyverse naciounes
hondes: and often therfore hathe the contree suffred meche tribulacioun,
for the synne of the people, that duellen there. For that contree hathe ben
in the hondes of alle nacyouns: that is to seyne, of Jewes, of Chananees,
Assiryenes, Perses, Medoynes, Macedoynes, of Grekes, Romaynes, of Cristene
men, of Sarazines, Barbaryenes, Turkes, Tartaryenes, and of manye othere
dyverse nacyouns. For God wole not, that it be longe in the hondes of
trytoures ne of synneres, be thei Cristene or othere. And now have the
hethene men holden that lond in here hondes 40 zeere and more: but thei
schulle not holde it longe, zif God wole.

And zee schulle undirstond, that whan men comen to Jerusalem, here first
pilgrymage is to the Chirche of the Holy Sepulcre, where oure Lord was
buryed, that is with oute the cytee, on the northe syde: but it is now
enclosed in, with the toun walle. And there is a fulle fayr chirche, alle
rownd, and open above, and covered with leed. And on the west syde is a
fair tour and an highe, for belles, strongly made. And in the myddes of the
chirche is a tabernacle, as it were a lytylle hows, made with a low lytylle
dore: and that tabernacle is made in manere of half a compass, righte
curiousely and richely made, of gold and azure and othere riche coloures,
fulle nobelyche made. And in the righte syde of that tabernacle is the
sepulcre of oure Lord. And the tabernacle is 8 fote longe, and 5 fote wyde,
and 11 fote in heighte. And it is not longe sithen the sepulcre was alle
open, that men myghte kisse it and touche it. But for pilgrymes that comen
thidre, peyned hem to breke the ston in peces or in poudre, therfore the
Soudan hathe do make a walle aboute the sepulcre, that no man may towche
it. But in the left syde of the walle of the tabernacle is well the heighte
of a man, a gret ston to the quantytee of a mannes hed, that was of the
holy sepulcre: and that ston kissen the pilgrymes, that comen thidre. In
that tabernacle ben no wyndowes: but it is alle made lighte with lampes,
that hangen before the sepulcre. And there is a lampe, that hongethe before
the sepulcre, that brennethe lighte: and on the Gode Fryday it gothe out be
him self; and lyghtith azen be him self at that oure, that oure Lorde roos
fro dethe to lyve. Also within the chirche, at the righte syde, besyde the
queer of the chirche, is the Mount of Calvarye, where oure Lord was don on
the Cros: and it is a roche of white colour, and a lytille medled with red:
and the Cros was set in a morteys, in the same roche: and on that roche
dropped the woundes of our Lord, whan he was payned on the Crosse; and that
is cleped Golgatha. And men gon up to that Golgotha be degrees: and in the
place of that morteys was Adames hed founden, aftre Noes flode; in tokene
that the synnes of Adam scholde ben boughte in that same place. And upon
that roche made Abraham sacrifice to oure Lord. And there is an awtere: and
before that awtere lyzn Godefray de Boleyne and Bawdewyn, and othere
Cristene kynges of Jerusalem; And there nyghe, where our Lord was
crucyfied, is this written in Greek, [Greek: Ho Theos Basileus hæmon pro
aionon eirgasato aotærian en meso tæs gæs.] that is to seyne, in Latyn,
_Deus Rex noster ante secula operatus est salutem, in medio terræ_; that is
to seye, _Gode oure Kyng, before the worldes, hathe wroughte hele in myddis
of the erthe_. And also on that roche, where the Cros was sett, is writen
with in the roche theise, wordes; [Greek: Ho eideis esti basis tæs pisteos
holæs tou kosmou touton.] that is to seyne in Latyn, _Quod vides, est
fundamentum totius Fidei hujus Mundi_; that is to seyne, _That thou seest,
is ground of alle the feythe of this world_. And zee schulle undirstonde,
that whan oure Lord was don upon the Cros, he was 33 zere and 3 moneths of
elde. And the prophecye of David seythe thus: _Quadraginta annis proximus
fui generationi huic_; that is to seye, _fourty zeer was I neighebore to
this kynrede_. And thus scholde it seme, that the prophecyes ne were not
trewe: but thei ben bothe trewe: for in old tyme men maden a zeer of 10
moneths; of the whiche Marche was the firste, and Decembre was the laste.
But Gayus, that was Emperour of Rome, putten theise 2 monethes there to,
Janyver and Feverer; and ordeyned the zeer of 12 monethes; that is to seye,
365 dayes, with oute lepe zeer, aftre the propre cours of the sonne. And
therfore, aftre cowntynge of 10 monethes of the zeer, de dyede in the 40
zeer; as the prophete seyde; and aftre the zeer of 12 monethes, he was of
age 33 zeer and 3 monethes. Also with in the Mount Calvarie, on the right
side, is an awtere, where the piler lyzthe, that oure Lord Jesu was bounden
to, whan he was scourged. And there besyde ben 4 pileres of ston, that alle
weys droppen watre: and sum men seyn, that thei wepen for our Lordes dethe.
