The Rowley Poems
Thomas Chatterton

Part 6 out of 7

Beheste, G. 60. _Command_. C.

Behight, H. 2. 365. [_Name_; from _hight_, called.]

Behylte, AE. 939. _Promised_. C.

Belent, H. 2. 121. [? from Speght's blent, _stayed, turned back_.]

Beme, AE. 563. _Trumpet_.

Bemente, E. I. 45. _Lament_. C.

Benned, AE. 1185. _Cursed, tormented_. C.

Benymmynge, P.G. 3. _Bereaving_. C.

Bercie, p. 278. 8. [No explanation.]

Berne, AE. 580. _Child_. C.

Berten, T. 58. _Venomous_. C.

Beseies, T. 124. _Becomes_. C.

Besprente, T. 132. _Scattered_. C.

Bestadde, p. 286. 3. [_Lost_, K.'s _bestad_ (O.).]

Bestanne, AE. 411. [=Bestadde.]

Bested, H. 2. 140. [_Contended_. ? from B.'s bestad, _beset,

Bestoiker, AE. 91. _Deceiver_. C.

Bestreynts, H. 2. 634. [_Sprinkles_, from K.'s betreint (O.),
_sprinkled_; but affected by _bestrewed_.]

Bete, G. 85. _Bid_. C.

Betrassed, G. 7. _Deceived, imposed on_. C.

Betraste, AE. 1031. _Betrayed_. C.

Betreinted, H. 2. [634] 707. [_Sprinkled_; from K.'s betreint (O.),

Bevyle, E. II. 57. _Break. A herald term signifying a spear broken in
tilting_. C.

Bewrate, H. 2. 127. [_Treachery_.]

Bewrecke, G. 101. _Revenge_. C.

Bewreen, AE. 6. _Express_. C.

Bewryen, Le. 42. _Declared, expressed_. C.

Bewryne, G. 72. _Declare_. C.

Bewrynning, T. 128. _Declaring_. C.

Bighes, AE. 371. _Jewels_. C.

Birlette, E. III. 24. _A hood, or covering for the back part of the
head_. C.

Bismarde, p. 285. 141. [_Curious, wondering_; from bismar, _curiosity_,
K.B. and Speght.]

Blake, AE. 178. 407. _Naked_. C.

Blakied, E. III. 4. _Naked, original_. C.

Blanche, AE. 369. _White, pure_.

Blaunchie, E. II. 50. _White_. C.

Blatauntlie, AE. 108. _Loudly_. C.

[Blents, H. 2. 638. ?]

Blente, E. III. 39. _Ceased, dead_. C.

Blethe, T. 98. _Bleed_. C.

Blynge, AE. 334. _Cease_. C.

Blyn, E. II. 40. _Cease, stand still_. C.

Boddekin, AE. 265. _Body, substance_. C.

Boleynge, M. 17. _Swelling_. C.

[Bollen, II. 2. 636. _Swollen_ (K.).]

Bollengers and Cottes, E. II. 33. _Different kinds of boats_. C.

Boolie, E. I. 46. _Beloved_. C.

Bordel, E. III. 2. _Cottage_. C.

Bordelier, AE. 410. _Cottager_.

Borne, T. 13. AE. 741. _Burnish_. C.

[Borne, H. 2. 289. ?_ground_. (No satisfactory explanation.)]

Boun, E. II. 40. _Make ready_. C.

Bounde, T. 32. _Ready_. C.

Bourne, AE. 483. [_Borne_.]

Bouting matche, p. 23. 2. [_Bout, trial of skill_.]

Bowke, T. 19.--Bowkie, G. 133. _Body_. C.

Brasteth, G. 123. _Bursteth_. C.

Brayd, G. 77. _Displayed_. C.

Brayde, AE 1010. [cf. B.'s braid, _a small lace_, &c.]

Breme, subst. G. 12. _Strength_. C.

------adj. E. II. 6. _Strong_. C.

Brende, G. 50. _Burn, consume_. C.

Bretful, Ch. 19. _Filled with_. C.

[Brigandyne, H. 2. 645. _An old-fashioned coat of mail_, K.]

Broched, H. 2. 335. _Pointed_.

Brondeous, E. II. 24. _Furious_. C.

Browded, G. 130. _Embroidered_. C.

Brynnyng, AE. 680. _Declaring_. C. [? contracted for _bewrynning_.]

Burled, M. 20. _Armed_. C.

Burlie bronde, G. 7. _Fury, anger_. C.

[Burne, AE. 585. H. 2. 265. ? _Run_ (no explanation).]

Byelecoyle, p. 288. 2. _Bel-acueil_. Fr. the name of a personage in
the _Roman de la Rose_, which Chaucer has rendered _Fair welcoming_.
[Speght followed by K. has Bialacoyl [Fr. Bel-acueil], _faire
welcoming_. C. did not observe that the word was a proper name, but
uses it to mean _hospitality_.]

Byker, AE. 246. _Battle_.

Bykrous, M. 37. _Warring_. C.

Bysmare, M. 95. _Bewildered, curious_. C.

Bysmarelie, Le. 26. _Curiously_. C.


Cale, AE. 854. _Cold_.

Calke, G. 25. _Cast_. C.

Calked, E. I. 49. _Cast out_. C.

Caltysning, G. 67. _Forbidding_. C.

Carnes, AE. 1243. _Rocks, stones_. Brit.

Castle-stede, G. 100. _A Castle_. C.

Caties, H. 2. 67. _Cates_. [_Dainties_.]

Caytisned, AE. 32. _Binding, enforcing_. C. [AE. 1104. _Bound,

Celness, AE. 882. [Probably _coldness_; no explanation.]

Chafe, AE. 191. _Hot_. C.

Chastes, G. 201. _Beats, stamps_. C.

Champion, v. P.G. 12. _Challenge_. C.

Chaper, E. III. 48. _Dry, sunburnt_. C.

Chapournette, Ch. 45. _A small round hat_. C.

Chefe, G. 11. _Heat, rashness_. C.

Chelandree, AE. 105. _Gold-finch_. C.

Cheorte, p. 288. 4. [? _Pleasant;_ K. B. and Speght have chert,
cheorte, _love, jealousy_, and K. and B. have also chertes, _merry

Cherisaunce, Ent. 1. _Comfort_. C.

Cherisaunied, AE. 839. perhaps _Cherisaunced_. [The mistake is in C.'s
authorities; Cherisaunei (K.) Cherisaunie (B.).]

Cheves, Ch. 37. _Moves_. C.

Chevysed, Ent. 2. _Preserved_. C.

Chirckynge, M. 23. _A confused noise_. C.

Church-glebe-house, Ch. 24. _Grave_. C.

[Chyne, H. 2. 640. _Cut thro' the back_. K.]

[Cleembe, as _Cleme_.]

Cleme, E. II. 9. _Sound_. C.

Clergyon, P.G. 8. _Clerk, or clergyman_. C.

Clergyon'd, Ent. 13. _Taught_. C.

Clevis, H. 2. 46. [_Cliffs_, or _rocks_. K.]

Cleyne, AE. 1102. [_Sound_. ? from clymbe (O.) _noise_. K.]

Clinie, H. 1. 431. [Apparently a _declination_, a stooping attitude;
part of the science of arms.]

Cloude-agested, p. 278. 9. [See _Agested_.]

Clymmynge, Ch. 36. _Noisy_. C.

Coistrell, H. 2. 88. [_A young lad_ (O.) K.]

Compheeres, M. 21. _Companions_. C.

Congeon, E. III. 89. _Dwarf_. C.

Contake, T. 87. _Dispute_. C.

Conteins, H. 1. 223. for _Contents_.

Conteke, E. II. 10. _Confuse; contend-with_. C.

