The Travels of Marco Polo, Volume 2
Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa

Part 4 out of 23

the platforms on their backs into a place that was set thickly with sharp
bamboo-stakes, and these their riders laid hold of to prick them with."
This threw the Burmese army into confusion; they fled, and were pursued
with great slaughter.

The Chinese author does not mention Nasr-uddin in connection with this
battle. He names as the chief of the Mongol force _Huthukh_ (Kutuka?),
commandant of Ta-li fu. Nasr-uddin is mentioned as advancing, a few months
later (about December, 1277), with nearly 4000 men to Kiangtheu (which
appears to have been on the Irawadi, somewhere near Bhamo, and is perhaps
the Kaungtaung of the Burmese), but effecting little (p. 415).

[I have published in the _Rev. Ext. Orient_, II. 72-88, from the British
Museum _Add. MS._ 16913, the translation by Mgr. Visdelou, of Chinese
documents relating to the Kingdom of Mien and the wars of Kublai; the
battle won by _Hu-tu_, commandant of Ta-li, was fought during the 3rd
month of the 14th year (1277). (Cf. Pauthier, supra.)--H.C.]

These affairs of the battle in the Yung-ch'ang territory, and the advance
of Nasr-uddin to the Irawadi are, as Polo clearly implies in the beginning
of ch. li., quite distinct from the invasion and conquest of Mien some
years later, of which he speaks in ch. liv. They are not mentioned in the
Burmese Annals at all.

Sir Arthur Phayre is inclined to reject altogether the story of the battle
near Yung-ch'ang in consequence of this absence from the _Burmese
Chronicle_, and of its inconsistency with the purely defensive character
which that record assigns to the action of the Burmese Government in
regard to China at this time. With the strongest respect for my friend's
opinion I feel it impossible to assent to this. We have not only the
concurrent testimony of Marco and of the Chinese Official Annals of the
Mongol Dynasty to the facts of the Burmese provocation and of the
engagement within the Yung-ch'ang or Vochan territory, but we have in the
Chinese narrative a consistent chronology and tolerably full detail of the
relations between the two countries.

[Baber writes (p. 173): "Biot has it that Yung-ch'ang was first
established by the Mings, long subsequent to the time of Marco's visit,
but the name was well known much earlier. The mention by Marco of the
Plain of Vochan (Unciam would be a perfect reading), as if it were a plain
_par excellence_, is strikingly consistent with the position of the
city on the verge of the largest plain west of Yuennan-fu. Hereabouts was
fought the great battle between the 'valiant soldier and the excellent
captain Nescradin,' with his 12,000 well-mounted Tartars, against the King
of Burmah and a large army, whose strength lay in 2000 elephants, on each
of which was set a tower of timber full of well-armed fighting men.

"There is no reason to suppose this 'dire and parlous fight' to be
mythical, apart from the consistency of annals adduced by Colonel Yule;
the local details of the narrative, particularly the prominent importance
of the wood as an element of the Tartar success, are convincing. It seems
to have been the first occasion on which the Mongols engaged a large body
of elephants, and this, no doubt, made the victory memorable.

"Marco informs us that 'from this time forth the Great Khan began to keep
numbers of elephants.' It is obvious that cavalry could not manoeuvre in a
morass such as fronts the city. Let us refer to the account of the battle.

"'The Great Khan's host was at Yung-ch'ang, from which they advanced into
the plain, and there waited to give battle. This they did through the good
judgment of the captain, for hard by that plain was a great wood thick
with trees.' The general's purpose was more probably to occupy the dry
undulating slopes near the south end of the valley. An advance of about
five miles would have brought him to that position. The statement that
'the King's army arrived in the plain, and was within a mile of the
enemy,' would then accord perfectly with the conditions of the ground. The
Burmese would have found themselves at about that distance from their foes
as soon as they were fairly in the plain.

"The trees 'hard by the plain,' to which the Tartars tied their horses,
and in which the elephants were entangled, were in all probability in the
corner below the 'rolling hills' marked in the chart. Very few trees
remain, but in any case the grove would long ago have been cut down by the
Chinese, as everywhere on inhabited plains. A short distance up the hill,
however, groves of exceptionally fine trees are passed. The army, as it
seems to us, must have entered the plain from its southernmost point. The
route by which we departed on our way to Burmah would be very
embarrassing, though perhaps not utterly impossible, for so great a number
of elephants."--H.C.]

Between 1277 and the end of the century the Chinese Annals record three
campaigns or expeditions against MIEN; viz. (1) that which Marco has
related in this chapter; (2) that which he relates in ch. liv.; and (3)
one undertaken in 1300 at the request of the son of the legitimate Burmese
King, who had been put to death by an usurper. The Burmese Annals mention
only the two latest, but, concerning both the date and the main
circumstances of these two, Chinese and Burmese Annals are in almost
entire agreement. Surely then it can scarcely be doubted that the Chinese
authority is amply trustworthy for the _first_ campaign also,
respecting which the Burmese book is silent; even were the former not
corroborated by the independent authority of Marco.