And nyghe that awtier is a place undre erthe, 42 degrees of depnesse, where
the holy croys was founden, be the wytt of Seynte Elyne, undir a roche,
where the Jewes had hidde it. And that was the verray croys assayed: for
thei founden 3 crosses; on of oure Lord, and 2 of the 2 theves: and Seynte
Elyne preved hem on a ded body, that aros from dethe to lyve, whan it was
leyed on it that oure Lord dyed on. And there by in the walle is the place
where the 4 nayles of oure Lord weren hidd: for he had 2 in his hondes, and
2 in his feet: and of on of theise, the Emperour of Costantynoble made a
brydille to his hors, to bere him in bataylle: and thorghe vertue there of,
he overcam his enemyes, and wan alle the lond of Asye the lesse; that is to
seye, Turkye, Ermonye the lasse and the more; and from Surrye to Jerusalem,
from Arabye to Persie, from Mesopotayme to the kyngdom of Halappee, from
Egypt the highe and the lowe, and all the othere kyngdomes, unto the Depe
of Ethiope, and into Ynde the lesse, that then was Cristene. And there were
in that tyme many gode holy men and holy heremytes; of whom the book of
fadres lyfes spekethe: and thei ben now in Paynemes and Sarazines honds.
But whan God alle myghty wole, righte als the londes weren lost thorghe
synne of Cristene men, so schulle thei ben wonnen azen be Cristen men
thorghe help of God. And in myddes of that chirche is a compas, in the
whiche Joseph of Aramathie leyde the body of oure Lord, whan he had taken
him down of the cross: and there he wassched the woundes of oure Lord: and
that compas, seye men, is the myddes of the world. And in the Chirche of
the Sepulchre, on the north syde, is the place where oure Lord was put in
presoun; (for he was in presoun in many places) and there is a partye of
the Cheyne that he was bounden with: and there he appered first to Marie
Magdaleyne, whan he was rysen; and sche wende, that he had ben a gardener.
In the chirche of Seynt Sepulchre was wont to ben chanouns of the ordre of
Seynt Augustyn, and hadden a priour; but the patriark was here sovereygne.
And withe oute the dores of the chirche, on the right syde, as men gon
upward 18 Greces, seyde oure Lord to his moder, _Mulier, ecce filius tuus_;
that is to seye, _Woman, lo thi Sone_. And aftre that, he seyde to John his
disciple, _Ecce mater tua_; that is to seyne, _Lo, behold thi modir_: And
these wordes he seyde on the cros. And on theise Greces wente oure Lord,
whan he bare the crosse on his schuldir. And undir this grees is a
chapelle; and in that chapelle syngen prestes, yndyenes; that is to seye,
prestes of ynde; noght aftir oure lawe, but aftir here: and alle wey thei
maken here sacrement of the awtier, seyenge, _Pater noster_, and othere
preyeres there with: with the which preyeres, thei seye the wordes, that
the sacrement is made of. For thei ne knowe not the addiciouns, that many
Popes han made; but thei synge with gode devocioun. And there nere, is the
place where that oure Lord rested him, whan he was wery, for berynge of the
Cros. And zee schulle undirstonde, that before the Chirche of the Sepulcre,
is the cytee more feble than in ony othere partie, for the grete playn that
is betwene the chirche and the cytee. And toward the est syde, with oute
the walles of the cytee, is the Vale of Josaphathe, that touchethe to the
walles, as thoughe it were a large dyche. And anen that Vale of Josaphathe,
out of the cytee, is the Chirche of Seynt Stevene, where he was stoned to
dethe. And there beside, is the gildene zate, that may not ben opened; be
the whiche zate, oure Lord entrede on Palmesonday, upon an asse; and the
zate opened azenst him, whan he wolde go unto the temple: and zit apperen
the steppes of the asses feet, in 3 places of the degrees, that ben of
fulle harde ston. And before the chirche of Seynt Sepulcre, toward the
southe, a 200 paas, is the gret hospitalle of Seynt John; of the whiche the
hospitleres hadde here foundacioun. And with inne the palays of the seke
men of that hospitalle ben 124 pileres of ston: and in the walles of the
hows, with oute the nombre aboveseyd, there ben 54 pileres, that beren up
the hows. And fro that hospitalle, to go toward the est, is a fulle fayr
chirche, that is clept _Nostre Dame la Graund_. And than is there another
chirche right nyghe, that is clept _Nostre Dame la Latytne_. And there
weren Marie Cleophee and Marie Magdaleyne, and teren here heer, whan oure
Lord was peyned in the cros.

Of the Temple of oure Lord. Of the Crueltee of Kyng Heroud. Of the Mount
Syon. Of Probatica Piscina. And of Natatorium Siloe.