Contekions, AE. 553. _Contentions_. C.

Cope, Ch. 50. _A cloke_. C.

Corven, AE. 56. See _Yeorven_.

Cotte, E. II. 24. _Cut_.

Cottes, E. II. 33. See _Bollengers_.

Coupe, E. II. 7. _Cut_. C.

Couraciers, T. 74. _Horse-coursers_. C.

Coyen, AE. 125. _Coy_. q?

Cravent, E. III. 39. _Coward_. C.

Creand, AE. 581. as _Recreand_.

Crine, AE. 851. _Hair_. C.

Croched, H. 2. 511. perhaps _Broched_. [What is _broched_? Sk. renders
_crooked_, but surely a javelin should be straight. Perhaps C. was
thinking of the _cross_-piece of a halbert. Cf. _croche_.]

Croche, v. G. 26. _Cross_. C.

Crokynge, AE. 119. _Bending_.

Cross-stone, AE. 1122. _Monument_. C. [Crouchee, p. 281. 63. _Cross_;
from Speght's crouch, _cross_.]

Cuarr, p. 281. 53. _Quarry_. q?

[Cuishes, H. 2. 230. _Armour for the thighs_; cuisses K.]

Cullis-yatte, E. I. 50. _Portcullis-gate_. C.

Curriedowe, G. 176. _Flatterer_. C.

Cuyen kine, E. I. 35. _Tender cows_. C.


Dareygne, G. 26. _Attempt, endeavour_. C.

Declynie, H. i. 161. _Declination_. q? [See _Clinie_.]

Decorn, E. II. 14. _Carved_. C.

Deene, E. II. 69. _Glorious, worthy_. C.

[Deene, p. 288. II. _Dine_?]

Deere, E. III. 88. _Dire_. C.

Defs, M. 9. _Vapours, meteors_. C.

Defayte, G. 52. _Decay_. C.

Defte, Ch. 7. _Neat, ornamental_. C.

Deigned, E. III. 53. _Disdained_. C.

Delievretie, T. 44. _Activity_. C.

Demasing, H. 1. 276. [?_Considering_; no explanation.]

Dente, AE. 886. See _Adente_.

Dented, AE. 263. See _Adented_.

Denwere, G. 141. _Doubt_. C.--M. 13. _Tremour_. C.

Dequace, G. 56. _Mangle, destroy_. C.

Dequaced, p. 280. 38. [_Dashed_ K. and Speght.]

Dere, Ep. 5. _Hurt, damage_. C.

Derkynnes, AE. 229. _Young deer_. q?

Derne, AE. 582.--H. 2. 522. [_Barbarous, cruel_ K.]

Dernie, E. I. 19. _Woeful, lamentable_. C.----M. 106. _Cruel_. C.

Deslavate, H. 2. 333. [_Lecherous, beastly_, from K.'s deslavy.]

Dellavatie, AE. 1047. _Letchery_. C.

Detratours, H. 2. 78. [_Slanderous detractors_.]

Deysed, AE. 46. _Seated on a deis_.

Dheie; _They_.

Dhere, AE. 192. _There_.

Dhereof; _Thereof_.

Difficile, AE. 358. _Difficult_. C.

Dighte, Ch. 7. _Drest, arrayed_. C.

Dispande, p. 276. _ult_. perhaps for _Disponed_. [B. has dispand, _to
stretch out_.] Dispone, p. 279. 27. _Dispose_.

Divinistre, AE. 141. _Divine_. C.

Dolce, AE. 1187. _Soft, gentle_. C.

Dole, n. G. 137. _Lamentation_. C.

Dole, adj. p. 283. 13. [_Doleful_.]

Dolte, Ep. 27. _Foolish_. C.

[Dolthead, H. 1. 335. _Blockhead_.]

Donde, H. 1. 51. [_Done, finished_.]

Donore, H. 1. 5. This line should probably be written thus; _O
sea-oerteeming Dovor_!

Dortoure, Ch. 25. _A sleeping room_. C.

Dote, p. 279. 20. perhaps as _Dighte_.

Doughtre mere, H. 2. 481. _D'outre mere_. Fr. From beyond sea.

[Draffs, AE. 717. _Lees, dregs_, so _useless, worthless_.]

Dree, AE. 983. [H. 2. 664. _? Work_, or _Drive_.]

Drefte, AE. 466. _Least_. C.

[Drenche, AE. 85. _Drink_. (Really _to dose with medicine_.)]

Drented, G. 91. _Drained_. C.

Dreynted, AE. 237. _Drowned_. C.

Dribblet, E. II. 48. _Small, insignificant_. C.

Drites, G. 65. _Rights, liberties_. C.

Drocke, T. 40. _Drink_. C.

Droke, AE. 461. [Meaning and source quite uncertain.]

Droorie, Ep. 47. See Chatterton's note. _Druerie_ is _Courtship,

Drooried, AE. 127. _Courted_. [Probably _modest_, from B.'s drury,

Dulce, p. 283. 103. as _Dolce_.

Duressed, E. I. 39. _Hardened_. C.

Dyd, H. 2. 9. should probably be _Dyght_.

Dygne, T. 89. _Worthy_. C.

[Dyngeynge, AE. 458. _Dinging_ or _striking_.]

Dynning, E. I. 25. _Sounding_. C.

Dysperpellest, AE. 414. _Scatterest_. C.

Dysporte, E. I. 28. _Pleasure_. C.

Dysportisment, AE. 250. as _Dysporte_.

Dysregate, AE. 542. [_? Deprive of command_.]


Edraw, H. 2. 52. for _Ydraw_; Draw.

Eft, E. II. 78. _Often_. C.

Eftsoones, E. III. 54. _Quickly_. C.

Ele, M. 74. _Help_. C.

Eletten, AE. 448. _Enlighten_. C.

Eke, E. I. 27. _Also_. C.

Emblaunched, E. I. 36. _Whitened_. C.

Embodyde, E. I. 33. _Thick, stout_. C.

[Embollen, AE. 596. as _Bollen_.]

Embowre, G. 134. _Lodge_. C.

Emburled, E. II. 54. _Armed_. C.

Emmate, AE. 34. _Lessen, decrease_. C.

Emmers, p. 287. 7. [_? coins_. No explanation.]

Emmertleynge, M. 72. _Glittering_. C.

[Emprize, M. 74. _Adventure_. C.]

Enalse, G. 159. _Embrace_. C.

Encaled, AE. 918. _Frozen, cold_. C.

Enchased, M. 60. _Heated, enraged_. C.

Engyne, AE. 381. _Torture_.

Enheedynge, p. 283. 105. [_Taking heed, studying_.]

Enlowed, AE. 606. _Flamed, fired_. C.

Enrone, AE. 661. [Evidently _Unsheath_; no explanation.]

Enseme, AE. 971. _To make seams in_. q?

Enseeming, AE. 746. as _Seeming_.

Enshoting, T. 174. _Shooting, darting_. C.

[Ensooned, H. 2. 497. Probably, _In a swoon_; not in K.B. or Speght.]

Enstrote, H. 2. 503. [No explanation.] Enswote, AE. 1175. _Sweeten_. q?

Enswolters, AE. 629. _Swallows, sucks in_. C.

Ensyrke, p. 25. 10. _Encircle_.

Ent, E. III. 57. _A purse or bag_. C.

Entendement, AE. 261. _Understanding_.

Enthoghteing, AE. 704. [_Thinking_; cf. _Enheedynge_.]

Entremed, p. 276. 4. [_Intermingled_, from Speght's Entremes,
_entermingled_. (Really _entremes_ means a side-dish.)]

Entrykeynge, AE. 304. as _Tricking_.

Entyn, P.G. 10. _Even_. C.

Estande, H. 2. 271. for _Ystande_; Stand.