Indeed the mutual correspondence of these Annals, especially as to
chronology, is very remarkable, and is an argument for greater respect to
the chronological value of the Burmese Chronicle and other Indo-Chinese
records of like character than we should otherwise be apt to entertain.
Compare the story of the expedition of 1300 as told after the Chinese
Annals by De Mailla, and after the Burmese Chronicle by Burney and Phayre.
(See _De Mailla_, IX. 476 seqq.; and _J.A.S.B._ vol. vi. pp. 121-122,
and vol. xxxvii. Pt. I. pp. 102 and 110.)



After leaving the Province of which I have been speaking you come to a
great Descent. In fact you ride for two days and a half continually down
hill. On all this descent there is nothing worthy of mention except only
that there is a large place there where occasionally a great market is
held; for all the people of the country round come thither on fixed days,
three times a week, and hold a market there. They exchange gold for
silver; for they have gold in abundance; and they give one weight of fine
gold for five weights of fine silver; so this induces merchants to come
from various quarters bringing silver which they exchange for gold with
these people; and in this way the merchants make great gain. As regards
those people of the country who dispose of gold so cheaply, you must
understand that nobody is acquainted with their places of abode, for they
dwell in inaccessible positions, in sites so wild and strong that no one
can get at them to meddle with them. Nor will they allow anybody to
accompany them so as to gain a knowledge of their abodes.[NOTE 1]

After you have ridden those two days and a half down hill, you find
yourself in a province towards the south which is pretty near to India,
and this province is called AMIEN. You travel therein for fifteen days
through a very unfrequented country, and through great woods abounding in
elephants and unicorns and numbers of other wild beasts. There are no
dwellings and no people, so we need say no more of this wild country, for
in sooth there is nothing to tell. But I have a story to relate which you
shall now hear[NOTE 2].

NOTE 1.--In all the Shan towns visited by Major Sladen on this frontier he
found markets held _every fifth day_. This custom, he says, is borrowed
from China, and is general throughout Western Yun-nan. There seem to be
traces of this five-day week over Indo-China, and it is found in Java; as
it is in Mexico. The Kakhyens attend in great crowds. They do _not_ now
bring gold for sale to Momein, though it is found to some extent in their
hills, more especially in the direction of Mogaung, whence it is exported
towards Assam.

Major Sladen saw a small quantity of nuggets in the possession of a
Kakhyen who had brought them from a hill two days north of Bhamo. (_MS.
Notes by Major Sladen_.)

NOTE 2.--I confess that the indications in this and the beginning of the
following chapter are, to me, full of difficulty. According to the general
style of Polo's itinerary, the 2-1/2 days should be reckoned from
Yung-ch'ang; the distance therefore to the capital city of Mien would be
17-1/2 days. The real capital of Mien or Burma at this time was, however,
Pagan, in lat. 21 deg. 13', and that city could hardly have been reached by
a land traveller in any such time. We shall see that something may be said
in behalf of the supposition that the point reached was _Tagaung_ or _Old
Pagan_, on the upper Irawadi, in lat. 23 deg. 28'; and there was perhaps
some confusion in the traveller's mind between this and the great city.
The descent might then be from Yung-ch'ang to the valley of the Shweli,
and that valley then followed to the Irawadi. Taking as a scale Polo's 5
marches from Tali to Yung-ch'ang, I find we should by this route make just
about 17 marches from Yung-ch'ang to Tagaung. We have no detailed knowledge
of the route, but there is a road that way, and by no other does the plain
country approach so near to Yung-ch'ang. (See _Anderson's Report on
Expedition to Western Yunnan_, p. 160.)

Dr. Anderson's remarks on the present question do not in my opinion remove
the difficulties. He supposes the long descent to be the descent into the
plains of the Irawadi near Bhamo; and from that point the land journey to
Great Pagan could, he conceives, "easily be accomplished in 15 days." I
greatly doubt the latter assumption. By the scale I have just referred to
it would take at least 20 days. And to calculate the 2-1/2 days with which
the journey commences from an indefinite point seems scarcely admissible.
Polo is giving us a continuous _itinerary_; it would be ruptured if he
left an indefinite distance between his last station and his "long
descent." And if the same principle were applied to the 5 days between
Carajan (or Tali) and Vochan (Yung-ch'ang), the result would be nonsense.

[Illustration: Temple of Gaudapalen (in the city of Mien), erected circa
A.D. 1160.]

[_Mien-tien_, to which is devoted ch. vii. of the Chinese work
_Sze-i-kwan-k'ao_, appears to have included much more than Burma proper.
(See the passage supra, pp. 70-71, quoted by Deveria from the _Yuen-shi
lei pien_ regarding _Kien-tou_ and _Kin-Chi_.)--H.C.]

The hypothesis that I have suggested would suit better with the
traveller's representation of the country traversed as wild and
uninhabited. In a journey to Great Pagan the most populous and fertile
part of Burma would be passed through.

