The Travels of Marco Polo, Volume 2
Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa
Part 22 out of 23
Tenasserim, see Ibid., pp. 134-145 M. Ferrand places it in the region of
VII., pp. 278-279.
_Lawaki_ comes from Lovek, a former capital of Cambodia; referring to the
aloes-wood called _Lawaki_ in the _Ain-i-Akbari_ written in the 16th
century, FERRAND, _Textes_, I., p. 285 n., remarks: "On vient de voir que
Ibn-al-Baytar a emprunte ce nom a Avicenne (980-1037) qui ecrivit son
_Canon de la Medecine_ dans les premieres annees du XI'e siecle. _Lawak_
ou Lowak nous est donc atteste sous le forme _Lawaki_ ou _Lowaki_ des le
X'e siecle, puis qu'il est mentionne, au debut du XI'e, par Avicenne qui
residait alors a Djurdjan, sur la Caspienne."
VIII., pp. 280-3.
OF THE ISLAND CALLED PENTAM, AND THE CITY MALAIUR.
The late Col. G.E. Gerini published in the _J.R.A.S._, July, 1905, pp.
485-511, a paper on the _Nagarakretagama_, a Javanese poem composed by a
native bard named Prapanca, in honour of his sovereign Hayam Wuruk
(1350-1389), the greatest ruler of Majapahit. He upsets all the theories
accepted hitherto regarding _Panten_. The southernmost portion of the Malay
Peninsula is known as the _Malaya_ or _Malayu_ country (Tanah-Malayu) =
Chinese _Ma-li-yue-erh = Malayur = Maluir_ of Marco Polo, witness the river
_Malayu_ (_Sungei Malayu_) still so called, and the village _Bentan_, both
lying there (ignored by all Col. Gerini's predecessors) on the northern
shore of the Old Singapore Strait. Col. Gerini writes (p. 509): "There
exists to this day a village _Bentam_ on the mainland side of Singapore
Strait, right opposite the mouth of the Sungei Selitar, on the northern
shore of Singapore Island, it is not likely that both travellers [Polo and
Odoric] mistook the coast of the Malay Peninsula for an island. The island
of _Pentam_, _Paten_, or _Pantem_ must therefore be the _Be-Tumah_ (Island)
of the Arab Navigators, the _Tamasak_ Island of the Malays; and, in short,
the Singapore Island of our day." He adds: "The island of _Pentam_ cannot
be either Batang or Bitang, the latter of which is likewise mentioned by
Marco Polo under the same name of _Pentam_, but 60 + 30 = 90 miles before
reaching the former. Batang, girt all round by dangerous reefs, is
inaccessible except to small boats. So is Bintang, with the exception of
its south-western side, where is now Riau, and where, a little further
towards the north, was the settlement at which the chief of the island
resided in the fourteenth century. There was no reason for Marco Polo's
junk to take that roundabout way in order to call at such, doubtlessly
insignificant place. And the channel (i.e. Rhio Strait) has far more than
four paces' depth of water, whereas there are no more than two fathoms at
the western entrance to the Old Singapore Strait."
Marco Polo says (II., p. 280): "Throughout this distance [from Pentam]
there is but four paces' depth of water, so that great ships in passing
this channel have to lift their rudders, for they draw nearly as much
water as that." Gerini remarks that it is unmistakably the _Old Singapore
Strait_, and that there is no channel so shallow throughout all those
parts except among reefs. "The _Old Strait_ or _Selat Tebrau_, says N.B.
Dennys, _Descriptive Dict. of British Malaya_, separating Singapore from
Johore. Before the settlement of the former, this was the only known route
to China; it is generally about a mile broad, but in some parts little
more than three furlongs. Crawford went through it in a ship of 400 tons,
and found the passage tedious but safe." Most of Sinologists, Beal,
Chavannes, Pelliot, _Bul. Ecole Ext. Orient._, IV., 1904, pp. 321-2,
323-4, 332-3, 341, 347, place the Malaiur of Marco Polo at Palembang in
VIII., pp. 281, n. 283 n.
"On a traduit _Tanah Malayu_ par 'Pays des Malais,' mais cette
traduction n'est pas rigoureusement exacte. Pour prendre une expression
parallele, _Tanah Djawa_ signifie 'Pays de Java,' mais non 'Pays des
"En realite, _tanah_ 'terre, sol, pays, contree' s'emploie seulement avec
un toponyme qui doit etre rendu par un toponyme equivalent. Le nom des
habitants du pays s'exprime, en malais, en ajoutant _oran_ 'homme,
personne, gens, numeral des etres humains' au nom du pays: '_oran
Malayu_' Malais, litt. 'gens de Malayu'; _oran Djawa_ Javanais, litt.
'gens de Java.' _Tanah Malayu_ a done tres nettement le sens de 'pays de
Malayu'; cf. l'expression kawi correspondante dans le _Nagarakretugama:
tanah ri Malayu_ 'pays de Malayu' ou chaque mot francais recouvre
exactement le substantif, la preposition et le toponyme de l'expression
kawi. Le _tana Malayo_ de Barros s'applique donc a un pays determine du
nom de Malayu qui, d'apres l'auteur des _Decades_, etait situe entre
Djambi et Palemban. Nous savons, d'autre part, que le pays en question
avait sa capitale dans l'interieur de l'ile, mais qu'il s'etendait dans
l'Est jusqu'a la mer et que la cote orientale a ete designee par les
textes chinois du VII'e siecle sous le nom de _Mo-lo-yeou, Mo-lo-yu =
Malayu_, c'est-a-dire par le nom de l'Etat ou royaume dont elle faisait
partie." (G. FERRAND, _J. As._, July-Aug., 1918, pp. 72-73.)
VIII., p. 282.
See G. FERRAND, _Malaka, le Malayu et Malayur, J.As._, 1918. Besides
Malayu of Sumatra, there was a city of Malayur which M. Ferrand thinks is
VIII., p. 282 n. "This informs us that Malacca first acknowledged itself
as tributary to the Empire in 1405, the king being _Sili-ju-eul-sula_(?)."
In this name _Si-li-ju-eul-su-la_, one must read [Chinese] _pa_, instead of
[Chinese], and read _Si-li-pa-eul-su-la_ = Siri Paramisura (Cri
Paramacvara). (PELLIOT, _Bul. Ecole franc. Ext. Orient_, IV., July-Sept.,
1904, p. 772.)
IX., p. 285. "They [the rhinoceros] do no mischief, however, with the
horn, but with the tongue alone; for this is covered all over with long
and strong prickles [and when savage with any one they crush him under
their knees and then rasp him with their tongue]."
"Its tongue is like the burr of a chestnut." (CHAU JU-KWA, P. 233.)
IX., p. 289.
In 1017, an embassy was sent to the Court of China by Haji Sumutrabhumi,
"the king of the land of Sumutra" (Sumatra). The envoys had a letter in
golden characters and tribute in the shape of pearls, ivory, Sanscrit,
books folded between boards, and slaves; by an imperial edict they were
permitted to see the emperor and to visit some of the imperial buildings.
When they went back an edict was issued addressed to their king,
accompanied by various presents, calculated to please them. (GROENEVELT,
_Notes on the Malay Archipelago_, p. 65.) G. Ferrand writes (_J. As._,
Mars-Avril, 1917, p. 335) that according to the texts quoted by him in his
article the island of Sumatra was known to the Chinese under the name
_Sumuta = Sumutra_, during the first years of the eleventh century, nearly
300 years before Marco Polo's voyage; and under the name of _Sumutra_, by
the Arab sailors, previously to the first voyage of the Portuguese in
IX., p. 287.
Prof. Pelliot writes to me that the _Ferlec_ of Marco Polo is to be found
several times in the _Yuan Shi_, year 1282 and following, under the forms
_Fa-li-lang_ (Chap. 12, fol. 4 v.), _Fa-li-la_ (Chap. 13, fol. 2 v.),
_Pie-li-la_ (Chap. 13, fol. 4 v.), _Fa-eul-la_ (Chap. 18, fol. 8 v.); in
the first case, it is quoted near _A-lu_ (_Aru_) and _Kan-pai_ (Kampei).
--Cf. FERRAND, _Textes_, II., p. 670.
XI., pp. 304-5.
Sago Palm = _Sagus Rumphianus_ and _S. Laevis_ (DENNYS).--"From Malay
_sagu_. The farinaceous pith taken out of the stem of several species of a
particular genus of palm, especially _Metroxylon laeve_, Mart., and _M.
Rumphii_, Willd., found in every part of the Indian Archipelago, including
the Philippines, wherever there is proper soil." (_Hobson-Jobson_.)
XII., p. 306. "In this island [Necuveran] they have no king nor chief, but
live like beasts. And I tell you they go all naked, both men and women,
and do not use the slightest covering of any kind."
We have seen (_Marco Polo_, II., p. 308) that Mr. G. Phillips writes
(_J.R.A.S._, July, 1895, p. 529) that the name Tsui-lan given to the
Nicobars by the Chinese is, he has but little doubt, "a corruption of
Nocueran, the name given by Marco Polo to the group. The characters
Tsui-lan are pronounced Ch'ui lan in Amoy, out of which it is easy to make
Cueran. The Chinese omitted the initial syllable and called them the Cueran
Islands, while Marco Polo called them the Nocueran Islands." Schlegel,
_T'oung Pao_, IX., p. 182-190, thinks that the Andaman Islands are alone
represented by Ts'ui-lan; the Nicobar being the old country of the Lo-ch'a,
and in modern time, _Mao shan_, "Hat Island." Pelliot, _Bul. Ecole Ext.
Orient_, IV., 1904, pp. 354-5, is inclined to accept Phillip's opinion. He
says that Mao-shan is one island, not a group of islands; it is not proved
that the country of the Lo ch'a is the Nicobar Islands; the name of
_Lo-hing-man_, Naked Barbarians, is, contrary to Schlegel's opinion, given
to the Nicobar as well as to the Andaman people; the name of Andaman
appears in Chinese for the first time during the thirteenth century in Chao
Ju-kwa under the form _Yen-t'o-man_; Chao Ju-kwa specifies that going from
Lambri (_Sumatra_) to Ceylon, it is an unfavourable wind which makes ships
drift towards these islands; on the other hand, texts show that the
Ts'ui-lan islands were on the usual route from Sumatra to Ceylon.--Gerini,
_Researches_, p. 396, considers that _Ts'ui-lan shan_ is but the phonetic
transcript of _Tilan-chong_ Island, the north-easternmost of the
Nicobars.--See Hirth and Rockhill's _Chau Ju-kwa_, p. 12n.--Sansk.
_narikera_, "cocoanuts," is found in Necuveram.
XIII., p. 309.
"When sailing from Lan-wu-li to Si-lan, if the wind is not fair, ships may
be driven to a place called Yen-t'o-man [in Cantonese, An-t'o-man]. This
is a group of two islands in the middle of the sea, one of them being
large, the other small; the latter is quite uninhabited. The large one
measures seventy _li_ in circuit. The natives on it are of a colour
resembling black lacquer; they eat men alive, so that sailors dare not
anchor on this coast.
"This island does not contain so much as an inch of iron, for which reason
the natives use (bits of) conch-shell (ch'oe-k'ue) with ground edges
instead of knives. On this island is a sacred relic, (the so-called)
'Corpse on a bed of rolling gold....'" (CHAU JU-KWA, p. 147.)
XIII., p. 311.
Rockhill in a note to Carpini (_Rubruck_, p. 36) mentions "the Chinese
annals of the sixth century (_Liang Shu_, bk. 54; _Nan shih_, bk. 79)
which tell of a kingdom of dogs (_Kou kuo_) in some remote corner of
north-eastern Asia. The men had human bodies but dogs' heads, and their
speech sounded like barking. The women were like the rest of their sex in
other parts of the world."
