The Student's Elements of Geology
Sir Charles Lyell

Part 13 out of 14

--, erect trees in.
--, structure of the.
--, vegetation of the.
--, air-breathers in the.

Coal Period, climate of the.
-- field of Virginia.
-- measures of Nova Scotia.
-- measures, thickness of, in Wales.
-- pipes, danger of.
--, rainprints in.
-- seams, uniting of.

Coalbrook-Dale, faults in.

Cochliodus contortus.

Cockfield Fell rocks, altered by dikes.

Coelacanthus granulatus, Permian.

Coleoptera of Oeningen beds.

Collyrites ringens, Inferior Oolite.

Columnar structure of volcanic rocks.
-- basalt in the Vicentin.

Compact feldspar.

Concretionary structure.

Cone of Tartaret.
-- of Come.

Cones and craters described.
--, absence of, in England.

Conformable stratification.

Conglomerate or pudding-stone.
--, Dolomitic, of Bristol.

Coniferae of the coal-measures.

Connecticut Valley, New Red Sandstone of.

Conocephalus striatus.

Conocoryphe striata.

Conrad, Mr., on age of American cretaceous rocks.

Consolidation of strata.

Continents and oceans, permanence of.

Contorted strata, in drift.

Conularia ornata, Devonian.

Conulus priscus, Coal.

Conus deperditus, Bracklesham.

Conybeare and Phillips on ninety-fathom dike.

Conybeare, Mr., on reptiles of the Lias.

Copper lode near Redruth.

Coprolite bed of Chloritic Series.
-- beds of Red and Coralline crags.

Coprolites of fish from the chalk.

Coral Rag, fossils of the.

Coralline of White Crag.

Corals of the Devonian.
-- of the Mountain Limestone.
--, Neozoic type of.
--, Palaeozoic type of.

Corbicella (Cyrena) fluminalis.

Corbula pisum, Hempstead beds.

Corinth, corrosion of rocks by gases near.

Cornbrash or Forest Marble.

Cornwall, granite veins in.
--, lodes in.
--, mass of granite in.
--, vertical sections of veins in mine.

Cosequina volcano, burying of organic remains by.

Crag, term defined.
-- of Antwerp.
--, fauna of, its relation to that of present seas.
--, Norwich.
--, Coralline or White.
--, Red.
--, tables of marine testacea in.
-- deposits, climate of.

Crania attached to a sea-urchin.
-- Parisiensis, White Chalk.

Crassatella sulcata, Barton.

Craters and cones described.
--, Theory of Elevation.

Craven fault.

Creeps in coal-mines.

Cretaceous rocks of United States.
-- Period, error as to continuity of.
--, flora of the Upper.
-- volcanic rocks.
-- plutonic rocks.
-- Period, distinct mineral character of rocks in.
-- rocks, classification of.
-- strata, connection between Upper and Lower.

Crinoidea of Mountain Limestone.

Croatia, Lower Miocene beds of.

Croll, Mr., on amount of subaerial denudation.

Cromer forest-bed.

Crop out, term explained.

Crossopterygidae, or fringe-finned fish.

Crowfoot, Mr., on shells of Aldeby beds.

Crust of the earth defined.

Crustaceans of Old Red Sandstone.

Cryptodon angulatum, London Clay.

Crystalline Limestone.
-- rocks defined.
-- schists, much alkali in the.
-- theory of cleavage.

Cup and Star corals.

Curved strata.

Cutch, salt-layers in the Runn of.

Cuvier, M., on fauna of the Paris basin.
--, on Mammalia of Paris gypsum.
--, on Tertiary series.

Cyathocrinus caryocrinoides.
-- planus.

Cyathophyllum caespitosum.

Cyclopean isles, beds of tuff and clay in.
--, contorted strata in.

Cyclopteris Hibernica, Old Red.

Cyclostigma (Lepidodendron), Old Red.

Cyclostoma elegans, Loess.

Cylindrites acutus, Great Oolite.

Cypress swamps of the Mississippi.

Cyprides in the Weald Clay.

Cypridina serrato-striata.

Cypris in fresh-water deposits.
-- gibbosa, C. tuberculata, C. leguminella.
-- striato-punctata, C. fasciculata, C. granulata.
-- Purbeckensis, Cypris punctata.
-- spinigera, Weald Clay.

Cyrena (Corbicella) fluminalis.
-- cuneiformis, Woolwich Clays.
-- obovata.
-- semistriata, Hempstead beds.

Cystideae of Silurian rocks.

Cythere inflata, coal-measures.

Dadoxylon, fragment of coniferous wood.

Dana, on volcanic minerals.

Danish kitchen-middens.

Dapedius monilifer, Lias.

Darbishire on shells of Moel Tryfaen.

Dartmoor, post-carboniferous granite of.
-- intrusive granite at.

Darwin, Mr., on foliation and lamination.
--, on mammalia of South America.
--, on marine saurian.
--, on rise of part of South America.
--, on sinking of coral reefs.
--, on plutonic rocks of the Andes.
--, on relationship of extinct to living types.

Dates of discovery of fossil vertebrata.

Daubeny, Dr., on decomposition of trachytic rocks.

Daubree, on formation of zeolites.
--, on alkaline waters of Plombieres.

Davidson, Mr., on Spiriferina.

Davis, Mr. E., on fossils of Lingula Flags.

Dawkins, Mr. Boyd, on Hyaena spelaea.
--, on mammalia of Cromer Forest-bed.
--, on Triassic mammifer.

Dawson, Dr., on Devonian flora and insects.
--, on Eozoon Canadense.
--, on Nova Scotia coal-measures.
--, on Nova Scotia coal-plants.
--, on Pupa vetusta.
--, on reptiles and shells in Nova Scotia coal.
--, on structure of calamite.
--, on structure of sigillaria.

Deane, Dr., on footprints in Trias.

Debey, Dr., on flora and fauna of Aix.

