The Siksha-Patri of the Swami-Narayana Sect
Professor Monier Williams (Trans.)

Originally scanned at by John B. Hare,
this eBook was produced by Chetan Jain at BharatLiterature.

The Siksha-Patri of the Sect




[New Series, Volume XIV]

[London, Trubner and Company]


{Scanned and edited by Christopher M. Weimer, May 2002.
Circumflexes represent macrons in this file, and c represents c
with an acute marking. Also, the name Brahma (not Param Brahma)
is spelled with a breve over the final a, which is not

ART. XXIV.--__Sansk.rit Text of the Siksha-Patri of the Svami- Sect__. Edited by Professor Monier Williams, C.I.E.,

[THE text of the Siksha-Patri of the modern Vaish.nava Sect,
called, was lithographed in Samvat 1928 (A.D.
1872) by order of the Heads of the Sect. It has a Gujarati
Commentary by Nityananda-muni. So far as I know, this is the
only version of the text that has yet appeared. It was given to
me by the Wartal Maharaja on the occasion of my first visit to
Wartal in 1875. It is full of mistakes, and in preparing the
following edition of the text I have taken as my guide the far
more accurate manuscript and Sansk.rit commentary written by
Pa.n.dit Satananda-muni, and given to me by the Maharaja on the
same occasion.]



[In making the following translation I have been careful to study
the Sansk.rit commentary called Artha-dipika, written for me in
clear beautiful characters by Pa.n.dit Satananda-muni (one of the
disciples of, by order of the Wartal Maharaja,
after one of the formal visits to the Wartal Temple, which were
kindly arranged for me by Mr. Frederick Sheppard, C.S., late
Collector of Kaira, and now Commissioner. The translation is the
first ever made by any European scholar, though it is right I
should mention that I have consulted a fairly accurate version
(not always perfect either in its renderings or its English)
written by Bhogilal Pranjivandas, of the Bombay Education
Society's Institution, Ahmedabad, and given in Mr. H. C. Briggs'
work, "The Cities of Gujarash.tra." I have also received
assistance from my friend Pa.n.dit Shyamaji, of
Balliol College, Oxford.]

1. I meditate in my heart on that on whose left side
is seated Radha, on whose breast reclines Sri (Lakshmi), and who
enjoyed sport (with them) in V.rindavana.

2. I, Sahajananda.h Svami (afterwards called,
living at V.rittalaya, write this Letter of instructions (or Book
of directions) to all my followers scattered throughout various

3. Let the two youths named Ayodhya-prasada and Raghu-vira, the
sons of my two brothers, Rama-pratapa and Iccha-rama, who were
the children of Dharma (or Hari-prasada);

4. And let those Naish.thika Brahmacaris (that is to say, those
Brahmans who continue Brahma-caris or celibates all their lives),
the chief among whom is Mukundananda, and those G.rihasthas
(householders), such as Mayarama-Bha.t.ta, and other of my

5. And let those women, whether wives or widows, who have become
my disciples, and the whole number of holy men (Sadhus), such as
Muktananda and others;

6. Let all these (persons) constantly give heed to my prayers
for their perpetual continuance in their own proper duties--(my
prayers) offered up with repetition of the name
(, and in accordance with the sacred scriptures.
(Literally--Let my benedictory words which keep them in their own
duties be always read by all these persons accompanied by
repetition of the name of, and approved by the

7. Let this Letter of directions, which has important objects
(to be hereafter enumerated), and which promotes the welfare of
all living beings, be studied with perfect concentration of mind
by all these (persons).

8. Those (virtuous) persons who conform to the good usages
enjoined by the sacred Sastras will always enjoy great happiness
both in this world and in that which is to come.

9. But those evil-minded persons who wilfully transgress such
(good usages) will certainly suffer great misery in this world as
well as in the next.

10. Therefore let all of you who are my disciples always remain
careful and well-contented in the observance of this (Book of

11. Let no followers of mine ever intentionally kill any living
thing whatever--not even a louse, flea, or the most minute

12. The killing of any animal such as a goat, etc., for the
purpose of sacrificing to the Gods and Pit.ris, must not be
practised; because it is declared, that abstinence from injury to
others is the highest of all duties.

13. The killing of any human being in any way, at any place, for
any object, (even) for the sake of acquiring a wife, wealth, or
political supremacy, is wholly prohibited.

14. Suicide at a sacred place of pilgrimage, or from passion,
either by hanging, or by poison in consequence of the commission
of a criminal act [Footnote: A father sometimes kills himself
because a criminal act has been committed by a member of his
family], is prohibited.

15. Flesh meat should never be eaten, not even that which
remains of a sacrifice. Spirituous liquor of any kind should
never be drunk, not even that presented to the Gods.

