The Travels of Marco Polo, Volume 2
by
Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa

Part 16 out of 23



A Lecture with a Bibliography which is the basis of the list of this
edition of Marco Polo.

89. MANLY.--_Marco Polo and the Squire's Tale_. By John Matthews Manly.
(_Publications of the Modern Language Association of America_, vol. xi.
1896, pp. 349-362.)

Cf. our Introduction, p. 128.

90. SUEZ, IUMING C. _Marco Polo_. (_St. John's Echo_, Shanghai, Nov. 1899.)

91. NORDENSKIOELD, A.E.--_Om det inflytande Marco Polos reseberaettelse
utoefvat pa Gastaldis kartor oefver Asien_. (_ur Ymer, Tidskrift utgifven
af Svenska Saellskapet foer Antropologi och Geografi_, Arg. 1899, H. 1,
pp. 33 to 42).

---- _The Influence of the "Travels of Marco Polo" on Jacobo Gastaldi's Map
of Asia_. (_Geog. Journal_, April, 1899, pp. 396 to 406.)

See _Introduction_, p. 137.

92. CHAIX, PAUL. _Marco Polo_. (_Le Globe_, Soc. Geog. Geneve, fev.-avril,
1900, pp. 84-94.)

93. LE STRANGE, GUY. _The Cities of Kirman in the time of Hamd-Allah
Mustawfi and Marco Polo_. (_J. R. As. Soc._, April, 1901, pp. 281-290.)

94. MURET, ERNEST. _Un fragment de Marco Polo_. Paris, 1901, 8vo., pp. 8.

From _Romania_, tom. xxx. See p. 547, _App. F._, 65.

95. GREAT EXPLORERS.--Marco Polo, Ferdinand Magellan, Mungo Park, Sir John
Franklin, David Livingstone, Christopher Columbus, etc., etc. Thomas
Nelson, London, 1902, 8vo, pp. 224.

Marco Polo, pp. 7-21.


[1] [Sir Henry Yule expressed his regret to me that he had not the facility
at Palermo to undertake this Bibliography which I consider as a legacy
from the first and illustrious editor of this book.--H.C.]




APPENDIX I.--_Titles of Works which are cited by abbreviated References
in this Book_.


ABDALLATIF. _Relation de l'Egypte_. Trad. par M. Silvestre de Sacy.
Paris, 1810.

ABULPHARAGIUS. _Hist. Compend. Dynastiarum_, etc., _ab_ Ed.
Pocockio. Oxon. 1663.

ABR. ROGER. See _La Porte ouverte_.

ACAD. _Mem. de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres_.

AIN-I-AKBARI or AIN. AKB. BL. refers to Blochmann's Translation in
_Bibliotheca Indica_. Calcutta, 1869, seqq.

ALEXANDRIADE, _ou Chanson de Geste d'Alexandre-le-Grand, de_ Lambert
Le Court _et_ Alex. de Bernay. Dinan et Paris, 1861, 12mo.

ALPHABETUM TIBETANUM _Missionum Apostolicarum commodo editum_; A.A.
Georgii. Romae, 1762, 4to.

AM. EXOT. Engelbert Kaempfer's _Amoenitatum Exoticarum Fasciculi V_.
Lemgoviae, 1712.

AMYOT. _Memoires concernant les Chinois_, etc. Paris v. y.

ARABS., ARABSHAH. _Ahmedis Arabsiadis Vitae .... Timuri .... Historia.
Latine vertit ... _S.H. Manger. Franequerae, 1767.

ARCH. STOR. ITAL. _Archivio Storico Italiano_. Firenze, v. y.

ASSEMANI, _Bibliotheca Orientalis_. Romae, 1719-28.

ASTLEY. _A New General Collection of Voyages, etc._ London,
1745-1747.

AVA, MISSION TO, Narrative of Major Phayre's. By Capt. H. Yule. London,
1858

AYEEN AKBERY refers to Gladwin's Transl., Calcutta, 1787.


BABER, Memoir of. Transl. by Leyden and Erskine. London, 1826.

BABER, E. COLBORNE. _Travels and Researches in Western China_.
London, 1882, 8vo.

Vol. i. Pt. I. _Supp. Papers R. Geog. Society_.

BACON, ROGER. _Opus Majus_. Venet. 1750.

BAER UND HELMERSEN. _Beitraege zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reiches,
etc._ St. Petersburg, 1839, seqq.

BAUDUIN DE SEBOURC. _Li Romans de Bauduin de S., III'e Roy de
Jherusalem_. Valenciennes, 1841, 2 vol. large 8vo.

BENJAMIN OF TUDELA. Quoted from T. Wright's _Early Travels in
Palestine_. Bohn, London, 1848.

BRETSCHNEIDER, DR. E. _Notes on Chinese Mediaeval Travellers to the
West_. Shanghai, 1875, 8vo.

---- _Archaeological and Historical Researches on Peking and its
Environs_. Shanghai, 1876, 8vo.

---- _Mediaeval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources_. London,
1888, 2 vol. 8vo.

---- _History of European Botanical Discoveries in China_. London
[St. Petersburg], 1898, 2 Pts. 8vo. Begins with _Marco Polo_, pp.
1-5.

All these works are most valuable.

BRIDGMAN, Rev. Dr. _Sketches of the Meaou-tsze_, transl. by. In _J.
N. Ch. Br. R. As. Soc._ for Dec. 1859.

BROWNE'S _Vulgar Errors_, in Bohn's Ed. of his Works. London, 1852.

BUCHON. _Chroniques Etrangeres relatives aux Expeditions Francaises
pendant le XIII'e Siecle_. Paris, 1841.

BURNES, ALEX. _Travels into Bokhara_. 2nd Ed. London, 1835.

BUESCHING'S _Magazin fuer die neue Historie und Geographie_. Halle,
1779, seqq.


CAHIER ET MARTIN. _Melanges d'Archeologie_. Paris, v. y.

CAPMANY, ANTONIO. _Memorias Historicas sobre la marina ... de
Barcelona_. Madrid, 1779-1792.

CARP., CARPINI. As published in _Recueil de Voyages et de Memoires de la
Soc. de Geog._ Tom. iv. Paris, 1839.

CATHAY, _and the Way Thither_. By Col. H. Yule. Hakluyt Society,
1866.

CHARDIN, _Voyages en Perse de_. Ed. of Langles. Paris, 1811.

CHAVANNES, EDOUARD. _Memoire compose a l'epoque de la grande dynastie
T'ang sur les Religieux eminents qui allerent chercher la loi dans les
Pays d'Occident par_ I-TSING. Paris, 1894, 8vo.

CHINA ILLUSTRATA. See _Kircher_.

CHINE ANCIENNE. By Pauthier, in _L'Univers Pittoresque_. Paris, 1837.

---- MODERNE. By do. and Bazin, in do. Paris, 1853.

CHIN. REP. _Chinese Repository_. Canton, 1832, seqq.

CLAVIJO. Transl. by C.R. Markham. Hak. Society, 1859.

CONSULAR REPORTS. (See this vol. p. 144.)

CONTI, _Travels of Nicolo_. In _India in the XVth Century_. Hak.
Society, 1857.

CORDIER, HENRI. _Les Voyages en Asie au XIV'e Siecle du Bienheureux
Frere Odoric de Pordenone_. Paris, 1891, 8vo.

----. _L'Extreme-Orient dans l'Atlas Catalan de Charles V., Roi de
France_. Paris, 1895, 8vo.

CURZON, GEORGE N. _Persia and the Persian Question_. London, 1892, 2
vol. 8vo.


D'AVEZAC. See App. H., III., No. 36.

DAVIES'S REPORT. _Rep. on the Trade and Resources of the Countries on
the N.W. Boundary of Br. India_ (By R.H. Davies, now (1874)
Lieut.-Governor of the Panjab).

DEGUIGNES. _Hist. Gen. des Huns, etc._ Paris, 1756.

---- (the Younger). _Voyage a Peking, etc._ Paris, 1808.

DELLA DECIMA, etc. Lisbone e Lucca (really Florence) 1765-1766. The 3rd
volume of this contains the Mercantile Handbook of _Pegolotti_
(circa 1340), and the 4th volume that of _Uzzano_ (1440).

DELLA PENNA. _Breve Notizia del Regno del Thibet_. An extract from
the _Journal Asiatique_, ser. II. tom. xiv. (pub. by Klaproth).

DELLA VALLE, P. _Viaggi_. Ed. Brighton, 1843.

DE MAILLA. _H. Generale de la Chine, etc._ Paris, 1783.

DEVERIA, G. _La Frontiere Sino-Annamite_. Paris, 1886, 8vo.

---- _Notes d'Epigraphie mongole-chinoise_. Paris, 1897, 8vo. From the
_Jour. As._

---- _Musulmans et Manicheens chinois_. Paris, 1898, 8vo. From the
_Jour. As._

---- _Stele Si-Hia de Leang-tcheou_. Paris, 1898, 8vo. From the
_Jour. As._

DICT. DE LA PERSE. _Dict. Geog. Hist. et Litt. de la Perse, etc._;
par Barbier de Meynard. Paris, 1861.

D'OHSSON. _H. des Mongols_. La Haye et Amsterdam, 1834.

DOOLITTLE, Rev. J. _The Social Life of the Chinese_. Condensed Ed.
London, 1868.

DOUET D'ARCQ. _Comptes de l'Argenterie des Rois de France au XV'e
Siecle_ Paris, 1851.

DOZY AND ENGELMANN. _Glossaire des Mots Espagnols et Portugais derives
de l'Arabe_. 2de. Ed. Leyde, 1869.

DUCHESNE, ANDRE, _Historiae Francorum Scriptores_. Lut. Par.
1636-1649.

EARLY TRAVELS in Palestine, ed. by T. Wright, Esq. Bohn, London, 1848.

EDRISI. _Trad. par_ Amedee Jaubert; in _Rec. de Voy. et de
Mem._, tom. v. et vi. Paris, 1836-1840.

ELIE DE LAPRIMAUDAIE. _Etudes sur le Commerce au Moyen Age_. Paris,
1848.

ELLIOT. _The History of India as told by its own Historians_. Edited
from the posthumous papers of Sir H.M. Elliot, by Prof. Dowson. 1867,
seqq.

ERDMANN, Dr. FRANZ v. _Temudschin der Unerschuetterliche_. Leipzig,
1862.

ERMAN. _Travels in Siberia_. Transl. by W.D. Cooley. London, 1848.

ESCAYRAC DE LAUTURE. _Memoires sur la Chine_. Paris, 1865.

ETUDE PRATIQUE, etc. See _Hedde_.


FARIA Y SOUZA. _History of the Discovery and Conquest of India by the
Portuguese_. Transl. by Capt. J. Stevens. London, 1695.

FERRIER, J.P. _Caravan Journeys, etc._ London, 1856.

FORTUNE. _Two Visits to the Tea Countries of China_. London, 1853.

FRANCISQUE-MICHEL. _Recherches sur le Commerce, la fabrication, et
l'usage des etoffes de Soie, etc._ Paris, 1852.

FRESCOB. _Viaggi in Terra Santa di L. Frescobaldi, etc._ (1384).
Firenze, 1862.


GARCIA DE ORTA. _Garzia dall' Horto, Dell' Istoria dei semplici ed altre
cose che vengono portate dall' Indie Orientali, etc._ Trad. dal
Portughese da Annib. Briganti. Venezia, 1589.

GARNIER, FRANCIS. _Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine_. Paris, 1873.

GAUBIL. _H. de Gentchiscan et de toute la Dinastie des Mongous_.
Paris, 1739.

GILDEM., GILDEMEISTER. _Scriptorum Arabum de Rebus Indicis, etc._
Bonn, 1838.

GILL, CAPT. WILLIAM. _The River of Golden Sand ... With an Introductory
Essay by Col. HENRY YULE_.... London, 1880, 2 vol. 8vo.

GODINHO DE EREDIA. _Malaca l'Inde meridionale et le Cathay reproduit en
facsimile et traduit par M. LEON JANSSEN_. Bruxelles, 1882, 4to.

GOLD. HORDE. See _Hammer_.