[Sidenote: Cap. VIII.] And fro the chirche of the sepulcre, toward the est,
at 160 paas, is _Templum Domini_. It is right a feir hows, and it is alle
round, and highe, and covered with leed, and it is well paved with white
marble: but the Sarazine wole not suffre no Cristene manne Jewes to come
there in; for thei seyn, that none so foule synfulle men scholde not come
in so holy place: but I cam in there, and in othere places, where I wolde;
for I hadde lettres of the Soudan, with his grete seel; and comounly other
men han but his signett. In the whiche lettres he comanded of his,
specyalle grace, to all his subgettes, to lete me seen alle the places, and
to enforme me pleynly alle the mysteries of every place, and to condyte me
fro cytee to cytee, zif it were nede, and buxomly to resceyve me and my
companye, and for to obeye to alle my requestes resonable, zif thei weren
not gretly azen the royalle power, and dignytee of the Soudan or of his
lawe. And to othere, that asken him grace, suche as han served him, he ne
zevethe not but his signet; the whiche thei make to be born before hem,
hangynge on a spere; and the folk of the contree don gret worschipe and
reverence to his signett or his seel, and knelen there to, as lowly as wee
don to _Corpus Domini_. And zit men don fulle grettere reverence to his
lettres. For the admyralle and alle othere lordes, that thei ben schewed
to, before or thei resceyve hem, thei knelen doun, and than thei take hem,
and putten hem on here hedes, and aftre thei kissen hem, and than thei
reden hem, knelynge with gret reverence, and than thei offren hem to do
alle, that the berere askethe. And in this _Templum Domini_ weren somtyme
chanouns reguleres: and thei hadden an abbot, to whom thei weren obedient.
And in this temple was Charlemayn, when that the aungelle broughte him the
prepuce of oure Lord Jesu Crist, of his circumcisioun: and aftre Kyng
Charles leet bryngen it to Parys, in to his chapelle: and aftre that to
Chartres. And zee schulle undirstonde, that this is not the temple that
Salomon made: for that temple dured not, bat 1102 zeer. For Tytus,
Vespasianes sone, Emperour of Rome, had leyd sege aboute Jerusalem, for to
discomfyte the Jewes: for thei putten oure Lord to dethe, with outen leve
of the Emperour. And whan he hadde wonnen the cytee, he brente the temple
and beet it down, and alle the cytee, and toke the Jewes, and dide hem to
Dethe, 1100000: and the othere he putte in presoun, and solde hem to
servage, 30 for o peny: for thei seyde, thei boughte Jesu for 30 penyes:
and he made of hem bettre cheep, whan he zaf 30 for o peny. And aftre that
tyme, Julianas Apostate, that was Emperour, zaf leve to the Jewes to make
the Temple of Jerusalem: for he hated Cristene men; and zit he was
cristned, but he forsoke his law, and becam a renegate. And whan the Jewes
hadden made the temple, com an erthe quakeng, and cast it doun (as God
wolde) and destroyed alle that thei had made. And aftre that, Adryan, that
was Emperour of Rome, and of the lynage of Troye, made Jerusalem azen, and
the temple, in the same manere, as Salomon made it. And he wolde not suffre
no Jewes to dwelle there, but only Cristene men. For alle thoughe is were
so, that hee was not cristned, zet he lovede Cristene men, more than ony
other nacioun, saf his owne. This Emperour leet enclose the Chirche of
Seynt Sepulcre, and walle it, within the cytee, that before was with oute
the cytee, long tyme beforn. And he wolde have chaunged the name of
Jerusalem, and have cleped it Elya: but that name lasted not longe. Also
zee schulle undirstonde, that the Sarazines don moche reverence to that
temple; and thei seyn, that that place is right holy. And whan thei gon in,
thei gon barefote, and knelen many tymes. And whanne my felowes and I
seyghe that, whan we comen in, wee diden of oure shoon, and camen in
barefote, and thoughten that we scholden don as moche worschipe and
reverence there to, as ony of the mysbeleevynge men sholde, and as gret
compunction in herte to have. This temple is 64 cubytes of wydenesse, and
als manye in lengthe; and of heighte it is 120 cubites: and it is with
inne, alle aboute, made with pyleres of marble: and in the myddel place of
the temple ben manye highe stages, of 14 degrees of heighte, made with gode
pyleres alle aboute: and this place the Jewes callen _Sancta Sanctorum_;
that is to seye, _holy of halewes_. And in that place comethe no man, saf
only here prelate, that makethe here sacrifice. And the folk stonden alle
aboute, in diverse stages, aftre thei ben of dignytee or of worschipe; so
that thei alle may see the sacrifice. And in that temple ben 4 entrees; and
the zates ben of cypresse, wel made and curiousely dight. And with in the
est zate, oure Lorde seyde, _Here is Jerusalem._ And in the northsyde of
that temple with in the zate, there is a welle; but it rennethe noght; of
the whiche Holy Writt spekethe, and seythe, _Vidi aquam egredientem de