[Baber writes (p. 180): "The generally received theory that 'the great
descent which leads towards the Kingdom of Mien,' on which 'you ride for
two days and a half continually downhill,' was the route from Yung-ch'ang
to T'eng-Yueh, must be at once abandoned. Marco was, no doubt, speaking
from hearsay, or rather, from a recollection of hearsay, as it does not
appear that he possessed any notes; but there is good reason for supposing
that he had personally visited Yung-ch'ang. Weary of the interminable
mountain-paths, and encumbered with much baggage--for a magnate of Marco's
court influence could never, in the East, have travelled without a
considerable state--impeded, in addition, by a certain quantity of
merchandise, for he was 'discreet and prudent in every way,' he would have
listened longingly to the report of an easy ride of two and a half days
downhill, and would never have forgotten it. That such a route exists I am
well satisfied. Where is it? The stream which drains the Yung-ch'ang plain
communicates with the Salwen by a river called the 'Nan-tien,' not to be
confounded with the 'Nan-ting,' about 45 miles south of that city, a fair
journey of two and a half days. Knowing, as we now do, that it must
descend some 3500 feet in that distance, does it not seem reasonable to
suppose that the valley of this rivulet is the route alluded to? The great
battle on the Yung-ch'ang plain, moreover, was fought only a few years
before Marco's visit, and seeing that the king and his host of elephants
in all probability entered the valley from the south, travellers to Burma
would naturally have quitted it by the same route.

"But again, our mediaeval Herodotus reports that 'the country is wild and
hard of access, full of great woods and mountains which 'tis impossible to
pass, the air is so impure and unwholesome; and any foreigners attempting
it would die for certain.'

"This is exactly and literally the description given us of the district in
which we crossed the Salwen.

"To insist on the theory of the descent by this route is to make the
traveller ride downhill, 'over mountains it is impossible to pass.'

"The fifteen days' subsequent journey described by Marco need not present
much difficulty. The distance from the junction of the Nan-tien with the
Salwen to the capital of Burma (Pagan) would be something over 300 miles;
fifteen days seems a fair estimate for the distance, seeing that a great
part of the journey would doubtless be by boat."

Regarding this last paragraph, Captain Gill says (II. 345): "An objection
may be raised that no such route as this is known to exist; but it must be
remembered that the Burmese capital changes its position every now and
then, and it is obvious that the trade routes would be directed to the
capital, and would change with it. Altogether, with the knowledge at
present available, this certainly seems the most satisfactory
interpretation of the old traveller's story."--H.C.]



And when you have travelled those 15 days through such a difficult country
as I have described, in which travellers have to carry provisions for the
road because there are no inhabitants, then you arrive at the capital city
of this Province of Mien, and it also is called AMIEN, and is a very great
and noble city.[NOTE 1] The people are Idolaters and have a peculiar
language, and are subject to the Great Kaan.

And in this city there is a thing so rich and rare that I must tell you
about it. You see there was in former days a rich and puissant king in
this city, and when he was about to die he commanded that by his tomb they
should erect two towers [one at either end], one of gold and the other of
silver, in such fashion as I shall tell you. The towers are built of fine
stone; and then one of them has been covered with gold a good finger in
thickness, so that the tower looks as if it were all of solid gold; and
the other is covered with silver in like manner so that it seems to be all
of solid silver. Each tower is a good ten paces in height and of breadth
in proportion. The upper part of these towers is round, and girt all about
with bells, the top of the gold tower with gilded bells and the silver
tower with silvered bells, insomuch that whenever the wind blows among
these bells they tinkle. [The tomb likewise was plated partly with gold,
and partly with silver.] The King caused these towers to be erected to
commemorate his magnificence and for the good of his soul; and really they
do form one of the finest sights in the world; so exquisitely finished are
they, so splendid and costly. And when they are lighted up by the sun they
shine most brilliantly and are visible from a vast distance.

Now you must know that the Great Kaan conquered the country in this


You see at the Court of the Great Kaan there was a great number of gleemen
and jugglers; and he said to them one day that he wanted them to go and
conquer the aforesaid province of Mien, and that he would give them a good
Captain to lead them and other good aid. And they replied that they would
be delighted. So the Emperor caused them to be fitted out with all that an
army requires, and gave them a Captain and a body of men-at-arms to help
them; and so they set out, and marched until they came to the country and
province of Mien. And they did conquer the whole of it! And when they
found in the city the two towers of gold and silver of which I have been
telling you, they were greatly astonished, and sent word thereof to the
Great Kaan, asking what he would have them do with the two towers, seeing
what a great quantity of wealth there was upon them. And the Great Kaan,
being well aware that the King had caused these towers to be made for the
good of his soul, and to preserve his memory after his death, said that he
would not have them injured, but would have them left precisely as they
were. And that was no wonder either, for you must know that no Tartar in
the world will ever, if he can help it, lay hand on anything appertaining
to the dead.[NOTE 2]

They have in this province numbers of elephants and wild oxen;[NOTE 3]
also beautiful stags and deer and roe, and other kinds of large game in

Now having told you about the province of Mien, I will tell you about
another province which is called Bangala, as you shall hear presently.

NOTE 1.--The name of the city appears as _Amien_ both in Pauthier's text
here, and in the G. Text in the preceding chapter. In the Bern MS. it is
_Aamien_. Perhaps some form like _Amien_ was that used by the Mongols and
Persians. I fancy it may be traced in the _Arman_ or _Uman_ of
Rashiduddin, probably corrupt readings (in _Elliot_ I. 72).