Dechen, M. von, on organic remains of the brown coal.
--, on Cornish granite veins.

De la Beche, Sir H., on granite of Dartmoor.
--, on Carrara marble.
--, on mineral veins.
--, on Redruth copper-mine.
--, on saurians of the Lias.
--, on trap-rocks of New Red.
--, on Welsh coal-measures.

Delesse, on action of water in metamorphism.

Deltas, strata accumulated in.

Dendrerpeton in Coal.

Denudation defined.
--, subaerial.
--, littoral.
--, submarine.
--, average annual amount of subaerial.
-- of carboniferous strata.
-- counteracting upheaval.
-- a means of exposing crystalline rocks.
--, trap-dikes cut off by.
-- and volcanic force antagonistic powers.

Deposition, rate of, shown by fossils.

Derbyshire, veins in Mountain Limestone.

Derivative shells of the Red Crag.

Desnoyers, M., on age of Faluns.
--, on Eocene fossil footprints.

Desor, M., on Celtic coins in lake-dwellings.

Devonian Period, Upper, Middle, Lower.
-- fossils of the Eifel.
-- of Russia.
-- of United States and Canada.
-- insects of Canada.
-- strata, classification of.

Devonshire, cleavage of slate rocks in.


Diagonal, or cross-stratification.

Diagram of fossiliferous rocks.
-- of plutonic and sedimentary formations.


Diastopora diluviana, Bath Oolite.

Diatomaceae forming tripoli.

Diceras Lonsdalii, Neocomian.

Didelphys Azarae, Recent.

Didymograpsus geminus.
-- Murchisonii.

Dike cutting through shale, Anglesea.
-- cutting through chalk, Antrim.

Dikelocephalus Minnesotensis.

Dikes defined.
-- of Monte Somma.
-- in Palagonia, ground-plan of.
--, volcanic or trap.

Diluvium, origin of term.

Dinornis Palapteryx, of New Zealand.

Dinotherium giganteum.


Dip and strike, terms explained.

Diplograpsus folium, Llandeilo Flags.
-- pristis, Llandeilo beds.

Dirt-bed of the Purbeck.

Dogger-bank described.

Dolerite, a variety of basalt.

Dolomite defined.

Dolomitic conglomerate of Bristol.

Downs, escarpments of North and South.

Downton Sandstone.

Dowson, Mr., on shells of Aldeby beds.

Drew, Mr., on Hastings Sands.

Drift of Ireland.
-- of Norfolk cliffs.
-- of Scandinavia.
-- of Bridlington.
-- carried by icebergs.
-- shells in Canada.
--, contorted strata in.
--, marine shells in Scotch.

Dudley Limestone.

Dufrenoy, M., on granite of Pyrenees.

Dumont, Professor, on Belgian Lower Eocene.

Duncan, Dr., on Neozoic corals passing down to Devonian.

Dundry Hill, near Bristol, section of.

Dunker, Dr., on wealden of Germany.

Dura Den, yellow sandstone of.

Earth's crust defined.

Echinoderms of Suffolk Crag.

Echinosphaeronites balticus.

Egerton, Sir P., on fish of Headon series.
--, on fish of the Permian.
--, on fish of Penarth beds.

Ehrenberg, Professor, on term Bryozoum.
--, on Silurian foraminifera.
--, on infusoria.

Eifel Limestone.
--, Lake-craters of.
-- Miocene, volcanic rocks of.
-- Pliocene, volcanoes of the.
--, trass of the.

Elephas antiquus, molar of.
-- meridionalis, molar of.
-- primigenius, molar of.

Elevation craters, theory of.

Elvans, term explained.
-- of Ireland and Cornwall.

Elytron of Buprestis? Stonesfield.

Emmons, Professor, on jaws of Triassic quadruped.
--, on Dromatherium.

Encrinites of Bradford.

Encrinus liliiformis, Muschelkalk.

Endogens, term explained.

Engihoul cave, human and animal remains in.

England and Wales, glaciation of.


Eocene areas of Europe, map of.
-- foraminifera.
-- formations of France.
-- of England.
-- period, volcanic rocks of.
--, plutonic rocks of the.
--, metamorphic rocks of the.
-- of France, footprints in.
-- and Miocene, line between the.
--, term defined.
-- of the United States.

Eozoon Canadense, oldest known fossil.


Eppelsheim, Dinotherium of.

Equisetaceae of the Coal.

Equisetites columnaris, Keuper.

Equus caballus, tooth of.

Erratic blocks, nature of.
-- of Greenland.
-- near Chichester.
-- in the Red Crag.

Erratics, Alpine.

Escarpments explained.

Eschara disticha, White Chalk.

Escharina oceani, White Chalk.

Estheria minuta, Trias.
-- ovata, Richmond, Virginia.

Ethridge, Mr., on Atlantic mud.
--, on Devonian series, in Devon.
--, on Devonian fauna.
--, on mollusca of Bracklesham.
--, on St. Cassian fossils.

Etna, built up since Newer Pliocene.
--, Pliocene lavas of.

Ettingshausen on Sheppey Eocene fruit.

Eunomia radiata, Bath Oolite.

Eunotia bidens, Atlantic mud.

Euomphalus pentangulatus.


Euritic porphyry of Norway.

Evans, Mr., on Archaeopteryx.


Exogyra virgula, Kimmeridge Clay.

Extracrinus (Pentacrinus) Briareus, Lias.

Falconer, Dr., on Miocene fauna of Siwalik Hills.
--, on Brixham Cave flint knives.
--, on Purbeck mammalia.

Faluns of Loire, recent shells in.
-- of Touraine.

Farnham, phosphate of lime near.

Fascicularia aurantium, Coralline crag.

Faults in coal-measures of Coalbrook Dale.
-- described.
-- often the result of repeated movements.

Fauna of the crag, its relation to that of our present seas.
-- of the Mountain Limestone.
-- of the Paris basin.