Templo_; that is to seyne, _I saughe watre come out of the Temple_. And on
that other syde of the Temple there is a roche, that men clepen Moriache:
but aftre it was clept Bethel; where the arke of God, with relykes of
Jewes, weren wont to ben put. That arke or hucche, with the relikes, Tytus
ledde with hym to Rome, whan he had scomfyted alle the Jewes. In that arke
weren the 10 commandementes, and of Arones zerde, and of Moyses zerde, with
the whiche he made the Rede See departen, as it had ben a walle, on the
righte syde and on the left syde, whils that the peple of Israel passeden
the see drye foot: and with that zerde he smoot the roche; and the watre
cam out of it: and with that zerde he dide manye wondres. And there in was
a vessel of gold, fulle of manna, and clothinges and ournements and the
tabernacle of Aaron, and a tabernacle square of gold, with 12 precyous
stones, and a boyst of jasper grene, with 4 figures, and 8 names of oure
Lord, and 7 candelstykes of gold, and 12 pottes of gold, and 4 censeres of
gold, and an awtier of gold, and 4 lyouns of gold, upon the whiche thei
bare cherubyn of gold, l2 spannes long, and the cercle of swannes of
Hevene, with a tabernacle of gold, and a table of sylver, and 2 trompes of
silver, and 7 barly loves, and alle the othere relikes, that weren before
the birthe of oure Lord Jesu Crist. And upon that roche, was Jacob
slepynge, when he saughe the aungeles gon up and doun, by a laddre, and he
seyd, _Vere locus isse sanctus est, et ego ignorabam_; that is to seyne,
_Forsothe this place is holy, and I wiste it nought_. And there an aungel
helde Jacob stille, and turned his name, and cleped him Israel. And in that
same place, David saughe the aungelle, that smot the folk with a swerd, and
put it up blody in the schethe. And in that same roche, was Seynt Symeon,
whan he resceyved oure Lord into the Temple. And in this roche he sette
him, whan the Jewes wolde a stoned him; and a sterre cam doun, and zaf him
light. And upon that roche, prechede our Lord often tyme to the peple; and
out of that seyd temple, oure Lord drof the byggeres and the selleres. And
upon that roche, oure Lord sette him, whan the Jewes wolde have stoned him;
and the roche cleef in two, and in that clevynge was oure Lord hidd; and
there cam doun a sterre, and zaf lighte and served him with claretee; and
upon that roche, satt oure lady, and lerned hire sawtere; and there our
Lord forzaf the womman hire sinnes, that was founden in Avowtrie: and there
was oure Lord circumcyded: and there the aungelle schewede tydynges to
Zacharie of the birthe of Seynt Baptyst his sone; and there offred first
Melchisedeche bred and wyn to oure Lord, in tokene of the sacrement that
was to comene; and there felle David preyeng to oure Lord, and to the
aungelle, that smot the peple, that he wolde have mercy on him and on the
peple; and oure Lorde herde his preyere; and therefore wolde he make the
temple in that place: but oure Lord forbade him, be an aungelle, for he had
don tresoun, whan he leet sle Urie the worthi knyght, for to have Bersabee
his wyf; and therfore all the purveyance, that he hadde ordeyned to make
the temple with, he toke it Salomon his sone; and he made it. And he preyed
oure Lord, that alle tho that preyeden to him, in that place, with gode
herte, that he wolde heren here preyere and graunten it hem, zif thei asked
it rightefullyche: and oure Lord graunted it him: and therfore Salomon
cleped that temple, the Temple of Conseille and of Help of God. And with
oute the zate of that temple is an awtiere, where Jewes werein wont to
offren dowves and turtles. And betwene the temple and that awtiere was
Zacharie slayn. And upon the pynacle of that temple was oure Lord brought,
for to ben tempted of the enemye, the feend. And on the heighte of that
pynacle, the Jewes setten Seynt Jame, and casted him down to the erthe,
that first was Bisschopp of Jerusalem. And at the entree of that temple,
toward the west, is the zate that is clept _Porta speciosa_. And nyghe
besyde that temple, upon the right syde, is a chirche covered with leed,
that is clept Salomones Scole. And fro that temple, towardes the southe,
right nyghe, is the Temple of Salomon, that is righte fair and wel
pollisscht. And in that temple duellen the knyghtes of the temple, that
weren wont to be clept templeres: and that was the foundacionn of here
ordre; so that there duelleden knyghtes; and in _Templo Domini_, chanouns
reguleres. Fro that temple toward the est, a 120 paas, in the cornere of
the cytee, is the bathe of oure Lord: and in that bathe was wont to come
watre fro paradys, and zit it droppethe. And there besyde, is oure ladyes
bed. And faste by, is the temple of Seynt Symeon: and with oute the
cloyster of the temple, toward the northe, is a fulle faire chirche of
Seynte Anne, oure ladyes modre: and there was oure lady conceyved. And
before that chirche, is a gret tree, that began to growe the same nyght.