Dr. Laufer writes to me: "A clear distinction must be made between
dog-headed people and the motive of descent from a dog-ancestor,--two
entirely different conceptions. The best exposition of the subject of the
cynocephali according to the traditions of the Ancients is now presented by
J. MARQUART (_Benin-Sammlung des Reichsmuseums in Leiden_, pp. cc-ccxix).
It is essential to recognize that the mediaeval European, Arabic, and
Chinese fables about the country of the dog-heads are all derived from one
common source, which is traceable to the Greek Romance of Alexander; that
is an Oriental-Hellenistic cycle. In a wider sense, the dog-heads belong to
the cycle of wondrous peoples, which assumed shape among the Greek mariners
under the influence of Indian and West-Asiatic ideas. The tradition of the
_Nan shi_ (Ch. 79, p. 4), in which the motive of the dog-heads, the women,
however, being of human shape, meets its striking parallel in Adam of
Bremen (_Gesta Hamburg, ecclesiae pontificum_, 4, 19), who thus reports on
the _Terra Feminarum_ beyond the Baltic Sea: 'Cumque pervenerint ad partum,
si quid masculini generis est, fiunt cynocephali, si quid femini,
speciosissimae mulieres.' See further KLAPROTH, _J. As._, XII., 1833, p.
287; DULAURIER, _J. As._, 1858, p. 472; ROCKHILL, _Rubruck_, p. 36."
In an interesting paper on Walrus and Narwhal Ivory, Dr. Laufer (_T'oung
Pao_, July, 1916, p. 357) refers to dog-headed men with women of human
shape, from a report from the Mongols received by King Hethum of Armenia.
XIV., p. 313. "The people [of Ceylon] are Idolaters, and go quite naked
except that they cover the middle.... The King of this Island possesses a
ruby which is the finest and biggest in the world; I will tell you what it
is like. It is about a palm in length, and as thick as a man's arm; to
look at, it is the most resplendent object upon earth; it is quite free
from flaw and as red as fire. Its value is so great that a price for it in
money could hardly be named at all."
Chau Ju-kwa, p. 73, has: "The King holds in his hand a jewel five inches
in diameter, which cannot be burnt by fire, and which shines in (the
darkness of) night like a torch. The King rubs his face with it daily, and
though he were passed ninety he would retain his youthful looks.
"The people of the country are very dark-skinned, they wrap a sarong round
their bodies, go bare-headed and bare-footed."
XIV., p. 314 n.
THE ISLAND OF CEYLON.
The native kings of this period were Pandita Prakama Bahu II., who reigned
from 1267 to 1301 at Dambadenia, about 40 miles north-north-east of
Columbo (Marco Polo's time); Vijaya Bahu IV. (1301-1303); Bhuwaneka Bahu
I. (1303-1314); Prakama Bahu III. (1314-1319); Bhuwaneka Bahu II. (1319).
= Sakya Muni Burkhan.
XV., p. 319. Seilan-History of Sagamoni Borcan. "And they maintain ...
that the teeth, and the hair, and the dish that are there were those of
the same king's son, whose name was Sagamoni Borcan, or Sagamoni the
See J.F. FLEET, _The Tradition about the corporeal Relics of Buddha_.
(_Jour. R. As. Soc._, 1906, and April, 1907, pp. 341-363.)
XV., p. 320.
In a paper on _Burkhan_ printed in the _Journal of the American Oriental
Society_, XXXVI., 1917, pp. 390-395, Dr. Berthold Laufer has come to the
following conclusion: "Burkhan in Mongol by no means conveys exclusively
the limited notion of Buddha, but, first of all, signifies 'deity, god,
gods,' and secondly 'representation or image of a god.' This general
significance neither inheres in the term Buddha nor in Chinese Fo; neither
do the latter signify 'image of Buddha'; only Mongol _burkhan_ has this
force, because originally it conveyed the meaning of a shamanistic image.
From what has been observed on the use of the word _burkhan_ in the
shamanistic or pre-Buddhistic religions of the Tungusians, Mongols and
Turks, it is manifest that the word well existed there before the arrival
of Buddhism, fixed in its form and meaning, and was but subsequently
transferred to the name of Buddha."
XV., pp. 323 seq.
BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT.
The German traveller von Le Coq has found at Turfan fragments of this
legend in Turki which he published in 1912 in his _Tuerkische Manichaica_,
which agree with the legend given by the Persian Ibn Babawaih of Qum, who
died in 991. (S. d'OLDENBOURG, _Bul. Ac. I. des Sc._, Pet., 1912, pp.
779-781; W. RADLOFF, _Alttuerk. Stud._, VI., zu _Barlaam und Joasaph_).
M.P. Alfaric (_La Vie chretienne du Bouddha, J. Asiatique_, Sept.-Oct.,
1917, pp. 269 seq.; _Rev. de l'Hist. des Religions_, Nov.-Dec., 1918,
pp. 233 seq.) has studied this legend from a Manichaean point of view.
XV., p. 327.
See _La "Vie des Saints Barlaam et Josaphat" et la legende du Bouddha_, in
Vol. I., pp. xxxxvii-lvi, of _Contes populaires de Lorraine_ par Emmanuel
COSQUIN, Paris, Vieweg, n.d. .
XVI., p. 335 n.
Speaking of Chu-lien (Chola Dominion, Coromandel Coast), Chau Ju-kwa, pp.
"The kingdom of Chu-lien is the Southern Yin-tu of the west. To the east
(its capital) is five _li_ distant from the sea; to the west one comes to
Western India (after) 1500 _li_; to the south one comes to Lo-lan (after)
2500 _li_; to the north one comes to Tun-t'ien (after) 3000 _li_."
Hirth and Rockhill remark, p. 98: "Ma Tuan-lin and the _Sung-shi_
reproduce textually this paragraph (the former writer giving erroneously
the distance between the capital and the sea as 5000 _li_). Yule, _Marco
Polo_, II, p. 335, places the principal port of the Chola kingdom at
Kaveripattanam, the 'Pattanam' par excellence of the Coromandel Coast, and
at one of the mouths of the Kaveri. He says that there seems to be some
evidence that the Tanjore ports were, before 1300, visited by Chinese
trade. The only Lo-lan known to mediaeval Chinese is mentioned in the
_T'ang-shu_, 221'8, and is identified with the capital of Bamian, in
Afghanistan. I think our text is corrupt here and that the character _lo_
should be changed to _si_, and that we should read Si-lan, our Ceylon.
Both Ma and the _Sung-shi_ say that 2500 _li_ south-east of Chu-lien was
'Si-lan-ch'i-kuo with which it was at war. Of course the distance
mentioned is absurd, but all figures connected with Chu-lien in Chinese
accounts are inexplicably exaggerated."
XVI., pp. 336-337.
CHINESE PAGODA AT NEGAPATAM.
Sir Walter ELLIOT, K.C.S.I., to whom Yule refers for the information given
about this pagoda, has since published in the _Indian Antiquary_,
VII., 1878, pp. 224-227, an interesting article with the title: _The
Edifice formerly known as the Chinese or Jaina Pagoda at Negapatam_,
from which we gather the following particulars regarding its
"It went by various names, as the _Puduveli-gopuram_, the old pagoda,
Chinese pagoda, black pagoda, and in the map of the Trigonometrical Survey
(Sheet 79) it stands as the Jeyna (Jaina) pagoda. But save in name it has
nothing in common with Hindu or Muhammadan architecture, either in form or
"In 1859, the Jesuit Fathers presented a petition to the Madras Government
representing the tower to be in a dangerous condition, and requesting
permission to pull it down and appropriate the materials to their own
use...." In 1867 "the Fathers renewed their application for leave to
remove it, on the following grounds: '1st, because they considered it to
be unsafe in its present condition; 2nd, because it obstructed light and
sea-breeze from a chapel which they had built behind it; 3rd, because they
would very much like to get the land on which it stood; and 4th, because
the bricks of which it was built would be very useful to them for building
"The Chief Engineer, who meanwhile had himself examined the edifice, and
had directed the District Engineer to prepare a small estimate for its
repair, reported that the first only of the above reasons had any weight,
and that it would be met if Colonel O'Connell's estimate, prepared under
his own orders, received the sanction of Government. He therefore
recommended that this should be given, and the tower allowed to stand....
"The Chief Engineer's proposal did not meet with approval, and on the 28th
August 1867, the following order was made on the Jesuits' petition: 'The
Governor in Council is pleased to sanction the removal of the old tower at
Negapatam by the officers of St. Joseph's College, at their own expense,
and the appropriation of the available material to such school-building
purposes as they appear to have in contemplation.
"The Fathers were not slow in availing themselves of this permission. The
venerable building was speedily levelled, and the site cleared."
In making excavations connected with the college a bronze image
representing a Buddhist or Jaina priest in the costume and attitude of the
figures in wood and metal brought from Burma was found; it was presented
to Lord Napier, in 1868; a reproduction of it is given in Sir Walter
In a note added by Dr. Burnell to this paper, we read: "As I several times
in 1866 visited the ruin referred to, I may be permitted to say that it
had become merely a shapeless mass of bricks. I have no doubt that it was
originally a _vimana_ or shrine of some temple; there are some of
precisely the same construction in parts of the Chingleput district."
XVI., p. 336 n.
We read in the _Tao yi chi lio_ (1349) that "T'u t'a (the eastern stupa)
is to be found in the flat land of Pa-tan (Fattan, Negapatam?) and that it
is surrounded with stones. There is stupa of earth and brick many feet
high; it bears the following Chinese inscription: 'The work was finished
in the eighth moon of the third year _hien chw'en_ (1267).' It is related
that these characters have been engraved by some Chinese in imitation of
inscriptions on stone of those countries; up to the present time, they
have not been destroyed." Hien chw'en is the _nien hao_ of Tu Tsung, one
of the last emperors of the Southern Sung Dynasty, not of a Mongol
Sovereign. I owe this information to Prof. Pelliot, who adds that the
comparison between the Chinese Pagoda of Negapatam and the text of the
_Tao yi chi lio_ has been made independent of him by Mr. Fujita in the
_Tokyo-gakuho_, November, 1913, pp. 445-46. (_Cathay_, I., p. 81 n.)
XVII., p. 340. "Here [Maabar] are no horses bred; and thus a great part of
the wealth of the country is wasted in purchasing horses; I will tell you
how. You must know that the merchants of Kis and Hormes, Dofar and Soer
and Aden collect great numbers of destriers and other horses, and these
they bring to the territories of this King and of his four brothers, who
are kings likewise as I told you..."
Speaking of Yung (or Woeng) man, Chau Ju-kwa tells us (p. 133): "In the
mountains horse-raising is carried on a large scale. The other countries
which trade here purchase horses, pearls and dates which they get in
exchange for cloves, cardamom seeds and camphor."
XVII., p. 341.
SUTTEES IN INDIA.
"Suttee is a Brahmanical rite, and there is a Sanskrit ritual in existence
(see _Classified Index to the Tanjore MSS._, p. 135a.). It was
introduced into Southern India with the Brahman civilization, and was
prevalent there chiefly in the Brahmanical Kingdom of Vijayanagar, and
among the Mahrattas. In Malabar, the most primitive part of S. India, the
rite is forbidden (Anacharanirnaya, v. 26). The cases mentioned by
Teixeira, and in the _Lettres edifiantes_, occurred at Tanjore and Madura.
A (Mahratta) Brahman at Tanjore told one of the present writers that he
had to perform commemorative funeral rites for his grandfather and
grandmother on the same day, and this indicated that his grandmother had
been a _sati_." YULE, _Hobson-Jobson_. Cf. _Cathay_, II., pp. 139-140.