Favosites cervicornis, Devonian.
-- Gothlandica, Silurian.

Favre, M. E., on glaciers and moraines of the Caucasus.

Faxoe, chalk of.


Feldspar, varieties of.


Felis tigris, tooth of.

Fenestella retiformis, Magnesian Limestone.

Ferns of the coal.

Fife, trap-dike in.

Fish, fossil of the Carboniferous.
--, Eocene of Monte Bolca.
--, oldest known fossil.
--, number of living.
--, fresh-water and marine.
-- of the Upper Ludlow.
-- of the Old Red Sandstone.
-- of the Permian marl slate.
-- of the brown coal.
-- of the Lias.

Fisherton, Greenland lemming in drift of.

Fissures, filled with metallic matter.

Fitton, Dr., on the Neocomian strata.

Fleming, Dr., on Parka decipiens.
--, on trap-dike in Fife.

Flints in the Chalk.

Flisk dike of Fife.

Flora of the Carboniferous.
--, Devonian, compared to Carboniferous.
-- of the Subapennines.
--, Lower Miocene of Switzerland.
--, Miocene of the Arctic Regions.
--, Older Pliocene of Italy.
-- of the Permian.
-- of the Upper Cretaceous.
--, Upper Miocene of Switzerland.
-- of the Wealden.

Fluvio-marine or Norwich Crag.

Flysch of the Alps.
--, plutonic rocks invading.

Folding and denudation of Nova Scotia Carboniferous rocks.

Folds of parallel strata, arrangement and direction of.

Foliation of crystalline rocks.
--, irregularities in.

Folkestone and Hythe beds.

Fontainebleau, Gres de.

Footprints in Potsdam sandstone.
-- of reptiles in Coal-measures.
--, fossil in New red.
-- in Paris gypsum.

Foraminifera, Eocene.
-- of Mountain Limestone.
-- of the Chalk.

Forbes, Mr. David, on glass cavities in quartz.
--, on planes of foliation.
--, on specific gravity of quartz.
--, on volcanic minerals.

Forbes, Professor E., on fossils of Bembridge beds.
--, on Hempstead beds.
--, on shells of the crag.
--, on sphaeronites.
--, on subdivisions of the Purbeck.
--, on testacea of the Faluns.
--, on thickness of Upper Neocomian.

Forest-bed at Cromer.
-- marble or cornbrash.
--, submerged.
--, fossil in Coal.
--, fossil of Isle of Portland.

Forfarshire, Cephalaspis beds of.
--, contorted strata in.

Formation, term defined.

Fossil, term defined.
-- trees erect in coal.
-- Fish of Old Red Sandstone.

Fossiliferous groups, table of succession of.

Fossils, arrangement of, in strata.
--, destruction of, in older formations.
--, fresh-water and marine.
-- obliterated by metamorphic action.
--, recent, and Post-pliocene.
-- of the drift.
-- of the Crags.
--, Upper Miocene.
--, Lower Miocene of Switzerland.
-- of the Hempstead Beds.
--, Eocene.
-- of the Barton Clay.
-- of the White Chalk.
-- of the Neocomian.
-- of the Oolite.
-- of the Stonesfield Slate.
-- of the Lias.
-- of the Trias.
-- of the Magnesian Limestone.
-- of the Coal.
-- plants of the Coal.
-- of the Mountain Limestone.
--, Devonian.
--, Silurian.
--, Cambrian.
-- Laurentian.

Fournet, M. on metalliferous gneiss.
--, on veins in granite.

Fox, Reverend D., on Isle of Wight Eocene fossils.

Fox, Mr. R., on lodes in Cornwall.

Fractures of strata, and faults.

Fragments, included, a test of age of plutonic rocks.
--, included, a test of age of strata.
-- a test of age in volcanic rocks.

France, Eocene formations of.
--, Lower Miocene of.
--, Upper Miocene of.

Freshfield, Mr., on absence of lakes in the Caucasus.

Fresh-water strata, how distinguished from marine.
-- formation of Auvergne.

Fucoid sandstones of Sweden.

Fulgur canaliculatus, Maryland.

Fuller's earth, fossils of the.

Fundy, Bay of, fossil trees exposed in cliffs at.

Fusilina cylindrica.

Fusion of quartz.

Fusus contrarius (Trophon antiquum).
-- quadricostatus, Maryland.


Gaillonella ferruginea, and G. distans.

Galapagos Islands, living marine saurian in.

Galeocerdo latidens, Bracklesham.

Galerites albogalerus, White Chalk.

Galestes in Middle Purbeck.

Ganoids, the type of Old Red Sandstone fish.
-- of the Wealden.
-- of the Trias.

Gaps in the sequence of fossil remains.


Gases, corrosion of rocks by.

Gaudin on Lower Miocene of Switzerland.
-- on Pliocene flora of Italy.
-- on Proteaceae in Bournemouth Eocene.

Gault, thickness and fossils of.

Geikie, Mr. A., on Ayrshire Permian trap-rocks.
--, on subaerial denudation.
--, on ice erosion of lake-basins.
--, on Isle of Mull volcanic rocks.
--, on Pentland Old Red volcanic rocks.
--, on Silurian metamorphic rocks.
--, on syenite of Skye.

Geinitz, M., on Permian flora.

Gemunder Maar, volcanic rocks of.

Geneva, Lower Miocene of.

Geology defined.

Gergovia, tuffs and associated lacustrine strata of.

Germany, Lower Miocene of.
--, Triassic fauna of.

Gers, Upper Miocene of.

Gervillia anceps, Neocomian.
-- socialis, Muschelkalk.

Giant's Causeway basalt, age of.
--, laterite of the.
--, columnar basalt of.

Girgenti, Newer Pliocene of.

Glacial drift, distribution and nature of.
-- epoch in the Post-pliocene.
-- formations of Pliocene age.