16. If an unlawful act has been committed anywhere by one's self
or any other person, no member either of one's own or any other
person's body should be on that account mutilated with a weapon
of any kind through anger.

17. All theft is prohibited, even that which is committed under
pretence of contributing to religious purposes; nor must such
things as wood and flowers that have an owner ever be abstracted
without his permission.

18. Let no male or female followers of mine ever commit
adultery. Let them shun gaming and similar vices, and abstain
from all intoxicating liquors and substances such as hemp, etc.

19. Nowhere--except in Jagannatha-puri--let a man accept water
or food which has been cooked by one from whom food is not to be
taken (__i.e.__ from a person of low caste), even though that
food may have formed the Prasada [Footnote: By Prasada is meant
the remains of food presented as an offering to a god. Here the
word must be either prasadi or prasadi, from prasadin] of (that is, the remains of what has been presented as an
offering to

20. No calumnious language must be used against any one for the
sake of promoting one's own interests. No abusive words must
ever be spoken.

21. Never use nor listen to profane language against the Gods,
sacred places, Brahmans, holy women, Sadhus and the Vedas.

22. The remains of the offering to that Goddess to whom flesh
and liquor are offered and in whose presence the killing of
goats, etc., takes place, are not to be eaten.

23. If you happen on the road to see before you a temple of Siva
or any other God, having first made a salutation, respectfully
enter inside to view the image.

24. Let no one abandon the duties of the class and order to
which he belongs, nor practise the religious duties of others;
nor have anything to do with those propounded by heretical

25. The narrative of the exploits of the Lord should
not be heard from the mouth of any person whose words lead one to
fall from his worship or from duty.

26. Never tell a truth which is likely to cause serious injury
to yourself or to any one else. Avoid associating with
ungrateful persons. Never accept a bribe from any person

27. Never associate with thieves, wicked or vicious persons,
heretics, people who are in love, and people who are engaged in
dishonest occupations.

28. Never associate with those who, through eager desire to
obtain a wife, wealth or some sensual gratification, practise
sinful acts under pretext of devotion to religion or to sacred

29. Never pay attention to those books in which and
his incarnations are impugned by controversial arguments.

30. No unstrained water or milk should be drunk, nor should
water containing minute insects be used for such purposes as
bathing, etc.

31. Never take medicine which is mixed with spirituous liquor or
flesh meat; or which has been prescribed by a physician whose
character is unknown.

32. Never allow bodily excretions or evacuations or saliva to
fall in places prohibited by the Sastras or by public custom.

33. Never enter or leave (a house) by a side entrance (or
private door); never take up your residence at a place belonging
to another person, without asking the owner's permission.

34. Males ought not to listen to (discourses on) religious
knowledge, or to tales (about the exploits of heroes) from the
mouths of women, [Footnote: This is in strict unison with the
present Hindu practice of keeping women ignorant. That women in
ancient times were not only educated, but sometimes erudite and
celebrated as religious teachers, is proved by the example of
Maitreyi, Gargi and others] nor ought they to carry on
controversial discussions with females; nor with a king or his

35. Never speak disrespectfully of religious preceptors, of
superiors, of those who have gained renown in the world, of
learned men, and of those that carry arms.

36. Never do any act rashly; nor be slow in a religious duty.
Impart to others the knowledge you may receive, and daily
associate with holy men.

37. Do not go empty-handed to pay a visit to a religious
preceptor, a god or a king. Never betray a trust or violate
confidence. Never praise yourself with your own lips.

38. The clothing of my followers should not be of such an
improper kind that, when put on, the limbs are exposed to view.

39. The worship of must not be performed without
attending to religious duties. Adoration of should not
be abandoned through fear of the reproaches of ignorant people.

40. On religious festivals and on ordinary days, the males and
females that go to's temple should keep separate and
not touch each other.

41. Those twice-born persons who have received initiation into
the worship of from a duly qualified religious teacher
should always wear on their necks two rosaries made of Tulsi wood
(one for Radha and another for, and should make an
upright mark on their foreheads.

42. This mark should be made with Gopi-candana (__i.e.__ white
earth from Dvarika), or with sandal which is left from that
employed in the worship of Hari (, and mixed with

43. Within this (erect mark) there ought to be made a round
(v.ritta) mark with the materials (or earth) used for the
Pu.n.dra, or with saffron which has served for the Prasada of
Radha and (that is, with a portion left from that
employed in their worship).

44. Those pure Sudras who are worshippers of, while
practising their own peculiar duties, should, like the twice-
born, use a rosary and a vertical mark on the forehead.

45. By those (Sudra) worshippers who are different from the pure
Sudras two rosaries made of sandal wood, etc., are to be worn on
the throat, and only a round mark is to be made on the forehead.