XVII., p. 345. Speaking of this province, Marco Polo says: "They have
certain abbeys in which are gods and goddesses to whom many young girls
are consecrated; their fathers and mothers presenting them to that idol
for which they entertain the greatest devotion. And when the [monks] of a
convent desire to make a feast to their god, they send for all those
consecrated damsels and make them sing and dance before the idol with
great festivity. They also bring meats to feed their idol withal; that is
to say, the damsels prepare dishes of meat and other good things and put
the food before the idol, and leave it there a good while, and then the
damsels all go to their dancing and singing and festivity for about as
long as a great Baron might require to eat his dinner. By that time they
say the spirit of the idols has consumed the substance of the food, so
they remove the viands to be eaten by themselves with great jollity. This
is performed by these damsels several times every year until they are
Chau Ju-kwa has the following passage in Cambodia (p. 53): "(The people)
are devout Buddhists. There are serving (in the temples) some three
hundred foreign women; they dance and offer food to the Buddha. They are
called _a-nan_ or slave dancing-girls."
Hirth and Rockhill, who quote Marco Polo's passage, remark, p. 55 n.:
"_A-nan_, as here written, is the usual transcription of the Sanskrit word
_ananda_, 'joy, happiness.' The almeh or dancing-girls are usually called
in India _deva-dasi_ ('slave of a god') or _ramjani_."
In Guzerat, Chau Ju-kwa, p. 92, mentions: "Four thousand Buddhist temple
buildings, in which live over twenty thousand dancing-girls who sing twice
daily while offering food to the Buddha (i.e., the idols) and while
XVIII., p. 356.
TRADITIONS OF ST. THOMAS.
"The traditional site of the Apostle's Tomb, now adjacent to the sea-shore,
has recently come to be enclosed in the crypt of the new Cathedral of San
Thome." (A.E. MEDLYCOTT, _India and the Apostle Thomas. An inquiry. With a
critical analysis of the Acta Thomae_. London, David Nutt, 1905, 8vo.)
In the beginning of the sixteenth century Barbosa found the church of St.
Thomas half in ruins and grown round with jungle. A Mahomedan fakir kept
it and maintained a lamp. Yet in 1504, which is several years earlier than
Barbosa's voyage, the Syrian Bishop Jaballaha, who had been sent by the
Patriarch to take charge of the Indian Christians, reported that the House
of St. Thomas had begun to be inhabited by some Christians, who were
engaged in restoring it.
Mr. W.R. Philipps has a valuable paper on _The Connection of St. Thomas
the Apostle with India_ in the _Indian Antiquary_, XXXII., 1903, pp. 1-15,
145-160; he has come to the following conclusions: "(1) There is good
early evidence that St. Thomas was the apostle of the Parthian empire; and
also evidence that he was the apostle of 'India' in some limited sense,
--probably of an 'India' which included the Indus Valley, but nothing to
the east or south of it. (2) According to the Acts, the scene of the
martyrdom of St. Thomas was in the territory of a king named, according to
the Syriac version, Mazdai, to which he had proceeded after a visit to the
city of a king named, according to the same version, Gudnaphar or
Gundaphar. (3) There is no evidence at all that the place where St. Thomas
was martyred was in Southern India; and all the indications point to
another direction. (4) We have no indication whatever, earlier than that
given by Marco Polo, who died 1324, that there ever was even a tradition
that St. Thomas was buried in Southern India."
In a recent and learned work (_Die Thomas Legende_, 1912, 8vo.) Father J.
Dahlmann has tried to prove that the story of the travels of St. Thomas in
India has an historical basis. If there is some possibility of admitting a
voyage of the Apostle to N.W. India (and the flourishing state of Buddhism
in this part of India is not in favour of Christian Evangelization), it is
impossible to accept the theory of the martyrdom of St. Thomas in Southern
The late Mr. J.F. FLEET, in his paper on St. Thomas and Gondophernes
(_Journ. Roy. As. Soc._, April, 1905, pp. 223-236), remarks that "Mr.
Philipps has given us an exposition of the western traditional statements
up to the sixth century." He gives some of the most ancient statements;
one in its earliest traceable form runs thus: "According to the Syriac
work entitled The Doctrine of the Apostles, which was written in perhaps
the second century A.D., St. Thomas evangelized 'India.' St. Ephraem the
Syrian (born about A.D. 300, died about 378), who spent most of his life
at Edessa, in Mesopotamia, states that the Apostle was martyred in 'India'
and that his relics were taken thence to Edessa. That St. Thomas
evangelized the Parthians, is stated by Origen (born A.D. 185 or 186, died
about 251-254). Eusebius (bishop of Caesarea Palaestinae from A.D. 315 to
about 340) says the same. And the same statement is made by the Clementine
Recognitions, the original of which may have been written about A.D. 210.
A fuller tradition is found in the Acts of St. Thomas, which exist in
Syriac, Greek, Latin, Armenian, Ethiopic, and Arabic, and in a fragmentary
form in Coptic. And this work connects with St. Thomas two eastern kings,
whose names appear in the Syriac version as Gudnaphar, Gundaphar, and
Mazdai; and in the Greek version as Goundaphoros, Goundiaphoros,
Gountaphoros, and Misdaios, Misdeos; in the Latin version as Gundaforus,
Gundoforus, and Misdeus, Mesdeus, Migdeus; and in the remaining versions
in various forms, of the same kind, which need not be particularized
here." Mr. Fleet refers to several papers, and among them to one by Prof.
Sylvain Levi, _Saint Thomas, Gondophares et Mazdeo (Journ., As.,_
Janv.-Fev., 1897, pp. 27-42), who takes the name Mazdai as a transformation
of a Hindu name, made on Iranian soil and under Mazdean influences, and
arrived at through the forms Bazodeo, Bazdeo, or Bazodeo, Bazdeo, which
occur in Greek legends on coins, and to identify the person with the king
Vasudeva of Mathura, a successor of Kanishka. Mr. Fleet comes to the
conclusion that: "No name, save that of Guduphara--Gondophernes, in any way
resembling it, is met with in any period of Indian history, save in that of
the Takht-i-Bahi inscription of A.D. 46; nor, it may be added, any royal
name, save that of Vasudeva of Mathura, in any way resembling that of
Mazdai. So also, as far as we know or have any reason to suppose, no name
like that of Guduphara--Gondophernes is to be found anywhere outside India,
save in the tradition about St. Thomas."
XVIII., p. 357.
On this city of the martyrdom of St. Thomas, see _Indian Antiquary_,
XXXII., pp. 148 seq. in Mr. Philipps' paper, and XXXIII., Jan., 1904,
pp. 31-2, a note signed W.R.P.
XIX., p. 361. "In this kingdom [Mutfili] also are made the best and most
delicate buckrams, and those of highest price; in sooth they look like
tissue of spider's web!"
In Nan p'i (in Malabar) Chau Ju-kwa has (p. 88): "The native products
include pearls, foreign cotton-stuff of all colours (i.e. coloured
chintzes) and _tou-lo mien_ (cotton-cloth)." Hirth and Rockhill remark
that this cotton-cloth is probably "the buckram which looks like tissue of
spider's web" of which Polo speaks, and which Yule says was the famous
muslin of Masulipatam. Speaking of Cotton, Chau Ju-kwa (pp. 217-8) writes:
"The _ki pe_ tree resembles a small mulberry-tree, with a hibiscus-like
flower furnishing a floss half an inch and more in length, very much like
goose-down, and containing some dozens of seeds. In the south the people
remove the seed from the floss by means of iron chopsticks, upon which the
floss is taken in the hand and spun without troubling about twisting
together the thread. Of the cloth woven therefrom there are several
qualities; the most durable and the strongest is called _t'ou-lo-mien_;
the second quality is called _fan-pu_ or 'foreign cloth'; the third 'tree
cotton' or _mu-mien_; the fourth _ki-pu_. These textures are sometimes
dyed in various colours and brightened with strange patterns. The pieces
measure up to five or six feet in breadth."
XXI., p. 373.
THE CITY OF CAIL.
Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the _Journal of the North-China Branch of the
Royal Asiatic Soc._, XXXVII., 1906, p. 196: "Yule's identification of
Kayal with the Kolkhoi of Ptolemy is supported by the Sung History, which
calls it both Ko-ku-lo and Ku-lo; it was known at the beginning of the
tenth century and was visited by several Chinese priests. In 1411 the Ming
Dynasty actually called it Ka-i-leh and mention a chief or king there
XXII., p. 376. "OF THE KINGDOM OF COILUM.--So also their wine they make
from [palm-] sugar; capital drink it is, and very speedily it makes a man
Chau Ju-kwa in Nan p'i (Malabar) mentions the wine (p. 89): "For wine they
use a mixture of honey with cocoanuts and the juice of a flower, which
they let ferment." Hirth and Rockhill remark, p. 91, that the Kambojians
had a drink which the Chinese called _mi-t'ang tsiu_, to prepare which
they used half honey and half water, adding a ferment.
XXII., p. 380 n. "This word [_Sappan_] properly means _Japan_, and seems
to have been given to the wood as a supposed product of that region."
"The word _sappan_ is not connected with Japan. The earliest records of
this word are found in Chinese sources. _Su-fang su-pwan_, to be restored
to _'supang_ or _'spang_, _'sbang_; _Caesalpinia sappan_, furnishing the
sappan wood, is first described as a product of Kiu-chen (Tong King) in
the _Nan fang ts'ao mi chuang_, written by Ki Han at the end of the third
or beginning of the fourth century. J. de Loureiro (_Flora
cochinchinensis_, p. 321) observes in regard to this tree, 'Habitat in
altis montibus Cochinchinae: indeque a mercatoribus sinensibus abunde
exportatur.' The tree accordingly is indigenous to Indo-China, where the
Chinese first made its acquaintance. The Chinese transcription is surely
based on a native term then current in Indo-China, and agrees very well
with Khmer _sban_ (or _sbang_): see AYMONIER et CABATON, _Dict.
cam-francais_, 510, who give further Cam _hapan_, Batak _sopan_, Makassar
_sappan_, and Malay _sepan_. The word belongs to those which the Mon-Khmer
and Malayan languages have anciently in common." (Note of Dr. B. LAUFER.)
XXIV., p. 386, also pp. 391, 440.
Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the _Journal of the North-China Branch of the
Royal Asiatic Soc._, XXXVII., 1906, p. 196: "Regarding the Fandaraina
country of the Arabs mentioned by Yule in the Notes to pages 386, 391, and
440 of Vol. II., it may be interesting to cite the following important
extract from Chapter 94, page 29, of the _Yuaen Shi_:--'In 1295 sea-traders
were forbidden to take fine values to trade with the three foreign states
of Ma-pa-r; Pei nan, and Fan-ta-la-i-na, but 2,500,000 nominal taels in
paper money were set apart for the purpose.'"
XXV., p. 391.
In the _Yuen Shi_, ch. 94, fol. 11 r'o, the "three barbarian kingdoms of
_Ma-pa-eul_ (Ma'abar), _Pei-nan_ (corr. _Kiu-nam, Coilam_) and
_Fan-ta-la-yi-na_" are mentioned. No doubt the last kingdom refers to the
_Fandaraina_ of Ibn Batuta, and Prof. Pelliot, who gives me this
information, believes it is also, in the middle of the fourteenth century,
_Pan-ta-li_ of the _Tao yi chi lio_.
XXV., p. 393. "In this province of Gozurat there grows much pepper, and
ginger, and indigo. They have also a great deal of cotton. Their cotton
trees are of very great size, growing full six paces high, and attaining
to an age of 20 years."
Chau Ju-kwa has, p. 92: "The native products comprise great quantities of
indigo, red kino, myrobolans and foreign cotton stuffs of every colour.
Every year these goods are transported to the Ta shi countries for sale."
XXXI., p. 404.