GRENARD, F. _J.-L. Dutreuil de Rhins-Mission scientifique dans la Haute
Asie_, 1890-1895. Paris, 1897-1898, 3 vol. 4to and Atlas.

GROENEVELDT, W.P. _Notes on the Archipelago and Malacca. Compiled from
Chinese Sources_. [Batavia, 1877] 8vo.

Rep. by Dr. R. Rost in 1887.

---- _Supplementary Jottings to the Notes. T'oung Pao, VII._, May,
1896, pp. 113-134.


HAMILTON, A. _New Account of the East Indies_. London, 1744.

HAMMER-PURGSTALL. _Geschichte der Goldenen Horde_. Pesth, 1840.

---- _Geschichte der Ilchane_. Darmstadt, 1842.

HEDDE ET RONDOT. _Etude Pratique du Commerce d'Exportation de la
Chine_, par I. Hedde. _Revue et completee_ par N. Rondot. Paris,
1849.

HEYD, Prof. W. _Le Colonie Commerciali degli Italiani in Oriente nel
Media Evo; Dissert. Rifatt. dall' Autore e recate in Italiano dal_
Prof. G. Mueller. Venezia e Torino, 1866.

---- _Histoire du Commerce du Levant au Moyen Age ... ed.
francaise_ ... par Furcy Raynaud. Leipzig, 1885-6, 2 vol. 8vo.

HOSIE, ALEXANDER. _Three Years in Western China; a Narrative of three
Journeys in Ssu-ch'uan, Kuei-chow, and Yun-nan_. London, 1890, 8vo.

H.T. or HIUEN TSANG. _Vie et Voyages_, viz. Hist. de la Vie de
Hiouen Thsang et de ses Voyages dans l'Inde, &c. Paris, 1853.

---- or ----. _Memoires sur les Contrees Occidentales, &c._ Paris, 1857.
See _Pelerins Bouddhistes_.

HUC. _Recollections of a Journey through Tartary, &c._ Condensed
Transl. by Mrs. P. Sinnett. London, 1852.


I.B., IBN. BAT., IBN BATUTA. _Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah par Defremery et
Sanguinetti_. Paris, 1853-58, 4 vol. 8vo.

IBN KHORDADHBEH.... _Cum versione gallica edidit_.... M.J. de Goeje.
Lug. Bat., 1889, 8vo.

ILCH., ILCHAN., HAMMER'S ILCH. See _Hammer_.

INDIA IN XVTH CENTURY. Hak. Soc. 1857.

IND. ANT., INDIAN ANTIQUARY, a Journal of Oriental Research. Bombay, 1872,
seqq.


J.A.S.B. _Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal_.

J. As. _Journal Asiatique_.

J.C.BR.R.A.S. _Journal of the China Branch of the R. Asiatic Society_,
Shanghai.

J. IND. ARCH. _Journal of the Indian Archipelago_.

J.N.C.BR.R.A.S. _Journal of the North China Branch of the R.
Asiatic Society_, Shanghai.

J.R.A.S. _Journal of the Royal As. Society_.

J.R.G.S. _Journal of the Royal Geographical Society_.

JOINVILLE. Edited by Francisque-Michel. Firmin-Didot: Paris, 1867.


KAEMPFER. See _Am. Exot._

KHANIKOFF, NOTICE. See App. H., III., No. 43.

---- MEMOIRE _sur la Partie Meridionale de l'Asie Centrale_, Paris,
1862.

KIRCHER, _Athanasius. China, Monumentis, &c., Illustrata_. Amstelod.
1667.

KLAP. MEM. See App. H., III., No. 22.

KOEPPEN, _Die Religion des Buddha,_, von Carl Friedrich. Berlin,
1857-59


LA PORTE OUVERTE, &c., _ou la Vraye Representation de la Vie, des
Moeurs, de la Religion, et du Service Divin des Bramines, &c._, par
le Sieur Abraham Roger, trad. en Francois. Amsterdam, 1670.

LADAK, &c. By Major Alex. Cunningham. 1854.

LASSEN. _Indische Alterthumskunde_. First edition is cited
throughout.

LECOMTE, Pere L. _Nouveaux Memoires sur la Chine_. Paris, 1701.

LEVCHINE, ALEXIS DE. _Desc. des Hordes et des Steppes des Kirghiz
Kaissaks; trad._ par F. de Pigny. Paris, 1840.

LINSCHOTEN. _Hist. de la Navigation de Jean Hugues de Linschot._ 3iem
ed. Amst., 1638.


MAGAILLANS. See App. H., III., No. 4.

MAKRIZI. See _Quat. Mak._

MAR. SAN., MARIN. SANUT., MARINO SANUDO. _Liber Secretorum Fidelium
Crucis_, in _Bongarsii Gesta Dei per Francos_. Hanoviae, 1611.
Tom. ii.

MARTENE ET DURAND. _Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum_. Paris, 1717.

MARTINI. See App. H., III., No. 2.

MAS'UDI. _Les Prairies d'Or, par Barbier de Meynard et Pavet de
Courteille_. Paris, 1861, seqq.

MATTHIOLI, P.A. _Commentarii in libros VI. Pedacii Dioscoridis de
Medica Materia_. Venetiis, 1554; sometimes other editions are cited.

MAUNDEVILE. Halliwell's Ed. London, 1866.

MEM. DE L'ACAD. See _Acad._

MENDOZA. _H. of China_. Ed. of Hak. Society, 1853-54.

MERVEILLES DE L'INDE. _Livre des Merveilles de l'Inde ... Texte arabe
par_ P.A. Van der Lith. _Trad. francaise par_ L. Marcel Devic.
Leide, 1883-1886, 4to.

MICHEL. See _Francisque-Michel_.

MID. KINGD. See _Williams_.

MOORCROFT _and Trebeck's Travels_; edited by Prof. H.H. Wilson,
1841.

MOSHEIM. _Historia Tartarorum Ecclesiastica_. Helmstadt, 1741.

MUNTANER, in _Buchon_, q.v.


N. & E., NOT. ET EXT. _Notices et Extraits des MSS. de la Bibliotheque
du Roy_. Paris, v. y.

N. & Q. _Notes and Queries_.

N. & Q.C. & J. _Notes and Queries for China and Japan_.

NELSON, J.H. _The Madura Country, a Manual_. Madras, 1868.

NEUMANN, C.F. His Notes at end of Buerck's German ed. of Polo.

NOVUS ORBIS _Regionum &c. Veteribus incognitarum_. Basil. Ed. 1555.


P. DE LA CROIX. PETIS DE LA CROIX, _Hist. de Timurbec, &c._ Paris,
1722.

P. DELLA V. See _Della Valle_.

P. VINC. MARIA, P. VINCENZO. _Viaggio all' Indie Orientali del P.F.V.
M. di S. Catarina da Siena_. Roma, 1672.

PALLAS. _Voyages dans plusieurs Provinces de l'Empire de Russie, &c._
Paris, Pan XI.

PAOLINO. _Viaggio alle Indie, &c._ da Fra P. da S. Bartolomeo. Roma,
1796.

PEGOLOTTI. See _Della Decima_.

PELERINS BOUDDHISTES, par Stan. Julien. This name covers the two works
entered above under the heading H.T., the _Vie et Voyages_ forming
vol. i., and the _Memoires_, vols. ii. and iii.

PEREG. QUAT. _Peregrinatores Medii Aevi Quatuor, &c._ Recens. J.M.
Laurent. Lipsiae, 1864.

POST UND REISE ROUTEN. See _Sprenger_.

PRAIRIES D'OR. See _Mas'udi_.

PUNJAUB TRADE REPORT. See _Davies_.


Q.R., QUAT. RASHID. _H. des Mongols de la Perse, par Raschid-ed-din,
trad. &c._ par M. Quatremere. Paris, 1836.

QUAT. MAK., QUATREMERE'S MAK. _H. des Sultans Mamlouks de l'Egypte, par
Makrizi. Trad. par Q._ Paris, 1837, seqq.


RAS MALA, _or Hindoo Annals of Goozerat_. By A.K. Forbes. London,
1856.

REINAUD, REL. _Relations des Voyages faits par les Arabes dans l'Inde et
la Chine, &c._ Paris, 1845.

----, INDE, _Mem. Geog. Histor. et Scientifique sur l', &c._ Paris,
1849.

RELAT., RELATIONS. See last but one.

RICHTHOFEN, Baron F. VON. _Letters_ (addressed to the Committee of
the Shanghai Chamber of Commerce) _on the Interior Provinces of
China_. Shanghai, 1870-72.

ROCKHILL, W.W. _The Land of the Lamas_. London, 1891, 8vo.

---- _Diary of a Journey through Mongolia and Tibet in 1891 and
1892_. Washington, 1894, 8vo.

---- _The Journey of William of Rubruck_. London, _Hakluyt
Society_, 1900, 8vo.

ROMAN., ROMANIN, _Storia Documentata di Venezia_. Venezia, 1853,
seqq.

RUB., RUBRUQUIS. Cited from edition in _Recueil de Voyages et de
Memoires_, tom. iv. Paris, 1839. See ROCKHILL.


S.S., SAN. SETZ., SS. SSETZ. See _Schmidt_.

SANTAREM, _Essai sur l'Hist. de la Cosmographie, &c._ Paris, 1849.

SANUDO. See _Mar. San._

SCHILTBERGER, _Reisen des_ Johan. Ed. by Neumann. Muenchen, 1859.

SCHLEGEL, G. _Geographical Notes_, I.-XVI., _in T'oung Pao_,
Leiden, 1898-1901.

SCHMIDT. _Geschichte der Ost-Mongolen, &c., verfasst von Ssanang-Ssetzen
Chungtaidschi_. St. Petersburg, 1829.

SONNERAT. _Voyage aux Indes Orientales_. Paris, 1782.

SPRENGER. _Post und Reise Routen des Orients_. Leipzig, 1864.

ST. MARTIN, M.J. _Memoires Historiques et Geographiques sur l'Armenie,
&c._ Paris, 1818-19.

SYKES, MAJOR PERCY MOLESWORTH. _Ten Thousand Miles in Persia, or Eight
Years in Iran_. London, 1902, 8vo.

Chap, xxiii. _Marco Polo's Travels in Persia_.

---- _Recent Journeys in Persia_. (_Geog. Journal_, X, 1897,
pp. 568-597.)


TEIXEIRA, _Relaciones de_ Pedro, _del Origen Descendencia y
Succession de los Reyes de Persia, y de Harmuz, y de un Viage hecho por
el mismo aotor, &c._ En Amberes, 1670.

TIMKOWSKI. _Travels, &c._, edited by Klaproth. London, 1827.


UZZANO. See _Della Decima_.


VARTHEMA'S _Travels_. By Jones and Badger. Hak. Soc., 1863.

VIGNE, G.T. _Travels in Kashmir, &c._ London, 1842.

VIN. BELL., VINC. BELLOV. Vincent of Beauvais' _Speculum Historiale,
Speculum Naturale, &c._

VISDELOU. Supplement to D'Herbelot. 1780.


WILLIAMS'S _Middle Kingdom_. 3rd. Ed. New York and London, 1857.

WILLIAMSON, Rev. A. _Journeys in N. China, &c._ London, 1870.

WEBER'S _Metrical Romances of the XIIIth, XIVth, and XVth Centuries_
Edinburgh, 1810.

WITSEN. _Noord en Oost Tartaryen_. 2nd Ed. Amsterdam, 1785.




APPENDIX K.--_Values of certain Moneys, Weights, and Measures, occurring in
this Book_.


FRENCH MONEY.

The LIVRE TOURNOIS of the period may be taken, on the mean of five
valuations cited in a footnote at p. 87 of vol. i., as equal in _modern
silver value_ to ... 18.04 _francs_.

Say English money ... 14_s._ 3.8_d._

The LIVRE PARISIS was worth one-fourth more than the _Tournois_,[1]
and therefore equivalent in silver value to ... 22.55 _francs_.

Say English money ... 17_s._ 10.8_d._

(Gold being then to silver in relative value about 12:1 instead of about
15:1 as now, one-fourth has to be added to the values based on silver in
equations with the gold coin of the period, and one-fifth to be deducted
in values based on gold value. By oversight, in vol. i. p. 87, I took 16:1
as the present gold value, and so exaggerated the value of the livre
Tournois as compared with gold.)