And undre that chirche, in goenge doun be 22 degrees, lythe Joachym, oure
ladyes fader, in a faire tombe of ston: and there besyde, lay somtyme Seynt
Anne his wyf; but Seynt Helyne leet translate hire to Costantynople. And in
that chirche is a welle, in manere of a cisterne, that is clept _Probatica
Piscina_, that hathe 5 entrees. Into that welle, aungeles weren wont to
come from Hevene, and bathen hem with inne: and, what man that first bathed
him, aftre the mevynge of the watre, was made hool, of what maner sykenes
that he hadde: and there oure Lord heled a man of the palasye, that laye 38
zeer: and oure Lord seyde to him, _Tolle Grabatum tuum & ambula_: that is
to seye, _Take thi bed, and go_. And there besyde, was Pylates hows. And
faste by, is Kyng Heroudes hows, that leet sle the innocentes. This Heroude
was over moche cursed and cruelle: for first he leet sle his wif, that he
lovede righte welle; and for the passynge love, that he hadde to hire, whan
he saughe hire ded, he felle in a rage, and oute of his wytt, a gret while;
and sithen he cam azen to his wytt: and aftre he leet sle his two sones,
that he hadde of that wyf: and aftre that, he leet sle another of his
wyfes, and a sone, that he hadde with hire: and aftre that, he leet sle his
owne modre: and he wolde have slayn his brother also, but he dyede
sodeynly. And aftre he fell into seknesse, and whan he felte, that he
scholde dye, he sente aftre his sustre, and aftre alle the lordes of his
lond; and whan thei were comen; he leet commande hem to prisoun, and than
he seyde to his sustre, he wiste wel, that men of the contree wolde make no
sorwe for his dethe; and therefore be made his sustre swere, that sche
scholde lete smyte of alle the heds of the lordes, whan he were ded; and
than scholde alle the lond make sorwe for his dethe, and else nought: and
thus he made his testement. But his sustre fulfilled not his wille: for als
sone as he was ded, sche delyvered alle the lordes out of presoun, and lete
hem gon, eche lord to his owne; and tolde hem alle the purpos of hire
brothers ordynance: and so was this cursed kyng never made sorwe for, as he
supposed for to have ben. And zee schulle undirstonde, that in that tyme
there weren 3 Heroudes, of gret name and loos for here crueltee. This
Heroude, of whiche I have spoken offe, was Heroude Ascalonite: and he that
leet beheden seynt John the Baptist, was Heroude Antypa: and he that leet
smyte of Seynt James hed, was Heroude Agrippa; and he putte Seynt Peter in

Also furthermore, in the cytee, is the Chirche of Seynt Savyour; and there
is the left arm of John Crisostom, and the more partye of the hed of Seynt
Stevene. And on that other syde of the strete, toward the southe, as men
gon to Mount Syon, is a chirche of Seynt James, where he was beheded. And
fro that chirche, a 120 paas, is the Mount Syon: and there is a faire
chirche of oure Lady, where sche dwelled; and there sche dyed. And there
was wont to ben an abbot of Chanouns Reguleres. And fro thens, was sche
born of the apostles, onto the Vale of Josaphathe. And there is the ston,
that the aungelle broughte to oure Lady, fro the Mount of Synay; and it is
of that colour, that the roche is of Seynt Kateryne. And there besyde, is
the zate, where thorghe oure Ladye wente, whan sche was with childe, whan
sche wente to Betheleem. Also at the entree of the Mount Syon, is a
chapelle; and in that chapelle is the ston gret and large, with the whiche
the sepulcre was covered with, whan Josephe of Aramathie had put oure Lord
thereinne: the whiche ston the 3 Maries sawen turnen upward, whan thei
comen to the sepulcre, the day of his resurrexioun; and there founden an
aungelle, that tolde hem of oure Lordes uprysynge from dethe to lyve. And
there also is a ston, in a walle, besyde the zate, of the pyleer, that oure
Lord was scourged ate: and there was Annes hows, that was Bishop of the
Jewes, in that ryme. And there was oure Lord examyned in the nyght, and
scourged and smytten and vylently entreted. And in that same place, Seynt
Peter forsoke oure Lord thries, or the cok creew. And there is a party of
the table, that he made his souper onne, whan be made his maundee, with his
discyples; whan he zaf hem his flesche and his blode, in forme of bred and
wyn. And undre that chapelle, 32 degrees, is the place, where oure Lord
wossche his disciples feet and zit is the vesselle, where the watre was.
And there besyde that same vesselle, was Seynt Stevene buryed. And there is
the awtier, where oure Lady herde the aungelles synge messe. And there
appered first oure Lord to his disciples, after his resurrexioun, the zates
enclosed, and seyde to hem, _Pax vobis_: that is to seye, _Pees to zou_.
And on that mount, appered Crist to Seynt Thomas the apostle, and bade him
assaye his woundes; and there beleeved he first, and seyde, _Dominus meus
et Deus meus_; that is to seye, _my Lord and my God_. In the same chirche,
besyde the awteer, weren alle the aposteles on Whytsonday, whan the Holy
Gost descended on hem, in lyknesse of fuyr. And there made oure Lord his
pask, [Footnote: Pascal feast] with his disciples. And there slept Seynt
John the Evaungeliste, upon the breeste of oure Lord Jesu Crist, and saughe
slepynge many hevenly prevytees.

Mount Syon is with inne the cytee; and it is a lytille hiere than the other
syde of the cytee: and the cytee is strongere on that syde, than on that
other syde. For at the foot of the Mount Syon, is a faire castelle and a
strong, that the Soudan leet make. In the Mount Syon weren buryed Kyng
David and Kyng Salomon, and many othere kynges, Jewes of Jerusalem. And
there is the place, where the Jewes wolden han cast up the body of oure
Lady, whan the apostles beren the body to ben buryed, in the Vale of
Josaphathe. And there is the place, where Seynt Petir wepte fulle tenderly,
aftre that he hadde forsaken oure Lord. And a stones cast fro that
chapelle, is another chapelle, where oure Lord was jugged: for that tyme,
was there Cayphases hows. From that chapelle, to go toward the est, at 140
paas, is a deep cave undre the roche, that is clept the Galylee of oure
Lord; where Seynt Petre hidde him, whanne he had forsaken oure Lord. Item,
betwene the Mount Syon and the Temple of Salomon, is the place, where oure
Lord reysed the mayden, in hire fadres hows. Undre the Mount Syon, toward
the Vale of Josaphathe, is a welle, that is clept _Natatorium Siloe_; and
there was oure Lord wasshen, aftre his bapteme: and there made oure Lord
the blynd man to see. And there was y buryed Ysaye the prophete. Also
streghte from Natatorie Siloe, is an ymage of ston, and of olde auncyen
werk, that Absalon leet make: and because there of, men clepen it the head
of Absalon. And faste by, is zit the tree of eldre, that Judas henge him
self upon, for despeyr that he hadde, whan he solde and betrayed oure Lord.