TWO ISLANDS CALLED MALE AND FEMALE.
Speaking of the fabulous countries of women, Chau Ju-kwa, p. 151, writes:
"The women of this country [to the south-east (beyond Sha-hua kung?)
Malaysia] conceive by exposing themselves naked to the full force of the
south wind, and so give birth to female children."
"In the Western Sea there is also a country of women where only three
females go to every five males; the country is governed by a queen, and
all the civil offices are in the hands of women, whereas the men perform
military duties. Noble women have several males to wait upon them; but the
men may not have female attendants. When a woman gives birth to a child,
the latter takes its name from the mother. The climate is usually cold.
The chase with bow and arrows is their chief occupation. They carry on
barter with Ta-t'sin and T'ien-chu, in which they make several hundred per
Cf. F. Hirth, _China and the Roman Orient_, pp. 200-202.
XXXII., pp. 406-7. Speaking of Scotra, Marco (II., p. 406) says: "The
ambergris comes from the stomach of the whale, and as it is a great object
of trade, the people contrive to take the whales with barbed iron darts,
which, once they are fixed in the body, cannot come out again. A long cord
is attached to this end, to that a small buoy which floats on the surface,
so that when the whale dies they know where to find it. They then draw the
body ashore and extract the ambergris from the stomach and the oil from
Chau Ju-kwa, at Chung-li (Somali Coast), has (p. 131): "Every year there
are driven on the coast a great many dead fish measuring two hundred feet
in length and twenty feet through the body. The people do not eat the
flesh of these fish, but they cut out their brains, marrow, and eyes, from
which they get oil, often as much as three hundred odd _toeng_ (from a
single fish). They mix this oil with lime to caulk their boats, and use it
also in lamps. The poor people use the ribs of these fish to make rafters,
the backbones for door leaves, and they cut off vertebrae to make mortars
XXXII., p. 407. "And you must know that in this island there are the best
enchanters in the world. It is true that their Archbishop forbids the
practice to the best of his ability; but 'tis all to no purpose, for they
insist that their forefathers followed it, and so must they also. I will
give you a sample of their enchantments. Thus, if a ship be sailing past
with a fair wind and a strong, they will raise a contrary wind and compel
her to turn back. In fact they make the wind blow as they list, and
produce great tempests and disasters; and other such sorceries they
perform, which it will be better to say nothing about in our Book."
Speaking of Chung-li (Somali Coast), Chau Ju-kwa writes, p. 130: "There
are many sorcerers among them who are able to change themselves into
birds, beasts, or aquatic animals, and by these means keep the ignorant
people in a state of terror. If some of them in trading with some foreign
ship have a quarrel, the sorcerers pronounce a charm over the ship, so
that it can neither go forward nor backward, and they only release the
ship when it has settled the dispute. The government has formally
forbidden this practice."
Hirth and Rockhill add, p. 132: "Friar Joanno dos Santos (A.D. 1597) says:
'In the Ile of Zanzibar dwelt one Chande, a great sorcerer, which caused
his Pangayo, which the Factor had taken against his will, to stand still
as it were in defiance of the Winde, till the Factor had satisfied him,
and then to fly forth the River after her fellowes at his words. He made
that a Portugall which had angered him, could never open his mouth to
speake, but a Cocke crowed in his belly, till he had reconciled himselfe:
with other like sorceries.'" See PURCHAS, _His Pilgrimes_, IX., 254.
"Not twenty years ago, Theo. Bent found that the Somalis were afraid of
the witchcraft of the natives of Socotra. Theo. BENT, _Southern Arabia_,
XXXIII., p. 412. Speaking of the bird Ruc at Madeigascar, Marco Polo says:
"It is so strong that it will seize an elephant in its talons and carry
him high into the air, and drop him so that he is smashed to pieces;
having so killed him the bird gryphon swoops down on him and eats him at
Chau Ju-kwa writing of K'un lun ts'oeng' ki, on the coast of Africa,
writes, p. 149: "This country is in the sea to the south-west. It is
adjacent to a large island. There are usually (there, i.e., on the great
island) great _p'oeng_ birds which so mask the sun in their flight that the
shade on the sundial is shifted. If the great _p'oeng_ finds a wild camel
it swallows it, and if one should chance to find _p'oeng's_ feather, he can
make a water-butt of it, after cutting off the hollow quill."
XXXIII., p. 421.
The Chinese traveller Chau Ju-kwa in his work _Chu-fan-chi_ on the Chinese
and Arab trade in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, speaking of the
country of Pi p'a lo (Berbera), says: "The country brings forth also the
(so-called) 'camel crane', which measures from the ground to its crown
from six to seven feet. It has wings and can fly, but not to any great
height." The translators and commentators Hirth and Rockhill have (p. 129)
the following notes: "Quotation from _Ling-wai-tai-ta_, 3, 6a. The ostrich
was first made known to the Chinese in the beginning of the second century
of our era, when some were brought to the court of China from Parthia. The
Chinese then called them _An-si-tsio_ 'Parthian bird.' See _Hou Han Shu_,
88, and Hirth, _China and Roman Orient_, 39. In the _Wei shu_, 102, 12b,
no name is given them, they are simply 'big birds which resemble a camel,
which feed on herbs and flesh and are able to eat fire. In the _T'ang
shu_, 221, 7a, it is said that this bird is commonly called 'camel-bird.'
It is seven feet high, black of colour, its feet like those of the camel,
it can travel three hundred _li_ a day, and is able to eat iron. The
ostrich is called by the Persians _ushturmurgh_ and by the Arabs
_teir al-djamal_, both meaning 'camel birds.'"
Dr. Bretschneider in his Notes on _Chinese Mediaeval Travellers to the
West_ (1875), p. 87, n. 132, has a long note with a figure from the _Pen
ts'ao kang mu_ on the "camel-bird" (p. 88).
Cf. F. Hirth, _Die Laender des Islam_, Supp. Vol. V. of _T'oung Pao_, 1894,
p. 54. Tsuboi Kumazo, _Actes XII'e Cong, Int. Orient.,_ Rome, 1899, II., p.
XXXIII., p. 421.
Speaking of Pi p'a lo (Berbera Coast) Chau Ju-kwa (p. 128) says: "There is
also (in this country) a wild animal called _tsu-la;_ it resembles a camel
in shape, an ox in size, and is of a yellow colour. Its fore legs are five
feet long, its hind legs only three feet. Its head is high up and turned
upwards. Its skin is an inch thick." Giraffe is the iranised form of the
arabic _zuraefa_. Mention is made of giraffes by Chinese authors at Aden
and Mekka. Cf. FERRAND, _J. Asiatique_, July-August, 1918, pp. 155-158.
XXXIV., p. 422.
We read in the _Tao i chi lio_: "This country [Ts'eng yao lo] is to the
south-west of the Ta Shih (Arabs). There are no trees on the coast; most
of the land is saline. The arable ground is poor, so there is but little
grain of any kind, and they mostly raise yams to take its place.
"If any ship going there to trade carries rice as cargo, it makes very
"The climate is irregular. In their usages they have the rectitude of
"Men and women twist up their hair; they wear a short seamless shirt. The
occupation of the people is netting birds and beasts for food.
"They boil sea-water to make salt and ferment the juice of the sugar-cane
to make spirits. They have a ruler.
"The native products comprise red sandal-wood, dark red sugar-cane,
elephants' tusks, ambergris, native gold, _ya tsui tan-fan_, lit.,
'duck-bill sulphate of copper.'
"The goods used in trading are ivory boxes, trade silver, coloured satins,
and the like." (ROCKHILL, _T'oung Pao_, XVI., 1915, pp. 622-3.) Cf. CHAU
JU-KWA, p. 126.
XXXIV., p. 423. "There is a great deal of trade, and many merchants and
vessels go thither. But the staple trade of the Island is elephants'
teeth, which are very abundant; and they have also much ambergris, as
whales are plentiful."
Chau Ju-kwa has, p. 126: "The products of the country [Ts'oeng-pa] consist
of elephants' tusks, native gold, ambergris and yellow sandal-wood."
XXXVI., p. 438.
In the _Ying yai sheng lan_ we read that "the kingdom (of A-tan) is on the
sea-coast. It is rich and prosperous, the people follow the doctrine of
the Moslims and their speech is Arabic. Their tempers are overbearing and
violent. They have seven to eight thousand well-trained soldiers, horse
and foot, whom the neighbouring countries fear." (W.W. ROCKHILL, _T'oung
Pao_ XVI., 1915, p. 607.) There is a description of the giraffe under the
name of _K'i lin_; it "has forelegs over nine feet long, its hind ones are
about six feet. Beside its ears grow fleshy horns. It has a cow's tail and
a deer's body. It eats millet, beans, and flour cakes" (p. 609). In the
_Si Yang Chao kung tien lu_ (1520 A.D.), we have a similar description:
"Its front legs are nine feet long, its hind legs six feet. Its hoofs have
three clefts, it has a flat mouth. Two short fleshy horns rise from the
back of the top of its head. It has a cow's tail and a deer's body. This
animal is called _K'i lin_; it eats grain of any kind." (Ibid.) Cf.
FERRAND, J. _Asiatique,_ July-Aug., 1918, pp. 155-158.
XXXVI., p. 439.
At the time of Chau Ju-kwa, Aden was perhaps the most important port of
Arabia for the African and Arabian trade with India and the countries
beyond. It seems highly probable that the Ma-li-pa of the Chinese must be
understood as including Aden, of which they make no mention whatsoever,
but which was one of "the great commercial centres of the Arabs." HIRTH
and ROCKHILL, p. 25 n.
XXXVI., pp. 442 seq.
THE CITY OF ESHER.
Shehr, a port on the Hadramaut coast, is mentioned by Chau Ju-kwa under
the name of _Shi ho_ among the dependencies of the country of the _Ta-shi_
(Arabs.). (HIRTH and ROCKHILL, p. 116.)
XXXVIII., pp. 444-445.
We read in the _Ying yai sheng lan:_ "This country [Tsu fa erh] is between
the sea and the mountains. To the east and south is nothing but the sea.
To the north and west are ranges of mountains. One reaches it from the
kingdom of Ku-li (Calicut) journeying north-westward for ten days and
nights. It has no walled towns or villages. The people all follow the
religion of the Moslims. Their physical appearance is good, their culture
is great, the language sincere.
"The native products are frankincense, which is the sap of a tree. There
is also dragon's blood, aloes, myrrh, _an-hsi-hsiang_ (benzoin), liquid
storax, _muh-pieh-tzu (Momordica cochinchinensis)_, and the like, all of
which they exchange for Chinese hempen cloth, silks, and china-ware."
(ROCKHILL, _T'oung Pao_, XVI., 1915, pp. 611-612.)
The _Sing ch'a sheng lan_ mentions: "The products are the _tsu-la-fa_
(giraffe), gold coins, leopards, ostriches, frankincense, ambergris."
(Ibid., p. 614.)
Dufar is mentioned by Chau Ju-kwa under the name of Nu-fa among the
dependencies of the country of the _Ta-shi_ (Arabs). (HIRTH and ROCKHILL,
pp. 116, 121.)
XXXVIII., pp. 445-449.
Chau Ju-kwa (HIRTH and ROCKHILL, pp. 195-196) tells us: _Ju hiang_ ('milk
incense'), or _huen-lu-hiang_, comes from the three Ta-shi countries of
Ma-lo-pa, Shi-ho, and Nu-fa, from the depths of the remotest mountain
valleys. The tree which yields this drug may, on the whole, be compared to
the _sung_ (pine). Its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon which the
resin flows out, and when hardened, turns into incense, which is gathered
and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Ta-shi (on the
coast); the Ta-shi load it upon their ships for barter against other goods
in San-fo-ts'i: and it is for this reason that the incense is commonly
collected at San-fo-ts'i [the three ports of the Hadhranaut coast].