46. Those twice-born of my followers, who have inherited from
their forefathers the custom of using a rosary of Rudraksha
berries (sacred to Siva), and the three horizontal (Saiva) marks,
should not discontinue that practice.

47. and Siva should be equally regarded as
manifestations of one and the same Universal Spirit, since both
have been declared in the Vedas to be forms of Brahma.
[Footnote: This precept furnishes an interesting proof of the
tolerant character of Vaish.navism, and of its harmony with the
pantheism of the Vedanta.]

48. In times of slight distress my adherents shall not chiefly
(or by preference) follow the laws which are laid down by the
Sastras for times of (excessive) distress.

49. Every day let every man awake before sunrise, and after
calling on the name of, proceed to the rites of bodily

50. Having seated himself in some place apart, let him cleanse
his teeth, and then, having bathed with pure water, put on two
well-washed garments (an under and an upper).

51. Then having seated himself on a clean and single
( seat placed on ground purified (with cow-dung,
etc.), let a man sip water with his face either to the east or

52. My male followers should then make the vertical mark with
the round spot in it on their foreheads, and wives should only
make a circular mark with red powder (of saffron).

53. A widow is prohibited from making either a vertical or round
mark on her forehead. In the next place all my followers ought
to engage in the mental worship of

54. After engaging in mental worship, let them bow down before
the pictures of Radha and, and repeat the eight-
syllabled prayer to (that is--the formula meaning
' is my refuge') as many times as possible. After that
they may apply themselves to their secular affairs.

55. All my ordinary disciples should perform the preceding
rules; but those who like Ambarisha have dedicated their whole
souls (to the Deity) should be most particular in performing the
duties ending with mental worship in the order enumerated (in the
preceding six verses as well as the following):--

56. (Such devoted persons) should also then worship an image
made of either stone or metal, and the black stone called Sala-
grama (representing, with the (sixteen) offerings (of
sandal, etc.), such as are procurable, and the eight-syllabled
mantra of should be repeated (manu = mantra).

57. Next (in order to the performance of brahma-yaj"na) the hymn
celebrating the praises of should be recited according
to ability, and those that have not studied Sansk.rit should at
least repeat his name.

58. All who have devoted themselves (in this way) to the worship
of, should next present an offering (of cooked food) to
him, and then they should eat the remains of the offering
(prasadikam). They should at all times be full of joy.

59. Since they are called the passionless ( worshippers
of the passionless, therefore, in consequence of that,
all their acts are also (called) passionless (

60. By these devoted (worshippers) indeed no water should be
drunk, nor should any leaves, roots or fruits anywhere be eaten
which have not been presented to

61. All those who from old age or some grievous calamity are
unable (to perform worship) should make over the (image or
Sala-grama stone) of to the charge of some other
devotee (able to carry on the proper services), and should
themselves act to the best of their ability.

62. An image (or Sala-grama) of, given by a religious
leader (__acarya__), or consecrated by him, should be worshipped,
but to other images it is sufficient to make obeisance.

63. Every day all my followers should go to the temple of God in
the evening, and there loudly repeat the names of the lord of

64. The story of his exploits should be related as well as heard
with the greatest reverence, and on festivals hymns in praise of should be sung accompanied by musical instruments.

65. In this manner all my followers should every day perform
religious duties. Moreover, they should study works both in
Sansk.rit and in the popular dialects, according to their mental

66. Whatever individual is appointed to any office, he should be
so appointed with strict regard to his qualifications, after due
consideration, and never in any other way.

67. Let every one always provide his own servants with food and
clothing in the most suitable manner, and according to his own
pecuniary means.

68. In conversation every person should be addressed conformably
to his character (or qualities), and suitably to time and place,
and not in any other manner.

69. By all well-conducted persons due deference must be shown to
a religious guide, a king, an elder, an ascetic, a learned man,
and one that practises austerities, by rising from the seat and
so forth.

70. No man should sit down on the ground in the presence of a
religious preceptor, a god, or king, or in a (solemn) assembly,
in such a (disrespectful) attitude as to make one foot rest on
the thigh, or with a cloth tied round the (waist and) knees.

71. A controversial discussion should never be carried on with a
religious teacher (__acarya__). He is to be honoured with gifts
of food, money, clothes, and with all other things according to

72. When any of my disciples hear of his arrival, they should
immediately show their respect by advancing to meet him, and when
he departs, they should accompany him as far as the confines of
the village.

73. If an act, attended with large recompense, be opposed to
religious duty, that act ought not to be committed; for religious
duty (when performed) confers all desired objects.

74. An unrighteous act that may have been committed by great
persons in former times must never be held (worthy of imitation);
but their virtuous conduct only is to be imitated.