Estells, E. II. 16. A corruption of _Estoile_, Fr. A star. C.

Estroughted, AE. 918. [_Stretched out_]

Ethe, E. III. 59. _Ease_. C.

Ethie, p. 280. 49. _Easy_.

Evalle, E. III. 38. _Equal_. C.

Evespeckt, T. 56. _Marked with evening dew_. C.

Ewbrice, AE. 1085. _Adultery_. C.

Ewbrycious, p. 281. 60. _Lascivious_.

Eyne-gears, p. 279. 13. [Sk. considers this a compound of _eyne, eyes_
and _gear, tackle_ and renders _objects_.]


Fage, Ep. 30. _Tale, jest_. C.

Faifully, T. 147. _Faithfully_. C.

Faitour, Ch. 66. _A beggar, or vagabond_. C.

Faldstole, AE. 61. _A folding stool, or seat_. See Du Cange in v.

[Fay, H. 2. 144. _Faith_.]

[Faytour, p. 280. 37. as _Faitour_.]

Fayre, AE. 1204. 1224. _Clear, innocent_.

Feere, AE. 965. _Fire_.

Feerie, E. II. 45. _Flaming_. C.

Fele, T. 27. _Feeble_. C. [A Rowleian contraction, cf. _gorne_ for

Fellen, E. I. 10. _Fell_ pa. t. sing. q?

Fetelie, G. 24. _Nobly_. C.

Fetive, Ent. 7. as _Festive_.

Fetivelie, Le. 42. _Elegantly_. C.

Fetiveness, AE. 400. as _Festiveness_.

Feygnes, E. III. 78. A corruption of _feints_. C.

Fhuir, G. 58. _Fury_. C.

Fie, T. 113. _Defy_. C.

Flaiten, H. I. 84. [_Frightful_, from B.'s flaite, _to affright, to

Flanched, H. 2. 242. [_Arched_, from K.'s flanch, _in heraldry, an
ordinary made of an arch-line_.]

Flemed, T. 56. _Frighted_. C.

Flemie, p. 278. _ult_. [_Daunted_, from B.'s _flemed_.]

Flizze, G. 197. _Fly_. C.

Floe, H. 2. 54. _Arrow_.

Flott, Ch. 33. _Fly_. C.

[Flotting, H. 2. 42. _? Flying_, cf. _flott_; or _Whistling_, from B.'s
floting (O.), _whistling, piping_.]

Foile, E. III. 78. _Baffle_. C.

Fons, Fonnes, E. II. 14. _Devices_. C.

Forgard, AE. 565. _Lose_. C.

Forletten, El. 19. _Forsaken_. C.

Forloyne, AE. 722. _Retreat_. C.

Forreying, T. 114. _Destroying_. C.

Forslagen, AE. 1076. _Slain_. C.

Forslege, AE. 1106. _Slay_. C.

Forstraughte, p. 281. 58. _Distracted_.

Forstraughteyng, G. 34. _Distracting_. C.

Forswat, Ch. 30. _Sun-burnt_. C.

Forweltring, AE. 618. _Blasting_. C.

Forwyned, E. III. 36. _Dried_. C.

Fremde, AE. 430. _Strange_. C.

Fremded, AE. 555. _Frighted_. C.

Freme, AE. 267. [and Fremed, H. 2. 147. _Strange_, from K.'s fremd
(O.), _strange_.]

Fructile, AE. 185. _Fruitful_.

[Furched, AE. 519. _Forked_.]


Gaberdine, T. 88. _A piece of armour_. C.

Gallard, Ch. 39. _Frighted_. C.

Gare, Ep. 7. _Cause_. C.

Gastness, AE. 412. _Ghastliness_.

Gayne, AE 821. To gayne so _gayne_ a pryze. _Gayne_ has probably been
repeated by mistake. [More probably C. intended it to mean _Worth

Geare, AE. 299. _Apparel, accoutrement_.

Geason, Ent. 7. _Rare_. C.--G. 120. _Extraordinary, strange_. C.

Geer, H. 2. 284. as _Gier_.

Geete, AE. 736. as _Gite_.

Gemote, G. 94. _Assemble_. C.

Gemoted, E. II. 8. _United, assembled_. C.

Gerd, M. 7. _Broke, rent_. C.

Gies, G. 207. _Guides_. C.

Gier, H. 1. 527. _A turn, or twist_.

Gif, E. II. 39. _If_. C.

Gites, AE. 2. _Robes, mantels_. C.

Glair, H. 2. 570. [? _Glare_.]

[Gledes.H. 2. 217. _Glides_]

Gledeynge, M. 22. _Livid_. C.

Glomb, G. 175. _Frown_. C.

Glommed, Ch. 22. _Clouded, dejected_. C.

Giytted, H. 2. 272. [_Glittered_.]

Gorne, E. I. 36. _Garden_. C.

Gottes, AE. 740. _Drops_.

Gouler, p. 282. 76. [_Usurer_, from K.'s goule, _usury_.]

Graiebarbes, Le. 25. _Greybeards_. C.

Grange, E. I. 34. _Liberty of pasture_. C.

Gratche, AE. 115. _Apparel_. C.

Grave, p. 288. 2. _Chief magistrate, mayor_. [Where does T. find this
meaning? B. and K. have grave, _a German title signifying a great lord
etc_., but no word of mayor.]

Gravots, E. I. 24. _Groves_. C.

Gree, E. I. 44. _Grow_. C.

Groffile, AE. 547. [_Grovelling_, from K.'s groff or gruff (O.),

Groffish, AE. 257. [_Gruffly_.]

Groffynglie, Ep. 33. _Foolishly_. C.

Gron, G. 90. _a fen, moor_. C.

Gronfer, E. II. 45. _A meteor_, from _gron_ a fen, and _fer_, a
corruption of fire. C. [? then whether C. does not mean a will o' the

Gronfyres, G. 200. _Meteors_. C.

Grore, H. 2. 27. [No explanation.]

Groted, AE. 337. _Swollen_. C.

[Gryne, H. 2. 706. _Groin_.]

Gule-depeincted, E. II. 13. _Red-painted_. C.

Gule-steynct, G. 62. _Red-stained_. C.

[Guylde, G. 152. _Tax_.]

[Guylteynge, AE. 179. _Gilding_.]

Glyttelles, AE. 438. _Mantels_. C.


[Habergeon. H. 2. 346. _A little coat of mail_ (K.).]

Haile, E. III. 60. _Happy_. C.

Hailie, AE. 148. 410. as _Haile_.

Halceld, M. 37. _Defeated_. C.

Hailie, T. 144. _Holy_. C.

Hailie, AE. 33. _Wholely_. [But here _Hallie_ would seem to be put for
hailie, _happy_. Sk. renders _blissful_.]

Halline, Ch. 82. _Joy_. C.

Hancelled, G. 49. _Cut off, destroyed_. C.

Han, AE. 734. _Hath_. q? [One of C.'s fundamental mistakes.]

Hanne, AE. 409. _Had_. particip. q?--AE. 685. _Had_. pa. t. sing. q?

Hantoned, AE. 1094. [A mistake for _hancelled; hanten_ in B.K. and
Speght means _use, accustom_.]

Harried, M. 82. _Tost_. C. [But in AE. 209 plainly=_hurried_.]

Hatched, p. 25. I. [Probably C. meant _covered with a cloth exhibiting
its rider's coat of arms_. Cf. _Hatchments_.]

[Hatchments, H. 2. 489. In heraldry, _a coat of arms_. (K.).]

Haveth, E. I. 17. _Have_. 1st perf. q?

Heafods, E. II. 7. _Heads_. C.

Heavenwere, G. 146. _Heavenward_. C.

Hecked, AE. 394. _Wrapped closely, covered_. C.