And there besyde, was the synagoge, where the bysshoppes of Jewes and the
pharyses camen to gidere, and helden here conseille. And there caste Judas
the 30 pens before hem, and seyde, that he hadde synned, betrayenge oure
Lord. And there nyghe was the hows of the apostles Philippe and Jacob
Alphei. And on that other syde of Mount Syon, toward the southe, bezonde
the Vale, a stones cast, is Acheldamache; that is to seye, the Feld of
Blood; that was bought for the 30 pens, that oure Lord was sold fore. And
in that feld ben many tombes of Cristene men: for there ben manye pilgrymes
graven. And there ben many oratories, chapelles and heremytages, where
heremytes weren wont to duelle. And toward the est, an 100 pas, is the
charnelle of the hospitalle of seynt John, where men weren wont to putte
the bones of dede men.

Also fro Jerusalem, toward the west, is a fair chirche, where the tree of
the cros grew. And 2 myle fro thens, is a faire chirche; where oure lady
mette with Elizabethe, whan thei weren bothe with childe; and seynt John
stered in his modres wombe, and made reverence to his Creatour, that he
saughe not. And undre the awtier of that chirche, is the place where seynt
John was born. And fro that chirche, is a myle to the castelle of Emaux;
and there also oure Lord schewed him to 2 of his disciples, aftre His
resurrexion. Also on that other syde, 200 pas fro Jerusalem, is a chirche,
where was wont to be the cave of the lioun: and undre that chirche, at 30
degrees of depnesse, weren entered 12000 martires, in the tyme of Kyng
Cosdroc, that the lyoun mette with alle in a nyghte, be the wille of God.
Also fro Jerusalem 2 myle, is the Mount Joye, a fulle fair place and a
delicyous: and there lythe Samuel the prophete in a faire tombe: and men
clepen it Mount Joye; for it zevethe joye to pilgrymes hertes, be cause
that there men seen first Jerusalem. Also betwene Jerusalem and the Mount
of Olyvete, is the Vale of Josaphathe, undre the walles of the cytee, as I
have seyd before: and in the myddes of the vale, is a lytille ryvere, that
men clepen Torrens Cedron; and aboven it, over thwart, lay a tre, (that the
cros was made offe) that men zeden over onne: and faste by it is a litylle
pytt in the erthe, where the foot of the pileer is zit entered; and there
was oure Lord first scourged: for he was scourged and vileynsly entreted in
many places. Also in the myddel place of the vale of Josaphathe, is the
chirche of oure lady: and it is of 43 degrees, undre the erthe, unto the
sepulchre oure lady. And oure lady was of age, when sche dyed, 72 zeer. And
beside the sepulchre of oure lady, is an awtier, where oure Lord forzaf
seynt Petir all his synnes. And fro thens, toward the west, undre an
awtere, is a welle, that comethe out of the ryvere of Paradys. And witethe
wel, that that chirche is fulle lowe in the erthe; and sum is alle with
inne the erthe. But I suppose wel, that it was not so founded: but for
because that Jerusalem hathe often tyme ben destroyed, and the walles
abated and beten doun and tombled in to the vale, and that thei han ben so
filled azen, and the ground enhaunced; and for that skylle, is the chirche
so lowe with in the erthe: and natheles men seyn there comounly, that the
erthe hathe so ben cloven, sythe the tyme, that oure Lady was there buryed:
and zit men seyn there, that it wexethe and growethe every day, with outen
dowte. In that chirche were wont to ben blake monkes, that hadden hire
abbot. And besyde that chirche, is a chapelle, besyde the roche, that
highte Gethesamany: and there was oure Lord kyssed of Judas; and there was
he taken of the Jewes; and there laft oure Lord his disciples, whan he
wente to preye before his passioun, whan he preyed and seyde, _Pater, si
fieri potest, transeat a me calix iste_; that is to seye, _Fadre, zif it
may be, do lete this chalys go fro me_. And whan he cam azen to his
disciples, he fond hem slepynge. And in the roche, with inne the chapelle,
zit apperen the fyngres of oure Lordes hond, whan he putte hem in the
roche, whan the Jewes wolden have taken him. And fro thens a stones cast,
toward the southe, is anothere chapelle, where oure Lord swette droppes of
blood. And there righte nyghe, is the tombe of Kyng Josaphathe; of whom the
vale berethe the name. This Josaphathe was kyng of that contree, and was
converted by an heremyte, that was a worthi man, and dide moche gode. And
fro thens a bowe drawghte, towards the south, is the chirche, where Seynt
James and Zacharie the prophete weren buryed. And above the vale, is the
Mount of Olyvete: and it is cleped so, for the plentee of olyves, that
growen there. That mount is more highe than the cytee of Jerusalem is: and
therfore may men, upon that mount, see manye of the stretes of the cytee.