Glaciation of Russia and Scandinavia.
-- of Scotland.
-- of Wales and England.
-- of North America.

Glaciers, transporting and abrading power of.

Glasgow, marine strata near.

Glauconie grossiere.

Glen Tilt, junction of granite and schist at.

Globiform pitchstone.

Globigerina bulloides.

Globular structure of volcanic rocks.

Glyptostrobus, Europaeus, Oeningen.

Gneiss, granite veins traversing.
-- defined and figured.
--, fundamental, of Scotland.

Gold mines of Australia and Chili.
-- veins of Russia.
-- of California, of age of alluvium.

Goldenberg, Professor, on Saarbruck coal insects.

Goldfuss, Professor, on reptiles in coal.

Goniatites crenistria.
-- Listeri, coal-measures.

Goppert, on American forms in Swiss Miocene flora.
-- on petrification.
-- on plants of coal-measures.

Gorgonia infundibuliformis, Permian.

Graham's Island, forming ashy conglomerate.

Grampians, Old Red conglomerates of.
--, trap-rocks of the.
--, former glaciers in the.

Grand Canary, Upper Miocene, shelly tuffs of.

Granite, composition of.
--, graphic and columnar.
--, how far connected with trap-rocks.
--, hydrothermal action in formation of.
-- metamorphosing fossiliferous strata.
--, porphyritic.
--, oldest.
--, protrusion of solid.
--, passage of, into trap.
--, schorly.
-- veins.
-- veins in talcose gneiss.

Granton, angiosperm found in coal at.

Graptolites of Llandeilo flags.

Graptolites Murchisonii. Llandeilo flags.

Graptolithus priodon, Silurian.

Gray's, Essex, pachyderms found at.

Great (or Bath) Oolite.

Greece, Upper Miocene formations of.

Greenland, continental ice of.
--, gradual sinking of.


Gres de Beauchamp, Paris basin.

Gres de Fontainebleau, age of the.

Griffiths, Sir R., on yellow sandstone of Ireland.

Grit defined.

Groups, older, rise highest above the sea.
-- why the newest to be studied first.

Gryllacris lithanthraca, coal.

Gryphaea coated with serpulae.
-- columba, Chloritic Sand.
-- convexa, Chalk.
-- incurva (G. arcuata).
-- virgula, Kimmeridge clay.

Gryphite Limestone.

Guadaloupe, glass cavities in quartz of.

Gulf-Stream, probable abrading power of.

Gumbel, M., on Rhaetic beds.

Gunn, Mrs., on pot-stones in the chalk.

Gutbier, Colonel, on Permian flora.

Gymnogens, term explained.

Gypseous marls of Auvergne.

Gypsum and gypseous marl defined.

Gyrolepis tenuistriatus, Rhaetic beds.

Haime, Mr., on palaeozoic corals.

Hakea silicina, and Hakea saligna, Oeningen.

Hall, Captain Basil, on Cyclopean Isles.

Hall, Sir James, on curved strata.

Hall, Mr. J., on Appalachian palaeozoic rocks.

Hallstadt and St. Cassian beds.

Halysites catenularis, Silurian.

Hamilton, Sir W., on eruption of Vesuvius.

Hamites spiniger, Gault.

Hancock, Mr., on Protosaurus in Permian.

Harkness, Professor, on Silurian metamorphic rocks.

Harlech grits, fossils of the.

Harris, Major, on the Salt Lakes.

Harpactor maculipes, Oeningen.

Harpe, M. de la, on Bournemouth Eocene flora.

Hartung, Mr., cited.

Hartz mountains, mineral veins of.
--, Bunter Sandstein of.

Hastings Sands, subdivisions of the.

Hautes Alpes, granite of the.

Hauy on isomorphism.

Headon series, fossils of the.

Heat, powerful in consolidating rocks.
--, rocks upraised and folded by.

Hebert, M., on age of Sables de Bracheux.
--, comparison of Sables Moyens and Barton shells.
--, on pisolitic limestone.

Hebrides, dikes in the.

Heer, Professor, on American genera in Swiss Miocene.
--, on age of Madeira leaf-bed.
--, on Arctic Miocene flora.
--, on Bear Island flora.
--, on Bovey Tracey Miocene flora.
--, on fossil plants of Switzerland.
--, on Lower Miocene plants of Mull.
--, on Monte Bolca Eocene plants.
--, on Proteas of Lower Miocene.
--, on plants of Hempstead beds.
--, on plants of coal-field, Virginia.
--, on Swiss Miocene insects.
--, on supposed Proteaceae of Oeningen beds.
--, on Superga fossil plants.

Heidelberg, varieties of granite near.

Heliolites porosa, Devonian.

Helix hispida (plebeia).
-- labyrinthica, Headon.
-- occlusa, Bembridge.
-- Turonensis, faluns.

Hemicidaris Purbeckensis, Purbeck.

Hemipneustes radiatus, Chalk.

Hemitelites Brownii, Inferior Oolite.

Hempstead beds, subdivisions of the.

Henry, on absorption of carbonic acid gas in water.

Henslow, Professor, on dike in Anglesea.
--, on Red Crag coprolite bed.

Herschel, Sir J., on slaty cleavage.

Hertfordshire pudding-stone.

Heterocercal tail of fish.

Hicks, Dr., on fossils of Arenig beds.
--, on fossils of Harlech grits.
--, on Menevian beds.

Himalaya, shells 18,000 feet high in.
--, Upper Miocene of.

Hippopodium ponderosum, Lias.

Hippopotamus, tooth of.

Hippurite Limestone.

Hippurites organisans, Chalk.

Histioderma hibernica.

Hitchcock, Professor, on Trias footprints.

Holoptychius nobilissimus, scale of, and restoration.

Homalonotus Delphinocephalus.
-- armatus, Devonian.

Homfray, Mr., on fossils of Tremadoc beds.

Homocercal tail of fish.