NOTE 2.--M. Pauthier's extracts are here again very valuable. We gather
from them that the first Mongol communication with the King of Mien or
Burma took place in 1271, when the Commandant of Tali-fu sent a deputation
to that sovereign to demand an acknowledgment of the supremacy of the
Emperor. This was followed by various negotiations and acts of offence on
both sides, which led to the campaign of 1277, already spoken of. For a
few years no further events appear to be recorded, but in 1282, in
consequence of a report from Nasruddin of the ease with which Mien could
be conquered, an invasion was ordered under a Prince of the Blood called
Siangtaur [called _Siam-ghu-talh_, by Visdelou.--H.C.]. This was probably
_Singtur_, great-grandson of one of the brothers of Chinghiz, who a few
years later took part in the insurrection of Nayan. (See _D'Ohsson_, II.
461.) The army started from Yun-nan fu, then called Chung-khing (and the
_Yachi_ of Polo) in the autumn of 1283. We are told that the army made use
of boats to descend the River _Oho_ to the fortified city of Kiangtheu
(see supra, note 3, ch. lii.), which they took and sacked; and as the
King still refused to submit, they then advanced to the "primitive
capital," _Taikung_, which they captured. Here Pauthier's details stop.
(Pp. 405, 416; see also _D'Ohsson_, II. 444 [and _Visdelou_].)

[Illustration: The Palace of the King of Mien in modern times]

It is curious to compare these narratives with that from the Burmese Royal
Annals given by Colonel Burney, and again by Sir A. Phayre in the
_J.A.S.B._ (IV. 401, and XXXVII. Pt. I. p. 101.) Those annals afford no
mention of transactions with the Mongols previous to 1281. In that year
they relate that a mission of ten nobles and 1000 horse came from the
Emperor to demand gold and silver vessels as symbols of homage on the
ground of an old precedent. The envoys conducted themselves disrespectfully
(the tradition was that they refused to take off their boots, an old
grievance at the Burmese court), and the King put them all to death. The
Emperor of course was very wroth, and sent an army of 6,000,000 of horse
and 20,000,000 of foot(!) to invade Burma. The Burmese generals had their
_point d'appui_ at the city of _Nga tshaung gyan_, apparently somewhere
near the mouth of the Bhamo River, and after a protracted resistance on
that river, they were obliged to retire. They took up a new point of
defence on the Hill of Male, which they had fortified. Here a decisive
battle was fought, and the Burmese were entirely routed. The King, on
hearing of their retreat from Bhamo, at first took measures for fortifying
his capital Pagan, and destroyed 6000 temples of various sizes to furnish
material. But after all he lost heart, and embarking with his treasure and
establishments on the Irawadi, fled down that river to Bassein in the
Delta. The Chinese continued the pursuit long past Pagan till they reached
the place now called _Tarokmau_ or "Chinese Point," 30 miles below Prome.
Here they were forced by want of provisions to return. The Burmese Annals
place the abandonment of Pagan by the King in 1284, a most satisfactory
synchronism with the Chinese record. It is a notable point in Burmese
history, for it marked the fall of an ancient Dynasty which was speedily
followed by its extinction, and the abandonment of the capital. The King is
known in the Burmese Annals as _Tarok-pye-Meng_, "The King who fled from
the _Tarok_."[1]

In Dr. Mason's abstract of the Pegu Chronicle we find the notable
statement with reference to this period that "the Emperor of China, having
subjugated Pagan, his troops with the Burmese entered Pegu and invested
several cities."

We see that the Chinese Annals, as quoted, mention only the "capitale
primitive" _Taikung_, which I have little doubt Pauthier is right in
identifying with _Tagaung_, traditionally the most ancient royal city of
Burma, and the remains of which stand side by side with those of _Old_
Pagan, a later but still very ancient capital, on the east bank of the
Irawadi, in about lat. 23 deg. 28'. The Chinese extracts give no idea of
the temporary completeness of the conquest, nor do they mention Great Pagan
(lat. 21 deg. 13'), a city whose vast remains I have endeavoured partially
to describe.[2] Sir Arthur Phayre, from a careful perusal of the Burmese
Chronicle, assures me that there can be no doubt that _this_ was at the
time in question the Burmese Royal Residence, and the city alluded to in
the Burmese narrative. M. Pauthier is mistaken in supposing that
Tarok-Mau, the turning-point of the Chinese Invasion, lay north of this
city: he has not unnaturally confounded it with Tarok-_Myo_ or
"China-Town," a district not far below Ava. Moreover Male, the position of
the decisive victory of the Chinese, is itself much to the south of Tagaung
(about 22 deg. 55').