75. Let not the secrets of any one be ever anywhere divulged,
the neglect (vyatikrama) of proper respect (for those deserving
of reverence) should never be made, (as if all were to be looked
at) with an equal eye (of esteem).

76. All my disciples should practise special religious
observances during the four special months (beginning with
Asha.dha). But those who are sickly need only practise the same
in the one month of only.

77. Reading and listening to the exploits of, singing
his praises, solemn worship, repetition of his mantra ("Great is my refuge"), recitation of the hymn of praise
(__i.e.__ of the thousand names of, reverential
circumambulations (from left to right with the right side towards
the object adored),

78. Prostration with the eight members (of the body) these are
considered the best religious observances; any one of these ought
to be performed with special devotion.

79. The fasts of all the eleventh days (of the waxing and waning
moon) should be carefully observed; also of the birthdays of; and of the night of Siva (__Siva-ratri__) with
rejoicings during the day.

80. On a fast-day sleeping by day should most carefully be
avoided, since by such sleep the merit of fasting is lost to men,
quite as much as by sexual intercourse.

81. Whatever appointed order of religious fasts and festivals
(vrata and utsava) was enjoined by Sri
(, who was the son of Sri Vallabhacarya, the
most eminent of Vaish.navas.

82. Having conformed to that order, all religious fasts and
festivals should be observed accordingly; and the form of
worshipping directed by him ( should be

83. A pilgrimage to the Tirthas, or holy places, of which
Dvarika ('s city in Gujarat) is the chief, should be
performed according to rule. Love and Charity should be shown
towards the poor by all, according to ability.

84., Siva, (Ga.nesa), Parvati, and the Sun,
these five deities should be honoured with worship by my
followers. [Footnote: It is evident from this verse, as from
verse 47, that although Vaish.navas give preferential worship to, they are really Pantheists in the sense of honouring
other deities, as manifestations of the Supreme Being. It may be
observed that although five deities are here mentioned, Ga.napati
and Parvati are connected with Siva, as the Sun is with]

85. When at any place a calamity is caused by a demon or by any
similar cause, the charm called should be recited or
the mantra of Hanuman should be muttered, but not the mantra of
any inferior god less esteemed.

86. On the occurrence of eclipses of the sun and moon, all my
followers should immediately suspend their other business, and,
having purified themselves, should make repetition of the (eight-
syllabled) mantra of

87. When the eclipse has passed off, they should bathe with
their clothes on, and those who are householders should
distribute gifts according to their ability. Other persons (who
have no worldly means) should engage in the worship of the
supreme Lord (

88. Those followers of mine who belong to the four classes
should observe, in conformity with the Sastras, the rules in
regard to the contraction of impurity through births and deaths,
according to the degree of kinship.

89. Brahmans should possess tranquillity of mind, self-
restraint, forbearance, contentment and similar virtues.
Kshatriyas (or the soldier caste) should be remarkable for
bravery, fortitude, and the like qualities.

90. Vaisyas (or the agricultural and commercial caste) should
occupy themselves in mercantile pursuits, money-lending, and the
like. Sudras (or the servile class) should be employed in
serving the twice-born, etc.

91. The twice-born should perform at the proper seasons, and
according to their means--each according to his own domestic
rules--the twelve purificatory rites [Footnote: Of these only six
are now generally performed, viz.:--1, the birth-ceremony, or
touching the tongue of a new-born infant with clarified butter,
etc.; 2, the name-giving ceremony on the tenth day; 3, tonsure;
4, induction into the privileges of the twice-born, by
investiture with the sacred thread; 5, solemn return home from
the house of a preceptor after completing the prescribed course
of study; 6, marriage. See __Indian Wisdom__, p. 246.]
(__sanskara__), the (six) daily duties [Footnote: The six daily
duties (called Nitya-karman), according to Parasara, are:--1,
bathing; 2, morning and evening prayer (sandhya); 3, repetition
of sacred texts; 4, offerings to fire (homa); 5, worship of
ancestors; 6, worship of the gods. The six daily acts enjoined
by Manu are different. See __Indian Wisdom__, p. 244.], and the
Sraddha offerings to the spirits of departed ancestors.

92. If intentionally or unintentionally any sin, great or small,
be committed, the proper penance must be performed according to

93. The Vedas, the Vedanta-sutras of Vyasa, the Bhagavata- and the thousand names of in the Mahabharata,

94. The Bhagavad-gita and the precepts of Vidura, the Vasudeva-
mahatmya from the Vaish.nava-kha.n.da of the,

95. And the Sm.riti of Yaj"navalkya, which is one of the Dharma-
Sastras, these eight sacred books are approved by me as
authorities. [Footnote: I commend this list to the attention of
those European scholars who wish to be guided by Indian
authorities in determining the real "sacred books" of India.]