Hooghly River, analysis of water.

Hooker, Dr., on coniferae.
--, on structure of sigillaria.
--, on sporangia of Silurian plant.

Horizontality of strata.

Horizontal strata, upheaval of.



Hornes, Dr., on fossil mollusca of Vienna basin.

Horstead, pot-stones at.

Hour-glass illustrating the destruction and renovation of land.

Howse, Mr., on Protosaurus in Permian.

Hubbard, Professor, on granite of White Mountains.

Hudson River Group, fossils of the.

Hughes, Mr. T. McKenny, cited.
--, on slaty cleavage.
--, on protrusion of solid granite.

Hull, Mr. E., on breccias in Permian.
-- on carboniferous of Lancashire.
--, on carboniferous rocks of north of England.
--, on faults in Lancashire coal-field.
--, on anticlinals and synclinals, Lancashire.
--, on thickness of the Upper Trias.
--, on thickness of Permian.
--, on three lines of flexure since the coal in Lancashire.

Human remains of Recent Period.
-- in cavern deposits.

Humboldt, on mineral character of rocks.

Humphrey and Abbot on Mississippi denudation.

Hungary, trachyte of.

Hunt, Sterry, on action of water in metamorphism.

Huronian series, thickness of the.

Huxley, Professor, on Atlantic chalk-mud.
--, on affinity between reptiles and birds.
--, on batrachians of the coal.
--, on fish of Old Red Sandstone.
--, on Pteraspis.

Hyaena den of Kirkdale cave.

Hyaena spelaea, tooth of.

Hybodus plicatilis, Rhaetic beds.
-- reticulatus, Lias.

Hydrothermal action producing metamorphism.
-- in formation of granite.
-- forming granite veins.

Hymenocaris vermicauda.

Hyperodapedon Gordoni, Trias.

-- rock.
-- rocks of Skye.

Hypogene rocks, uniformity of mineral character in.
-- rocks, term defined.

Hypsiprymnus Gaimardi, molar of recent.

Hythe, Neocomian beds of.

Ice, erosion of lake-basins considered.
--, abrading power of.
--, continental, of Greenland.

Icebergs, drift carried by.
-- stranded in Baffin's Bay.

Ice-borne erratics at Chichester.

Iceland, glass cavities in quartz of.
--, flow of lava in.

Ichthyosaurus communis, Lias.


Ichthyodorulite of the Lias.

Iguanodon Mantelli, Weald Clay.

Ilfracombe Group of Devon.

Inclined strata.

India, Miocene formations of.

India, Upper Miocene of.

Inferior Oolite, thickness and fossils of.

Infusoria in tripoli.

Inland sea-cliffs.

Inoceramus Lamarckii, White Chalk.

Insect in American coal.
-- beds of the Lias.
-- wing of neuropterous.

Insects, Devonian, of Canada.
-- in European coal.
--, Miocene, of Croatia.
--, Upper Miocene, at Oeningen.

Intrusion, a test of age of Plutonic rocks.
--, a test of age of volcanic rocks.

Inundation mud of rivers.

Ireland, glacial drift of.
--, yellow sandstone of.

Iron pyrites.
-- weapons of Swiss lake-dwellings.

Isastraea oblonga, Portland Sand.

Isle of Bourbon, lava current of the.
-- Wight, Hempstead beds.
-- Wight, Eocene beds.
-- Mull, Miocene leaf-bed of.
-- Mull, volcanic rocks.

Isomorphism, theory of.

Italy, Lower Miocene of.
--, Older Pliocene volcanoes of.
--, Pliocene of.
--, Older Pliocene flora of.
--, Upper Miocene strata of.

Jamieson, Mr. T.F., on Scotch glacial drift.

Jaws of mammalia in Purbeck.

Jeffreys, Mr. Gwyn, on Atlantic mud.

Jointed structure of metamorphic rocks.

Jones, Dr. Rupert, on Eozoon Canadense.

Jorullo, lava stream of.

Judd, Mr., on Speeton clay.

Jukes, Mr., on Tarannon shales.

Jura, erratic blocks on the.
--, structure of the.

Kangaroo, jaws of.

Kasegrotte, Bertrich Baden, Basaltic pillars of.

Kaup, Professor, on footprints of the Trias.

Keilhau, Professor, on granite veins.
--, on planes of foliation.
--, on Silurian granite of Norway.
--, on protrusion of granite.

Keller, Dr. F., on lake-dwellings.

Kelloway Rock, percentage of Oxford clay fossils in.

Kentish Rag.

Keuper, of Germany.
-- or Upper Trias of England.

Kilkenny, fossil plants of.

Killas, altered by granite in Cornwall.

Kiltorkan, yellow sandstone of, with Anodonta.

Kimmeridge Clay.

King, Dr., on reptile footprints in coal.
--, Mr., on Permian fossils.

Kirkdale cave, hyaena's den of.

Kitchen-middens of Denmark.

Kleyn Spawen beds.

Konen, Baron von, on Brockenhurst shells.

Koninck, M. de, on Mountain Limestone fish.
--, on shells of Mayence basin.

Koninckia Leonhardi, Hallstadt.

Labrador rock.
-- series.


Labyrinthodon Jaegeri, section of tooth.
--, tooth of.

Labyrinthodonts of Coal.

Lake-craters of the Eifel.

Lake districts, southern limits of the.

Lake-dwellings, scarcity of human remains in.
-- of Switzerland.

Lakes, deposits in.
--, connection of, with glacial action.

Lamarck on bivalve mollusca.

Lamination of clay slate.

Lamna elegans, Bracklesham.

Lancashire, vast thickness of rocks without corresponding altitude in.

Land, balance of dry, how preserved.
-- has been raised, not the sea lowered.
--, mean height of, above the sea.
--, rise of, in Sweden.
--, rise and fall of, affecting denudation.

Land-ice, action of, in Greenland.