M. Natalis de Wailly, in his recent fine edition of Joinville, determines
the valuation of these _livres_, in the reign of St. Lewis, by taking
a mean between a value calculated on the present value of silver, and a
value calculated on the present value of gold,[2] and his result is:

LIVRE TOURNOIS = 20.26 _francs_.

LIVRE PARISIS = 25.33 "

Though there is something arbitrary in this mode of valuation, it is,
perhaps, on the whole the best; and its result is extremedy handy for the
memory (as somebody has pointed out) for we thus have

One LIVRE TOURNOIS = One Napoleon.

" " PARISIS = One Sovereign.


VENETIAN MONEY.

The MARK of Silver all over Europe may be taken fairly at 2_l._ 4_s._ of
our money in modern value; the Venetian mark being a fraction more, and the
marks of England, Germany and France fractions less.[3]

The Venice GOLD DUCAT or ZECCHIN, first coined in accordance with a Law of
31st October 1283, was, _in our gold value_, worth ... 11.82 _francs_.[4]
or English ... 9_s._ 4.284_d._

The Zecchin when first coined was fixed as equivalent to 18 _grossi_, and
on this calculation the GROSSO should be a little less than 5_d._
sterling.[5] But from what follows it looks as if there must have been
another _grosso_, perhaps only of account, which was only 3/4 of the
former, therefore equivalent to 3-3/4_d._ only. This would be a clue to
difficulties which I do not find dealt with by anybody in a precise or
thorough manner; but I can find no evidence for it.

Accounts were kept at Venice not in ducats and grossi, but in _Lire_,
of which there were several denominations, viz.:

1. LIRA DEI GROSSI, called in Latin Documents _Libra denariorum
Venetorum grosorum_.[6] Like every _Lira_ or Pound, this
consisted of 20 _soldi_, and each _soldo_ of 12 _denari_
or _deniers_.[7] In this case the Lira was equivalent to 10 golden
ducats; and its Denier, as the name implies, was the _Grosso_. The
Grosso therefore here was 1/240 of 10 ducats or 1/24 of a ducat, instead
of 1/18.

2. LIRA AI GROSSI (_L. den. Ven. ad grossos_). This by decree of
2nd June, 1285, went two to the ducat. In fact it is the _soldo_ of
the preceding _Lira_, and as such the _Grosso_ was, as we have
just seen, its denier; which is perhaps the reason of the name.

3. LIRA DEI PICCOLI (_L. den. Ven. parvulorum_). The ducat is
alleged to have been at first equal to three of these _Lire_
(_Romanin_, I. 321); but the calculations of Marino Sanudo
(1300-1320) in the _Secreta Fidelium Crucis_ show that he reckons the
Ducat equivalent to 3.2 _lire_ of _piccoli_.[8]

In estimating these _Lire_ in modern English money, on the basis of
their relation to the ducat, we must reduce the apparent value by 1/5. We
then have:

1. LIRA DEI GROSSI equivalent to nearly 3_l._ 15_s._ 0_d._
(therefore exceeding by nearly 10_s._ the value of the Pound sterling of
the period, or _Lira di Sterlini_, as it was called in the appropriate
Italian phrase).[9]

2. LIRA AI GROSSI ... 3_s._ 9_d._

3. LIRA DEI PICCOLI ... 2_s._ 4_d._

The TORNESE or TORNESEL at Venice was, according to Romanin (III. 343) = 4
Venice deniers: and if these are the _deniers_ of the _Lira ai Grossi_, the
coin would be worth a little less than 3/4_d._, and nearly the equivalent
of the denier Tournois, from which it took its name.[10]

* * * * *

The term BEZANT is used by Polo always (I believe) as it is by Joinville,
by Marino Sanudo, and by Pegolotti, for the Egyptian gold dinar, the
intrinsic value of which varied somewhat, but can scarcely be taken at
less than 10_s._ 6_d._ or 11_s._ (See _Cathay_, pp. 440-441; and see also
_J. As._ ser. VI. tom. xi. pp. 506-507.) The exchange of Venice money for
the Bezant or Dinar in the Levant varied a good deal (as is shown by
examples in the passage in _Cathay_ just cited), but is always in these
examples a large fraction (1/6 up to 1/3) more than the Zecchin. Hence,
when Joinville gives the equation of St. Lewis's ransom as 1,000,000
_bezants_ or 500,000 _livres_, I should have supposed these to be _livres
Parisis_ rather than _Tournois_, as M. de Wailly prefers.

There were a variety of coins of lower value in the Levant called
Bezants,[11] but these do not occur in our Book.

* * * * *

The Venice SAGGIO, a weight for precious substances was 1/6 of an ounce,
corresponding to the weight of the Roman gold _solidus_, from which was
originally derived the Arab MISKAL And Polo appears to use _saggio_
habitually as the equivalent of _Miskal_. His POIS or PESO, applied to
gold and silver, seems to have the same sense, and is indeed a literal
translation of _Miskal_. (See vol. ii. p. 41.)

* * * * *

For measures Polo uses the _palm_ rather than the foot. I do not find
a value of the Venice palm, but over Italy that measure varies from 9-1/2
inches to something over 10. The Genoa Palm is stated at 9.725 inches.

_Jal_ (_Archeologie Nav._ I. 271) cites the following Table of

_Old Venice Measures of Length_.

4 fingers = 1 handbreadth.
4 handbreadths = 1 foot.
5 feet = 1 pace.
1000 paces = 1 mile.
4 miles = 1 league.


[1] See (_Dupre de St. Maur_) _Essai sur les Monnoies, &c._
Paris, 1746, p. xv; and _Douet d'Arcq_, pp. 5, 15, &c.

[2] He takes the _silver value_ of the gros Tournois (the _sol_
of the system) at 0.8924 _fr._, whence the Livre = 17.849
_fr._ And the _gold value_ of the golden _Agnel_, which
passed for 12-1/2 _sols Tournois_, is 14.1743 _fr._ Whence
the Livre = 22.6789 _fr._ Mean = 20.2639 _fr._

[3] The Mark was 2/3 of a pound. The English POUND STERLING of the period
was in silver value = 3_l._ 5_s._ 2_d._ Hence the MARK
= 2_l._ 3_s._ 5.44_d._ The Cologne Mark, according to
Pegolotti, was the same, and the Venice Mark of silver was = 1 English
Tower Mark + 3-1/2 sterlings (i.e. pence of the period), =
therefore to 2_l._ 4_s._ 4.84_d._ The French Mark of
Silver, according to Dupre de St. Maur, was about 3 Livres, presumably
Tournois, and therefore 2_l._ 2_s._ 11-1/2_d._

[4] _Cibrario, Pol. Ec. del Med. Evo._ III. 228. The GOLD FLORIN of
Florence was worth a fraction more = 9_s._ 4.85_d._

Sign. Desimoni, of Genoa, obligingly points out that the changed
relation of Gold ducat and silver _grosso_ was due to a general
rise in price of gold between 1284 and 1302, shown by notices of other
Italian mints which raise the equation of the gold florin in the same
ratio, viz. from 9 _sols tournois_ to 12.

[5] For 1/18 of the florin will be 6.23_d._, and deducting 1/6, as
pointed out above, we have 4.99_d._ as the value of the
_grosso_.

I have a note that the _grosso_ contained 42-88/144 Venice grains of
pure silver. If the Venice grain be the same as the old Milan grain
(.051 _grammes_) this will give exactly the same value of 5_d._

[6] Also called, according to Romanin, _Lira d'imprestidi_. See
Introd. Essay in vol. i. p. 66.

[7] It is not too universally known to be worth noting that our L. s. d.
represents _Livres, sois, deniers_.

[8] He also states the grosso to have been worth 32 _piccoli_, which
is consistent with this and the two preceding statements. For at 3.2
_lire_ to the ducat the latter would = 768 piccoli, and 1/24 of
this = 32 piccoli. Pegolotti also assigns 24 grossi to the ducat (p.
151).

The tendency of these _Lire_, as of pounds generally, was to
degenerate in value. In Uzzano (1440) we find the Ducat equivalent to
100 _soldi_, i.e. to 5 _lire_.

Everybody seems to be tickled at the notion that the Scotch Pound or
Livre was only 20 Pence. Nobody finds it funny that the French or
Italian Pound is only 20 halfpence, or less!

[9] _Uzzano_ in _Delia Decima_, IV. 124.

[10] According to Galliccioli (II. 53) _piccoli_ (probably in the
vague sense of small copper coin) were called in the Levant [Greek:
tornesia].

[11] Thus in the document containing the autograph of King Hayton,
presented at p. 13 of Introductory Essay, the King gives with
his daughter, "Damoiselle Femie," a dowry of 25,000 _besans
sarrazinas_, and in payment 4 of his own bezants _staurats_
(presumably so called from bearing a _cross_) are to count as one
Saracen Bezant. (_Cod. Diplomat. del S. Mil. Ord. Gerosolim_. I.
134.)




APPENDIX L.--_Sundry Supplementary Notes on Special Subjects_.--(H.C.)


1.--_The Polos at Acre_.
2.--_Sorcery in Kashmir_.
3.--PAONANO PAO.
4.--_Pamir_.
5.--_Number of Pamirs_.
6.--_Site of Pein_.
7.--_Fire-arms_.
8.--_La Couvade_.
9.--_Alacan_.
10.--_Champa_.
11.--_Ruck Quills_.
12.--_A Spanish Edition of Marco Polo_.
13.--_Sir John Mandeville_.


1.--THE POLOS AT ACRE. (Vol. i. p. 19. _Int._)

M. le Comte Riant (_Itin. a Jerusalem_, p. xxix.) from various data
thinks the two sojourns of the Polos at Acre must have been between the
9th May, 1271, date of the arrival of Edward of England and of Tedaldo
Visconti, and the 18th November, 1271, time of the departure of Tedaldo.
Tedaldo was still in Paris on the 28th December, 1269, and he appears to
have left for the Holy Land after the departure of S. Lewis for Tunis (2nd
July, 1270).--H.C.


2.--SORCERY IN KASHMIR. (Vol. i. p. 166.)

In _Kalhanda's Rajatarangini, A Chronicle of the Kings of Kasmir
translated by M.A. Stein_, we read (Bk. IV. 94, p. 128): "Again the
Brahman's wife addressed him: 'O king, as he is famous for his knowledge
of charms (_Kharkhodavidya_), he can get over an ordeal with ease.'" Dr.
Stein adds the following note: "The practice of witchcraft and the belief
in its efficiency have prevailed in Kasmir from early times, and have
survived to some extent to the present day; comp. _Buehler, Report_, p.
24.... The term _Kharkhoda_, in the sense of a kind of deadly charm or
witchcraft, recurs in v. 239, and is found also in the _Vijayesvaramah_
(Adipur.), xi. 25. In the form _Kharkota_ it is quoted by the _N. P.W._
from _Caraka_, vi. 23. _Kharkhota_ appears as the designation of a
sorcerer or another kind of uncanny persons in _Haracar_., ii. 125, along
with Krtyas and Vetalas...."


3.--PAONANO PAO. (Vol. i. p. 173.)

In his paper on _Zoroastrian Deities on Indo-Scythians' Coins_
(_Babylonian and Oriental Record_, August, 1887, pp. 155-166; rep. in the
_Indian Antiquary_, 1888), Dr. M.A. Stein has demonstrated that the
legend PAONANO PAO on the coins of the Yue-Chi or Indo-Scythian Kings
(Kanishka, Huvishka, Vasudeva), is the exact transcription of the old
Iranian title _Shahanan Shah_ (Persian _Shahan-shah_), "King of Kings";
the letter P, formerly read as P(_r_), has since been generally
recognised, in accordance with his interpretation as a distinct character
expressing the sound _sh_.


4.--PAMIR. (Vol. i. pp. 174-175.)