Heckled, M. 3. _Wrapped_. C.

Heie, E. II. 15. _They_. C.

Heiedeygnes, E. III. 77. _A country dance, still practised in the
North_. C.

Hele, n. G. 127. _Help_. C.

Hele, v. E. III. 16. _To help_. C.

Hem, T. 24. A contraction of _them_. C.

[Hendie, H. 1. 95. ? _Hand to hand_; K. B. and Speght all have _neat,
fine, genteel_, for this Chaucerian word.]

Hente, T. 175. _Grasp, hold_. C.

Hentyll, AE. 1161. [Evidently _Custom_; no explanation.]

[Herehaughte, M. 78. _Herald_.]

Herselle, AE. 279. _Herself_.

Herste, AE. 1182. [? _Command_.]

Hilted, Hiltren, T. 47. 65. _Hidden_. C.

Hiltring, Ch. 13. _Hiding_. C.

Hoastrie, E. I. 26. _Inn, or publick house_. C.

[Hocktide, H. 1. 25. _A festival celebrated in England antiently
in memory of the sudden death of King Hardicanute A.C. 1042 and the
downfall of the Danes_. B.]

Holtred, AE. 293. [? _Hidden_, from B.'s _hulstred_.]

Hommeur, AE. 1190. [? _Honour_.]

Hondepoint, AE. 273. [Sk. renders (_every_) _moment_; K.B. and Speght
give no help.]

Hopelen, AE. 399. [_Hopelessness_--'I from a night of hopelessness am

Horrowe, M. 2. _Unseemly, disagreeable_. C.

Horse-millanar, Ch. 56. See C.'s note. [According to Steevens a
Bristol tradesman in 1776 so described himself over his shop-door.]

Houton, M. 93. _Hollow_. C.

Hulstred, M. 6. _Hidden, secret_. C.

Huscarles, AE. 922. 1194. _House-servants_.

Hyger, AE. 627. The flowing of the tide in the Severn was antiently
called the _Hygra_. Gul. Malmesb. de Pontif. Ang. L. iv. ['The eagre
or "bore" of the Severn is a large and swift tide-wave which sometimes
flows in from the Atlantic Ocean with great force.' Sk. II, p. 61,

Hylle-fyre, AE. 682. _A beacon_.

Hylte, T. 168. _Hid, secreted_. C.--AE. 1059. _Hide_. C.

[Hylted, Hyltren, T. 47 .65. _Hidden_. C.]

I., J.

Jape, Ch. 74. _A short surplice_, &c. C.

Jeste, G. 195. _Hoisted, raised_. C.

Ifrete, G. 2. _Devour, destroy_. C.

Ihantend, E. I. 40. _Accustomed_. C.

Jintle, H. 2. 82. for _Gentle_.

Impestering, E. I. 29. _Annoying_. C.

Inhild, E. I. 14. _Infuse_. C.

Ishad, Le. 37. _Broken_. C.

Jubb, E. III. 72. _A bottle_. C.

[Iwimpled, H. 2. 528. _Muffled_ (Speght).]

Iwreene, p. 286. 9. [Evidently the same as K.'s bewreen, _expressed,


Ken, E. II. 6. _See, discover, know_. C.

Kennes, Ep. 28. _Knows_. C.

Keppend, Le. 44. [_Careful, precise,_ from B.'s kepen, _keep, take
care of_.]

Kiste, Ch. 25. _Coffin_. C.

Kivercled, E. III. 63. _The hidden or secret part_. C.

Knopped, M. 14. _Fastened, chained, congealed_. C.


[Lack in C. generally = _to be in need of_ rather than simply _to be
without_; cf. G. 176.]

Ladden, H. 1. 206. [_Lay_.]

Leathel, E. I. 42. _Deadly_. C.

Lechemanne, AE. 31. _Physician_.

Leckedst, H. 2. 332. [No explanation.]

Lecturn, Le. 46. _Subject_. C.

Lecturnies, AE. 109. _Lectures_. C.

Leden, El. 30. _Decreasing_. C.

Ledanne, AE. 1143. [? _Leaden, heavy_; or it may be an adj. formed from
K.'s leden (O.), _languish_.]

[Lee, Ep. 6. _Lay_; or ? _lie_.]

Leege, G. 173. _Homage, obeysance_. C.

Leegefolcke, G. 43. _Subjects_. C.

[Leffed, H. 1. 141. _Left_.]

Lege, Ep. 3. _Law_. C.

[Legeful, E. I. 3. _Loyal_.]

Leggen, M. 92. _Lessen, alloy_. C.

Leggeude, M. 32. _Alloyed_. C.

Lemanne, AE. 132. _Mistress_.

Lemes, AE 42. _Lights, rays_. C.

Lemed, El. 7. _Glistened_. C.--AE. 606. _Lighted_. C.

Lere, AE 568. H. 2. 597. seems to be put for _Leather_.

Lessel, El. 25. _A bush or hedge_. C.

Lete, G. 60. _Still_. C.

Lethal, El. 21. _Deadly, or death-boding_. C.

Lethlen, AE. 272. _Still, dead_. C.

Letten, AE. 928. _Church-yard_. C.

Levynde, El. 18. _Blasted_. C.

Levynne, M. 104. _Lightning_. C.

Levyn-mylted, AE. 462. _Lightning-melted_. q?

Liefe, AE. 217. [? from K. and B.'s lief, _rather_. Sk. renders _at my

Liff, E. I. 7. _Leaf_.

Ligheth, AE. 627. [? _Lay low_, from K.'s lig, _lie_.]

Likand, H. 2. 177. _Liking_.

Limed, El. 37. _Glassy, reflecting_. C.

Limmed, M. 90. _Glassy, reflecting_. C.

Lissed, T. 97. _Bounded_. C.

[List, H. 1. 544. ? _Pleasure_.]

Lithie, Ep. 10. _Humble_. C.

Loaste, AE. 456. _Loss_.

[Lode, H. 1. 33. Probably as _load_, a _task_ or _burden_. Sk. renders
_praise_, as if _land_; this is far from convincing.]

Logges, E. I. 55. _Cottages_. C.

Lordinge, T. 57. _Standing on their hind legs_. C.

Loverd's, E. III. 29. _Lord's_. C.

Low, G. 50. _Flame of fire_. C.

Lowes, T. 137. _Flames_. C.

Lowings, Ch. 35. _Flames_. C.

[Lurdanes, H. 1. 36. From B.'s 'Lurdane, lordane, _a dull heavy
fellow_, derived by some from _Lord_ and _Dane_'. So the word becomes
for C. an opprobrious equivalent for _Dane_.]

[Lygheth, AE. 627. _Lay_, from K.'s lig, _to lie_.]

[Lymed, E. II. 7. _Glassy, reflecting_. C.]

Lymmed, M. 33. _Polished_. C.

Lynch, El. 37. _Bank_. C.

Lynge, AE. 376. _Stay_. C.

Lyoncel, E. II. 44. _Young lion_. C.

Lyped, El. 34. [? miswritten for _lithed_, Speght's lith, _to make
less_, so _wasted_. Sk. renders _wasted away_, deriving _lyped_ from
B.'s liposychy, _a small swoon_, which seems too far-fetched even for

Lysse, T. 2. _Sport, or play_. C.

Lyssed, AE 53. _Bounded_. C.


Mancas, G. 136. _Marks_. C.

Manchyn, H. 2. 222. _A sleeve_. Fr.

[Mastie, H. 1. 348. 425. ? _Mastiff_.]

Maynt, Meynte, E. II. 66. _Many, great numbers_. C.

Mee, Mees, E. I. 31. _Meadow_. C.

Meeded, AE 39. _Rewarded_. [The construction _meeded out_ is probably
affected by _meted out_.]