"When the foreign merchants come to that place to trade, the Customs
authorities, according to the relative strength of its fragrance,
distinguish thirteen classes of incense. Of these, the very best is called
_kien-hiang_ or 'picked incense': it is round and of the size of the end
of a finger; it is commonly called _ti-ju_ or 'dripping milk.' The second
quality is called _p'ing ju_, or 'potted milk,' and its colour is inferior
to that of the 'picked incense.' The next quality is called _p'ing hiang_,
or 'potted incense.' so called, they say, owing to its being prized so
much at the time of gathering, that it is placed in pots (_p'ing_). In
this _p'ing hiang_ (variety of frankincense) there are three grades,
superior, medium and inferior. The next quality is called _tai-hiang_, or
'bag incense'; thus called, they say, because at the time of gathering, it
is merely put into bags; it is also divided into three qualities, like the
"The next kind is the _ju-t'a_; it consists of incense mixed with gravel.
"The next kind is the _hei-t'a_, because its colour is black. The next
kind is the _shui-shi-hei-t'a_, because it consists of incense which has
been 'water damaged' the aroma turned, and the colour spoiled while on
"Mixed incense of various qualities and consisting of broken pieces is
called _choe-siau_ ('cut-up'); when passed through a sieve and made into
dust, it is called _ch'an-mo_ ('powder'). The above are the various
varieties of frankincense."
WARS AMONG THE TARTAR PRINCES AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE NORTHERN COUNTRIES.
XXII., p. 488.
"It seems that Russia [Chinese _A-lo-sz'_ = Mongol _Oros_; the modern
Chinese name for Russia is _Wo-lo-sz'_] was unknown to the nations of
Eastern Asia before the Mongol period. In the Mongol and Chinese annals
the Russians are first mentioned after Subutai's invasion of Southern
Russia in 1223. The _Yuean chao pi shi_ terms Russia or the Russians
_Orus_, as they are called even now by the Mongols. The Chinese of the
Mongol period write _A-lo-sz'_, sometimes also _Wa-lo-sz'_ or _U-lu-sz'_.
All these names evidently render the Mongol appellation _Orus_.
"In the _Yuean shi_, Russia is frequently mentioned.... I may notice here
some other instances where the Russians are spoken of in the _Yuean-shi_.
We read in the annals, _s.a._ 1253, that the Emperor Meng k'o (Mangu)
ordered Bi-dje Bie-rh-k'o to be sent to Wu-lo-sz' in order to take a
census of the people.
"It is an interesting fact recorded in the _Yuean shi_ that there was in
the first half of the fourteenth century a settlement of Russians near
Peking. In the annals, chap. XXXIV., _s.a._ 1330, it is stated that the
Emperor Wen Tsung (Tob Timur, 1329-32, the great grandson of Kubilai),
formed a regiment composed of _U-lo-sz'_ or Russians. This regiment being
commanded by a _wan hu_ (commander of ten thousand of the third degree),
received the name 'The Ever-faithful Russian Life-guard.' It was placed
under the direct control of the council of war. Farther on in the same
chapter it is stated that 140 _king_ of land, north of _Ta tu_ (Peking)
was bought from the peasants and allotted to these Russians, to establish
a camp and to form a military colony. We read again in the same chapter
that they were furnished with implements of agriculture, and were bound to
present for the imperial table every kind of game, fish, etc., found in
the forests, rivers, and lakes of the country where their camp was
situated. This Russian regiment is again mentioned in chap. XXXV.
"In chapter XXXVI. it is recorded that in the year 1332 the prince
Djang-ghi presented 170 Russian prisoners and received a pecuniary reward.
On the same page we read that clothes and corn were bestowed on a thousand
Russians. In the same year the prince Yen t'ie-mu-rh presented 1500 Russian
prisoners to the Chinese emperor, and another prince, A-rh-ghia-shi-li,
"Finally, in the biography of Bo yen, chap. CXXXVIII., he is stated to
have been appointed in 1334 commander of the emperor's life-guard,
composed of Mongols, Kipchaks, and Russians." (E. BRETSCHNEIDER,
_Mediaeval Researches_, II., pp. 79-81.)
Prof. Parker (_Asiatic Q. Rev._, Jan., 1904, p. 148) mentions the
appointment of a Russian Governor in 1337, and says: "It was the practice
of Princes in the West to send 'presents' of Russian captives. In one case
Yen Temur sent as many as 2500 in one batch."
LIST OF MSS. OF MARCO POLO'S BOOK SO FAR AS THEY ARE KNOWN.
II., p. 533.
GLASGOW, Hunterian Museum. No. 84, vellum, 4to, Cent. XV.: 1. Guido de
Colonna's Destruction of Troy. 2. Julius Valerius' History of Alexander
the Great. 3. Archbishop Turpin's Itinerary. 4. Marco Polo.
_Begins_ (25, 5 [f. 191 (197) r'o, lines 1-3): pp. [blue] Incipit liber
domini marci Pauli de Venecijs | de condicionibus et consuetudinibus
orientalium regionum [rubric] L [small illuminated initial] Ibrum
prudentis honorabilis ac fidelissimi domini marci.
_Ends_ (33, 3 [f. 253 (259) r'o, lines 8-12): girfalci et herodij qui inde
postmodum ad diuersas prouincias | et regiones deferuntur et cetera.
pp. [blue] Explicit liber domini marci Pauli | de Venecijs de diuisionibus
et consue- | tudinibus orientalium regionum [Pipino's Version].
5. Frater Odoricus Forojuliensis.
6. Iohannis Mandeville, _De Mirabilibus_.
II., p. 533.
GLASGOW, Hunterian Museum, Cent. XIV. No. 458, vellum, 4to. 1. Marci
Pavli Veneti, _De Orientalibus Regionibus_.
_Begins_--after a preface by "Frater Franciscus Pipinus de Bononia"
beginning (I, 1 r'o, lines 1-4): Incipit liber primus domini marci pauli de
venecijs de orien [rubric] | L [gilt historiated initial with gestures
forming a floreated border.] Ibrum prudentis talibus regionibus. Prolo
[last three words rubric] | honorabilis ac fidelissimi domini gus. [last
word rubric] | marci pauli de venetijs de conditio | and ending (i, 2 r'o,
line 3): nostri ihesu christi cunctorum uisibilium et inuisibilium
creatoris, after which comes a list of the chapters, titles and numbers
(the latter rubricated) which concludes (i, 7 r'o, line i): D (small blue
initial with red ornament) e prouincia ruthenorum, xlix.--(i, 7 r'o, lines
2-5): Capitulum primum primi libri. Qualiter et quare dominus | nicholaus
pauli de venetijs, et dominus marchus [rubric] | T [blue and red
illuminated initial with minute spread eagle in centre] Empore quo
transierunt ad partes [last three words rubric] | balduinus princeps
orientales. [last words rubric.]
_Ends_ (14, 1 r'o, lines 26, 27): et diuersas prouincias deferuntur.
Explicit liber domini | marci pauli de venetis de diuisionibus et
II., p. 534.
PARIS, see No. 18--Bibliotheque Nationale Departement des
Manuscrits--Livre des Merveilles, Odoric de Pordenone, Mandeville, Hayton,
etc.--Reproduction des 265 miniatures du Manuscrit francais 2810 de la
Bibliotheque Nationale. Paris, Imprimerie Berthaud freres, 31, rue de
Bellefond, 2 vol. in 8.
Marco Polo, Planches, 1-84.
II., p. 539.
ANTWERP, Museum Plantin-Moretus. Exhibited in Room III., No. 61:
_Extraits du Livre de Marco Polo de Venise_ et d'un livre sur l'origine de
quelques villes belges.
132 leaves; 185 x 270 millimeters, XVth Century. Adorned initials,
alternately blue and red. Headings of chapters underlined in red. Leather
binding XVIth century, with small flowers de luce; copper clasps and ten
nails. On the last leaf, in a running hand: _Este liber partinet Nicholao
le buqueteur_; the name of _Abraham Vander Veken_ (Abra Vander Veque), and
the date 1600, 3/22, on the first and on the last but one leaves.
Fol. 2 _recto. Extracta de libro dni Pauli de Venecijs de diver sis
provincijs et regnis maior[um] et de diversis moribus habitantiu[m] et de
multis mirabilibus in hijs locis et Asije_. Eleven lines further: _Quomodo
iverunt at Berchaman_. Fol. 95 _r: De Sancto Thoma apto ubi jacet et qno
mortu(us) est_. Fol. 106 _r: Epilogatio de maiori Yndia_. F. 117 v, last
chapter: _De dissentione orta inter Alandum Tartaror[um] et Bcha regem_.
Ends, f. 118 r: _Hii tamen reges proximi parentis erant et ambo ex
Chinchini imperialis progenie descendentes. Explicit_.
The end of the MS. (f. 118-132) has for object the origin of Belgian
I owe this information to M.J. DENUCE.
II., p. 542.
FLORENCE, Riccardian Library, Catalan.
This manuscript has been discovered by Prof. Giovanni Vacca who has kindly
sent me the following information regarding this curious document not
mentioned by Yule, Amat di S. Filippo, or Uzielli: MS., 2048 cartac. sec.
XV. (?), bearing the following faulty title: Storia del Catay in lingua
_spagnuola_; 66 leaves, the last of which with a note by Piero Vaglienti.
Writing is pretty clear, much like that of the Catalan Map of 1375.
The text begins with the description of the city of Lop, and ends with
Fol. 65 _v_: "anaquesta provencia sisfa molta de seda evy ciutatz e viles
e castels assaiz e ay moltz bons azcos. Calre no se queus pusca dir er
perque fas vos si anaquest libre veus na sra benefit."
Somewhat similar to the end of MS. 2207, Ottob., sec. XIV., membr. of the
Vatican Library (reproduced by Amat di S. Filippo):
"En ycelle province fait on moult de soyt. Et si y a moult de villes,
cites et chasteaux, moult bons et beau. Autre chose ne vous en scay dire
par quoi je vous fais fins en ce livre."
Generally the text is correct; one does not find the great errors
contained in the Italian text given by Bartoli; it seems to follow very
closely the French text of the Societe de Geographie edited in 1824.
Here is a description of the city of Gambalech (fol. 20 _r_-20 _v_)
reproducing very closely a legend of the Catalan Map of 1375.
"Les ver _que costa la ciutat de Camalech avia una grant Ciutat
antichament qui avi a nom garimbalu_ qui vol dir la Ciut del seyor _e lo
gran cham troba per los strologians que aquesta ciutat se devia revelar
contra el axi que feila desabitar a feu fer la ciutat de Sambaleth_ e
axi .|. flum al miq evay fer venir poblar tota la jent que y staba, _e ha
entorn a questa ciutat de Gambalech. XXIIIJ. legues e es ben murada e es
acayre sique ha de cascun cayre. VI. legues e a dalt lo mur XX. paces_ e
es de terre _e ha. X. paces de gros_ e son totz los murs tant blanchs con
a neu e a en cascun cayre. IIJ. portes & en cascuna porta ha .|. palau dela
semblansa de les XII. que ditz vos aven e en cascun palau ha de beles
cambres e sales plenes darmatures ops da quells qui garden la ciutat los
carres son amples e lonchs e ayi que anant de la .|. porta alantre troba
hom de bells alberchs e de bels palaus qui son de gran seyors ayi que ela
es abitada de bells alberchs E en miss loch de la ciutat a 1. gran palau
en que _ha 1'n. gran torra enquesta .|. gran seny | sona ho abans axique
pus que ha sonat no gosa anar ne gun per la vila_ si dons gran ops non ha
e ab lum e _a cascuna porta garden. M. homes no per temensa_ que nayen
_mes per honor del seyor_ e per latres e malfeitos.