96. All my twice-born disciples who wish good to themselves
should recite these sacred books and hear them recited.

97. In deciding questions of ancient usage (acara), or practice,
or penance, the code of Yaj"navalkya, with its commentary the
Mitakshara, should be taken (as the best authority).

98. The tenth and fifth books of the Bhagavata are to be
regarded as having the preeminence over all the other sacred
books for the understanding of the glory of

99. The tenth and fifth books of the Bhagavata and the
code of Yaj"navalkya are respectively my Bhakti-sastra (manual of
faith), Yoga-sastra (manual of devotion), and Dharma-sastra
(manual of law).

100. As a treatise on the soul, the commentary on the Bhagavad-
Gita as well as that on the Sariraka-Sutras of Vyasa, made by
Ramanujacarya, commends itself to my approval.

101. Whatever precepts in these sacred books have for their
subject the excessive exaltation of and of Justice
(V.risha), of faith and of indifference to the world--

102. Such precepts should be regarded as taking precedence over
all others. Their essential doctrine is that devotion to should be joined with the performance of duty.

103. Duty (__dharma__) is that good practice which is enjoined
both by the Veda (Sruti) and by the law (Sm.riti) founded on the
Veda. Devotion (__bhakti__) is intense love for,
accompanied with a due sense of his glory.

104. Indifference to worldly objects means absence of
satisfaction in any object except True knowledge
consists in discriminating rightly between the nature of the
personal soul (jiva), of the external world (Maya), and of the
Supreme Being (Isa).

105. The personal soul dwells in the heart. It is as subtle as
an atom; it is all thought; it has the faculty of knowledge; it
is ascertained to be constantly pervading the whole body
(__i.e.__ the three corporeal envelopes, sukshma, and
sthula) by its power of perception; it is characterized by
indivisibility and the like.

106. The external world (Maya) is identical with the energizing
power of It is composed of the three Gu.nas; it is
darkness; it is to be understood as the cause of the soul's
having such ideas in regard to the body, and the things relating
to the body, as are conveyed by the expressions I, mine, and the

107. He who abides in the living personal soul in the character
of an internal monitor, as the personal soul dwells in the heart,
he is to be considered as the Self-existent Supreme Being, the
Rewarder of all actions.

108. That Being, known by various names--such as the glorious, Param Brahma, Bhagavan, Purushottama.h--the cause of
all manifestations, is to be adored by us as our one chosen

109. He, together with Radha, should be regarded as the Supreme
Lord, under the name of With and Rama
he is known as

110. When joined with Arjuna, he is known by the name of Nara-; when associated with Bala-bhadra ( = Bala-rama), or
any other divine personage, he is called and so

111. Those devoted (female companions of the god) Radha and his
other (consorts) are in some places represented at his side. In
other places (their images do not appear, because) they are
supposed to be one with his body and he with theirs.

112. On no account let it be supposed that difference in forms
makes any difference in the identity of the deity. For the two-
armed may exhibit himself with four arms (or eight, or
a thousand, or any number of arms).

113. Towards him alone ought all faith and worship (bhakti) to
be directed by every human being on earth in every possible
manner. Nothing else, except such (faith), is able to procure

114. The best result of the virtues of those who possess good
qualities is faith in and association with holy men;
without these, even persons who know (the Sastras) go downwards
(towards a lower state).

115. Meditation should be directed towards, his
incarnations and their images, but not towards living men, nor
(inferior) gods, etc., nor devotees, nor (even) those who
(merely) have knowledge of Brahma.

116. Having perceived, by abstract meditation, that the Spirit
or Self is distinct from its three bodies (viz. the gross, subtle
and causal bodies), and that it is a portion of the one Spirit of
the Universe (Brahma), every man ought to worship by
means of that (self) at all times.

117. The tenth book of the should be listened
to reverentially, and learned men should read it daily or (if
frequent reading is impossible, at least) once a year.

118. The repetition (of the Bhagavata), as well as of the
thousand names of, etc., should be performed as far as
possible in a pure place (such as the precincts of a temple); for
(such repetition) causes the accomplishment of desired objects.

119. On the occurrence of any disaster caused by the elements
(such as a flood or fire), or when any human calamity or sickness
takes place, a man should be wholly occupied in striving to
preserve himself and other people and in nothing else.

120. Religious usages, business transactions and penances,
should be adapted to country, time, age, property, rank and

121. The (philosophical) doctrine approved by me is the
Visish.tadvaita (of Ramanuja) [Footnote: This verse proves that in
their philosophical ideas the sect are followers of
the Ramanuja sect. Compare verse 100.], and the desired heavenly
abode is Goloka. There to worship, and be united with
him as the Supreme Soul of the Universe, is to be considered
salvation (Mukti).