Memuine, H. 2. 120. [? _Body of troops_, ? _Command_. No explanation.]

Meniced, p. 285. 146. _Menaced_, q? [The sense is _threatened to make
him marry again_.]

Mere, G. 58. _Lake_. C.

Merk-plante, T. 176. _Night-shade_. C.

Merke, T. 163. _Dark, gloomy_. C.

Miesel, AE 551. _Myself_.

Milkynette, El. 22. _A small bagpipe_. C.

Mist, Ch. 49. _Poor, needy_. C.

[Mister, Ch. 82. as _Mist_, poor, needy.]

Mitches, El. 20. _Ruins_. C.

Mittee, E. II. 28. _Mighty_. C.

Mockler, p. 283. 105. _More_.

Moke, Ep. 5. _Much_. C.

Mokie, El. 29. _Black_. C.

[Mokynge, H. 2. 584. K. and B. have moky (O.), _cloudy_; so perhaps
C. meant a brook the surface of which reflected the clouds. Sk. reads

Mole, Ch. 4. _Soft_. C.

Mollock, G. 90. _Wet, moist_. C.

Morglaien. M. 20. _The name of a sword_ [Morglay] _in some old

Morthe, AE 307. [_Violent death_. K. has morth, _murder_.]

Morthynge, El. 4. _Murdering_. C.

Mote, E. I. 22. _Might_. C.

Motte, H. 2. 184. _Word, or motto_.

Myckle, Le. 16. _Much_. C.

Myndbruch, AE. 401. [_A hurting of honour and worship_ (B.).]

Mynster, G. 75. _Monastery_. C.

Mysterk, M. 33. _Mystic_. C.


[Nappy, Ba. 13. B. has nappy-ale, [_q. d. such as will cause persons
to take a nap_] _pleasant and strong_. But the word _nappy_ in this
connexion has nothing to do with causing sleep.]

Ne, P.G. 6. _Not_. C.

Ne, p. 281. 58. _Nigh_.

Nedere, Ep. II. _Adder_. C.

Neete, p. 280. 41. _Night_.

Nesh, T. 16. _Weak, tender_. C.

Nete, AE. 399. _Night_.

Nete, T. 19. _Nothing_. C.

Nilling, Le. 16. _Unwilling_. C.

Nome-depeinted, E. II. 17. _Rebus'd shields_; a herald term, when the
charge of the shield implies the name of the bearer. C.

Notte-browne, p. 280. 49. _Nitt-brown_.


Obaie, E. I. 41. _Abide_. C.

Offrendes, AE. 51. _Presents, offerings_. C.

Olyphauntes, H. 2. 609. _Elephants_.

Onknowlachynge, E. II. 26 _Not knowing_. C. Onlight, AE. 678. [_Put
out, extinguish_.]

Onlist, Le. 46. _Boundless_. C.

[Ore, H. 2. 25. Contracted for _other_.]

Orrests, G. 100. _Oversets_. C.

Ouchd, T. 80. See C.'s note.

Ouphante, AE. 888. 929. _Ouphen, Elves_.

Ourt, H. 2. 578. [Contraction for B.'s _overt_.]

Ouzle, AE. 104. _Black-bird_. C.

Owndes, G. 91. _Waves_. C.


Pall, Ch. 31. Contraction from _appall_, to fright. C.

Paramente, AE. 52. _Robes of scarlet_. C.--M. 36. _A princely robe_. C.

[Passante, El. 28. _Passing, going by_. (K.)]

Paves, Pavyes, AE. 433. _Shields_.

Peede, Ch. 5. _Pied_. C.

[Peene, AE. 484. _Pain_.]

Pencte, Ch. 46. _Painted_. C.

Penne, AE. 728. _Mountain_.

Percase, Le. 21. _Perchance_. C.

'Pere, E. I. 41. _Appear_. C.

Perpled, p. 283. 99. _Purple_. q? [From B.'s disparpled, disperpled,
_in heraldry, scattered loosely_. T.'s suggestion is certainly wrong.]

Persant, AE. 561. _Piereing_.

Pete, AE. 1001. [as _Pighte_.]

Pheeres, AE. 46. _Fellows, equals_. C.

Pheon, H. 2. 272. in Heraldry, _the barbed head of a dart_.

Pheryons, p. 285. 147. ['A mistake for pheons.' Sk.]

Picte, E. III. 91. _Picture_. C.

Pighte, T. 38. _Pitched, or bent down_. C.

Poyntel, Le. 44. _A pen_. C.

Prevyd, AE 23. _Hardy, valourous_. C.

Proto-slene, H. 2. 38. _First-slain_.

Prowe, H. 1. 108. [?_Forehead_. No explanation.]

Pynant, Le. 4. _Pining, meagre_.

Pyghte, M. 73. _Settled_. C.

Pyghteth, Ep. 15. _Plucks, or tortures_. C.

[Pyke, Ch. 53. See _Shoone-pykes_.]

[Pynne, AE. 213. Probably the peg which supported the target; which a
clever marksman might split. There is no satisfactory explanation of
'the basket'.]


Quaced, T. 94. _Vanquished_. C.

Quayntyssed. T. 4. _Curiously devised_. C.

Quansd, AE. 241. _Stilled, Quenched_. C.

Queede, AE. 284. 428. _The evil one; the Devil_.


Receivure, G. 151. _Receipt_. C.

Recer, H. 1. 87. for _Racer_.

Recendize, AE. 544. for _Recreandice; Cowardice_.

Recrandize, AE. 1193. for _Recreandice; Cowardice_. [Though Sk. renders
_Recendize_ resentment.]

Recreand, AE. 508. _Coward_. C.

Reddour, AE. 30. _Violence_. C.

Rede, Le. 18. _Wisdom_. C.

Reded, G. 79. _Counselled_. C.

Redeyng, AE. 227. _Advice_.

Regrate, Le. 7. _Esteem_. C.--M. 70. _Esteem, favour_. C.

Rele, n. AE. 530. _Wave_. C.

Reles, v. E. II. 63. _Waves_. C.

Rennome, T. 28. _Honour, glory_. C.

Reyne, Reine, E. II. 25. _Run_. C.

Reyning, E. II. 39. _Running_. C.

Reytes, AE. 900. _Water-flags_. C.

Ribaude, Ep. 9. _Rake, lewd person_. C.

Ribbande-geere, p. 280. 44. _Ornaments of ribbands_.

Rodded, Ch. 3. _Reddened_. C.

Rode, E. I. 59. _Complexion_. C.

Rodeing, AE. 324. _Riding_.

Roder, AE. 1065. _Rider, traveller_.

Roghling, T. 69. _Rolling_. C.

Roin, AE. 325. _Ruin_.

Roiend, AE. 578. _Ruin'd_.

Roiner, AE. 325. _Ruiner_.

Rou, G. 10. _Horrid, grim_. C.

Rowney, Le. 32. _Cart-horse_. C.

Rynde, AE. 1192. _Ruin'd_.


Sabalus, E. I. 22. _The Devil_. C.

Sabbatanners, AE 275. [_Soldiers_, from B.'s sabatans, _soldiers'
boots_; cf. Lat. _Caligati_.]

[Sarim, H. 1. 301. i.e. _Sarum_.]

Scalle, AE. 703. _Shall_. C.

Scante, AE. 1133. _Scarce_. C.

Scantillie, AE. 1010. _Scarcely, sparingly_. C.

Scarpes, AE. 52. _Scarfs_. C.

Seethe, T. 96. _Hurt or damage_. C.

Scille, E. III. 33. _Gather_. C.

Scillye, G. 207. _Closely_. C.

Scolles, AE. 239. _Sholes_.

Scond, H. 1. 20. for _Abscond_.

Seck, H. 1. 461. for _Suck_.