Both Pagan and Male are mentioned in a remarkable Chinese notice extracted
in _Amyot's Memoires_ (XIV. 292): "Mien-Tien ... had five chief towns, of
which the first was _Kiangtheu_ (supra, pp. 105, 111), the second
_Taikung_, the third _Malai_, the fourth Ngan-cheng-kwe (? perhaps the
_Nga-tshaung gyan_ of the Burmese Annals), the fifth PUKAN MIEN-WANG
(Pagan of the Mien King?). The Yuen carried war into this country,
particularly during the reign of Shun-Ti, the last Mongol Emperor
[1333-1368], who, after subjugating it, erected at Pukan Mien-Wang a
tribunal styled _Hwen-wei-she-se_, the authority of which extended over
Pang-ya and all its dependencies." This is evidently founded on actual
documents, for Panya or Pengya, otherwise styled Vijayapura, was the
capital of Burma during part of the 14th century, between the decay of
Pagan and the building of Ava. But none of the translated extracts from the
Burmese Chronicle afford corroboration. From Sangermano's abstract,
however, we learn that the King of Panya from 1323 to 1343 was the _son of
a daughter of the Emperor of China_ (p. 42). I may also refer to
Pemberton's abstract of the Chronicle of the Shan State of Pong in the
Upper Irawadi valley, which relates that about the middle of the 14th
century the Chinese invaded Pong and took Maung Maorong, the capital.[3]
The Shan King and his son fled to the King of Burma for protection, but
_the Burmese surrendered them_ and they were carried to China. (_Report on
E. Frontier of Bengal_, p. 112.)

I see no sufficient evidence as to whether Marco himself visited the "city
of Mien." I think it is quite clear that his account of the _conquest_ is
from the merest hearsay, not to say gossip. Of the absurd story of the
jugglers we find no suggestion in the Chinese extracts. We learn from them
that Nasruddin had represented the conquest of Mien as a very easy task,
and Kublai may have in jest asked his gleemen if they would undertake it.
The haziness of Polo's account of the conquest contrasts strongly with his
graphic description of the rout of the elephants at Vochan. Of the latter
he heard the particulars on the spot (I conceive) shortly after the event;
whilst the conquest took place some years later than his mission to that
frontier. His description of the gold and silver pagodas with their
canopies of tinkling bells (the Burmese _Hti_), certainly looks like a
sketch from the life;[4] and it is quite possible that some negotiations
between 1277 and 1281 may have given him the opportunity of visiting
Burma, though he may not have reached the capital. Indeed he would in that
case surely have given a distincter account of so important a city, the
aspect of which in its glory we have attempted to realize in the plate of
"the city of Mien."

It is worthy of note that the unfortunate King then reigning in Pagan, had
in 1274 finished a magnificent Pagoda called _Mengala-dzedi (Mangala
Chaitya)_ respecting which ominous prophecies had been diffused. In this
pagoda were deposited, besides holy relics, golden images of the Disciples
of Buddha, golden models of the holy places, golden images of the King's
fifty-one predecessors in Pagan, and of the King and his Family. It is
easy to suspect a connection of this with Marco's story. "It is possible
that the King's ashes may have been intended to be buried near those
relics, though such is not now the custom; and Marco appears to have
confounded the custom of depositing relics of Buddha and ancient holy men
in pagodas with the _supposed_ custom of the burial of the dead. Still,
even now, monuments are occasionally erected over the dead in Burma,
although the practice is considered a vain folly. I have known a miniature
pagoda with a _hti_ complete, erected over the ashes of a favourite
disciple by a _P'hungyi_ or Buddhist monk." The latter practice is common
in China. (_Notes by Sir A. Phayre; J.A.S.B._ IV. _u.s._, also V. 164,
VI. 251; _Mason's Burmah_, 2nd ed. p. 26; _Milne's Life in China_, pp.
288, 450.)

NOTE 3.--The Gaur--_Bos Gaurus_, or _B. (Bibos) Cavifrons_ of
Hodgson--exists in certain forests of the Burmese territory; and, in the
south at least, a wild ox nearer the domestic species, _Bos Sondaicus_. Mr.
Gouger, in his book _The Prisoner in Burma_, describes the rare spectacle
which he once enjoyed in the Tenasserim forests of a herd of wild cows at
graze. He speaks of them as small and elegant, without hump, and of a light
reddish dun colour (pp. 326-327).

[1] This is the name now applied in Burma to the Chinese. Sir A. Phayre
supposes it to be _Turk_, in which case its use probably began at
this time.

[2] In the Narrative of Phayre's Mission, ch. ii.

[3] Dr. Anderson has here hastily assumed a discrepancy of sixty years
between the chronology of the Shan document and that of the Chinese
Annals. But this is merely because he arbitrarily identifies the
Chinese invasion here recorded with that of Kublai in the preceding
century. (See _Anderson's Western Yunnan_, p. 8.) We see in the
quotation above from Amyot that the Chinese Annals also contain an
obscure indication of the later invasion.

[4] Compare the old Chinese Pilgrims Hwui Seng and Seng Yun, in their
admiration of a vast pagoda erected by the great King Kanishka in
Gandhara (at Peshawur in fact): "At sunrise the gilded disks of the
vane are lit up with dazzling glory, whilst the gentle breeze of
morning causes the precious bells to tinkle with a pleasing sound."
(_Beal_, p. 204.)