122. These that have been specified are the general duties,
applicable to all my followers, whether male or female. Now I am
about to enumerate the special duties.

123. The two sons of my elder and younger brothers (viz.
Ayodhya-prasada and Raghu-vira) ought never to impart instruction
to any women except their nearest relations.

124. They ought never to touch or converse with any women in any
place whatever. Cruelty should never be shown towards any
person. A deposit belonging to another should never be taken
charge of.

125. In business matters no one should stand security for any
other person. In passing through a time of distress it is right
to ask for alms, but debts should not be contracted.

126. One should not sell corn bestowed by one's own disciples;
having given away old corn, new corn is to be bought. That is
not called a sale.

127. On the fourth day of the light-half of the month Bhadra,
the worship of Ga.nesa should be performed, and on the fourteenth
of the dark-half of Asvina, Hanuman should be worshipped.

128. Those two sons (of my brothers, viz. Ayodhya-prasada and
Raghu-vira), who have been appointed as spiritual guides to guard
the religious interests of my followers, should initiate all
desirous of obtaining salvation (in the use of the mantra of

129. They should cause each of their disciples to continue
steadfast in his own appointed duty. Honour should be paid to
holy men, and the sacred Sastras should be reverently repeated.

130. Worship of, and other forms of
that have been set up and consecrated by me in the great temples,
should be performed with the proper ceremonies.

131. Any one who may come to the temple of to ask for
a gift of food (cooked or uncooked) should be received with
respect, and food given to him according to ability.

132. Having established a school for giving instruction, some
learned Brahman should be appointed over it. True knowledge
should be promoted throughout the world, for that is an act of
great merit.

133. The two wives of these (sons of my brothers), with the
permission of their respective husbands, should initiate females
only (eva) in the Mantra of

134. They should never touch or speak to other males than their
nearest relations; nor should they ever show their faces to them.

135. My male followers who are householders should never touch
widows unless they are their own near relatives.

136. They should not remain alone in any private place with a
youthful mother, sister or daughter, except in a time of
distress. Nor should a wife be given away (to another man).

137. No attachment should on any account be formed with a woman
who in any transactions has been brought into connexion with the
king of the country.

138. When a guest has arrived at a house, he should be honoured
by those (who live in it) with food and other things according to
ability. Offerings to the Gods and the Pit.ris (at the Devata- and and Sraddha ceremonies) should be
made according to right usage and according to one's means.

139. It is the duty of my disciples, as long as they live and
according to their ability, to honour with faithful attention
their father, mother, spiritual preceptor, and any one affected
with sickness.

140. Every person should, according to his ability, carry on
some occupation suitable to his caste and religious order. Those
that live by agriculture should not allow a bull to be gelded.

141. Provisions and money should be laid by according to
circumstances and time; and those that keep cattle should store
up as much hay as these animals may need for their consumption.

142. If a man can himself attend to the proper feeding of cows
and other animals with hay and water, then only he may keep them,
otherwise he must not do so.

143. No business in regard to giving or receiving land or
property should ever be transacted even with a son or friend,
without a written deed attested by witnesses.

144. When any pecuniary transactions connected with giving away
a girl in marriage have to be transacted for one's self or
another person, the money to be delivered over should not be
settled by verbal agreement, but only by a written contract
attested by witnesses.

145. A man's expenditure ought always to be in proportion to his
income. Otherwise it is certain that great misery will arise.

146. Every day one should take note of one's income and
expenditure in the regular business of life, and write them down
with one's own hand.

147. My followers should assign a tithe of the grain, money,
etc., acquired by their own occupation or exertions, to, and the poor should give a twentieth part.

148. The due performance of fasts, of which the eleventh-day
fasts are the principal, should be effected according to the
Sastras and one's ability; for this will lead to the attainment
of desired objects.

149. Every year in the month one should perform, or
cause others to perform, cheerfully the worship of Siva with the
leaves of the Bilva-tree, etc.

150. Neither money, nor utensils, nor ornaments, nor clothes
should be borrowed for use (on festive occasions) from one's own
spiritual preceptor, or from the temple of

151. While going to do homage to great, to a spiritual
preceptor, or to a holy man, food should not be accepted from
others on the road, or at the places of pilgrimage; for such food
takes away religious merit.

152. The full amount of promised wages should be paid to a
workman. Payment of a debt is never to be kept secret. Let no
one have any dealings with wicked men.

153. If through great distress caused by a famine, by enemies,
or by (the oppression of) a king, any danger of destruction
arises anywhere to character, wealth or life,

154. The wise among my followers should at once quit even their
own native country, and having gone to another, let them reside
there happily.