"Per gardar la granea del seyor alo poder ell se fa gardar a XIJ'm homes a
Caval e ape-lense casitans, qui vol dir leyals cavalers a son seyor a
quests. XIJ'm. homes an. IIIJ. capitans ..."
The words _underlined_ are included almost verbatim in the Catalan Map.
Cf. H. CORDIER, _L'Extreme Orient dans l'Atlas Catalan_, p. 14.
The manuscript begins, fol. I _recto_: "Aci comensa lo libre de les
provincies et de les encontrades que sont sotz la seyoria del gran
Emperador del Catay | lo qual ha la seyoria del Gamballech et seyor de los
Tartres ayi com ho reconta o messer March Pollo ciutada noble de Venecia.
Et primerament diun ay de la provincia de Tangut hon el stech XXVI. anys
per saber la veritat de les coses daval scrites."
Cf. _Un manoscritto inedito del viaggi di_ Marco Polo. Di Giovanni Vacca
(_Riv. Geog. Ital._, XIV., 1907, pp. 107-108).
II., p. 546.
ESCURIAL, Latin, Pipino's (?). See No. 60. This is probably the MS.
mentioned by the second Viscount of Santarem, p. 574, in his volume,
_Ineditos (Miscellanea)_ Lisboa, 1914, large 8vo: "Un Ms. de Marc Polo du
XV'e. siecle qui est mal indique par le titre suivant: _Consuetudines et
condiciones orientalium regionum descripto per mestrum Paulum de Venetiis
scripto chartis vix saeculo XV. incipiente_, Q-ij--13."
My late friend, Prof. H. Derenbourg, gives me a few notes regarding this
Latin MS., paper, small 4to, ff. 1-95 _v_; contains 187 chapters with a
special title in red ink. Begins: _Librum prudentis honorabilis ac
fidelissimi viri Domini Marci Pauli De Venetiis de conditionibus
orientalium ab me vulgari edictum et scriptum_.
II., p. 548.
NUREMBERG. Latin MS. containing _Marco Polo, St. Brandan, Mandeville,
Odoric, Schildtberger_; bad handwriting. See French edition of Odoric, p.
 See _The Book of Ser Marco Polo_, Vol. II., pp. 530 seq.
 Pages 89, 90 of _A Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of
the Hunterian Museum in the University of Glasgow planned and begun by
the late John Young ... continued and completed under the direction of
the Young Memorial Committee by_ P. Henderson Aitken.... Glasgow,
James Maclehose and Sons, 1908, gr. in -4.
 Cf. Young's _Catalogue_, p. 378.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MARCO POLO'S BOOK.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRINTED EDITIONS.
1.--Die Reisen des Venezianers Marco Polo im 13. Jahrhundert Bearbeitet
und herausgegeben von Dr. Hans Lemke Mit einem Bilde Marco Polos. Hamburg,
Ernst Schultze, 1908, 8vo, pp. 573.
_Bibliothek wertvoller Memoiren_.
Lebensdokumente hervorragender Menschen aller Zeiten und Voelker
Herausgegeben von Dr. Ernst Schultze. 1 Band.
Revised edition of Buerck's translation of Ramusio's Italian text published
2.--*Marco Polo: Abenteuerliche Fahrten. Neu herausgegeben von Dr. Otto
St. Brandt. Mit 3 Spezialkarten. Druck und Verlag von August Scherl in
Berlin, small 8vo, pp. 319.
Notices: _Mitt. K.K. Geogr. Ges. Wien_, Bd. LVI., 1913, pp. 258-259.
Von E.G.--_Geog. Zeitschft. Leipzig_, XIX., 1913, pp. 531. By K.
3.--Marco Polo Il Milione secondo il testo della "Crusca" reintegrato con
gli altri codici italiani a cura di Dante Olivieri. Bari, Gius. Laterza &
figli, 1912, in--8, 2 ff. n. ch. + pp. 317.
4.--Cosmographia breue introductoria en el libro d'Marco Polo. Seville,
1518.--See II., p. 566.
The bookseller Karl W. Hiersemann, of Leipzig, has in his catalogue
_America_, no. 336, in 1907, no. 2323, quoted M.11.000 a copy of the
_Cosmographia_ with the colophon: Elql se emprimio por Juan varela |
d'salamaca en la muy noble y muy | leal ciudad de Seuilla. Ano de | mill y
q deg.nientos y diez y ocho | ano a. XVI. dias de mayo.-Fol., 4 ff. not
numbered + ff. 31 numbered on 2 columns.
5.--YULE-CORDIER.--_The Book of Ser Marco Polo_ ... Third Edition....
London, John Murray, 1903, 2 vols., 8vo.
Notices: _Glasgow Herald_, 11 June, 1903.--_Scotsman_, 11 June,
1903.--_Outlook_, 13 June, 1903.--_Morning Post_, 18 June, 1903.--_Bulletin
Comite Asie francaise_, Juin, 1903.--_Standard_, 17 June, 1903.--_Daily
Chronicle_, 20 June, 1903.--_Manchester Guardian_, 23 June, 1903.--_Pall
Mall Gazette_, 15 July, 1903.--_Bombay Gazette_, 11 July, 1903.--_The
Spectator_, 15 Aug., 1903.--_The Guardian_ (by C. Raymond Beazley), 2
Sept., 1903.--_Times_ (by H.J. Mackinder), 2 Oct., 1903.--_Blackwood's
Mag._ (by Charles Whibley), Oct., 1903.--_Illustrated Evening News_,
Chicago, 26 Sept., 1903.--_The Sun_, New York, 4 Oct., 1903 (by M.W.
H.).--_Hongkong Daily Press_, 10 and 11 Sept., 1903.--_The Athenaeum_, 17
Oct., 1903.--_Outlook_, 14 Nov., 1903.--Some new Facts about Marco Polo's
Book, by E.H. Parker (_Imp. & Asiat. Quart. Review_, Jan., 1904, pp.
125-149).--_Saturday Review_, 27 Feb., 1904.--_T'oung Pao_, Oct., 1903, pp.
357-366, from _The Athenaeum_.--_Geographical Journal_, March, 1904, pp.
379-380, by C.R.B. [eazley].--_Bul. Ecole franc. Ext. Orient_, IV,
Juillet-Sept., 1904, pp. 768-772, by Paul Pelliot.--Marco Polo and his
Followers in Central Asia, by Archibald R. Colquhoun (_Quarterly Review_,
April, 1904, pp. 553-575).
6.--The most noble and famous Travels of Marco Polo one of the Nobility of
the State of Venice, into the east Parts of the World, as Armenia, Persia,
Arabia, Tartary, with many other Kingdoms and Provinces. The translation
of Marsden revised by Thomas Wright, F.S.A.--London: George Newnes; New
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1904, 16mo, pp. xxxix-461, Portrait and
7.--Voyages and Travels of Marco Polo, With an Introduction by Henry
Morley. Cassell and Company, London, Paris, New York and Melbourne, MCMIV,
16mo, pp. 192, front.
8.--Everyman's Library, edited by Ernest Rhys--Travel and
Topography--Marco Polo's Travels with an Introduction by John Masefield.
The Travels of Marco Polo the Venetian. London: Published by J.M. Dent &
Co., and in New York by E.P. Dutton & Co., 16mo, pp. xvi-461, n. d.
9.--[Russian: Shemyakin', A.N.--Puteshestviya Venetsiantsa Marko Polo v'
XIII stod'tii, natsegatann'iya v' perv'iy raz' vpodi' na n'metskom' po
duchshim' ietsaniyam' i s' ob'yasneniyami Avg. Byurkom' S' dopodneniyami i
popravkami K.F. Nenmanna. Perevots' C' n'mstskago. Moskva, 1863.]
Had been published in [Russian: 'Iteniyakh' v' Nmn. Obsch. Istorii i
Drevnostey Rossiiskikh' nri Mosk. Universitet']
Mentioned by Barthold in Minaev's _Marco Polo_.
10.--*Marco Polo's Resa i Asien ([Folkskrifter] allm. hist. No. 32)
Stockholm, 1859, P.G. Berg.
11.--Venetianaren Marco Polos Resor i det XIII. arhundraded Oeversaettning
samt inledning och anmaerkningar av Bengt Thordeman.--Stockholm: Albert
Bonniers Foerlag, n. d. , 2 vol. 8vo, pp. xx-248, 249 to 490,
genealogical table of the Tartars, Map.
Pages 345-480 are devoted to notes.
12.--There is a Japanese piratical edition of the second edition of Yule's
Marco Polo brought out by the firm Kyoyekishosha in 1900 and costing 8
_yen_. Cf. _Bulletin Ecole franc. Ext. Orient_, IV, p. 769, note.
 See II., pp. 554 seq.
TITLES OF SUNDRY BOOKS AND PAPERS WHICH TREAT OF MARCO POLO AND HIS BOOK.
1.--_Histoire des Etablissements europeens aux Indes orientales par_
A. CHARDIN, suivie d'un extrait de l'article sur _Marco Polo_, de
M. WALKENAER, Membre de l'Institut; d'un extrait de la vie de Jonh
[sic] Mandeville, par Washington Irving; et d'une notice sur le
Camoens, par Mme de Stael.--Paris, Rue et Place Saint-Andre des Arts,
no. 30--1832, 12mo, pp. 104.
Marco Polo, p. 87.--John Mandeville, p. 94.
Marco Polo, after la _Biographie universelle_; Mandeville, after
_l'Histoire de Christophe Colomb._, de W. Irving.
Fait partie de la _Bibliotheque populaire ou l'Instruction mise a la
portee de toutes les classes et de toutes les intelligences par_
MM. ARAGO ... et AJASSON de GRANDSAGNE, charge de la Direction.
2.--MAYERS, W.F.--_Marco Polo's Legend concerning Bayan. (Notes and
Queries on China and Japan_, Nov., 1868, p. 162.)
3.--PALLADIUS' _Elucidations_. See II., p. 579, No. 63.
Notice in _Magazin fuer die Litteratur des Auslandes_, 1876, p.
4.--_Marco Polo und die Anianstrasse_. Von Prof. S. RUGE, Dresden.
(_Globus_, LXIX., 1896, pp. 133-137.)
5.--_Un capitaine du regne de Philippe le Bel_ Thibaut de Chepoy
_par_ Joseph PETIT. (_Le Moyen Age_, Paris, 1897, pp.
6.--[Russian: Kommentarii Arkhimandrita Paddadiya Katharova na putemestvie
Marko Polo no s'vernomu Kitayu s' tsrsdisloviem' N.I. Besedobskago.
Sankpeterburg', Tip. Imp. Akad. Nauk'] 1902, 8vo, pp. 47, portrait.
7.--MOULE, Rev. G.E.--_Notes on Col._ YULE'S _Edition of Marco
Polo's_ "Quinsay." (_Jour. North-China Br. R. As. Soc._, N.
S., IX., 1875, pp. 1-24.)
8.--_The_ Tarikh-i-Rashidi _of_ MIRZA MUHAMMAD HAIDAR, DUGHLAT
_A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia_, An English Version
Edited, with Commentary, Notes, and Map by N. ELIAS. The Translation
by E. Denison Ross ... London, Sampson Low, 1895, 8vo.
9.--A. Slieptsov.--[Russian: Mark' Polo i ego stranstbobaniya no tsarstvu
Mongol'skomu, po Kitayu i Indii.]--small 8vo, pp. 83, fig. [St.
[Russian: "Knizhka za knizhkoi," ki. 108-aya.]
10.--STEIN, Sir Aurel.--_Preliminary Report of a Journey of
Archaeological and Topographical Exploration in Chinese Turkestan_.
London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1901, 4to.