I was very pleased to find that my itinerary agrees with that of Dr. M.A.
Stein; this learned traveller sends me the following remarks: "The remark
about the absence of birds (pp. 174-175) _might_ be a reflex of the very
ancient legend (based probably on the name zend _Upairi-saena_, pehlevi
_Aparsin_, 'higher than the birds') which represents the _Hindu Kush_
range proper as too high for birds to fly over. The legend can be traced
by successive evidence in the case of the range north of Kabul."--
Regarding the route (p. 175) from the _Wakhjir_ (sic) Pass down the
Taghdum-bash Pamir, then via Tash-kurghan, Little Karakul, Bulun Kul,
Gez Daria to Tashmalik and Kashgar, Dr. Stein says that he surveyed it in
July, 1900, and he refers for the correct phonetic spelling of local names
along it to his map to be published in _J.R.G.S._, in December, 1902.
He says in his _Prel. Report_, p. 10: "The _Wakhjir_ Pass, only some 12
miles to the south-west of _Koek-toeroek_, connects the Taghdumbash Pamir
and the Sarikol Valleys with the head-waters of the Oxus. So I was glad
that the short halt, which was unavoidable for survey purposes, permitted
me to move a light camp close to the summit of the Wakhjir Pass (circ.
16,200 feet). On the following day, 2nd July, I visited the head of
_Ab-i-Panja_ Valley, near the great glaciers which Lord Curzon first
demonstrated to be the true source of the River Oxus. It was a strange
sensation for me in this desolate mountain waste to know that I had reached
at last the eastern threshold of that distant region, including Bactria and
the Upper Oxus Valley, which as a field of exploration had attracted me
long before I set foot in India. Notwithstanding its great elevation, the
Wakhjir Pass and its approaches both from west and east are comparatively
easy. Comparing the topographical facts with Hiuen-Tsiang's account in the
_Si yu-ki_, I am led to conclude that the route followed by the great
Chinese Pilgrim, when travelling about A.D. 649 from Badakshan towards
Khotan, through 'the valley of Po-mi-lo (Pamir)' into Sarikol, actually
traversed this Pass."

Dr. Stein adds in his notes to me that "Marco Polo's description of the
forty days' journey to the E.N.E. of _Vokhan_ as _through tracts of
wilderness_ can well be appreciated by any one who has passed through the
Pamir Region, in the direction of the valleys W. and N. of Muztagh Ata.
After leaving Tashkurghan and Tagharma, where there is some precarious
cultivation, there is no local produce to be obtained until the oasis of
Tashmalik is reached in the open Kashgar plains. In the narrow valley of
the Yamanyar River (Gez Defile) there is scarcely any grazing; its
appearance is far more desolate than that of the elevated Pamirs."--"Marco
Polo's praise (p. 181) of the gardens and vine-yards of Kashgar is well
deserved; also the remark about the trading enterprise of its merchants
still holds good, if judged by the standard of Chinese Turkestan. Kashgar
traders visit Khotan far more frequently than _vice versa_. It is strange
that no certain remains of Nestorian worship can be traced now."--"My
impression [Dr. Stein's] of the people of the Khotan oasis (p. 188) was
that they are certainly a meeker and more docile race than e.g. the
average 'Kashgarlik' or Yarkandi. The very small number of the Chinese
garrison of the districts Khotan and Keria (only about 200 men) bears out
this impression."

We may refer for the ancient sites, history, etc., of Khotan to the
_Preliminary Report_ of Dr. Stein and to his paper in the _Geographical
Journal_ for December, 1902, actually in the press.


5.--NUMBER OF PAMIRS. (Vol. i. p. 176.)

Lord Curzon gives the following list of the "eight claimants to the
distinction and title of a Pamir": (1) Taghdumbash, or Supreme Head of the
Mountains Pamir, lying immediately below and to the north of the Kilik
Pass. (2) The Pamir-i-Wakhan. (3) The Pamir-i-Khurd, or Little Pamir. (4)
The Pamir-i-Kalan, or Great Pamir. (5) The Alichur Pamir. (6) The Sarez
Pamir. (7) The Rang Kul Pamir. (8) The Khargosh or Hare Pamir, which
contains the basin of the Great Kara Kul. See this most valuable paper,
_The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus_, reprinted from the _Geographical
Journal_ of 1896, in 1896, 1898, and 1899.

[Illustration: Some of the objects found by Dr. M.A. Stein in Central
Asia.]


6.--PEIN. (Vol. i. p. 192.)

Dr. M.A. Stein, of the Indian Educational Service, appears to have
exactly identified the site of Pein, during his recent archaeological
researches in Central Asia; he writes (_Prel. Report on a Journey of
Archaeological and Topog. Exploration in Chinese Turkestan_, Lond., 1901,
pp. 58-59): "Various antiquarian and topographical considerations made me
anxious to identify the position of the town of _Pi-mo_, which
Hiuen-Tsiang describes as some 300 _li_ to the east of the Khotan capital.
It was probably the same place as the _Pein_, visited by Marco Polo. After
marching back along the Keriya River for four days, I struck to the
south-west, and, after three more marches, arrived in the vicinity of
Lachin-Ata Mazar, a desolate little shrine in the desert to the north of
the Khotan-Keriya route. Though our search was rendered difficult by the
insufficiency of guides and the want of water, I succeeded during the
following few days in tracing the extensive ruined site which previous
information had led me to look for in that vicinity. 'Uzun-Tati' ('the
distant Tati,') as the _debris_-covered area is locally designated,
corresponds in its position and the character of its remains exactly to the
description of Pi-mo. Owing to far-advanced erosion and the destruction
dealt by treasure-seekers, the structural remains are very scanty indeed.
But the _debris_, including bits of glass, pottery, china, small objects in
brass and stone, etc., is plentiful enough, and in conjunction with the
late Chinese coins found here, leaves no doubt as to the site having been
occupied up to the Middle Ages."

Our itinerary should therefore run from Khotan to Uzun Tati, and thence to
Nia, leaving Kiria to the south; indeed Kiria is _not_ an ancient
place.--H.C.

[Illustration: MARCO POLO'S ITINERARY CORRECTED]

Mr. E.J. Rapson, of the British Museum, with the kind permission of Dr.
Stein, has sent me a photograph (which we reproduce) of coins and
miscellaneous objects found at Uzun Tati. Coin (1) bears the _nien-hao_
(title of reign) _Pao Yuen_ (1038-1040) of the Emperor Jen Tsung, of the
Sung Dynasty; Coin (2) bears the _nien-hao_, _K'ien Yuen_ (758-760) of the
Emperor Su Tsung of the T'ang Dynasty; Coin (3) is of the time of the Khan
of Turkestan, Muhammad Arslan Khan, about 441 A.H. = 1049 A.D. From the
description sent to me by Mr. Rapson and written by Mr. Andrews, I note
that the miscellaneous objects include: "Two fragments of fine Chinese
porcelain, highly glazed and painted with Chinese ornament in blue. That
on the left is painted on both sides, and appears to be portion of rim of
a bowl. Thickness 3/32 of an inch. That to the right is slightly coarser,
and is probably portion of a larger vessel. Thickness 1/4 inch (nearly). A
third fragment of porcelain, shown at bottom of photo, is decorated
roughly in a neutral brown colour, which has imperfectly 'fluxed.' It,
also, appears to be Chinese. Thickness 1/8 inch (nearly).--A brass or
bronze object, cast. Probably portion of a clasp or buckle.--A brass
finger ring containing a piece of mottled green glass held loosely in
place by a turned-over denticulated rim. The metal is very thin."--H.C.


7.--FIRE-ARMS. (Vol. i. p. 342.)

From a paper on _Siam's Intercourse with China_, published by
Lieutenant-Colonel Gerini in the _Asiatic Quarterly Review_ for October,
1902, it would appear that fire-arms were mentioned for the first time in
Siamese Records during the Lau invasion and the siege of Swankhalok (from
1085 to 1097 A.D.); it is too early a date for the introduction of
fire-arms, though it would look "much more like an anachronism were the
advent of these implements of warfare [were] placed, in blind reliance upon
the _Northern Chronicles_, still a few centuries back. The most curious of
it all is, however, the statement as to the weapons in question having been
introduced into the country from China." Following W.F. Mayers in his
valuable contributions to the _Jour. North-China B.R.A.S._, 1869-1870,
Colonel Gerini, who, of course, did not know of Dr. Schlegel's paper, adds:
"It was not until the reign of the Emperor Yung Le, and on occasion of the
invasion of Tonkin in A.D. 1407, that the Chinese acquired the knowledge of
the propulsive effect of gunpowder, from their vanquished enemies."


8.--LA COUVADE. (Vol. ii. p. 91.)

Mr. H. Ling Roth has given an interesting paper entitled _On the
Signification of Couvade_, in the _Journ. Anthropological Institute_,
XXII. 1893, pp. 204-243. He writes (pp. 221-222):--"From this survey it
would seem in the first place that we want a great deal more information
about the custom in the widely isolated cases where it has been reported,
and secondly, that the authenticity of some of the reported cases is
doubtful in consequence of authors repeating their predecessors' tales, as
Colquhoun did Marco Polo's, and V. der Haart did Schouten's. I should not
be at all surprised if ultimately both Polo's and Schouten's accounts
turned out to be myths, both these travellers making their records at a
time when the Old World was full of the tales of the New, so that in the
end, we may yet find the custom is not, nor ever has been, so widespread
as is generally supposed to have been the case."

I do not very well see how Polo, in the 13th and 14th centuries could make
his _record at a time when the Old World was full of the tales of the
New_, discovered at the end of the 15th century! Unless Mr. Ling Roth
supposes the Venetian Traveller acquainted with the various theories of
the Pre-Columbian discovery of America!!


9.--ALACAN. (Vol. ii. pp. 255 and 261.)

Dr. G. Schlegel writes, in the _T'oung Pao_ (May, 1898, p. 153): "_Abakan_
or _Abachan_ ought to be written _Alahan_. His name is written by the
Chinese _Ats'zehan_ and by the Japanese _Asikan_; but this is because they
have both confounded the character _lah_ with the character _ts'ze_; the
old sound of [the last] character [of the name] was _kan_ and is always
used by the Chinese when wanting to transcribe the title _Khan_ or _Chan_.
Marco Polo's A_b_acan is a clerical error for A_l_acan."


10.--CHAMPA. (Vol. ii. p. 268.)

In Ma Huan's account of the Kingdom of Siam, transl. by Mr. Phillips
(_Jour. China B.R.A.S._, XXI. 1886, pp. 35-36) we read: "Their marriage
ceremonies are as follows:--They first invite the priest to conduct the
bridegroom to the bride's house, and on arrival there the priest exacts
the 'droit seigneurial,' and then she is introduced to the bridegroom."


11.--RUCK QUILLS. (Vol. ii. p. 421.)

Regarding Ruck Quills, Sir H. Yule wrote in the _Academy_, 22nd March,
1884, pp. 204-405:--

"I suggested that this might possibly have been some vegetable production,
such as a great frond of the Ravenala (_Urania speciosa_) cooked to pass
as a ruc's quill. (_Marco Polo_, first edition, ii. 354; second edition,
ii. 414.) Mr. Sibree, in his excellent book on Madagascar (_The Great
African Island_, 1880) noticed this, but said:

"'It is much more likely that they [the ruc's quills] were the immensely
long midribs of the leaves of the rofia palm. These are from twenty to
thirty feet long, and are not at all unlike an enormous quill stripped of
the feathering portion'" (p. 55).

In another passage he describes the palm, _Sagus ruffia (? raphia_):

"The _rofia_ has a trunk of from thirty to fifty feet in height, and at
the head divides into seven or eight immensely long leaves. The midrib of
these leaves is a very strong, but extremely light and straight pole....
These poles are often twenty feet or more in length, and the leaves proper
consist of a great number of fine and long pinnate leaflets, set at right
angles to the midrib, from eighteen to twenty inches long, and about one
and a half broad," etc. (pp. 74, 75).

When Sir John Kirk came home in 1881-1882, I spoke to him on the subject,
and he felt confident that the _rofia_ or _raphia_ palm-fronds were the
original of the ruc's quills. He also kindly volunteered to send me a
specimen on his return to Zanzibar. This he did not forget, and some time
ago there arrived at the India Office not one, but four of these ruc's
quills. In the letter which announced this despatch Sir John says:--

"I send to-day per s.s. _Arcot_ ... four fronds of the Raphia palm, called
here 'Moale.' They are just as sold and shipped up and down the coast. No
doubt they were sent in Marco Polo's time in exactly the same state,
i.e. stripped of their leaflets, and with the tip broken off. They are
used for making stages and ladders, and last long if kept dry. They are
also made into doors, by being cut into lengths, and pinned through. The
stages are made of three, like tripods, and used for picking cloves from
the higher branches."