Seeled, Ent. II. _Closed_. C.

Seere, AE. 1164. _Search_. C.

Selyness, E. I. 55. _Happiness_. C.

Semblate, p. 281. 67. [=_Semblance_.]

Seme, E. III. 32. _Seed_. C.

Semecope, Ch. 87. _A short undercloke_. C.

Semmlykeed, AE. 298. [as _Semlykeene_.]

Semlykeene, AE. 9. _Countenance_. C. C.--G. 56. _Beauty, countenance_.

Sendaument, p. 284. 126. [_Appearance_. The word has no authority; B.
and K. are silent.]

Sete, AE. 1069. _Seat_.

Shappe, T. 36. _Fate_. C.

Shap-scurged, AE. 603. _Fate-scourged_. C.

Shemring, E. II. 14. _Glimmering_. C.

Shente, T. 157. _Broke, destroyed_. C.

Shepen, p. 283. 97. [_Simple_, from K.'s shepen (O.), _simple,

Shepstere, E. I. 6. _Shepherd_. C.

Shoone-pykes, p. 280. 44. _Shoes with piked toes_. The length of the
pikes was restrained to two inches, by 3 Edw. 4. c. 5.

Shrove, H. 2. 432. [It is difficult to discover the probable sense of
this word. Perhaps an allusion to an imaginary legend is intended; cf.
the reference (H. 2. 417) to Conyan's goats. Sk. has a note '_Shrove_
is the Rowleian for _shrouded_'; this is possible but hardly

[Slea, AE. 18. _Slay_.]

[Sleeve, H. 1. 178. _Silk not yet twisted, floss._]

Sletre, AE. 539. _Slaughter_.

Slughornes, E. II. 9. _A musical instrument not unlike a hautboy_.
C.--T. 31. A kind of clarion. C.

Smethe, T. 101. _Smoke_. C.

Smething, E. I. 1. _Smoking_. C.

Smore, H. 1. 412. [? _Smeared_ or _Smothered_.]

Smothe, Ch. 35. _Steam or vapours_. C.

Snett, T. 45. _Bent_. C.

[Sorgie, G. 17. _Surging_.]

Sothen, AE. 227. _Sooth_, q?

Souten, H. 1. 252. for _Sought_. pa. t. sing. q?

Sparre, H. 1. 26. _A wooden bar_.

Speckle, H. 2. 525. [? _Spied_, or perhaps _Reached_.]

Spencer, T. 11. _Dispenser_. C.

Spere, AE. 69. [_Spare, allow_.]

Spyryng, AE. 707. _Towering_.

Staie, H. 1. 198. [B. has Stay, _stop, let, hindrance_; so possibly C.
uses it as a paraphrase for _armour_; or some special piece of armour
may be meant.]

Starks, T. 73. _Stalks_.

[Steeked, AE. 1188. Not in K. B. or Speght, but Sk. notes that C. has
_steeked=stole_; so here the sense would be _stole upon_.]

Steeres, p. 25. 6. _Stairs_.

Stente, T. 134. _Stained_. C.

Steynced, AE. 189. [?_Stinted_, from B.'s stent (Saxon),_stint_.]

Storthe, p. 287. 10. [_Death_; cf. _Storven_.]

Storven, AE. 608. _Dead_. C.

Straughte, AE. 59. _Stretched_. C.

[Stre, H. 2. 712. _Straw_.]

Stret, AE. 158. _Stretch_. C.

Strev, AE. 358. _Strive_.

Stringe, G. 10. _Strong_. C.

Suffycyl, AE. 62. 981. [_Sufficient_.]

[Swanges, Ch. 210. _Swings_.]

Swarthe, AE. 265. [A _swath_, or _swarth_ (so rarely, but cf. _Twelfth
Night_, II. iii, where Maria calls Malvolio 'an affectioned ass, that
cons state without book and utters it by great swarths') is as
much hay as the mower can cut at one movement of the scythe. So, an
unsubstantial thing compared with a _boddekin_.]

Swartheing, AE. 295 [_Darkling_, _darkening_.]

Swarthless. II. 2. 563. [_Dark-less_, i.e. _pallid_.]

Sweft-kervd, E. II. 20. _Short-liv'd_. C.

Swoltering, AE. 444. [?_Swallowing_.]

[Swote, E. I. 25. _Sweet_. C.]

Swotie, E. II. 9. _Sweet_. C.

Swythe, Swythen, Swythyn; _Quickly_. C.

Syke, E. II. 6. _Such, so_. C.


Takelle. T. 72. _Arrow_. C.

[Talbot, H. 2. 89. _A kind of hunting dog_ (K.); _a dog with a
turned-up tail_(B.).]

Teint, H. 1. 462. for _Tent_. [_Bandage_.]

Tende, T. 113. _Attend, or wait_. C.

Tene, AE 366. _Sorrow_.

Tentyflie, E. III. 48. _Carefully_. C.

Tere, AE 194. _Health_. C.

Thoughten, AE 172. 1136. for _Thought_, pa. t. sing. q?

[Thraslarkes, H. 2. 427. Presumably a kind of lark. K.B. and Speght
give no help.]

Thyghte, p. 283. 104. [II. 2. 578. _Well-built_.]

Thyssen, E. II. 87. _These_, or _those_. q?

Tochelod, AE 205. [Perhaps a mistake for _Tochered_ = dowered. (Sk.)]

Tore, AE 1020. _Torch_. C.

Trechit, H. 2. 93. for _Treget_; Deceit.

Treynted, AE 454. [? _Scatter_, from K.'s Betreint (O.), _sprinkled_.]

Twyghte, E. II. 78. _Plucked, pulled_. C.

Twytte, E. I. 2. _Pluck, or pull_. C.

Tynge, Tyngue; _Tongue_.

U., V.

Val, T. 138. _Helm_. C.

Vernage, H. 2. II. _Vernaccia_ Ital. a sort of rich wine.

Ugsomeness, AE. 507. _Terror_. C.

Ugsomme, E. II. 55. _Terribly_. C.--AE. 303. _Terrible_. C.

[Virgyne, Ch. I. The sign of the zodiac, _Virgo_, which the sun enters
about the 21st of August.]

Unaknell'd, H. 1. 288. _Without any knell rung for them._ q?
[_unaknelled_ was Pope's reading of _unancaled_ in his edition of

Unburled, AE. 1186. _Unarmed_. C.

Uncted, M. 30. _Anointed_. C.

Undelievre, G. 27. _Unactive_. C.

Unenhantend, AE. 636. _Unaccustomed_. C.

Unespryte, G. 27. _Unspirited_. C.

[Uneyned, E. 516. _Blinded_.]

Unhailie, Ch. 85. _Unhappy_. C.

Unliart, P.G. 4. _Unforgiving_. C.

Unlift, E. III. 86. _Unbounded_. C.

Unlored, Ep. 25. _Unlearned_. C.

Unlydgefull, AE. 537. [_Disloyal_.]

Unplayte, G. 86.--Unplyte, AE. 1238. _Explain_. C.

Unquaced, E. III. 90. _Unhurt_. C.

[Unryghte. See Note I.]

Unsprytes, AE. 1212. _Un-souls_. C.

Untentyff, G. 79. _Uncareful, neglected_. C.

Unthylle, T. 30. _Useless_. C.

Unwer, E. III. 87. _Tempest_. C.

Volunde, AE. 73. _Memory, understanding_. C.--G. 140. _Will_. C.

Upriste, AE. 928. _Risen_. C.

Upryne, H. 2. 719. [? _Raise up_, from B.'s uprist, _uprisen, risen

Upswalynge, AE. 258. _Swelling_. C.


Walsome, H. 2. 92. _Wlatsome; loathsome_.

Wanhope, G. 34. _Despair_. C.