Land's End, columnar granite at.
--, porphyritic granite at.

La Roche, recent deposits in estuary of.

Lartet, M., on mammalia of Faluns.
--, on Gastornis Parisiensis.
--, on reindeer period.

Lastraea stiriaca, Monod.

Lateral compression causing curved strata.

Laterite of Giant's Causeway.

Laurentian gneiss of Scotland.
-- Group, Upper and Lower.
-- metamorphic rocks.
-- volcanic rocks.

-- consolidating on slopes.
-- currents of Auvergne.
-- streams, effect of.
-- of La Coupe d'Ayzac.
-- of Jorullo.

Lead veins, age of.

Leaf-bed of Madeira in basalt and scoriae.
--, Isle of Mull Miocene.

Leda amygdaloides, London Clay.
-- Deshayesiana (Nucula Deshayesiana).
-- lanceolata (L. oblonga), Scotch drift.
-- truncata, Scotch drift.

Lee, Mr. J.E., on Pteraspis of Lower Ludlow.

Leidy, Dr., on fossil quadrupeds of Nebraska.

Leperditia inflata, coal-measures.

Lepidodendron Griffithsii.
-- corrugatum, carboniferous.
-- Sternbergii, coal-measures.


Lepidostrobus ornatus, Coal.

Lepidotus gigas, Lias.
-- Mantelli, Wealden.

Leptaena depressa, Wenlock.
-- Moorei, Lias.

Level of surface altered by change of subterranean heat.

Lewis, hornblendic gneiss of.

Lias, fishes of the.
--, fossils of the.
-- and Oolite, origin of the.
--, reptiles of the.
--, insects of the.
--, plants of the.
--, plutonic rocks of the.
--, subdivisions of the.
--, volcanic rocks of the.

Liebig, on conversion of coal into anthracite.
--, on origin of stalactite.

Liege, limestone caverns at.

Lightbody, Mr., on Lower Ludlow shales.

Lignite, conversion of into coal.

Lima giganteum.
-- Hoperi, Chalk.
-- spinosa, White Chalk.

Limagne d'Auvergne, Lower Miocene mammalia of the.

Limburg beds.

Lime, scarcity of, in metamorphic rocks.
-- in solution, source of.

Limestone, block of striated.
--, brecciated.
-- of chemical and organic origin.
--, compact.
--, Hippurite.
--, magnesian.
--, metamorphic or crystalline.
--, Mountain, and its fossils.
--, striated.

Limnaea longiscata.

Lingula beds, volcanic tuffs of the.

Lingula Credneri, Permian.
-- Flags, fossils of the.
-- Dumortieri, Crag.
-- Lewisii, Ludlow.

Lingulella Davisii.

Lipari Isles, tufas in.

Liquidambar europaeum.

Lithrostrotion basaltiforme, Carboniferous.

Lits coquilliers.

Littoral denudation defined.

Lituites giganteus, Ludlow.

Llanberis slates.

Llandeilo Flags, fossils of the.

Llandeilo formation, thickness of the.
--, Lower.

Llandovery Group, classification of the.
-- Rocks, thickness of the Lower.

Loam defined.

Lodes, shells and pebbles in.
-- See Mineral Veins.

Loess of fluviatile loam described.
--, fossil shells of the.

Logan, Sir W., on Eozoon Canadense.
--, on Gaspe sandstones.
--, on Huronian and Laurentian.
--, on stigmaria in under-clays.
--, on thickness of Nova Scotia coal.
--, on thickness of Laurentian in Canada.

Loire, faluns of the.

London Clay, fossils of the.

Longevity, relative, of mammalia and testacea.

Longmynd Group, fauna of the.

Lonsdale, Mr., on corals of America.
--, on Devonian fossils.
--, on Stonesfield slate.
--, on United States Miocene corals.

Lonsdaleia floriformis, Carboniferous.

Lowe, Reverend R.T., on Mogador shells.

Lubbock, Sir J., on the two stone-periods.

Lucina serrata, Bracklesham.

Ludlow formation, Upper.
-- Lower.
--, bone-bed of the Upper.

Lulworth Cove, dirt-bed of.

Lycett, Mr., on fossils of the Great Oolite.

Lycopodiaceae of Coal.

Lycopodium densum, living species.

Lym-fiord, mingled fresh-water and marine strata of.

Lymnea caudata, Headon.
-- longiscata, Bembridge.

Lynton Group of Devon.

Maclaren, Mr., on Pentland Hills, volcanic rocks.

Macclesfield, marine shells 1,200 feet high at.

MacClintock, Sir L., on Atlantic mud.

MacCulloch, Dr., on Aberdeenshire granite.
--, on basaltic columns in Skye.
--, on formation of hornblende-schist.
--, on trap.

MacMullen, Mr. J., on Eozoon Canadense.

Macropus atlas, lower jaw of.
-- major (living), lower jaw of.

Madeira, beds of laterite in.
--, dike in valley in.
--, Pliocene leaf-bed and shells in lavas of.
--, Miocene volcanic rocks of.
--, wind, removing scoriae in.

Maestricht beds and their fossils.

Maffiotte, Don Pedro, cited.

Magas pumila, White Chalk.

Magnesian Limestone defined.
-- and marl-slate.


Maidstone, Upper Cretaceous fossils of.


Malaise, Professor, on Engihoul cave.

Mammalia, anterior to Paris gypsum, table of.
--, extinct, coeval with man.
--, fossil, of Middle Purbeck.
--, fossil, in Pliocene in Val d'Arno.
--, fossil, in the Crag.
--, fossil, of Vienna basin.
-- of the Limagne d'Auvergne.
-- of Siwalik Hills.
-- of the Stonesfield slate.
--, teeth of Post-pliocene.

Mammalia and testacea, comparative longevity of.

Mammoth, rude carving of in Perigord cave.
-- in Scotch till.
-- See Elephas primigenius.