The largest of the four midribs sent (they do not differ much) is 25 feet
4 inches long, measuring 12 inches in girth at the butt, and 5 inches at
the upper end. I calculate that if it originally came to a point the whole
length would be 45 feet, but, as this would not be so, we may estimate it
at 35 to 40 feet. The thick part is deeply hollowed on the upper (?) side,
leaving the section of the solid butt in form a thick crescent. The
leaflets are all gone, but when entire, the object must have strongly
resembled a Brobdingnagian feather. Compare this description with that of
Padre Bolivar in Ludolf, referred to above.

"In aliquibus ... regionibus vidi pennas alae istius avis prodigiosae,
licet avem non viderim, Penna illa, prout ex forma colligebatur, erat ex
mediocribus, longitudine 28 palmorum, latitudine trium. Calamus vero a
radice usque ad extremitatem longitudine quinque palmorum, densitatis
instar brachii moderati, robustissimus erat et durus. Pennulae inter se
aequales et bene compositae, ut vix ab invicem nisi cum violentia
divellerentur. Colore erant valde nigro, calamus colore albo." (_Ludolfi,
ad suam Hist. Aethiop., Comment._, p. 164.)

The last particular, as to colour, I am not able to explain: the others
correspond well. The _palmus_ in this passage may be anything from 9 to 10
inches.

I see this tree is mentioned by Captain R.F. Burton in his volume on the
Lake Regions (vol. xxix. of the _Journal_ of the Royal Geographical
Society, p. 34),[1] and probably by many other travellers.

I ought to mention here that some other object has been shown at Zanzibar
as part of the wings of a great bird. Sir John Kirk writes that this
(which he does not describe particularly) was in the possession of the
Roman Catholic priests at Bagamoyo, to whom it had been given by natives
of the interior, who declared that they had brought it from Tanganyika,
and that it was part of the wing of a gigantic bird. On another occasion
they repeated this statement, alleging that this bird was known in the
Udoe (?) country near the coast. These priests were able to communicate
directly with their informants, and certainly believed the story. Dr.
Hildebrand, also, a competent German naturalist, believed in it. But Sir
John Kirk himself says that "what the priests had to show was most
undoubtedly the whalebone of a comparatively small whale."


12.--A SPANISH EDITION OF MARCO POLO.

As we go to press we receive the newly published volume, _El Libro de
Marco Polo--Aus dem vermaechtnis des_ Dr. Hermann Knust _nach der Madrider
Handschrift herausgegeben von_ Dr. R. Stuebe. Leipzig, Dr. Seele & Co.,
1902, 8vo., pp. xxvi.-114. It reproduces the old Spanish text of the
manuscript Z-I-2 of the Escurial Library from a copy made by Senor D. Jose
Rodriguez for the Society of the Spanish Bibliophiles, which, being
unused, was sold by him to Dr. Hermann Knust, who made a careful
comparison of it with the original manuscript. This copy, found among the
papers of Dr. Knust after his death, is now edited by Dr. Stuebe. The
original 14th century MS., written in a good hand on two columns, includes
312 leaves of parchment, and contains several works; among them we note:
1 deg., a Collection entitled _Flor de las Ystorias de Oriente_ (fol.
1-104), made on the advice of Juan Fernandez de Heredia, Grand Master of
the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (1377), of which _Marco Polo_ (fol.
50-104) is a part; 2 deg. and _Secretum Secretorum_ (fol. 254 _r_-fol.
312 _v._); this MS. is not mentioned in our List, _App. F._, II. p. 546,
unless it be our No. 60.

The manuscript includes 68 chapters, the first of which is devoted to the
City of Lob and Sha-chau, corresponding to our Bk. I., ch. 39 and 40 (our
vol. i. pp. 196 seqq.) ch. 65 (p. 111) corresponds approximatively to
our ch. 40, Bk. III. (vol. ii. p. 451); chs. 66, 67, and the last, 68,
would answer to our chs. 2, 3, and 4 of Bk. I. (vol i., pp. 45 seqq.). A
concordance of this Spanish text, with Pauthier's, Yule's, and the
Geographic Texts, is carefully given at the beginning of each of the 68
chapters of the Book.

Of course this edition does not throw any new light on the text, and this
volume is but a matter of curiosity.


13.--SIR JOHN MANDEVILLE.

One of the last questions in which Sir Henry Yule[2] took an interest in,
was the problem of the authorship of the book of Travels which bears the
name of SIR JOHN MANDEVILLE, the worthy Knight, who, after being for a
long time considered as the "Father of English Prose" has become simply
"the name claimed by the compiler of a singular book of Travels, written
in French, and published between 1357 and 1371."[3]

It was understood that "JOHAN MAUNDEUILLE, chiualer, ia soit ceo qe ieo ne
soie dignes, neez et norriz Dengleterre de la ville Seint Alban," crossed
the sea "lan millesme ccc'me vintisme et secund, le jour de Seint
Michel,"[4] that he travelled since across the whole of Asia during the
14th century, that he wrote the relation of his travels as a rest after his
fatiguing peregrinations, and that he died on the 17th of November, 1372,
at Liege, when he was buried in the Church of the Guillemins.

No work has enjoyed a greater popularity than Mandeville's; while we
describe but eighty-five manuscripts of Marco Polo's, and I gave a list of
seventy-three manuscripts of Friar Odoric's relation,[5] it is by
hundreds that Mandeville's manuscripts can be reckoned. As to the printed
editions, they are, so to speak, numberless; Mr. Carl Schoenborn[6] gave
in 1840, an incomplete bibliography; Tobler in his _Bibliographia
geographica Palestinae_ (1867),[7] and Roehricht[8] after him compiled a
better bibliography, to which may be added my own lists in the
_Bibliotheca Sinica_[9] and in the _T'oung-Pao_.[10]

Campbell, _Ann. de la Typog. neerlandaise_, 1874, p. 338, mentions a Dutch
edition: _Reysen int heilighe lant_, s.l.n.d., folio, of which but two
copies are known, and which must be dated as far back as 1470 [see p.
600], I believed hitherto (I am not yet sure that Campbell is right as to
his date) that the first printed edition was German, s.l.n.d., very likely
printed at Basel, about 1475, discovered by Tross, the Paris
Bookseller.[11] The next editions are the French of the 4th April,
1480,[12] and 8th February of the same year,[13] Easter being the 2nd of
April, then the Latin,[14] Dutch,[15] and Italian[16] editions, and
after the English editions of Pynson and Wynkin de Worde.

In what tongue was Mandeville's Book written?

The fact that the first edition of it was printed either in German or in
Dutch, only shows that the scientific progress was greater and printing
more active in such towns as Basel, Nuremberg and Augsburg than in others.
At first, one might believe that there were three original texts, probably
in French, English, and vulgar Latin; the Dean of Tongres, Radulphus of
Rivo, a native of Breda, writes indeed in his _Gesta Pontificum
Leodiensium_, 1616, p. 17: "Hoc anno Ioannes Mandeuilius natione Anglus
vir ingenio, & arte medendi eminens, qui toto fere terrarum orbe
peragrato, _tribus linguis_ peregrinationem suam doctissime _conscripsit_,
in alium orbe nullis finibus clausum, loegeque hoc quietiorem, & beatiorem
migrauit 17. Nouembris. Sepultus in Ecclesia Wilhelmitarum non procul a
moenibus Ciuitatis Leodiensis." The Dean of Tongres died in 1483;[17] Mr.
Warner, on the authority of the _Bulletin de l'Inst. Archeol. Liegeois_,
xvi. 1882, p. 358, gives 1403 as the date of the death of Radulphus.
However, Mandeville himself says (_Warner, Harley_, 4383) at the end of
his introduction, p. 3:--"Et sachez qe ieusse cest escript mis en latyn
pur pluis briefment deuiser; mes, pur ceo qe plusours entendent mieltz
romantz qe latin, ieo lay mys en romance, pur ceo qe chescun lentende et
luy chiualers et les seignurs et lez autres nobles homes qi ne sciuent
point de latin ou poy, et qount estee outre meer, sachent et entendent, si
ieo dye voir ou noun, et si ieo erre en deuisant par noun souenance ou
autrement, qils le puissent adresser et amender, qar choses de long temps
passez par la veue tornent en obly, et memorie de homme ne puet mye tot
retenir ne comprendre." From this passage and from the Latin text:
"Incipit itinerarius a terra Angliae ad partes Iherosolimitanas et in
ulteriores transmarinas, editus primo in lingua gallicana a milite suo
autore anno incarnacionis Domini m. ccc. lv, in civitate Leodiensi, et
paulo post in eadem civitate translatus in hanc formam latinam." (P. 33 of
the _Relation des Mongols ou Tartars par le frere Jean du Plan de Carpin_,
Paris, 1838). D'Avezac long ago was inclined to believe in an unique
French version. The British Museum, English MS. (Cott., Titus. C. xvi.),
on the other hand, has in the Prologue (cf. ed. 1725, p. 6): "And zee
schulle undirstonde, that I have put this Boke out of _Latyn_ into
_Frensche_, and translated it azen out of _Frensche_ into _Englyssche_,
that every Man of my Nacioun may undirstonde it...."[18]

But we shall see that--without taking into account the important passage
in French quoted above, and probably misunderstood by the English
translator--the English version, a sentence of which, not to be found in
the Latin manuscripts, has just been given, is certainly posterior to the
French text, and therefore that the abstract of Titus C. xvi, has but a
slight value. There can be some doubt only for the French and the Latin
texts.

Dr. Carl Schoenborn[19] and Herr Eduard Maetzner,[20] "respectively seem
to have been the first to show that the current Latin and English texts
cannot possibly have been made by Mandeville himself. Dr. J. Vogels states
the same of unprinted Latin versions which he has discovered in the
British Museum, and he has proved it as regards the Italian version."[21]

"In Latin, as Dr. Vogels has shown, there are five independent versions.
Four of them, which apparently originated in England (one manuscript, now
at Leyden, being dated in 1390) have no special interest; the fifth, or
vulgate Latin text, was no doubt made at Liege, and has an important
bearing on the author's identity. It is found in twelve manuscripts, all
of the 15th century, and is the only Latin version as yet printed."[22]

The universal use of the French language at the time would be an argument
in favour of the original text being in this tongue, if corrupt proper
names, abbreviations in the Latin text, etc., did not make the fact still
more probable.