155. Wealthy householders should perform those sacrifices in
honour of which entail no killing of animals. Brahmans
and holy men (Sadhus) should be fed on festival days at sacred
places of pilgrimage.

156. They should observe the great festivals in honour of the
Deity in the temples, and should distribute various gifts among
Brahmans who are deserving objects (of generosity).

157. Kings who are my followers should govern all their subjects
in accordance with the law (laid down in the Dharma-sastras), and
should protect them as if they were their children, and should
establish the observance of proper duties throughout the whole

158. They should be well acquainted with the circumstances of
their kingdom; as, for example, with the seven Angas (viz. the
duties of the sovereign, minister, ally, treasury, territory,
fortresses and army); the four Upayas (viz. conciliation, sowing
dissension, bribing, and punishing); the six Gu.nas (viz. peace,
war, marching, sitting encamped, dividing the forces, having
recourse to an ally for protection); and the places of resort to
which spies should be sent. They should also make themselves
acquainted with the men who are skilled in legal procedure, and
with all the court functionaries, observing by the right signs
whether any ought to be punished or not. [Footnote: With
reference to this verse compare Manu's directions to Kings (Books
vii. and viii.), and the precepts in the Vigraha chapter of the

159. Wives should honour their husbands as if they were gods,
and never offend them with improper language, though they be
diseased, indigent, or imbecile. [Footnote: Compare Manu, v. 154.]

160. No communication, even though arising naturally
(__sahajika__), should be held with any other man who may be
possessed of beauty, youth and good qualities.

161. A chaste woman should not allow her navel, thighs, or
breasts to be seen by males; nor should she remain without an
upper garment (anuttariya), nor should she look at (the antics
of) buffoons, nor associate with an immodest woman.

162. A wife while her husband is absent in a foreign country
should wear neither ornaments nor fine clothes; she ought not to
frequent other people's houses, and should abstain from laughing
and talking with other women.

163. Widows should serve the God with minds intent on
him as their only husband; they should live under the control of
their father, or other male members of the family, and never in

164. They must never at any time touch any men except their
nearest relations, and when young they should never without
necessity engage in conversation with youthful men.

165. If an infant male-child touch them, no blame attaches to
them, any more than from contact with a dumb animal; nor if they
are compelled from necessity to talk with or touch an old man.

166. Instruction in any science should not be received by them
from any man except from their nearest relations. They should
frequently emaciate their bodies by vows and fasts.

167. They should never give away to others the money which is
required for their own support. That only must be given away
which they have in excess.

168. They should eat only one meal a day, and should sleep on
the ground; they should never look at (animals) engaged in sexual

169. They must never wear the dress of a married woman, nor of a
female ascetic, nor of a mendicant, nor any unbecoming attire.

170. They should neither associate with nor touch a woman who
has been guilty of procuring abortion; nor should they either
converse about, or hear stories of the loves of the male sex.

171. Except in times of distress widows who are young should
never remain alone in secret places along with men, even with
their own relatives, if youthful.

172. They should never join in the frolics practised at the Holi
festival, nor should they put on ornaments or finely woven
clothes composed of cotton or metal threads.

173. Neither wives nor widows ought ever to bathe without
wearing clothes. No woman should ever conceal the first
appearance of her monthly periods.

174. A woman at that season should not for an interval of three
days touch any human being, clothes, etc.; nor ought she to do so
till she has bathed on the fourth day.

175. Those of my followers who have taken the vow of Naish.thika
Brahmacaris (that is, of perpetual celibacy and chastity) must
not knowingly either touch or converse with or look at women.

176. They should never talk or listen to conversations about
women, and they should not perform their ablutions or other
religious rites at places where women pass backwards and

177. They should never knowingly touch or look at even the
pictures or wooden images of women, unless they be the
representations of goddesses.

178. They should neither draw any likeness of a woman, nor touch
her clothes. They must never knowingly look even at animals
engaged in sexual acts.

179. They should neither touch nor look at a male dressed up as
a woman; nor should they sing the praises of the Deity with a
view to being heard by women.

180. They should pay no attention to the command of even their
spiritual preceptor if likely to lead them to a breach of their
vow of chastity. They should continue steadfast, contented, and

181. When a woman insists on forcing herself near them, they
should immediately try to keep her off by expostulating with her,
and (if she still approaches) by reproaching her.

182. In cases where their own lives, or those of women, are in
jeopardy, they may be allowed contact or conversation with women,
such contact being necessary for the saving of life.

183. They should not anoint their lips with oil. They should
not carry weapons. They should not dress themselves in
unbecoming costume. They should subdue the sense of taste.