Waylde, AE. 11. _Choice, selected_.

Waylinge, E. II. 68. _Decreasing_. C. [Wayled (O.), _grown old_ (K.).]

Wayne, E. III. 31. _Car_. C.

Weere, AE. 835. _Grief_. C.

Welked, E. III. 50. _Withered_. C.

Welkyn, AE. 1055. _Heaven_. C.

[Whaped, H. 2. 579. _Amazed_, from K.'s Awhaped (O.) _amazed_.]

Wiseegger, E. III. 8. _A philosopher_. C. [But used by C. as an

Wissen, AE. 685. _Wish_.

Wite, G. 176. _Reward_. C.

Withe, E. III. 36. A contraction of _Wither_. C.

[Wolfynn, T. 51. &c. _Wolf_. Not in K. B. or Speght.]

Wolsome, Le. 5. See _Walsome_.

Wraytes. See _Reytes_.

Wrynn, T. 117. _Declare_. C.

Wurche, AE. 500. _Work_. C.

Wychencref, AE. 420. _Witchcraft_.

Wyere, E. II. 79. _Grief, trouble_. C.

Wympled, G. 207. _Mantled, covered_. C.

Wynnynge, AE. 219. [The sense is 'which my father's hall had no
winning,' i.e. 'which I could never get in my father's hall.' Sk. is
almost certainly wrong here.]


Yan, AE. 72. _Than_.

Yaped, Ep. 30. _Laughable_. C.

Yatte, T. 9. _That_. C.

Yblente, AE. 40. _Blinded_. C.

Ybroched, G. 96. _Horned_. C.

[Ybrogten, AE. 919. _Brought_]

Ycorne, AE. 374. [Contracted for _ycorven_.]

Ycorven, T. 170. _To mould_. C.

[Ycrase, p. 287. 16. _Break_.]

Yceasedd, T. 132. _Broken_. C.

Yenne; _Then_.

Yer, E. II. 29. _Their_.

Yer, AE. 152. _Your_.

Ygrove, H. 2. 434. [? _Shaped_, for _y-graven_.]

Yinder, AE. 692. _Yonder_.

Yis; _This_.

Ylach'd, H. 2. 436. [? _Concealed_. B. has Lach, _catch_ or _snatch_;
but this is hardly to the point.]

Ynhyme, Ent. 5. _Inter_. C.

Ynutile, AE. 198. _Useless_.

Yreaden, H. 2. 207. [_Ready_.]

Yroughte, H. 2. 318. for _Ywroughte_.

Ysped, M. 102. _Dispatched_. C.

Yspende, T. 179. _Consider_. C.

Ystorven, E. I. 53. _Dead_. C.

Ytfel, E. I. 18. _Itself_.

Ywreen, E. II. 30. _Covered_. C.

Ywrinde, M. 100. _Hid, covered_. C.

Yyne, AE. 540. _Thine_.


Zabalus, AE. 428. as _Sabalus_; the Devil.




Tum levis haud ultra latebras jam quaerit imago, Sed sublime volans
nocti se immiscuit atrae.



When these Poems were first printed, it was thought best to leave the
question of their authenticity to the determination of the impartial
Public. The Editor contented himself with intimating his opinion,
[Pref. p. xii, xiii.] that the external evidence on both sides was
so defective as to deserve but little attention, and that the final
decision of the question must depend upon the internal evidence. To
shew that this opinion was not thrown out in order to mislead the
enquiries and judgements of the readers, I have here drawn together
_some observations upon_ THE LANGUAGE[1] _of the poems attributed to
Rowley_, which, I think, will be sufficient to prove, 1st, that they
were not written in the XV Century; and 2dly, that they were written
entirely by Thomas Chatterton.

The proof of the second proposition would in effect carry with it that
of the first; but, notwithstanding. I choose to treat them separately
and to begin with the first.

I shall premise only one _postulatum_, which is, that Poets of the
same age and country use the same language, allowances being made for
certain varieties, which may arise from the local situation, the rank
in life, the learning, the affectation of the writers, and from the
different subjects and forms of their compositions [2].

This being granted, I have nothing to do but to prove, that the
language of the poems attributed to Rowley (when every proper
allowance has been made) is totally different from that of the other
English writers of the XV Century, in many material particulars. It
would be too tedious to go through them all; and therefore I shall
only take notice of such as can be referred to three general heads;
the _first_ consisting of words not used by any other writer; the
_second_, of words used by other writers, but in a different sense;
and the _third_, of words inflected in a manner contrary to grammar
and custom.

Under the _first_ head I would recommend the following words to the
reader's consideration.

1. ABESSIE. E. III. 89.
Whylest the congeon flowrette _abessie_ dyghte.

2. ABORNE. T. 45.
Snett oppe hys long strunge bowe and sheelde _aborne_.

Agylted AElla, thie _abredynge_ blynge.

4. ACROOLE. El. 6.
Didde speke _acroole_, wythe languishment of eyne.

5. ADAVE. H. 2. 392.
The fynest dame the Sun or moon _adave_.

6. ADENTE. AE 396. ADENTED. G. 32.
Ontoe thie veste the rodde sonne ys _adente_.
_Adented_ prowess to the gite of witte.

7. ADRAMES. Ep. 27.
Loughe loudlie dynneth from the dolte _adrames_.

8. ALATCHE. AE 117.
Leave me swythe or I'lle _alatche_.

9. ALMER. Ch. 20.
Where from the hail-stone coulde the _almer_ flie?

10. ALUSTE. H. 1. 88.
That Alured coulde not hymself _aluste_.

11. ALYNE. T. 79.
Wythe murther tyred he flynges hys bowe _alyne_.

12. ALYSE. Le. 29.--G. 180.
Somme dryblette share you shoulde to that _alyse_.
Fulle twentie mancas I wylle thee _alise_.

13. ANERE. AE 15.--Ep. 48.
And cann I lyve to see herr wythe _anere_?
----Adieu untylle _anere_.

14. ANETE. p. 281. 64.
Whych yn the blosom woulde such sins _anete_.

15. APPLINGS. E. I. 33.
Mie tendre _applynges_ and embodyde trees.

16. ARROW-LEDE. H. 1. 74.
Han by his soundynge _arrowe-lede_ bene sleyne.

17. ASENGLAVE. H. 1. 117.
But Harold's _asenglave_ stopp'd it as it flewe.

18. ASLEE. AE 504.
That doest _aslee_ alonge ynn doled dystresse.

19. ASSWAIE. AE 352.
Botte thos to leave thee, Birtha, dothe _asswaie_
Moe torturynge peynes, &c.

20. ASTENDE. G. 47.
Acheke the mokie aire and heaven _astende_.

I stop here, not because the other Letters of the alphabet would not
afford a proportionable number of words which might be referred to
this head, but because I think these sufficient for my purpose. I
proceed therefore to set down an equal number of words under the
_second_ general head.

1. ABOUNDE. H. 1. 55.

His cristede beaver dyd him smalle _abounde_.

The common sense of _Abound_, a verb, is well known; but what can be
the meaning of it here?

2. ALEDGE. G. 5.

Lette notte thie agreme blyn ne _aledge_ stonde.

_Aledge_, or _Alege_, v. Fr. in Chaucer signifies _to alleviate_.
It is here used either as an adjective or as an adverb. Chatterton
interprets it to mean _idly_; upon what ground I cannot guess.

3. ALL A BOON. E. III. 41.--p. 23. l. 4.

_All-a-boon_, fyr Priest, _all-a-boon_.
Thys ys the onelie _all-a-boone_ I crave.

Here are three English words, the sense of which, taken separately,
is clear. As joined together in this passage they are quite

4. ALLEYN. E. I. 52.

Mie sonne, mie sonne _alleyn_ ystorven ys.