The story of the English version, as it is told by Messrs. Nicholson and
Warner, is highly interesting: The English version was made from a
"mutilated archetype," in French (Warner, p. x.) of the beginning of the
15th century, and was used for all the known English manuscripts, with the
exception of the Cotton and Egerton volumes--and also for all the printed
editions until 1725. Mr. Nicholson[23] pointed out that it is defective
in the passage extending from p. 36, l. 7: "And there were to ben 5
Soudans," to p. 62, l. 25: "the Monkes of the Abbeye of ten tyme," in
Halliwell's edition (1839) from Titus C. xvi, which corresponds to Mr.
Warner's Egerton text, p. 18, l. 21: "for the Sowdan," and p. 32, l. 16,
"synges oft tyme." It is this bad text which, until 1725,[24] has been
printed as we just said, with numerous variants, including the poor
edition of Mr. Ashton[25] who has given the text of East instead of the
Cotton text under the pretext that the latter was not legible.[26]

Two revisions of the English version were made during the first quarter of
the 15th century; one is represented by the British Museum Egerton MS.
1982 and the abbreviated Bodleian MS. e. Mus. 116; the other by the Cotton
MS. Titus C. xvi. This last one gives the text of the edition of 1725
often reprinted till Halliwell's (1839 and 1866).[27] The Egerton MS.
1982 has been reproduced in a magnificent volume edited in 1889 for the
Roxburghe Club par Mr. G.F. Warner, of the British Museum;[28] this
edition includes also the French text from the Harley MS. 4383 which,
being defective from the middle of chap. xxii. has been completed with the
Royal MS. 20 B.X. Indeed the Egerton MS. 1982 is the only complete
English manuscript of the British Museum,[29] as, besides seven copies of
the defective text, three leaves are missing in the Cotton MS. after f.
53, the text of the edition of 1725 having been completed with the Royal
MS. 17 B.[30]

Notwithstanding its great popularity, Mandeville's Book could not fail to
strike with its similarity with other books of travels, with Friar Odoric's
among others. This similarity has been the cause that occasionally the
Franciscan Friar was given as a companion to the Knight of St. Albans, for
instance, in the manuscripts of Mayence and Wolfenbuettel.[31] Some
Commentators have gone too far in their appreciation and the Udine monk has
been treated either as a plagiary or a liar! Old Samuel Purchas, in his
address to the Reader printed at the beginning of Marco Polo's text (p.
65), calls his countryman! Mandeville the greatest Asian traveller next (if
next) to Marco Polo, and he leaves us to understand that the worthy knight
has been pillaged by some priest![32] Astley uses strong language; he calls
Odoric a _great liar!_[33]

Others are fair in their judgment, Malte-Brun, for instance, marked what
Mandeville borrowed from Odoric, and La Renaudiere is also very just in
the _Biographie Universelle_. But what Malte-Brun and La Renaudiere showed
in a general manner, other learned men, such as Dr. S. Bormans, Sir Henry
Yule, Mr. E.W.B. Nicholson,[34] Dr. J. Vogels,[35] M. Leopold Delisle,
Herr A. Bovenschen,[36] and last, not least, Dr. G.F. Warner, have in
our days proved that not only has the book bearing Mandeville's name been
compiled from the works of Vincent of Beauvais, Jacques of Vitry,
Boldensel, Carpini, Odoric, etc., but that it was written neither by a
Knight of St. Albans, by an Englishman, or by a Sir John Mandeville, but
very likely by the physician John of Burgundy or John a Beard.

In a repertory of _La Librairie de la Collegiale de Saint Paul a Liege au
XV'e. Siecle_, published by Dr. Stanislas Bormans, in the _Bibliophile
Belge_, Brussels, 1866, p. 236, is catalogued under No. 240: _Legenda de
Joseph et Asseneth ejus uxore, in papiro. In eodem itinerarium Johannis de
Mandevilla militis, apud guilhelmitanos Leodienses sepulti_.

Dr. S. Bormans has added the following note: "Jean Mandeville, ou Manduith,
theologien et mathematicien, etait ne a St. Alban en Angleterre d'une
famille noble. On le surnomma pour un motif inconnu, _ad Barbam_ et
_magnovillanus_. En 1322, il traversa la France pour aller en Asie, servit
quelque temps dans les troupes du Sultan d'Egypte et revint seulement en
1355 en Angleterre. Il mourut a Liege chez les Guilhemins, le 17th
Novembre, 1372. Il laissa au dit monastere plusieurs MSS. de ses oeuvres
fort vantes, tant de ses voyages que de la medecine, ecrits de sa main; il
y avait encore en ladite maison plusieurs meubles qu'il leur laissa pour
memoire. Il a laisse quelques livres de medecine qui n'ont jamais ete
imprimes, des _tabulae astronomicae_, de _chorda recta et umbra, de
doctrina theologica_. La relation de son voyage est en latin, francais et
anglais; il raconte, en y melant beaucoup de fables, ce qu'il a vu de
curieux en Egypte, en Arabie et en Perse."

Then is inserted, an abstract from Lefort, _Liege Herald_, at the end of
the 17th century, from _Jean d'Outremeuse_, which we quote from another
publication of Dr. Bormans' as it contains the final sentence: "Mort
enfin, etc." not to be found in the paper of the _Bibliophile Belge_.

In his introduction to the _Chronique et geste de Jean des Preis dit
d'Outremeuse_, Brussels, F. Hayez, 1887 (_Collection des Chroniques belges
inedites_), Dr. Stanislas Bormans writes, pp. cxxxiii.-cxxxiv.: "L'an
M.CCC.LXXII, mourut a Liege, le 12 Novembre, un homme fort distingue par
sa naissance, avant de s'y faire connoitre sous le nom de Jean de
Bourgogne dit a la Barbe. Il s'ouvrit neanmoins au lit de la mort a Jean
d'Outremeuse, son compere, et institue son executeur testamentaire. De
vrai il se titra, dans le precis de sa derniere volonte, messire _Jean de
Mandeville, chevalier, comte de Montfort en Angleterre, et seigneur de
l'isle de Campdi et du chateau Perouse_. Ayant cependant eu le malheur de
tuer, en son pays, un comte qu'il ne nomme pas, il s'engagea a parcourir
les trois parties du monde. Vint a Liege en 1343. Tout sorti qu'il etoit
d'une noblesse tres-distinguee, il aima de s'y tenir cache. Il etoit, au
reste, grand naturaliste, profond philosophe et astrologue, y joint en
particulier une connoissance tres singuliere de la physique, se trompant
rarement lorsqu'il disoit son sentiment a l'egard d'un malade, s'il en
reviendroit ou pas. Mort enfin, on l'enterra aux F.F. Guillelmins, au
faubourg d'Avroy, comme vous avez vu plus amplement cydessous."

It is not the first time that the names _Jean de Mandeville_ and _Jean a
la Barbe_ are to be met with, as Ortelius, in his description of Liege,
included in his Itinerary of Belgium, has given the epitaph of the
knightly physician:[37(1)]

"Leodium primo aspectu ostentat in sinistra ripa (nam dextra vinetis plena
est,) magna, & populosa suburbia ad collium radices, in quorum iugis multa
sunt, & pulcherrima Monasteria, inter quae magnificum illud ac nobile D.
Laurentio dicatum ab Raginardo episcopo, vt habet Sigebertus, circa ann.
sal. M XXV aedificatum est in hac quoq. regione Guilelmitaru Coenobium in
quo epitaphiu hoc Ioannis a Mandeuille excepimus: _Hic iacet vir nobilis
Dns Ioes de Mandeville al Dcus ad barbam miles dns de Capdi natus de Anglia
medicie pfessor deuotissimus orator et bonorum largissimus paupribus
erogator qui toto quasi orbe lustrato leodii diem vite sue clausit extremum
ano Dni M CCC deg. LXXI deg.[37(2)] mensis novebr die XVII_.[37(3)]

"Haec in lapide, in quo caelata viri armati imago, leonem calcantis, barba
bifurcata, ad caput manus benedicens, & vernacula haec verba: _vos ki
paseis sor mi pour lamour deix proies por mi_. Clypeus erat vacuus, in quo
olim laminam fuisse dicebant aeream, & eius in ea itidem caelata insignia,
leonem videlicet argenteum, cui ad pectus lunula rubea, in campo caeruleo,
quem limbus ambiret denticulatus ex auro, eius nobis ostendebat & cultros,
ephippiaque, & calcaria, quibus vsum fuisse asserebat in peragrando toto
fere terrarum orbe, vt clarius eius testatur itinerarium, quod typis etiam
excusum passim habetur."[37]

Dr. Warner writes in the _National Biography_:

"There is abundant proof that the tomb of the author of the _Travels_ was
to be seen in the Church of the Guillemins or Guillelmites at Liege down
to the demolition of the building in 1798. The fact of his burial there,
with the date of his death, 17th November, 1372, was published by Bale in
1548 (_Summarium_ f. 149 _b_), and was confirmed independently by Jacob
Meyer (_Annales rerum Flandric_. 1561, p. 165) and Lud. Guicciardini.
(_Paesi Bassi_, 1567, p. 281.)"

In a letter dated from Bodley's Library, 17th March, 1884, to _The
Academy_, 12th April, 1884, No. 623, Mr. Edward B. Nicholson drew
attention to the abstract from Jean d'Ontremeuse, and came to the
conclusion that the writer of Mandeville's relation was a _profound liar_,
and that he was the Liege Professor of Medicine, John of Burgundy or _a la
Barbe_. He adds: "If, in the matter of literary honesty, John a Beard was
a bit of a knave, he was very certainly no fool."

On the other hand, M. Leopold Delisle,[38] has shown that two
manuscripts, Nouv. acq. franc. 4515 (Barrois, 24) and Nouv. acq. franc.
4516 (Barrois, 185), were part formerly of one volume copied in 1371 by
Raoulet of Orleans and given in the same year to King Charles V. by his
physician Gervaise Crestien, viz. one year before the death of the
so-called Mandeville; one of these manuscripts--now separate--contains the
Book of Jehan de Mandeville, the other one, a treatise of "la preservacion
de epidimie, minucion ou curacion d'icelle faite de maistre Jehan de
Bourgoigne, autrement dit a la Barbe, professeur en medicine et cytoien du
Liege," in 1365. This bringing together is certainly not fortuitous.

Sir Henry Yule traces thus the sources of the spurious work: "Even in that
part of the book which may be admitted with probability to represent some
genuine experience, there are distinct traces that another work has been
made use of, more or less, as an aid in the compilation, we might almost
say, as a framework to fill up. This is the itinerary of the German knight
William of Boldensele, written in 1336 at the desire of Cardinal
Talleyrand de Perigord. A cursory comparison of this with Mandeville
leaves no doubt of the fact that the latter has followed its thread, using
its suggestions, and on many subjects its expressions, though digressing
and expanding on every side, and too often eliminating the singular good
sense of the German traveller. After such a comparison we may indicate as
examples Boldensele's account of Cyprus (_Mandeville, Halliwell's_ ed.
1866, p. 28, and p. 10), of Tyre and the coast of Palestine (_Mandeville_,
29, 30, 33, 34), of the journey from Gaza to Egypt (34), passages about
Babylon of Egypt (40), about Mecca (42), the general account of Egypt
(45), the pyramids (52), some of the particular wonders of Cairo, such as
the slave-market, the chicken-hatching stoves, and the apples of Paradise,
i.e. plantains (49), the Red Sea (57), the convent on Sinai (58, 60),
the account of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (74-76), etc."

He adds: "It is curious that no passage in Mandeville can be plausibly
traced to Marco Polo, with one exception. This is (_Halliwell's_ ed., p.
163) where he states that at Ormus the people, during the great heat, lie
in water,--a circumstance mentioned by Polo, though not by Odoric. We
should suppose it most likely that this fact had been interpolated in the
copy of Odoric used by Mandeville; for, if he had borrowed it direct from
Polo, he would have borrowed more." (_Encyclopaedia Britannica_, p. 474.)

"Leaving this question, there remains the more complex one whether the
book contains, in any measure, facts and knowledge acquired by actual
travels and residence in the East. We believe that it may, but only as a
small portion of the whole, and that confined entirely to the section of
the work which treats of the Holy Land, and of the different ways of
getting thither, as well as of Egypt, and in general of what we understand
by the Levant." (Ibid. p. 473.)

Dr. Warner deals the final blow in the _National Biography_: "The
alphabets which he gives have won him some credit as a linguist, but only
the Greek and the Hebrew (which were readily accessible) are what they
pretend to be, and that which he calls Saracen actually comes from the
_Cosmographia of aethicus_! His knowledge of Mohammedanism and its Arabic
formulae impressed even Yule. He was, however, wholly indebted for that
information to the _Liber de Statu Saracenorum_ of William of Tripoli
(circa 1270), as he was to the _Historiae Orientis_ of Hetoum, the
Armenian (1307), for much of what he wrote about Egypt. In the last case,
indeed, he shows a rare sign of independence, for he does not, with
Hetoum, end his history of the sultanate about 1300, but carries it onto
the death of En-Nasir (1341), and names two of his successors. Although
his statements about them are not historically accurate, this fact and a
few other details suggest that he may really have been in Egypt, if not at
Jerusalem, but the proportion of original matter is so very far short of
what might be expected that even this is extremely doubtful."

With this final quotation, we may take leave of John of Mandeville, alias
John a Beard.

H.C.


[1] "The _raphia_, here called the 'Devil's date,' is celebrated as
having the largest leaf in the vegetable Kingdom," etc. In his
translation of Lacerda's journey he calls it _Raphia vinifera_.

[2] MANDEVILLE, Jehan de [By Edward Byron Nicholson, M.A., and Colonel
Henry Yule, C.B.] Ext. from the _Encyclopaed. Britan._ 9th ed.,
xv. 1883, ppt. 4to., pp. 4.