Man, antiquity of.

Manfredi on amount of subaerial denudation.

Mantell, Dr., on iguanodon of Wealden.
--, on Oxford Clay belemnites.
--, on Wealden fossils.

Mantellia nidiformis, Purbeck.

Map of Chalk formation in France.
-- of Eocene tertiary basins.
-- of Hallstadt and St. Cassian beds.

Marble defined.
-- of Carrara, metamorphic.

Marcou, M., on age of Wealden beds.

Margaric acid.

Marine fauna of the Carboniferous.
-- beds underlying the London Clay.
-- and brackish-water strata in coal.
-- strata, how distinguished from fresh-water.

Marl from Lake Superior.
-- and marl-slate defined.
--, red, green, and white, of Auvergne.
-- slate of Middle Permian.

Marsupials, extinct, of Australia.

Marsupites Milleri, White Chalk.

Massachusetts, plumbago of.

Mastodon arvernensis, molar of, Norwich crag.
-- giganteus, in United States after the drift.

Mayence basin tertiaries.

May-Hill Sandstone.

Mechanical and chemical deposits.
-- theory of cleavage.

Mediterranean, one zoological province.

Megalodon cucullatus, Devonian.

Melania inquinata (Cerithium melanoides).

Melania turritissima, Bembridge.

Melanopsis buccinoidea.

Melaphyre, a variety of basalt.

Menevian beds and their fossils.

Mesozoic, term explained.
-- and Cainozoic periods, gap between the.
-- and Palaeozoic rocks, limits of the.

Metals, relative age of different.

Metamorphic limestone.
-- strata, origin of.
-- theory, objections to, considered.
-- rocks defined.

Metamorphic rocks.
--, cleavage of.
--, scarcity of lime in.
--, ages of.
--, order of succession of.
--, uniformity of mineral character in.

Metamorphism, hydrothermal action producing.

Metamorphosis of trilobites.

Meteorites, minerals in.

Mexico, Gulf of, terrestrial remains washed into.

Meyer, Mr. Karl, on fossil shells of Madeira.
--, M. H. von, on reptiles in coal.
--, on Wealden of Germany.


Mica and its varieties.
--, how deposited.
-- schist or micaceous schist.

Micaceous sandstone, origin of.

Micraster cor-anguinum.

Microconchus carbonarius, coal-measures.

Microlestes antiquus, Upper Trias.

Migrations of quadrupeds.

Miliolite limestone.

Miller, Hugh, on Old Red Sandstone fish.
--, on salt lakes.

Milne Edwards, Mr., on Palaeozoic corals.

Minchinhampton, Great Oolite of.

Mineral composition a test of age of volcanic rocks.
-- a test of age of plutonic rocks.
-- a test of age of strata.
-- character of hypogene rocks.
-- springs of Auvergne.

Mineral veins.
-- formed in fissures.
--, successive formation of.
--, swelling and contraction of.
--, relative age of.
--, pebbles in.

Mineralisation of organic remains.

Minerals in meteorites.
--, table of the most abundant in hypogene rocks.

Miocene of Bordeaux and south of France.
-- and Eocene, line between the.
--, Lower, of England.
--, Lower, of Germany and Croatia.
--, Lower, of Central France.
--, Lower, of Italy.
--, Lower, of Nebraska, United States.
--, term defined.
--, Upper, of the Bolderberg.
--, Upper, of France.
--, Upper, of Italy.
--, Upper, of Greece.
--, Upper, of India.
--, Upper, of Vienna basin.

Mississippi, sediment of, used as a test of denudation by rivers.
-- valley, deposition and denudation in the.

Mitchell, Mr., on Aralia fruit in Alum Bay, Eocene.

Mitchell, Sir T., on Wellington caves.

Mitchell, Reverend Hugh, on Pteraspis.

Mitra Scabra, Barton clay.

Mitscherlich, on Isomorphism.

Modiola acuminata, Permian.

Moel Tryfaen, shells found at.

Mohs on isomorphism.

Molasse, Lower, of Switzerland.
--, Middle, or Marine, of Switzerland.
--, Upper, fresh-water, of Switzerland.
--, term explained.

Mollusca. See Shells.
--, longevity of species of.
-- of Hallstadt beds.
--, value of, in classification.
-- of the Carboniferous.

Monitor of Thuringia.

Monoclinic feldspars.

Monod, flora of the Lower Molasse at.

Mons, unconformable strata near.

Montblanc, talcose granite of.
-- Dor, Auvergne, extinct volcanoes of.
--, age of volcano of.

Monte Bolca, fossil fish of.
-- Calvo, section of cross stratification.
-- Mario, age of volcanic deposits of.
-- Nuovo, formed 1538.

Montmartre, gypseous series of.

Monts Dome, Auvergne, extinct volcanoes.

Moore, Mr. C., on Rhaetic beds.
--, on Upper Trias quadrupeds.

Moraines described.

Morea, cretaceous volcanic rocks of.

Mortillet, M. de, on ice-erosion of lake-basins.

Morton, Dr., on age of American cretaceous rocks.

Mosasaurus Camperi, Chalk.

Mountain Limestone, fossils of the.

Mull, Isle of, leaf-bed.

Munster, Count, on fossils of Solenhofen.

Murchison, Sir R., on brackish-water strata in coal.
--, on Devonian series.
--, on Devonian ichthyolites.
--, on Eocene igneous rocks.
--, on Llandovery beds.
--, on Laurentian gneiss of Scotland.
--, on metamorphic rocks of North Highlands.
--, on Monte Bolca fish-beds.
--, on name Permian.
--, on Old Red Sandstone.
--, on Palaeozoic strata, Queenaig.
--, on protrusion of solid granite.
--, on Silurian.
--, on Tertiary volcanic rocks of Italy.
--, on thickness of chalk in Russia.
--, on thickness of the Trias.
--, on the Upper "Old Red."