And between that mount and the cytee, is not but the vale of Josaphathe,
that is not fulle large. And fro that mount, steighe oure Lord Jesu Crist
to Hevene, upon ascencioun day: and zit there schewethe the schapp of his
left foot, in the ston. And there is a chirche, where was wont to be an
abbot and chanouns reguleres. And a lytylle thens, 28 pas, is a chapelle,
and there in is the ston, on the whiche oure Lord sat, whan he prechede the
8 blessynges, and seyde thus: _Beati pauperes spiritu_: and there he
taughte his disciples the _Pater noster_; and wrote with his finger in a
ston. And there nyghe is a chirche of Seynte Marie Egipcyane; and there
sche lythe in a tombe. And fro then toward the est, a 3 bow schote, is
Bethfagee; to the whiche oure Lord sente Seynt Peter and Seynt James, for
to feche the asse, upon Palme Sonday, and rode upon that asse to Jerusalem.
And in comynge doun fro the Mount of Olyvete, toward the est, is a
castelle, that is cleped Bethanye: and there dwelte Symon leprous, and
there herberwed oure Lord; and aftre, he was baptized of the Apostles, and
was clept Julian, and was made bisschoppe: and this is the same Julyan,
that men clepe to for gede herberghgage; for oure Lord herberwed with him,
in his hows. And in that hous, oure Lord forzaf Marie Magdaleyne hire
synnes; there sche whassched his feet with hire teres, and wyped hem with
hire heer. And there served seynt Martha, oure Lord. There oure Lord reysed
Lazar fro dethe to lyve, that was ded 4 dayes and stank, that was brother
to Marie Magdaleyne and to Martha. And there duelte also Marie Cleophe.
That castelle is wel a myle long fro Jerusalem. Also in comynge doun fro
the Mount of Olyvete, is the place where oure Lord wepte upon Jerusalem.
And there besyde is the place, where oure lady appered to seynt Thomas the
Apostle, aftre hire assumptioun, and zaf him hire Gyrdylle. And right nyghe
is the ston, where oure Lord often tyme sat upon, whan he prechede: and
upon that same schalle he sytte, at the day of doom; righte as him self

Also aftre the Mount of Olyvete, is the Mount of Galilee: there assembleden
the apostles, whan Marie Magdaleyne cam, and tolde hem of Cristes
uprisynge. And there, betwene the Mount Olyvete and the Mount Galilee, is a
chirche, where the aungel seyde to our lady, of hire dethe. Also fro
Bethanye to Jerico, was somtyme a litylle Cytee: but it is now alle
destroyed; and now is there but a litylle village. That cytee tok Josue, be
myracle of God and commandement of the aungel, and destroyed it and cursed
it, and alle hem that bylled it azen. Of that citee was Zacheus the dwerf,
that clomb up in to the Sycomour Tre, for to see oure Lord; be cause he was
so litille, he myghte not seen Him for the peple. And of that cytee was
Raab the comoun womman, that ascaped allone, with hem of hire lynage; and
sche often tyme refressched and fed the messageres of Israel, and kepte hem
from many grete periles of dethe: and therfore sche hadde gode reward; as
Holy Writt seythe: _Qui accipit prophetam in nomine meo, mercedem prophetæ
accipiet_; that is to seye, _He that takethe a prophete in my name, he
schalle take mede of the prophete_: and so had sche; for sche prophecyed to
the messageres, seyenge, _Novi quod Dominus tradet vobis Terram hanc_; that
is to seye, _I wot wel, that oure Lord schal betake zou this Lond_: and so
he dide. And after Salomon, Naasones sone, wedded hire; and fro that tyme
was sche a worthi womman, and served God wel. Also from Betanye gon men to
flom [Footnote: River,--Latin, _flumen_.] Jordan, by a mountayne, and
thorghe desert; and it is nyghe a day jorneye fro Bethanye, toward the est,
to a gret hille, where oure Lord fasted 40 dayes. Upon that hille, the
enemy of helle bare our Lord, and tempted him, and seyde; _Dic ut lapides
isti panes fiant_; that is to seye, _Sey, that theise stones be made
loves_. In that place, upon the hille, was wont to ben a faire chirche; but
it is alle destroyed, so that there is now but an hermytage, that a maner
of Cristene men holden, that ben cleped Georgyenes: for Seynt George
converted hem. Upon that hille duelte Abraham a gret while: and therfore
men clepen it, Abrahames gardyn. And betwene the hille and this gardyn
rennethe a lytille broke of watre, that was wont to ben byttre; but be the
blessyng of Helisee the prophete, it becam swete and gode to drynke. And at
the foot of this hille, toward the playn, is a grete welle, that entrethe
in to flom Jordan. Fro that hille to Jerico, that I spak of before, is but
a myle, in goynge toward flom Jordan. Also as men gon to Jerico, sat the
blynde man, cryenge, _Jesu, fili David, miserere mei_; that is to seye,
_Jesu, Davides sone, have mercy on me_: and anon he hadde his sighte. Also
2 myle fro Jerico is flom Jordan: and an half myle more nyghe, is a faire
chirche of Seynt John the Baptist; where he baptised oure Lord: and there
besyde, is the hous of Jeremye the prophete.