Bangala is a Province towards the south, which up to the year 1290, when
the aforesaid Messer Marco Polo was still at the Court of the Great Kaan,
had not yet been conquered; but his armies had gone thither to make the
conquest. You must know that this province has a peculiar language, and
that the people are wretched Idolaters. They are tolerably close to India.
There are numbers of eunuchs there, insomuch that all the Barons who keep
them get them from that Province.[NOTE 1]

The people have oxen as tall as elephants, but not so big.[NOTE 2] They
live on flesh and milk and rice. They grow cotton, in which they drive a
great trade, and also spices such as spikenard, galingale, ginger, sugar,
and many other sorts. And the people of India also come thither in search
of the eunuchs that I mentioned, and of slaves, male and female, of which
there are great numbers, taken from other provinces with which those of
the country are at war; and these eunuchs and slaves are sold to the
Indian and other merchants who carry them thence for sale about the world.

There is nothing more to mention about this country, so we will quit it,
and I will tell you of another province called Caugigu.

NOTE 1.--I do not think it probable that Marco even touched at any port of
Bengal on that mission to the Indian Seas of which we hear in the
prologue; but he certainly never reached it from the Yun-nan side, and he
had, as we shall presently see (infra, ch. lix. note 6), a wrong
notion as to its position. Indeed, if he had visited it at all, he would
have been aware that it was essentially a part of India, whilst in fact he
evidently regarded it as an _Indo-Chinese_ region, like Zardandan,
Mien, and Caugigu.

There is no notice, I believe, in any history, Indian or Chinese, of an
attempt by Kublai to conquer Bengal. The only such attempt by the Mongols
that we hear of is one mentioned by Firishta, as made by way of Cathay and
Tibet, during the reign of Alauddin Masa'ud, king of Delhi, in 1244, and
stated to have been defeated by the local officers in Bengal. But Mr.
Edward Thomas tells me he has most distinctly ascertained that this
statement, which has misled every historian "from Badauni and Firishtah to
Briggs and Elphinstone, is founded purely on an erroneous reading" (and
see a note in Mr. Thomas's _Pathan Kings of Dehli_, p. 121).

The date 1290 in the text would fix the period of Polo's final departure
from Peking, if the dates were not so generally corrupt.

The subject of the last part of this paragraph, recurred to in the next,
has been misunderstood and corrupted in Pauthier's text, and partially in
Ramusio's. These make the _escuilles_ or _escoilliez_ (vide _Ducange_ in
v. _Escodatus_, and _Raynouard, Lex. Rom._ VI. 11) into _scholars_ and
what not. But on comparison of the passages in those two editions with the
Geographic Text one cannot doubt the correct reading. As to the fact that
Bengal had an evil notoriety for this traffic, especially the province of
Silhet, see the _Ayeen Akbery_, II. 9-11, _Barbosa's _chapter on Bengal,
and _De Barros_ (_Ramusio_ I. 316 and 391).

On the cheapness of slaves in Bengal, see _Ibn Batuta_, IV. 211-212. He
says people from Persia used to call Bengal _Duzakh pur-i ni'amat_, "a
hell crammed with good things," an appellation perhaps provoked by the
official style often applied to it of _Jannat-ul-balad_ or "Paradise of

Professor H. Blochmann, who is, in admirable essays, redeeming the long
neglect of the history and archaeology of Bengal Proper by our own
countrymen, says that one of the earliest passages, in which the name
_Bangalah_ occurs, is in a poem of Hafiz, sent from Shiraz to Sultan
Gbiassuddin, who reigned in Bengal from 1367 to 1373. Its occurrence in
our text, however, shows that the name was in use among the Mahomedan
foreigners (from whom Polo derived his nomenclature) nearly a century
earlier. And in fact it occurs (though corruptly in some MSS.) in the
history of Rashiduddin, our author's contemporary. (See _Elliot_, I. p.

NOTE 2.--"Big as elephants" is only a _facon de parler_, but Marsden
quotes modern exaggerations as to the height of the _Arna_ or wild
buffalo, more specific and extravagant. The unimpeachable authority of Mr.
Hodgson tells us that the Arna in the Nepal Tarai sometimes does reach a
height of 6 ft. 6 in. at the shoulder, with a length of 10 ft. 6 in.
(excluding tail), and horns of 6 ft. 6 in. (_J.A.S.B._, XVI. 710.)
Marco, however, seems to be speaking of _domestic_ cattle. Some of the
breeds of Upper India are very tall and noble animals, far surpassing in
height any European oxen known to me; but in modern times these are rarely
seen in Bengal, where the cattle are poor and stunted. The _Ain Akbari_,
however, speaks of Sharifabad in Bengal, which appears to have
corresponded to modern Bardwan, as producing very beautiful white oxen, of
great size, and capable of carrying a load of 15 _mans_, which at
Prinsep's estimate of Akbar's _man_ would be about 600 lbs.



Caugigu is a province towards the east, which has a king.[NOTE 1] The
people are Idolaters, and have a language of their own. They have made
their submission to the Great Kaan, and send him tribute every year. And
let me tell you their king is so given to luxury that he hath at the least
300 wives; for whenever he hears of any beautiful woman in the land, he
takes and marries her.