184. If in the house of any Brahman the meals are cooked and
served up by a woman, they should not go there to ask for food,
but should ask for it at some other house.

185. They should constantly repeat the Vedas and Sastras, and
serve their spiritual preceptor. They must shun the society of
women, and of men who are fond of women.

186. He who is by birth a Brahman should on no account drink
water from a leathern vessel; nor should he ever eat garlic,
onions, etc.

187. Nor must he eat food without having first performed his
ablutions, the Sandhya service, repetition of the Gayatri, the
worship of, and the Vaisvadeva ceremony. [Footnote: This
ceremony, which partly consists in throwing portions of food into
the fire, before dinner, as an offering to all the deities, will
be fully described in my new work on "Religious Thought and Life
in India," to be published by Mr. Murray.]

188. All who are Sadhus are bound, just like those who have made
a vow of perpetual celibacy, to avoid associating with women, or
with men who are fond of women, and should subdue their (six)
internal enemies (lust, anger, avarice, infatuation, pride, and

189. They should subjugate all the senses, more especially the
sense of taste; they should neither lay by a store of property
themselves, nor make others do so for them.

190. They must not take charge of any one's deposit, they should
never relax their firmness, nor allow a woman to enter their
abodes at any time. [Footnote: We may notice that there is no
little repetition in this Book of instructions, especially in
enforcing the duty of keeping clear of all feminine seductions.]

191. Except at a time of distress, they should never go anywhere
by night without a companion, nor should they travel to any place

192. They should not use a costly variegated cloth, or one dyed
with kusumbha, or dyed in any other way; or any expensive cloth,
though freely presented to them by another.

193. They should not go to the houses of householders unless for
the purpose of asking alms, or for being present at an assembly.
They should not spend time uselessly without devoting any of it
to the worship of the Deity.

194. To the abode of a householder in which only males are
employed for serving up the cooked food, and where no woman is to
be seen--

195. To the house of such a householder only should my Sadhus
resort for participation in a meal, otherwise they should ask for
uncooked food, and prepare it themselves.

196. All my holiest sages should conduct themselves in the same
manner as Bharata, son of .Rishabha, the idiot Brahman (Ja.da-
vipra), did in ancient times. [Footnote: The story is told in, ii. 13. He feigned idiocy, that he might not be
troubled with worldly society and might so give his undivided
attention to devotional exercises.]

197. Those holy men (Sadhus) who are Brahmacaris should
diligently abstain from eating or using betel-leaves, opium,
tobacco (tamala), etc.

198. They should never accept a meal given on the performance of
the Sa__n__skara ceremonies, beginning with that of conception;
[Footnote: See note to verse 91.] nor on performing the Sraddha
ceremony at death, nor at that performed on the 12th day after

199. They should never sleep during the day, unless afflicted
with sickness, etc. They should never gossip about local
matters, nor intentionally listen to such gossip.

200. They should not lie down on a bedstead except when
suffering from illness or other affliction, and should be
guileless and straightforward in their behaviour towards other

201. They should patiently bear abusive language, or even blows
from evil-minded persons, and wish good to (them in return).

202. They should not undertake the work of a go-between or
informer, or spy; they should never show selfishness or
partiality towards their relations.

203. Thus I have specified in a summary manner the general
duties of all. Those who desire more particular instructions
must refer to the sacred books handed down by tradition.

204. Having myself extracted the essence of an the sacred
Sastras, I have written this Directory, which leads men to the
attainment of desired objects.

205. Hence it is incumbent on my followers, having their minds
well controlled, to conduct themselves in conformity with its
precepts, and not according to their own wills.

206. Those males and females of my disciples who will act
according to these directions shall certainly obtain the four
great objects of human desires (viz. __Dharma__, religious merit;
__Artha__, wealth; __Kama__, pleasure; and __Moksha__, final

207. Those who will not act according to these (directions)
shall be considered by my male and female followers as excluded
from communion with my sect.

208. My followers should daily read this Book of directions, and
those who do not know how to read should listen to others reading

209. But in the absence of a reader (vaktrabhave), worship
should be paid to it every day, and it should be honoured with
the greatest reverence as my word and my representative.

210. This Directory should only be given to those persons who
are endowed with a nature of the divine type; never to a man
possessing a nature of the demoniacal type. [Footnote: The
Pura.nas divide all men into two classes: those whose nature is
divine, and those whose nature is demoniacal.]

211. This Book of directions, bringing welfare (to all who study
it), was completed on the first day of the season of spring in
the year 1882 of the era of Vikramaditya. ( = A.D. 1826).

212. May, the remover of the sufferings of his
worshippers, the maintainer of devotion, accompanied with the
performance of proper duties, the bestower of the desires of the
heart, grant us blessings of all kinds!


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