---- _Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan_. London, T. Fisher Unwin,
1903, 8vo, pp. xliii-524.
---- _Ancient Khotan_. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1907, 2 vols., 4to.
---- _Ruins of Desert Cathay_. Personal Narrative of Explorations
in Central Asia and Westernmost China. With numerous Illustrations,
Colour Plates, Panoramas, and Maps from Original Surveys. Macmillan
and Co., 1912, 2 vols. 8vo.
---- _Les Documents chinois decouverts par_ Aurel STEIN _dans les
sables du Turkestan oriental publies et traduits par_ Edouard
CHAVANNES. Oxford, Imprimerie de l'Universite, 1913, 4to.
---- _Explorations in Central Asia_ (1906-1908). (_Geographical
Journal_, July and Sept., 1909.)
---- _Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ._, May, 1915.)
---- _Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ._, Oct., 1915.)
---- _Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ._, May, 1916.)
---- _A Third Journey of Exploration in Central Asia_, 1913-16.
(_Geog. Journ._, Aug. and Sept., 1916.)
---- _Marco Polo's Account of a Mongol Inroad into Kashmir. (Geog.
Journ._, Aug., 1919, pp. 92-103.)
11.--H.A. GILES' _Dictionary_, Part III., pp. 1378-9.
List of Places mentioned by Marco Polo and identified by Yule.
12.--E.H. PARKER.--_Some New Facts about Marco Polo's Book.
(Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review_, Jan., 1904, pp. 125-149.)
---- _Notes on Yule_. (_Journ.N.C.B.R.A.Soc._, XXXVII., 1906,
pp. 195, 196.)
13.--Cesare-Augusto LEVI.--_Il vero Segreto di Dante e Marco
Polo_.--Comunicazione al Comitato di Treviso della "Dante
Alighieri" letta la sera del 17 Novembre, 1905--Treviso, Zoppelli,
1905, 8vo, pp. 37.
14.--_The Dry Sea and the Carrenare_--John Livingstone LOWES.
Printed at the University of Chicago Press, 8vo, pp. 46.
Reprinted from _Modern Philology_, Vol. III., No. 1, June, 1905.
15.--SYKES, Major P. Molesworth, H.B.M.'s Consulate-General,
Meshed. (_Geog. Journ._, XXVI., Oct., 1905, pp. 462-466.)
I. Did Marco Polo visit Baghdad?--II. Did Marco Polo visit the Tabas?
Henri Cordier's reply, Ibid., Dec., 1905, pp. 686, 687.
16.--_Noted Men who have helped China_.--II. _Marco Polo_. By
Dr. Gilbert REID. (_North China Herald_, April 6, 1906.)
17.--C. Raymond BEAZLEY.--_The Dawn of Modern Geography_. Vol. III.
_A History of Exploration and Geographical Science from the Middle
of the Thirteenth to the early Years of the Fifteenth Century_ (c.
A.D. 1260-1420). With reproductions of the Principal Maps of the Time.
Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906, 8vo, pp. xvi-638.
Chap. II. The Great Asiatic Travellers, 1260-1420. Part I. The Polos,
1260-1295, pp. 15-160.
18.--HALLBERG, Ivar.--_l'Extreme Orient dans la Litterature et la
Cartographie de l'Occident des XIII'e, XIV'e et XV'e siecles_--Etude
sur l'histoire de la geographie.--Goeteborg, 1906, 8vo, pp. viii-573.
19.--A.V. JACKSON.--_The Magi in Marco Polo and the Cities in Persia
from which they came to worship the Infant Christ. (Journ. Amer.
Orient. Soc._, XXVI., I., pp. 79-83.)
---- _Persia Past and Present_. A Book of Travel and Research with
more than two hundred illustrations and a map by A.V. Williams
Jackson, Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages, and sometime adjunct
Professor of the English Language and Literature in Columbia
University. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1906, 8vo, pp. xxxi-471.
20.--_Marco Polo's Journey in Manzi_. By John C. FERGUSON.
(_Journal North China Branch R. As. Soc._, XXXVII., 1906, pp.
21.--_The Pulse of Asia: A Journey in Central Asia illustrating the
Geographic Basis of History_, by Ellsworth HUNTINGTON, Illustrated.
Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1907, 8vo, pp.
22.--BRUCE, Major Clarence Dalrymple.--_In the Footsteps of Marco
Polo_, Being the Account of a Journey Overland from Simla to Pekin.
W. Blackwood, Edinburgh and London, 1907, 8vo, pp. xiv-379, ill., map.
23.--HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, A.--_Marco Polo's Travels; New editions; his
"Arbre Sol" not "Sun-tree," but Cypress of Zoroaster (Journal R. As.
Soc._, Jan., 1909, pp. 154-162.)
24.--SVEN HEDIN.--_Overland to India_, with 308 Illustrations from
Photographs, Water-colour Sketches, and Drawings by the Author, and 2
Maps. Macmillan and Co., London, 1910, 2 vols., 8vo, pp. xix-416,
25.--_L'itineraire de Marco Polo en Perse_, par M. Henri Cordier,
membre de l'Academie. (_Bull. Ac. Inscr. & Belles-Lettres_, Ctes.
rendus, Mai, 1911, pp. 298-309.)
26.--Hirth, Friedrich, and Rockhill, W.W.--_Chau Ju-kua_: His Work
on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelfth and thirteenth Centuries,
entitled _Chu-fan-chi_, Translated from the Chinese and
Annotated. St. Petersburg, Printing Office of the Imperial Academy of
Sciences, 1912, large 8vo, pp. x-288.
Mr. Rockhill has edited the Chinese Text of Chau Ju-kua at Tokyo, in
27.--Rockhill, W.W.--_Notes on the Relations and Trade of China with
the Eastern Archipelago and the Coast of the Indian Ocean during the
Fourteenth Century_. (_T'oung Pao_, 1914, July; 1915, March,
May, July, October, December.)
28.--Paul Pelliot.--_Kao-tch'ang Qoco, Houo-tcheou et Qara-khodja_,
par M. Paul Pelliot, avec une note additionnelle de M. Robert
Gauthiot. (_Journal Asiatique_, Mai-Juin, 1912, pp. 579-603.)
---- _Les documents chinois trouves par la Mission_ Kozlov a
_Khara-Khoto_. Ext. du _Journal Asiatique_ (Mai-Juin, 1914). Paris,
Imp. Nat., 1914, 8vo, pp. 20.
---- Chretiens d'Asie centrale et d'Extreme-Orient par Paul Pelliot.
(_T'oung Pao_, December, 1914, pp. 623-644.)
29.--Ferrand, Gabriel.--_Relations des voyages et textes geographiques
arabes, persans et turks relatifs a l'Extreme-Orient du VIII'e au
XVIII'e siecles_, traduits, revus et annotes. Paris, Ernest Leroux,
1913-1914, 2 vols. 8vo.
_Documents historiques et geographiques relatifs a l'Indo-chine publies
sous le direction de_ MM. Henri Cordier et Louis Finot.
---- _La plus ancienne mention du nom de l'ile de Sumatra_. Ext. du
_Journal Asiatique_ (Mars-Avril, 1917). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1917,
8vo, pp. 7.
---- _Malaka le Malayu et Malayur_. Ext. du _Journal Asiatique_
(Mai-Juin et Juillet-Aout, 1918). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1918, 8vo,
---- _Le nom de la girafe dans le Ying Yai Cheng Lan_. Ext. du
_Journal Asiatique_ (Juillet-Aout, 1918). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1918,
8vo, pp. 4.
30.--Yule-Cordier.--_Cathay and the Way Thither being a Collection of
Medieval Notices of China_. New Edition. Vol. I. Preliminary Essay on the
Intercourse between China and the Western Nations previous to the Discovery
of the Cape Route. London, Hakluyt Society, 1915.--Vol. II. Odoric of
Pordenone.--Ibid., 1913.--Vol. III. Missionary Friars--Rashiduddin--
Pegolotti--Marignolli.--Ibid., 1914.--Vol. IV., Ibn Batuta.-- Benedict
Goes.--Index. Ibid., 1916; 4 vols., 8vo.
31.--_Karajang_, by B. LAUFER (Chicago). (_Journ. Roy. As.
Soc._, Oct., 1915, pp. 781-784.)
Cf. _Geographical Journal_, Feb., 1916, p. 146.
32.--MOULE, Rev. A.C.--_Notices of Christianity_. Extracted from
Marco Polo. (_Journ. North China Br. R. As. Soc._, XLVI., 1915,
Facsimile of a page of French MS. 1116 in the Bibliotheque nationale.
---- _Marco Polo's Sinjumatu_. (_T'oung Pao_, July, 1912, pp.
---- _Hang-chou to Shang-tu_, A.D. 1276. (_T'oung Pas_, July,
1915, pp. 393-419.)
---- _Documents relating to the Mission of the Minor Friars to China in
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries_. (_Jour. Roy. As.
Soc._, July, 1914, pp. 533-599.)
---- A.C. M[OULE].--_A Note on the Chinese Atlas in the Magliabecchian
Library, with reference to Kinsay in Marco Polo_. (_Jour. Roy.
As. Soc._, July, 1919, pp. 393-395.)
33.--Charles V. LANGLOIS.--Marco Polo Voyageur. (_Histoire litteraire
de la France_, XXXV.)
34.--CORDIER, Henri.--_Le Christianisme en Chine et en Asie sous les
Mongols_. (Ext. du _T'oung Pao_, 2'e Ser., XVIII., 1917).
Leide, E.J. Brill, 1918, 8vo, pp. 67.
XII., pp. 307 seq.
Sir Richard C. TEMPLE, has kindly sent me the following valuable notes:--
ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS.
Both the Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been very closely studied by
Indian Government officials for about fifty years, and they and the people
occupying them are now thoroughly understood. There is a considerable
literature about them, ethnographical, historical, geographical, and so
I have myself been Chief Commissioner, i.e., Administrator, of both
groups for the Government of India for ten years, 1894-1903, and went
deeply into the subjects connected with them, publishing a good many
papers about them in the _Indian Antiquary_, _Journal of the Royal Society
of Arts_, _Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute_, and elsewhere.
A general survey of all information to that date concerning the islands
will be found in the _Census of India_, 1901, vol. III., which I wrote; in
this volume there is an extensive bibliography. I also wrote the Andaman
and Nicobar volumes of the Provincial and District _Gazetteers_, published
in 1909, in which current information about them was again summarised. The
most complete and reliable book on the subject is E.H. MAN'S _Aboriginal
Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands_, London, 1883. KLOSS, _Andamans and
Nicobars_, 1902, is a good book. GERINI'S _Researches on Ptolemy's
Geography of Eastern Asia_, 1909, is valuable for the present purpose.
The best books on the Nicobars are MAN'S _Nicobarese Vocabulary_,
published in 1888, and MAN'S _Dictionary of the Central Nicobarese
Language_, published in 1889. I am still publishing Mr. MAN'S _Dictionary
of the South Andaman Language in the Indian Antiquary_.
Recent information has so superseded old ideas about both groups of
islands that I suggest several of the notes in the 1903 edition of Marco
Polo be recast in reference to it.
With reference to the _Census Report_ noted above, I may remark that this
was the first Census Report ever made on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
and according to the custom of the Government of India, such a report has
to summarise all available information under headings called Descriptive,
Ethnography, Languages. Under the heading Descriptive are sub-heads,
Geography, Meteorology, Geography, History, so that practically my _Census
Report_ had to include in a summarised form all the available information
there was about the islands at that time. It has a complete index, and I
therefore suggest that it should be referred to for any point on which
information is required.
P. 307. _No king or chief_.--This is incorrect. They have distinct village
communities, governed each by its own chief, with definite rules of
property and succession and marriage. See _Census Report_ pp. 214, 212.