[3] _Encyclop. Brit._ xv. p. 473.

[4] British Museum, Harley, 4383, f. 1 _verso_.

[5] _Les Voyages en Asie an XIV'e siecle du Bienheureux frere Odoric de
Pordenone_. Paris, 1891, p. cxvi.

[6] Bibliographische Untersuchungen ueber die Reise-Beschreibung des Sir
John Maundeville.--Dem Herrn Samuel Gottfried Reiche, Rector und
Professor des Gymnasiums zu St. Elisabet in Breslau und Vice-Praeses
der Schlesischen Gesellschaft fuer Vaterlaendische Cultur, Ritter des
rothen Adlerordens, zur Feier Seines Amts-Jubelfestes am 30. October
1840 im Namen des Gymnasiums zu St. Maria Magdalena gewidmet von Dr.
Carl. Schoenborn, Director, Rector und Professor.--Breslau, gedruckt
bei Grass, Barth und Comp., ppt. 4to. pp. 24.

[7] Bibliographia geographica Palaestinae. Zunaechst kritische Uebersicht
gedruckter und ungedruckter Beschreibungen der Reisen ins heilige
Land. Von Titus Tobler.--Leipzig, Verlag von S. Hirzel. 1867, 8vo.,
pp. iv.-265.: C. 1336 (1322-1356). Der englische ritter John
Maundeville, pp. 36-39.

[8] Bibliotheca geographica Palestinae. Chronologisches Verzeichniss der
auf die Geographie des Heiligen Landes bezueglichen Literatur von 333
bis 1878 und Versuch einer Cartographie. Herausgegeben von Reinhold
Roehricht. Berlin, H. Reuther, 1890, 8vo, pp. xx-742.

[9] _Bibliotheca Sinica_.--Dictionnaire bibliographique des ouvrages
relatif sa l'empire chinois par Henri Cordier. Paris, Ernest Leroux,
1878-1895, 3 vol. 8vo. col. 943-959, 1921-1927, 2201.

[10] Jean de Mandeville. Ext. du _T'oung Pao_, vol. ii. No. 4, Leide,
E.J. Brill, 1891, 8vo, pp. 38.

[11] Jch Otto von diemeringen ein || Thumherre zu Metz in Lothoringen. han
dises buch verwandelvsz || welschs vnd vsz latin zu tuetsch durch das
die tuetschen luete ouch mogent || dar inne lesen von menigen
wunderlichen sachen die dor inne geschribe || sind. von fremden landen
vn fremden tieren von fremden lueten vnd von || irem glouben von. iren
wesen von iren kleidern. vnd vo vil andern wun || deren als hie noch
in den capitelen geschriben stat. Und ist das buch in || fuenf teil
geteilt vnd saget das erst buch von den landen vnd von den we || gen
vsz tuetschen nider landen gen Jerusalem zu varen. vnd zu sant Ka | ||
therine grab vnd zu dem berg Synai. vnd von den landen vnd von den ||
wundern die man vnterwegen do zwischen vinden mag. Jtem von des ||
herren gewalt vnd herrschafft der do heisset der Soldan vnd von sinem
|| wesen. Das ander buch saget ob ymant wolt alle welt vmbfaren was ||
lands vnd was wunders er vinden mocht. Jn manchen steten vn in vil ||
insulen dor inne er kame. vnd saget ouch von den wegen vnd von den la
|| den vn lueten was in des grossen herre land ist. & do heisset zu
latin Ma || gnus canis | das ist zu tuetsch der grosz hunt. der ist so
gar gewaltig vnd || so rich das im vff erden an gold an edlem gestein
vnan anderm richtum || niemant gelichen mag. on allein priester Johann
von Jndia. Das drit || buch saget von des vor genanten herren des
grossen hunds glowben vn || gewonheit vnd wie er von erst her komen
ist vnd von andern sachen vil || Das vierde buch saget von jndia vnd
von priester Johann vnd von siner || herschafft. von sinem vrsprung
vnd von siner heiligkeit von sinem glou | || ben von siner gewonheit
vnd vil andern wundern die in sinem lande sind || Das fuenfft buch
saget von manchen heydischen glouben vnd ir gewon | || heit vn ouch
von menigerlei cristen glouben die gensit mers sint die doch || nit
gar vnsern glouben hand. Jtem von menigerlei Jueden glouben vnd || wie
vil cristen land sint vnd doch nicht vnsern glouben haltend noch re |
|| chte cristen sind. Folio; black letter.

[12] Ce liure est eppelle ma // deuille et fut fait i compose // par
monsieur iehan de man // deuille cheualier natif dagle // terre de la
uille de saict alei // Et parle de la terre de pro // mission cest
assavoir de ieru // salem et de pluseurs autres // isles de mer et les
diuerses i // estranges choses qui sont es // dites isles.

_Ends recto_ f deg.. 88: Cy finist ce tres plaisant // liure nome
Mandeville par // lanc moult autentiquement // du pays et terre
d'oultre mer // Et fut fait La Mil cccc // lxxx le iiii lour dauril,
s.l., without any printer's name; small folio; ff. 88; sig. _a_
(7 ff.)--l. (9 ff.); others 8 ff.--Grenville Library, 6775.

[13] F. 1 _recto_: Ce liure est appelle // mandeuille et fut fait et //
compose par monsieur // iehan de mandeuille che // ualier natif
dangleterre // de la uille de sainct alein // Et parle de la terre de
// promission cest assavoir // de iherusalem et de plu // seurs autres
isles de mer // et les diuerses et estran // ges choses qui sont esd'
// isles.--_Ends verso_ f. 93: Cy finist ce tresplay // sant liure nome
Mande // cccclxxx le viii iour de // freuier a la requeste de //
Maistre Bartholomieu // Buyer bourgoys du dit // lyon. Small folio.

[14] F. 1 _recto_. Jtinerarius domi//ni Johanis de ma//deville
militis.--F. 2 _recto_: Tabula capitulorum in // itinerarium ad
partes Jhe=// rosolimitanas. & ad vlterio // res trasmarinas domini
Jo//hannis de Mandeville mili//tis Jncipit feliciter.--F. 4.
_recto_: Jncipit Itinerarius a ter//ra Anglie in ptes Jherosoli
=//mitanas. & in vlteriores tras//marinas. editus primo in li//gua
gallicana a milite suo au//tore Anno incarnatonis dni //M. ccc. lv. in
ciuitate Leodi // ensi. & paulo post in eade ciui//tate traslatus in
hanc forma // latinam. //

_Ends_ f. 71 _verso_: Explicit itinerarius domini //
Johannis de Mandeville // militis. Small 4to, black letter, ff. 71 on
a col., sig. _a-i_ iij; _a-h_ by 8 = 64 ff.; _i_, 7 ff.

[15] Reysen.--s.l.n.d., without printer's name; fol. 108 ff. on 2 col.
black letter, without sig., etc.

F. 1 _recto_: Dit is die tafel van // desen boecke // (D)at
eerste capittel van // desen boeck is Hoe dat Jan va//mandauille
schyet wt enghe//lat.... f. 108 v deg. 26th line: regneert in allen
tiden // Amen // pp. _Laus deo in altissimo_ //.

See Campbell, supra, p. 599.

[16] F. 1 _verso_: Tractato de le piu marauegliose cosse e piu
notabile che // se trouano in le parte del modo redute & collecte soto
bre//uita in el presente copedio dal strenuissimo caualer spero //
doro Johanne de Mandauilla anglico nato ne la Cita // de sancto albano
el quale secodo dio prncialmente uisi // tato quali tute le parte
habitabel de el modo cossi fidelm // te a notato tute quelle piu degne
cosse che la trouato e ve//duto in esse parte & chi bene discorre qsto
libro auerra p // fecta cognitione de tuti li reami puincie natione e
popu//li gente costumi leze hystorie & degne antiquitate co
bre//uitade le quale pte da altri non sono tractate & parte piu //
cosusamete dalchu gran ualente homini son state tocate & amagiore fede
el psato auctore in psona e stato nel 1322. in//yerusalem Jn Asia
menore chiamata Turchia i Arme//nia grande e in la picola. Jn Scythia
zoe in Tartaria in // persia Jn Syria o uero suria Jn Arabia in egipto
alto // & in lo inferiore in libia in la parte grande de ethiopia in
// Caldea in amazonia in india mazore in la meza & in la // menore in
div'se sette de latini greci iudei e barbari chri//stiani & infideli &
i molte altre prouincie como appare nel // tractato de sotto.--_Ends_
f. 114 _verso_: Explicit Johannes d'Madeuilla impressus Medio//lani
ductu & auspicijs Magistri Petri de corneno pre // die Callendas
augusti M.CCCCLXXX. Joha//ne Galeazo Maria Sfortia Vicecomitte Duce no
// stro inuictissimo ac principe Jucondissimo. Small 4to; ff. 114;
sig. _a-o_ x 8 = 112 ff.; 1 f. between _a_ and _b_.

[17] _Gesta Pont. Leodiensium_.--Vita Radvlphi de Rivo ex eius
scriptis: "Obijt Radulphus anno, 1483."

[18] This passage is not to be found in the Egerton MS. 1982, nor in the
Latin versions.

[19] _Bib. Untersuchungen_.

[20] Altenglische Sprachproben nebst einem Woerterbuche unter Mitwirkung
von Karl Goldbeck herausgegeben von Eduard Maetzner. Erster Band:
Sprachproben. Zweite Abtheilung: Prosa. Berlin. Weidmannsche
Buchhandlung. (Vol. i. 1869, large 8vo, pp. 415; vol. i., _John
Maundeville_, pp. 152-221.)

[21] _Encyclopaedia. Brit._, p. 475.

[22] _Nat. Biog._ p. 23-24.

[23] _The Academy_, x. p. 477.--_Encyclopaedia Britannica_,
9th ed., XV., p. 475.

[24] The // Voiage // and // Travaile // of // Sir John Maundevile, kt.
// Which Treateth of the // Way to Hierusalem; and of // Marvayles of
Inde, // With other // Ilands and Countryes. //--Now publish'd
entire from an Original MS. // in the Cotton Library. //--London: //
Printed for J. Woodman, and D. Lyon, in // Russel-Street,
Covent-Garden, and C. Davis, // in Hatton-Garden. 1725, 8vo, 5. ff. n.
c.+pp. xvi.--384+4 ff. n. c.

[25] The Voiage and Travayle of Sir John Maundeville Knight which treateth
of the way towards Hierosallun and of marvayles of Inde with other
ilands and countreys. Edited, Annotated, and Illustrated in Facsimile
by John Ashton.... London, Pickering & Chatto, 1887, large 8vo., pp.
xxiv.-289.

[26] L.c. p. vi.

[27] The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevile, Kt. which treateth of
the way to Hierusalem; and of Marvayles of Inde, with other ilands and
countryes. Reprinted from the Edition of A.D. 1725. With an
introduction, additional notes, and Glossary. By J.O. Halliwell.
Esq., F.S.A., F.R.A.S. London: Published by Edward Lumley,
M.D.CCC.XXXIX., 8vo, pp. xvii.-xii.-326.

The Voiage and Travaille of Sir John Maundevile ... By J.O.
Halliwell, London: F.S. Ellis, MDCCCLXVI., 8vo, pp xxxi.-326.

[28] The Buke of John Maundeuill being the Travels of sir John Mandeville,
knight 1322-1356 a hitherto unpublished English version from the
unique copy (Egerton Ms. 1982) in the British Museum edited together
with the French text, notes, and an introduction by George F. Warner,
M.A., F.S.A., assistant-keeper of Manuscripts in the British Museum.
Illustrated with twenty-eight miniatures reproduced in facsimile from
the additional MS. 24,189. Printed for the Roxburghe Club.
Westminster, Nichols and Sons.... MDCCCLXXXIX., large 4to, pp.
xlvi.+232+28 miniatures.

[29] There are in the British Museum twenty-nine MSS. of Mandeville, of
which ten are French, nine English, six Latin, three German, and one
Irish. Cf. _Warner_, p. x.

[30] Cf. _Warner_, p. 61.