Granting _alleyn_ to be rightly put for alone, no ancient writer, I
apprehend, ever used such a phrase as this; any more than we should
now say--_my son alone_ for _my only son_. 5. ASCAUNCE. E. III. 52.

Lokeynge _ascaunce_ upon the naighboure greene.

The usual sense of _ascaunce_ in Chaucer, and other old writers, has
been explained in a note on ver. 7327. of the Canterbury Tales. It
is used in the same sense by Gascoigne. The more modern adverb
_ascaunce_, signifying _sideways, obliquely_, is derived from the
Italian _a schiancio_, and I doubt very much whether it had been
introduced into the English language in the time of the supposed

6. ASTERTE. G. 137.

----You have theyr worthe _asterte_.

I despair of finding any authorized sense of the word _asterte_, that
will suit this passage. It cannot, I think, signifie _neglected or
passed by_, as Chatterton has rendered it.

7. AUMERE. AE. 398.--Ch. 7. AUMERES. E. III. 25.

Depycte wyth skylled honde upponn thie wyde _aumere_.
And eke the grounde was dighte in its mose deste _aumere_.
Wythe gelten _aumeres_ stronge ontolde.

The only place in which I remember to have met with this word is in
Chaucer's Romant of the Rose, ver. 2271. and there it undoubtedly
signifies _a purse_; probably from the Fr. _Aumoniere. Aumere of silk_
is Chaucer's translation of _Bourse de foye_. In another place of
the same poem, ver. 2087. he uses _aumener_ in the same sense. The
interpretations given of this word by Chatterton will be considered

8. BARBED. AE 27. 219.

Nott, whan from the _barbed_ horse, &c.
Mie lord fadre's _barbde_ halle han ne wynnynge.

Let it be allowed, that _barbed horse_ was a proper expression, in the
XV Century, for _a horse covered with armour_, can any one conceive
that _barbed hall_ signified _a hall in which armour was hung_? or
what other sense can _barbde_ have in this passage?

9. BLAKE. AE 178. 407.

Whanne Autumpne _blake_ and sonne-brente doe appere.
_Blake_ stondeth future doome, and joie doth mee alyse.

_Blake_, in old English, may signifie either _black_, or _bleak_.
Chatterton, in both these passages, renders it _naked_; and, in the
latter, some such signification seems absolutely necessary to make any

10. BODYKIN. AE 265.

And for a _bodykin_ a _swarthe_ obteyne.

_Bodekin_ is used by Chaucer more than once to signifie a _bodkin_ or
_dagger_. I know not that it had any other signification in his time.
_Swarthe_, used as a noun, has no sense that I am acquainted with.

11. BORDEL. E. III. 2.--AE 147. BORDELIER. AE 410.

Goe serche the logges and _bordels_ of the hynde.
We wylle in a _bordelle_ lyve.
Hailie the robber and the _bordelyer_.

Though _bordel_, in very old French, signifies a _cottage_, and
_bordelier_ a _cottager_, Chaucer uses the first word in no other
sense than that of _brothel_ or _bawdy-house_; and _bordeller_ with
him means the keeper of such a house. After this usage of these words
was so established, it is not easy to believe that any later writer
would hazard them in their primitive sense.

12. BYSMARE. M. 95.

Roaringe and rolleyng on yn course _bysmare_.

_Bismare_, in Chaucer, signifies _abusive speech_; nor do I believe
that it ever had any other signification.

13. CHAMPYON, V. PG. 12.

Wee better for to doe do _champyon_ anie onne.

I do not believe that _champion_ was used as a verb by any writer much
earlier than Shakespeare.

14. CONTAKE. T. 87. CONTEKE. E. II. 10.

----I _contake_ thie waie.
_Conteke_ the dynnynge ayre and reche the skies.

_Conteke_ is used by Chaucer, as a _noun_, for _Contention_. I know no
instance of its being used as a _verb_.

15. DERNE. AE 582. DERNIE. E. I. 19. El. 8. M. 106.

Whan thou didst boaste soe moche of actyon _derne_.
Oh Raufe, comme lyste and hear mie _dernie_ tale.
O gentle Juga, beare mie _dernie_ plainte.
He wrythde arounde yn drearie _dernie_ payne.

_Derne_ is a Saxon adj. signifying _secret, private_, in which sense
it is used more than once by Chaucer, and in no other.

16. DROORIE. Ep. 47.

Botte lette ne wordes, whiche _droorie_ mote ne heare,
Bee placed in the same ----.

The only sense that I know of _druerie_ is _courtship, gallantry_,
which will not suit with this passage.

17. FONNES. E. II. 14. AE 421. FONS. T. 4.

Decorn wyth _fonnes_ rare ----
On of the _fonnis_ whych the clerche have made.
Quayntyssed _fons_ depictedd on eche sheelde.

A _fonne_ in Chaucer signifies a _fool_, and _fonnes--fools_; and
Spenser uses _fon_ in the same sense; nor do I believe that it ever
had any other meaning.

18. KNOPPED. M. 14.

Theyre myghte ys _knopped_ ynne the froste of fere.

_Knopped_ is used by Chaucer to signifie _fastened_ with a button,
from _knoppe_, a button; but what poet, that knew the meaning of his
words, would say that any thing was buttoned with _frost_?

19. LECTURN. Le. 46.

An onlist _lecturn_ and a songe adygne.

I do not see that _lecturn_ can possibly signifie any thing but _a
reading-desk_, in which sense it is used by Chaucer.

20. LITHIE. Ep. 10.

Inne _lithie_ moncke apperes the barronnes pryde.

If there be any such word as this, we should naturally expect it to
follow the signification of _lithe_; soft, limber: which will not suit
with this passage.

* * * * *

I go on to the _third_ general head of words inflected contrary to
grammar and custom. In a language like ours, in which the inflections
are so few and so simple, it is not to be supposed that a writer, even
of the lowest class, would commit very frequent offences of this sort.
I shall take notice of some, which I think impossible to have fallen
from a genuine Rowley.

1. CLEVIS. H. 2. 46.

Fierce as a _clevis_ from a rocke ytorne.

_Clevis_ or _cleves_ is the plural number of _Cleve_, a cliff. It
is so used by Chaucer. I cannot believe that it was ever used as a
singular noun.

EYNE. E. II. 79. T. 169. See also AE 681.

In everich _eyne_ aredynge nete of wyere.
Wythe syke an _eyne_ shee swotelie hymm dydd view.

_Eyne_, a contraction of _eyen_, is the plural number of _eye_. It
is not more probable that an ancient writer should have used the
expressions here quoted, than that any one now should say--In _every
eyes_;--_With such an eyes_.

HEIE. E. II. 15. T. 123. Le. 5. 9. Ent. 2. AE 355.

_Heie_, the old plural of _He_, was obsolete, I apprehend, in the time
of the supposed Rowley. At least it is very improbable that the same
writer, at any time, should use _heie_ and _theie_ indifferently, as
in these poems.


Lette _thyssen_ menne, who haveth sprite of love.

I cannot believe that _thyssen_ was ever in use as the plural number
of _this_. The termination seems to have been added, for the sake of
the metre, by one who knew that many words formerly ended in _en_,
but was quite ignorant of what particular sorts they were. In the same
manner _coyen_, AE. 125. and _sothen_, AE. 227. are put for _coy_ and
_sothe_, contrary to all usage or analogy.

And this leads me to the capital blunder, which runs through all these
poems, and would alone be sufficient to destroy their credit; I mean,
the termination of _verbs in the singular number_ in _n_[3]. I will
set down a number of instances, in which _han_ is used for the present
or past time _singular_ of the v. _Have_; only premising, that _han_,
being an abbreviation of _haven_, is never used by any ancient writer
except in the present time _plural_ and the infinitive mode.


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