Pp. 307-308, Note 1. For Pulo Gomez, see BOWREY, _Countries Round the Bay
of Bengal_, ed. Temple, Hakluyt Society, p. 287 and footnote 4. Bowrey (c.
1675) calls it Pullo Gomus, and a marine journal of 1675 calls it Polo
_Origin of the name Nicobars_.--On this point I quote my paragraph thereon
on p. 185, _Census Report_.
"The situation of the Nicobars along the line of a very ancient trade has
caused them to be reported by traders and sea-farers through all
historical times. Gerini has fixed on Maniola for Car-Nicobar and
Agathodaimonos for Great Nicobar as the right ascription of Ptolemy's
island names for this region. This ascription agrees generally with the
mediaeval editions of Ptolemy. Yule's guess that Ptolemy's Barussae is the
Nicobars is corrected by Gerini's statement that it refers to Nias. In the
1490 edition of Ptolemy, the Satyrorum Insulae placed to the south-east of
the Malay Peninsula, where the Anamba islands east of Singapore, also on
the line of the old route to China, really are, have opposite them the
remark:--_qui has inhabitant caudas habere dicuntur_--no doubt in
confusion with the Nicobars. They are without doubt the Lankhabalus of the
_Arab Relations_ (851 A.D.), which term may be safely taken as a
misapprehension or mistranscription of some form of Nicobar (through
Nakkavar, Nankhabar), thus affording the earliest reference to the modern
term. But there is an earlier mention of them by I-Tsing, the Chinese
Buddhist monk, in his travels, 672 A.D., under the name of the Land of the
Naked People (Lo-jen-kuo), and this seems to have been the recognised name
for them in China at that time. 'Land of the Naked' translates Nakkavaram,
the name by which the islands appear in the great Tanjore inscription of
1050. This name reappears in Marco Polo's Necuveran 1292, in Rashiduddin's
Nakwaram 1300, and in Friar Odoric's Nicoveran 1322, which are the lineal
ancestors of the 15th and 16th Century Portuguese Nacabar and Nicubar and
the modern Nicobar. The name has been Nicobar since at least 1560. The
fanciful story of the tails is repeated by the Swede Kjoeping as late as
Nicobar clearly means the Land of the Naked, but that does not correctly
describe the people. I have never seen either a naked man or woman in the
Nicobars. The men are nearly naked, but they wear a string round the waist
with a very small loincloth. The string is so tied as to leave two long
streamers behind, which have very much the appearance of a tail as the man
walks along, and no doubt this gave rise to the idea that they were tailed
men. The women wear a petticoat coming below the knees, generally red.
The Nicobarese are not savages and live in well-built clean villages, are
born traders, and can calculate accurately up to very high figures. They
deliberately do not cultivate, because by using their cocoanuts as
currency they can buy from Chinese, Malay, Burmese, Indian, and other
traders all that they want in the way of food and comforts. They are good
gardeners of fruit. They seem to have borne their present characteristics
through all historical times.
Pp. 307-308, Note 1.--Nancowry is a native name for two adjacent islands,
now known as Camorta and Nankauri, and I do not think it has anything to
do with the name Nicobar. For a list of the geographical names of the
islands, see _Census Report_, pp. 179-180.
_Race and Dialect_.--The Nicobarese are generally classed as Malays,
i.e., they are "Wild Malays," and probably in reality an overflow of Mon
tribes from the mainland of the Malay Peninsula (_Census Report_, p. 250).
They are a finely built race of people, but they have rendered their faces
ugly by the habit of chewing betel with lime until they have destroyed
their teeth by incrustations of lime, so that they cannot close their lips
I think it is a mistake to class the Nicobarese as Rakshasas or demons, a
term that would apply in Indian parlance more properly to the Andamanese.
The Nicobarese are all one race, including the Shom Pen, for long a
mysterious tribe in the centre of Great Nicobar, but now well known. They
speak dialects of one language, though the dialects as spoken are mutually
unintelligible. There is no Negrito tribe in the Nicobars. A detailed
grammar of the language will be found in the _Census Report_, pp. 255-284.
The Nicobarese have long been pirates, and one of the reasons for the
occupation of their islands by the Indian Government was to put down the
piracy which had become dangerous to general navigation, but which now no
P. 309.--The great article of trade is the cocoanut, of which a detailed
account will be found in the _Census Report_, pp. 169-174, 219-220, 243. I
would suggest the recasting of the remarks on the products of the Nicobars
in your note on p. 309 in view of the statements made in those pages of
the Report, bearing in mind that the details of the Nicobar Islands are
now practically as well known as those relating to any other part of the
P. 312.--The Nicobarese tradition is that they are descended from a man
and a dog, but this is only one phase of the ordinary Far Eastern
The projecting teeth mentioned by Colonel Man are common in the Nicobars
in the case of adults only, usually confined to men and women advanced in
life. They are not natural, but caused, as stated above, by the excessive
use of betel and lime, which forms a dark unsightly incrustation on the
teeth and finally destroys them. Children and youth of both sexes have
good white normal teeth,
Narcondam, an island I know well, has a separate bibliography of its own.
It belongs to the Sunda group of volcanoes, but it has been so long
extinct that there are no obvious signs now of its ever having been
active. It has a species of hornbill which I have captured and shot that
has differentiated itself from all others. I do not think, therefore, it
can have been recognised as a volcano by mariners in historical times, and
consequently the derivation of Narakakundam is to my mind doubtful. The
obvious volcano in the neighbourhood is Barren Island, which is still
Pp. 309-310, Note 1.--The Andamanese are not an ill-looking race, and are
not negroes in any sense, but it is true that they are Negritos in the
lowest known state of barbarism, and that they are an isolated race.
Reasons for the isolation will be found in the _Census Report_, p. 51, but
I should not call their condition, mentally or physically, degraded. The
mental characteristics of the race will be found on pp. 59-61 of the
_Census Report_, and for your information I here extract from my remarks
thereon the section on character.
"In childhood the Andamanese are possessed of a bright intelligence,
which, however, soon reaches its climax, and the adult may be compared in
this respect with the civilised child of ten or twelve. He has never had
any sort of agriculture, nor until the English taught him the use of dogs
did he ever domesticate any kind of animal or bird, nor did he teach
himself to turn turtle or to use hook and line in fishing. He cannot
count, and all his ideas are hazy, inaccurate, and ill-defined. He has
never developed unaided any idea of drawing or making a tally or record
for any purpose, but he readily understands a sketch or plan when shown
him. He soon becomes mentally tired, and is apt to break down physically
under mental training.
"He retains throughout life the main characteristics of the child: of very
short but strong memory, suspicious of but hospitable to strangers,
ungrateful, imitative and watchful of his companions and neighbours, vain,
and under the spur of vanity industrious and persevering, teachable up to
a quickly reached limit, fond of undefined games and practical jokes, too
happy and careless to be affected in temperament by his superstitions, too
careless indeed to store water even for a voyage, plucky but not
courageous, reckless only from ignorance or from inappreciation of danger,
selfish but not without generosity, chivalry or a sense of honour,
petulant, hasty of temper, entirely irresponsible and childish in action
in his wrath, and equally quick to forget, affectionate, lively in his
movements, and exceedingly taking in his moments of good temper. At these
times the Andamanese are gentle and pleasant to each other, considerate to
the aged, the weakly or the helpless, and to captives, kind to their wives
and proud of their children, whom they often over-pet; but when angered,
cruel, jealous, treacherous and vindictive, and always unstable. They are
bright and merry companions, talkative, inquisitive and restless, busy in
their own pursuits, keen sportsmen and naturally independent, absorbed in
the chase from sheer love of it and other physical occupations, and not
lustful, indecent, or indecently abusive.
"As the years advance they are apt to become intractable, masterful, and
quarrelsome. A people to like but not to trust. Exceedingly conservative
and bound up in ancestral custom, not amenable to civilisation, all the
teachings of years bestowed upon some of them having introduced no
abstract ideas among the tribesmen, and changed no habit in practical
matters affecting comfort, health, and mode of life. Irresponsibility is a
characteristic, though instances of a keen sense of responsibility are not
wanting. Several Andamanese can take charge of the steering of a large
steam launch through dangerous channels, exercising then caution, daring,
and skill though not to an European extent, and the present (1901)
dynamo-man of the electric lighting on Ross Island is an Andamanese, while
the wire-man is a Nicobarese, both of whom exhibit the liveliest sense of
their responsibilities, though retaining a deep-rooted and unconquerable
fear of the dynamo and wires when at work. The Nicobarese shows, as is to
be expected, the higher order of intellect. Another Andamanese was used by
Portman for years as an accountant and kept his accounts in English
accurately and well.
"The intelligence of the women is good, though not as a rule equal to that
of the men. In old age, however, they frequently exhibit a considerable
mental capacity which is respected. Several women trained in a former
local Mission Orphanage from early childhood have shown much mental
aptitude and capacity, the 'savagery' in them, however, only dying down as
they grew older. They can read and write well, understand and speak
English correctly, have acquired European habits completely, and possess
much shrewdness and common sense: one has herself taught her Andamanese
husband, the dynamo-man above mentioned, to read and write English and
induced him to join the Government House Press as a compositor. She writes
a well-expressed and correctly-spelt letter in English, and has a shrewd
notion of the value of money. Such women, when the instability of youth is
past, make good 'ayas,' as their menkind make good waiters at table.
"The highest general type of intelligence yet noticed is in the Jarawa
P. 310. _The name Andaman_.--To my mind the modern Andaman is the Malay
Handuman = Hanuman, representing "monkey" or savage aboriginal antagonist
of the Aryans = also the Rakshasa. Individuals of the race, when seen in
the streets of Calcutta in 1883, were at once recognised as Rakshasas. It
may amuse you to know that the Andamanese returned the compliment, and to
them all Orientals are Chauga or Ancestral Ghosts, i.e., demons (see
_Census Report_, pp. 44-45 for reasons). I agree with you that Angamanain
is an Arabic dual, the Great and the Little Andaman. To a voyager who did
not land, the North, Middle, and South Andaman would appear as one great
island, whereas the strait separating these three islands from the Little
Andaman would be quite distinctly seen.
P. 311. _Cannibalism_.--The charge of cannibalism is entirely untrue. I
quote here my paragraph as to how it arose (_Census Report_, p. 48).
"The charge of cannibalism seems to have arisen from three observations of
the old mariners. The Andamanese attacked and murdered without provocation
every stranger they could on his landing; they burnt his body (as they did
in fact that of every enemy); and they had weird all-night dances round
fires. Combine these three observations with the unprovoked murder of one
of themselves, and the fear aroused by such occurrences in a far land in
ignorant mariners' minds, century after century, and a persistent charge
of cannibalism is almost certain to be the result."
The real reason for the Andamanese taking and killing every stranger that
they could was that for centuries the Malays had used the islands as one
of their pirate bases, and had made a practice of capturing the
inhabitants to sell as slaves in the Peninsula and Siam.
P. 311. _Navigation_.--It is true that they do not quit their own coasts
in canoes, and I have always doubted the truth of the assertions that any
of them ever found their way to any Nicobar island.
Andamanese men go naked, but the only Andamanese women that I have ever
seen entirely naked in their own jungles are of the inland tribe of
Nov. 29, 1919.
Names of Persons in CAPITAL Letters.--Subject Names in thick
Letters.--Title of Books in _italics_.
Aas (The Alans).
ADAM of Bremen.
AHMED SHIBAB EDDIN.
ARANZADI, Telesforo de.
Arbre sec, arbre seul, arbre sol.
Bark of Trees.
BEHA ED-DIN AYAZ SEYFIN.
BHUWANEKA BAHU I.
---- BAKU II.
Blows, Scale of.
BRANDT, Otto St.
BROWN, Dr. Robert.
Cape of Good Hope.
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