Murchisonia gracilis.

Murex vaginatus.

Muschelkalk, fossils of the.

Muscovite, or common mica.

Musk-ox, fossil, in Thames valley.

Myliobates Edwardsi, Bracklesham.

Mytilus septifer, Permian.

Naples, Post-pliocene volcanic rocks of.
--, escape of carbonic acid near.

Natica clausa, Scotch drift.
-- helicoides, Chillesford beds.


Nautilus centralis, London Clay.
-- Danicus, Faxoe Chalk.
-- plicatus, Hythe beds.
-- truncatus, Lias.
-- ziczac (Aturia ziczac).

Nebraska, Miocene strata of.

Necker, M., on "underlying" igneous rocks.
--, on dikes in Vesuvius.

Neocomian, Upper.
--, Middle.
--, Lower.
--, use of the term.

Neolithic era.

Neozoic type of corals.

Nerinaea Goodhallii, Coral Rag.

Nerinaean limestone.

Nerita conoidea (N. Schmidelliana).
-- costulata, Great Oolite.
-- granulosa.

Neritina concava. Headon.
-- globulus.

Neufchatel, coins and iron tools in lake of.

Newberry, Dr., on flora of American cretaceous rocks.

Newcastle coal-field, faults in.

Newfoundland bank described.

New Jersey, mastodon in.

New Madrid, "Sunk Country" in.

New Red sandstone of Connecticut Valley.
--, trappean rocks of the.

New York, Devonian strata of.
--, Cambrian strata of.
--, Silurian strata of.
--, Laurentian strata of.

Niagara Limestone, fossils of the.

Nidau, iron tools in lake of.

Nile, homogeneous mud of the.

Ninety-fathom dike in coal.

Nipadites ellipticus, Sheppey.

Nodules in strata, how formed.

Noeggerathia cuneifolia, Permian.

Nomenclature of rocks.
-- of volcanic minerals.

Norfolk cliffs, drift of.

North America. See America.

Norway, Cambrian of.
--, foliation of crystalline schists in.
--, granite veins in gneiss of.
--, granite altering fossiliferous strata in.

Norwich, or Fluvio-marine crag.

Nova Scotia coal-measures.
-- coal, reptiles and shells in.
--, folding and denudation of beds in.

Nucula Cobboldiae, Crag.

Nummulites laevigata, Bracklesham.
-- Puschi, Pyrenees.
-- variolaria, Bracklesham.

Nummulitic formations.

Obolus Apollinis, in Russian grit.


Oceanic areas, permanence of.

Oeningen, Upper Miocene beds of.

Oeynhausen, M. von, on Cornish granite veins.

Ogygia Buchii.

Oldhamia radiata: O. antiqua.

Old Red Sandstone, Upper.
--, Middle, with fish.
--, Lower.
--, trap of the.
--, classification of.

Olenus micrurus.

Oligocene, term for Lower Miocene.


Oliva Dufresnii, Bolderberg, Belgium.


Omphyma turbinatum, Silurian.

Onchus tenuistriatus, Silurian.

Oolite, classification and physical geography of the.
--, defined.
--, Inferior, fossils of the.
-- and Lias, origin of the.
-- and Chalk, Palaeontological break between.

Oolitic strata, palaeontological relations of.
-- volcanic rocks.

Ophioderma tenuibrachiata, Lias.

Oppel on zones of Lias.

Orbigny, Alcide de, on foraminifera of Vienna basin.
--, on orbitoidal limestone.
--, on Pisolitic limestone.
--, on Senonian.

Oreodaphne Heerii, Italian Pliocene.

Organic remains, mineralisation of.
--, tests of age of strata.
--, tests of age of volcanic rocks.
--, geological provinces of.

Oriskany Sandstone.

Orthis elegantula, Ludlow.
-- grandis, Caradoc beds.
-- tricenaria, Bala beds.
-- vespertilio, Bala beds.

Orthoceras duplex.
-- Ludense, Silurian.
-- laterale.
-- ventricosum, Silurian.


Orthoclastic feldspars.

Osborne or St. Helen's series, Eocene.

Osteolepis, Old Red Sandstone.

Ostraceon, spine of, Bracklesham.

Ostrea acuminata, Fuller's earth.
-- carinata, Chalk marl.
-- columba, Chloritic sand.
-- gregarea, Coral Rag.
-- deltoidea, Kimmeridge clay.
-- distorta, Middle Purbeck.
-- expansa, Portland sand.
-- Marshii, Oolite.
-- vesicularis, Chalk.

Otodus obliquus, Bracklesham.

Outcrop of strata.

Overlapping strata.

Owen, Professor on Archaeopteryx.
--, on Eocene Zeuglodon.
--, on footprints in Trias.
--, on fauna of Sheppey.
--, on Gastornis Parisiensis.
--, on Labyrinthodon.
--, on mammalia of Stonesfield.
--, on Purbeck mammalia.
--, on reptiles of coal.
--, on zoological provinces of extinct animals.

Ox, tooth of (recent).

Oxford Clay, thickness and fossils of.

Pagham, erratic block at.

Palaeaster asperimus.

Palaechinus gigas, Mountain Limestone.

Palaeocoma tenuibrachiata, Lias.

Palaeoniscus, Permian fish.
-- comptus, P. elegans, P. glaphyrus.

Palaeotherium magnum.

Palaeophis typhoeus, Bracklesham.

Palaeozoic or Paleozoic, term defined.
-- Plutonic rocks.
-- rocks.
-- type of corals.

Palagonia, dikes of lava in.

Paleolithic era.
--, alluvial deposits of.

Palm in Swiss Miocene.

Palma, volcanic crater of.

Paludina lenta, Hempstead beds.
-- orbicularis, Bembridge.

Paradoxides Bohemicus.
-- Davidis, Lower Cambrian.

Parallelism of folded strata for long distances.

Paris basin, Tertiary group first studied in.


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