[31] Mayence, Chapter's Library: "Incipit Itinerarius fidelis Fratris
ODERICI, _socii Militis Mendavil_, per Indiam."--Wolfenbuettel,
Ducal Library, No. 40, Weissemburg: "Incipit itinerarius fratris
ODERICI socii militis Mandauil per Indiam."--HENRI CORDIER, _Odoric
de Pordenone_, p. lxxii. and p. lxxv.

[32] _Purchas, His Pilgrimes_, 3rd Pt., London, 1625: "and, O that it
were possible to doe as much for our Countriman Mandeuil, who next (if
next) was the greatest Asian Traueller that euer the World had, &
hauing falne amongst theeues, neither Priest, nor Leuite can know him,
neither haue we hope of a Samaritan to releeue him."

[33] _Astley_ (iv. p. 620): "The next Traveller we meet with into
_Tartary_, and the Eastern Countries, after _Marco Polo_, is Friar
_Odoric_, of _Udin_ in Friuli, a _Cordelier_; who set-about the Year
1318, and at his Return the Relation of it was drawn-up, from his own
Mouth, by Friar _William_ of _Solanga_, in 1330. _Ramusio_ has
inserted it in _Italian_, in the second Volume of his Collection; as
_Hakluyt_, in his Navigations, has done the _Latin_, with an _English_
Translation. This is a most superficial Relation, and full of _Lies_;
such as People with the Heads of Beasts, and Valleys haunted with
Spirits: In one of which he pretends to have entered, protected by the
Sign of the Cross; yet fled for Fear, at the Sight of a Face that
grinned at him. In short, though he relates some Things on the
_Tartars_ and _Manci_ (as he writes _Manji_) which agree with _Polo's_
Account; yet it seems plain, from the Names of Places and other
Circumstances, that he never was in those Countries, but imposed on
the Public the few Informations he had from others, mixed with the
many Fictions of his own. He set out again for the East in 1331; but
warned, it seems, by an Apparition a few Miles from _Padua_, he
returned thither, and died." And a final blow in the index: "_Oderic,
Friar, Travels of_, iv. 620 a. _A great liar!!_"

[34] E.B. Nicholson.--Letters to the _Academy_, 11th November, 1876;
12th February, 1881. E.B.N. and Henry Yule, MANDEVILLE, in
_Encyclopaedia Britannica_, 9th ed., 1883, pp. 472-475.

[35] Die ungedruckten Lateinischen Versionen Mandeville's. (Beilage zum
Programm des Gymnasiums zu Crefeld.) 1886.

[36] Untersuchungen ueber Johan von Mandeville und die Quellen seiner
Reisebeschreibung. Von Albert Bovenschen. (_Zeitschrift d. Ges. fuer
Erdkunde zu Berlin_, XXIII. Bd., 3 u. 4 Hft. No. 135, 136, pp.
177-306.)

[37] (1) Itinerarivm // per nonnv. las // Galliae Belgicae partes,
// Abrahami Ortelii et // Ioannis Viviani. // Ad Gerardvm Mercatorem,
// Cosmographvm. // Antverpiae, // Ex officina Christophori Plantini.
// clo. lo. lxxxiv. // small 8vo, pp. 15-16.

(2) Read 1372.

(3) _Purchas, His Pilgrimes_, 3rd Pt., Lond., 1625, reproduces it
on p. 128: "Hic jacet vir nobilis, D. _Ioannes de Mandeville_,
aliter dictus ad Barbam, Miles, Dominus de Campdi, natus de Anglia,
Medicinae Professor, deuotissimus, orator, & bonorum largissimus
pauperibus erogator qui toto quasi orbe lustrato, _Leodij_ diem
vitae suae clausit extremum. Anno Dom. 1371, Mensis Nouembris, die 17."

[38] _Bibliotheque nationale:--Catalogue des manuscrits des fonds Libri
et Barrois_. Paris, 1888. 8vo. cf. pp. 251-253.








INDEX


Aas, Asu, _see_ Alans.
Abacan, a Tartar general.
Abah, _see_ Avah.
Abaji, Kublai's son.
Abaka (Abaga), Khan of Persia.
Abano, Pietro of, his notice of Polo.
Abash (Habsh), _see_ Abyssinia.
Abba Gregory.
Abbas, Shah.
Abbott, Consul Keith E..
Abdul Kuri islands.
---- Mejid.
Abeskun (Baxon), on the Caspian.
Abher.
Abkashian forests, boxwood of the.
_Abnus_, ebony.
Abraha, ruler of Yemen.
Abraiaman, _see_ Brahmans.
Abubakr, Atabeg of Fars.
---- Ibrahim, and Mahomed, engineers employed by Kublai.
Abu'l Abbas Ahmed VII., Khalif of Baghdad.
---- Fazl
Abulfeda, his geography;
at the siege of Acre.
Abulfiez Khan, king of Bokhara.
Abu Nasr Mohammed IX., Khalif of Baghdad.
---- Said.
Abyssinia (Abash),
its king's punishment of Soldan of Aden;
dominion on the coast, mediaeval history and chronology;
table of kings;
wars with Mahomedan states.
Acbalec Manzi, "White City of the Manzi frontier".
Acbalec or Acbaluc (Cheng-ting fu).
Accambale, king of Champa.
Achar.
Achin, Acheh, Achem,
its gold and lign-aloes;
conversion of;
its great power at one time;
elephants at.
---- Head.
Achmath, the Bailo, _see_ Ahmad.
Acomat Soldan (Ahmad Sultan),
seizes throne of Tabriz;
goes to encounter Argon;
rejects his remonstrance;
defeats and takes him;
hears of Argon's escape, is taken and put to death;
notes on the history.
Acorn bread.
Acqui, Friar Jacopo d', his notice of Polo.
Acre,
Broils at, between Venetians and Genoese;
plan of;
captured by Saracens;
wickedness of;
Polos at.
Adam, Bishop and Pope of China.
---- Seth, and the Tree of Life, legend of.
Adamodana, Castle of.
Adam's Apple.
---- sepulchre on mountain (Adam's Peak) in Ceylon,
rubies;
his teeth, hair, etc.;
the footmark.
Adel, apparently confused with Aden.
Aden, Horse and other Trade with India,
Soldan's treatment of a bishop;
Vengeance of King of Abyssinia on him;
confused with Adel;
account of Kingdom;
the Sultan;
intercourse and trade with China, tanks;
view of.
Adoration of the Emperor.
_Adulis_,
inscription of.
Aegae, Ayas on the site of ancient.
Aepyornis and its eggs.
Aetius, his prescription of musk,
of camphor.
Afghans, their use of the fat-tailed sheep.
Africa, Sea surrounding to the South.
Agassiz, Professor.
Agathocles, Coins of.
[Greek: Agathou daimonos], island.
Agha Ali Shah, present representative of the Old Man of the Mountain.
---- Khan Mehelati, late representative of the Old Man.
Aghrukji or Ukuruji, Kublai's son.
Agricola, Governor of Cappadocia, etc.
Aguil, Mongol general.
Ahmad (Achmath), the Bailo, of Fenaket, his power, oppressions, death,
etc.
---- Sultan, Khan of Persia, _see_ Acomat.
Ahwaz, province.
Aidhab.
Aidhej, or Mal-Amir.
Aijaruc, Kaidu's daughter,
her strength and prowess;
her name.
Aikah Nowin, Engineer in Chief of Chinghiz.
Ai-lao (afterwards Nan-chao), ancient name of the Shans.
_Ain Akbari (Ayeen Akbery)_.
Ajmir.
Akbar and Kublai, a parallel.
Ak Bulak salt mines.
Akhaltzike (Western Georgia).
Akhtuba River.
Ak-khoja.
Aksarai, or Ghori River.
Aksu River.
Aktar.
Aktash Valley.
_Alabastri_.
Alacou, _see_ Hulaku.
_Aladja_, striped cotton cloth.
Alamut, Castle of the Ismailites.
Alan country, Alania.
Alans, or Aas, massacre at Chang-chau of,
employed under Mongols.
Alaone, the name.
Alarm Tower, at Cambaluc,
at Kinsay.
_Alatcha_, cotton stuff with blue and red stripes.
Alau, _see_ Hulaku.
Ala'uddin (Alaodin), _see_ Old Man of the Mountain.
---- (Alawating of Mufali), an engineer in Kublai's service.
---- Khilji, Sultan of Delhi.
Albenigaras, Mt.
Al Biruni.
Alboquerque, _see_ D'Alboquerque.
Alchemy, Kublai's.
Aleppo.
Alexander the Great, allusions to legends and romances about,
his rampart (Iron Gate);
the curtains at a banquet given by;
and the _ferrum candidum_;
site of his battle with Darius;
his wife Roxana;
kills a lion;
Princes claiming descent from (Zulcarniain);
his horse Bucephalus;
fixes chains on Adam's Peak;
said to have colonised Socotra;
his tower on the border of Darkness.
Alexander III., Pope.
Alexander IV., Pope.
Alexandria,
trade from India to.
_Alhinde, Alfinde, Alinde, Al-hint_.
'Ali and Aliites.
Alidada.
Alihaiya, Kublai's general.
Alinak.
Alligator, in Carajan,
mode of killing;
eaten;
prophecy of Bhartpur about.
Almalik.
Almanacs, Chinese (Tacuin).
Almonds.
Aloes, Socotrine.
---- wood, _see_ Lign-aloes.
_Alor_, war cry.
Al-Ramni, Al-Ramin, _see_ Sumatra.
Altai (Altay) Mountains,
the Khan's burial-place;
used for the Khingan range.
Altun-Khan, Mountain.
---- sovereign.
Amazons, fable of.
Ambergris,
how got.
_Amber-rosolli_.
Amda Zion, king of Abyssinia,
his wars _v._ Mahomedans;
not the king mentioned by Polo.
Ament, Rev. W.S.
_Ameri_, a kind of Brazil wood.
Amhara.
Amien, Mien (Burma).
Amita Buddha.
Ammianus Marcellinus.
Amoy,
harbour;
languages.
_Amphora_, _Anfora_.
Amu, Aniu, _see_ Anin.
_Amuki_, devoted comrades of the king.
_Anamis_ (Minao) River.
Ananda, Kublai's grandson.
Anar.
Anaurahta, king of Burma.
Ancestor Worship.
Anchors, Wooden.
_Andaine_, _andena_, _andanicum_, _see_ Ondanique.
Andaman (Angamanain) island,
described;
people;
form of the word.
_Andan_, _andun_, Wotiak for steel.
Andragiri.
Andreas, king of Abyssinia.
Andrew, Bishop of Zayton.
---- Grand Duke of Rostof and Susdal.
_Andromeda ovalifolia_, poisonous.
Angamanain, _see_ Andaman.
Angan, or Hamjam.
_'Angka_, gryphon, _see_ Ruc.
Angkor, ruins of.
Ani in Armenia.
Animal Patterns, _see_ Patterns.
Anin, province.
Annals of the Indo-Chinese States.
'An-nam, or Tong-king.
Anselmo, Friar.
_Anthropoides Virgo_, the demoiselle.
Antioch.
Antongil Bay, Madagascar.
Aotonomoff, Spasski, his ascent of Ararat.
_Apostoille_, word used for Pope.
Apples of Paradise (Konars).
Apricots.
_'Apuhota_ (Kapukada?).
Apushka (Apusca), Tartar envoy from Persia.
Arababni.
Arab geography.
---- colonies in Madagascar.
---- horses, early literary recognition of.
trade in, _see_ Horses.
---- merchants, in Southern India.
---- Seamen's Traditions about Java.
Arabi (Arabs).
Arabia.
Arabic character.
_Arachosia_,_arachoti_.
_Araines_.
Arakan.
Aram (Haram), Place of the.
Ararat, Mount,
ascents of.
Arblasts, crossbows.
Arbre Sol, or Arbre Sec, Region of the (Khorasan),
tree described--_Chinar_ or Oriental plane;
various readings;
_Arbre seul_, a wrong reading;
Tree of the Sun legend;
Christian legend of the Dry Tree;
engrafted on legends of Alexander;
Trees of Grace in Persia;
Dry Trees in Mahomedan legend;
in Rabbinical and Buddhist stories, and legends of the Wood of the


 


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