They find in this country a good deal of gold, and they also have great
abundance of spices. But they are such a long way from the sea that the
products are of little value, and thus their price is low. They have
elephants in great numbers, and other cattle of sundry kinds, and plenty
of game. They live on flesh and milk and rice, and have wine made of rice
and good spices. The whole of the people, or nearly so, have their skin
marked with the needle in patterns representing lions, dragons, birds, and
what not, done in such a way that it can never be obliterated. This work
they cause to be wrought over face and neck and chest, arms and hands, and
belly, and, in short, the whole body; and they look on it as a token of
elegance, so that those who have the largest amount of this embroidery are
regarded with the greatest admiration.

NOTE 1.--No province mentioned by Marco has given rise to wider and wilder
conjectures than this, _Cangigu_ as it has been generally printed.

M. Pauthier, who sees in it Laos, or rather one of the states of Laos
called in the Chinese histories _Papesifu_, seems to have formed the most
probable opinion hitherto propounded by any editor of Polo. I have no
doubt that Laos or some part of that region is meant to be _described_,
and that Pauthier is right regarding the general direction of the course
here taken as being through the regions east of Burma, in a north-easterly
direction up into Kwei-chau. But we shall be able to review the geography
of this tract better, as a whole, at a point more advanced. I shall then
speak of the name CAUGIGU, and why I prefer this reading of it.

I do not believe, for reasons which will also appear further on, that Polo
is now following a route which he had traced in person, unless it be in
the latter part of it.

M. Pauthier, from certain indications in a Chinese work, fixes on
Chiangmai or Kiang-mai, the Zimme of the Burmese (in about latitude 18 deg.
48' and long. 99 deg. 30') as the capital of the Papesifu and of the
Caugigu of our text. It can scarcely however be the latter, unless we
throw over entirely all the intervals stated in Polo's itinerary; and M.
Garnier informs me that he has evidence that the capital of the Papesifu at
this time was _Muang-Yong_, a little to the south-east of Kiang-Tung, where
he has seen its ruins.[1] That the people called by the Chinese Papesifu
were of the great race of Laotians, Shans, or _Thai_, is very certain, from
the vocabulary of their language published by Klaproth.

[Illustration: Script _Pa-pe_.]

Pauthier's Chinese authority gives a puerile interpretation of _Papesifu_
as signifying "the kingdom of the 800 wives," and says it was called so
because the Prince maintained that establishment. This may be an
indication that there were popular stories about the numerous wives of the
King of Laos, such as Polo had heard; but the interpretation is doubtless
rubbish, like most of the so-called etymologies of proper names applied by
the Chinese to foreign regions. At best these seem to be merely a kind of
_Memoria Technica_, and often probably bear no more relation to the name
in its real meaning than Swift's _All-eggs-under-the-grate_ bears to
Alexander Magnus. How such "etymologies" arise is obvious from the nature
of the Chinese system of writing. If we also had to express proper names
by combining monosyllabic words already existing in English, we should in
fact be obliged to write the name of the Macedonian hero much as Swift
travestied it. As an example we may give the Chinese name of Java,
_Kwawa_, which signifies "gourd-sound," and was given to that Island, we
are told, because the voice of its inhabitants is very like that of a dry
gourd rolled upon the ground! It is usually stated that Tungking was
called _Kiao-chi_ meaning "crossed-toes," because the people often exhibit
that malformation (which is a fact), but we may be certain that the
syllables were originally a phonetic representation of an indigenous name
which has no such meaning. As another example, less ridiculous but not
more true, _Chin-tan_, representing the Indian name of China,
_Chinasthana_, is explained to mean "Eastern-Dawn" (_Aurore Orientale_).
(_Amyot_, XIV. 101; _Klapr. Mem._ III. 268.)

The states of Laos are shut out from the sea in the manner indicated; they
abound in domestic elephants to an extraordinary extent; and the people do
tattoo themselves in various degrees, most of all (as M. Garnier tells me)
about Kiang Hung. The _style_ of tattooing which the text describes is
quite that of the Burmese, in speaking of whom Polo has omitted to mention
the custom: "Every male Burman is tattooed in his boyhood from the middle
to his knees; in fact he has a pair of breeches tattooed on him. The
pattern is a fanciful medley of animals and arabesques, but it is scarcely
distinguishable, save as a general tint, except on a fair skin." (_Mission
to Ava_, 151.)

[1] Indeed documents in Klaproth's _Asia Polyglotta_ show that the
_Pape_ state was also called _Muang-Yong_ (pp. 364-365). I observe
that the river running to the east of Pu-eul and Ssemao (Puer and
Esmok) is called _Papien_-Kiang, the name of which is perhaps a
memorial of the Pape.

[The old Laocian kingdom of _Xieng-mai_ [Kiang-mai], called
_Muong-Yong_ by the Pa-y, was inhabited by the _Pa-pe Si-fu_ or Bat-ba
T'uc-phu; the inhabitants called themselves Thai-niai or great Thai.
(_Deveria, Frontiere_, p. 100. Ch. ix. of the Chinese work
_Sze-i-kwan-kao_ is devoted to Xieng-mai _Pa-pe_), which includes the
subdivisions of Laos, Xieng Hung [Kiang Hung] and Muong-Ken.
(_Deveria, Mel. de Harlez_, p. 97.)--H.C.]