Of the dede See; and of the Flom Jordan. Of the Hed of Seynt John the
Baptist; and of the Usages of the Samaritanes.

[Sidenote: Cap. IX.] And fro Jerico, a 3 myle, is the dede See. Aboute that
See growethe moche alom and of alkatram. [Footnote: Brimstone.] Betwene
Jerico and that see is the lond of Dengadde; and there was wont to growe
the bawme; but men make drawe the braunches there of, and beren hem to ben
graffed at Babiloyne; and zit men clepen hem vynes of Gaddy. At a cost of
that see, as men gon from Arabe, is the mount of the Moabytes; where there
is a cave, that men clepen Karua. Upon that hille, ladde Balak the sone of
Booz, Balaam the prest, for to curse the peple of Israel. That dede See
departethe the lond of Ynde and of Arabye; and that see lastethe from Soara
unto Arabye. The watre of that see is fulle bytter and salt: and ziff the
erthe were made moyst and weet with that watre, it wolde nevere bere fruyt.
And the erthe and the lond chaungeth often his colour. And it castethe out
of the watre a thing that men clepen aspalt; also gret peces, as the
gretnesse of an hors, every day, and on alle sydes. And fro Jerusalem to
that see, is 200 furlonges. That see is in lengthe 580 furlonges, and in
brede 150 furlonges: and it is clept the dede see, for it rennethe nought.
but is evere unmevable. And nouther manne, best, ne no thing that berethe
lif in him, ne may not dyen in that see: and that hathe ben proved manye
tymes, be men that han disserved to ben dede, that han ben cast there inne,
and left there inne 3 dayes or 4, and thei ne myghte never dye ther inne:
for it resceyvethe no thing with inne him, that berethe lif. And no man may
drynken of the watre, for bytternesse. And zif a man caste iren there in,
it wole flete aboven. And zif men caste a fedre there in, it wole synke to
the botme: and theise ben thinges azenst kynde. And also the cytees there
weren lost, be cause of synne. And there besyden growen trees, that beren
fulle faire apples, and faire of colour to beholde; but whoso brekethe hem
or cuttethe hem in two, he schalle fynde with in hem coles and cyndres; in
tokene that, be wratthe of God, the cytees and the lond weren brente and
sonken into helle. Sum men clepen that see, Lake Dalfetidee; summe, the
Flom of Develes; and summe, the flom that is ever stynkynge. And in to that
see sonken the 5 cytees, be wratthe of God; that is to seyne, Sodom,
Gomorre, Aldama, Seboym and Segor, for the abhomynable synne of sodomye,
that regned in hem. But Segor, be the preyer of Lothe, was saved and kept a
gret while: for it was sett upon an hille; and zit schewethe therof sum
party, above the watre: and men may see the walles, when it is fayr wedre
and cleer. In that cytee Lothe dwelte, a lytylle while; and there was he
made dronken of his doughtres, and lay with hem, and engendred of hem Moab
and Amon. And the cause whi his doughtres made him dronken, and for to ly
by him, was this; because thei sawghe no man aboute hem, but only here
fadre: and therfore thei trowed, that God had destroyed alle the world, as
he hadde don the cytees; as he hadde don before, be Noes flood. And
therfore thei wolde lye with here fadre, for to have issue, and for to
replenysschen the world azen with peple, to restore the world azen be hem:
for thei trowed, that ther had ben no mo men in alle the world. And zif
here fadre had not ben dronken, he hadde not y leye with hem. And the hille
aboven Segor, men cleped it thanne Edom: and aftre men cleped it Seyr, and
aftre Ydumea. Also at the righte syde of that dede See, dwellethe zit the
wife of Lothe, in lyknesse of a salt ston; fur that schee loked behinde
hire, whan the cytees sonken into helle. This Lothe was Araammes sone, that
was brother to Abraham. And Sarra Abrahames wife, and Melcha Nachors wif,
weren sustren to the seyd Lothe. And the same Sarra was of elde 90 zeer,
when Ysaac hire sone was goten on hire. And Abraham hadde another sone
Ysmael, that he gat upon Agar his chambrere. And when Ysaac his sone was 8
dayes olde, Abraham his fadre leet him ben circumcyded, and Ysmael with
him, that was 14 zeer old: wherfore the Jewes, that comen of Ysaacces lyne,
ben circumcyded the 8 day; and the Sarrazines, that comen of Ysmaeles lyne,
ben circumcyded whan thei ben 14 zeer of age.

And zee schulle undirstonde, that with in the dede See rennethe the Flom
Jordan, and there it dyethe; for it rennethe no furthermore: and that is a
place, that is a myle fro the Chirche of seynt John the Baptist, toward the
West, a lytille benethe the place, where that christene men bathen hem
comounly. And a myle from Flom Jordan, is the Ryvere of Jabothe, the whiche


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