Anin is a Province towards the east, the people of which are subject to
the Great Kaan, and are Idolaters. They live by cattle and tillage, and
have a peculiar language. The women wear on the legs and arms bracelets of
gold and silver of great value, and the men wear such as are even yet more
costly. They have plenty of horses which they sell in great numbers to the
Indians, making a great profit thereby. And they have also vast herds of
buffaloes and oxen, having excellent pastures for these. They have
likewise all the necessaries of life in abundance.[NOTE 1]

Now you must know that between Anin and Caugigu, which we have left behind
us, there is a distance of [25] days' journey;[NOTE 2] and from Caugigu to
Bangala, the third province in our rear, is 30 days' journey. We shall now
leave Anin and proceed to another province which is some 8 days' journey
further, always going eastward.

NOTE 1.--Ramusio, the printed text of the Soc. de Geographie, and most
editions have _Amu_; Pauthier reads _Aniu_ and considers the name to
represent Tungking or Annam, called also _Nan-yue_. The latter word he
supposes to be converted into _Anyue_, _Aniu_. And accordingly he carries
the traveller to the capital of Tungking.

Leaving the name for the present, according to the scheme of the route as
I shall try to explain it below, I should seek for Amu or Aniu or _Anin_
in the extreme south-east of Yun-nan. A part of this region was for the
first time traversed by the officers of the French expedition up the
Mekong, who in 1867 visited Sheu-ping, Lin-ngan and the upper valley of
the River of Tungking on their way to Yun-nan-fu. To my question whether
the description in the text, of Aniu or Anin and its fine pastures,
applied to the tract just indicated, Lieut. Garnier replied on the whole
favourably (see further on), proceeding: "The population about Sheu-ping
is excessively mixt. On market days at that town one sees a gathering of
wild people in great number and variety, and whose costumes are highly
picturesque, as well as often very rich. There are the _Pa-is_, who are
also found again higher up, the _Ho-nhi_, the _Khato_, the _Lope_, the
_Shentseu_. These tribes appear to be allied in part to the Laotians, in
part to the Kakhyens.... The wilder races about Sheuping are remarkably
handsome, and you see there types of women exhibiting an extraordinary
regularity of feature, and at the same time a complexion surprisingly
_white_. The Chinese look quite an inferior race beside them.... I may
add that all these tribes, especially the Ho-nhi and the Pa-i, wear large
amounts of silver ornament; great collars of silver round the neck, as
well as on the legs and arms."

Though the _whiteness_ of the people of Anin is not noticed by Polo, the
distinctive manner in which he speaks in the next chapter of the _dark_
complexion of the tribes described therein seems to indicate the probable
omission of the opposite trait here.

The prominent position assigned in M. Garnier's remarks to a race called
_Ho-nhi_ first suggested to me that the reading of the text might be ANIN
instead of _Aniu_. And as a matter of fact this seems to my eyes to be
clearly the reading of the Paris _Livre des Merveilles_ (Pauthier's MS.
B), while the Paris No. 5631 (Pauthier's A) has _Auin_, and what may be
either _Aniu_ or _Anin_. _Anyn_ is also found in the Latin Brandenburg MS.
of Pipino's version collated by Andrew Mueller, to which, however, we
cannot ascribe much weight. But the two words are so nearly identical in
mediaeval writing, and so little likely to be discriminated by scribes who
had nothing to guide their discrimination, that one need not hesitate to
adopt that which is supported by argument. In reference to the suggested
identity of _Anin_ and _Ho-nhi_, M. Garnier writes again: "All that Polo
has said regarding the country of Aniu, though not containing anything
_very_ characteristic, may apply perfectly to the different indigenous
tribes, at present subject to the Chinese, which are dispersed over the
country from Talan to Sheuping and Lin-ngan. These tribes bearing the
names (given above) relate that they in other days formed an independent
state, to which they give the name of _Muang Shung_. Where this Muang was
situated there is no knowing. These tribes have _langage par euls_, as
Marco Polo says, and silver ornaments are worn by them to this day in
extraordinary profusion; more, however, by the women than the men. They
have plenty of horses, buffaloes and oxen, and of sheep as well. It was
the first locality in which the latter were seen. The plateau of Lin-ngan
affords pasture-grounds which are exceptionally good for that part of the

[Illustration: Ho-nhi and other Tribes in the Department of Lin-ngan in S.
Yun-nan (supposed to be the Anin country of Marco Polo). (From Garnier's

"Beyond Lin-ngan we find the Ho-nhi, properly so called, no longer. But
ought one to lay much stress on mere names which have undergone so many
changes, and of which so many have been borne in succession by all those
places and peoples?.. I will content myself with reminding you that the
town of _Homi-cheu_ near Lin-ngan in the days of the Yuen bore the
name of _Ngo-ning_."

Notwithstanding M. Garnier's caution, I am strongly inclined to believe
that ANIN represents either HO-NHI or NGO-NING, if indeed these names be
not identical. For on reference to Biot I see that the first syllable of
the modern name of the town which M. Garnier writes Ho_mi_, is
expressed by the same character as the first syllable of NGO_ning_.

[The Wo-nhi are also called Ngo-ni, Kan-ni, Ho-ni, Lou-mi, No-pi, Ko-ni
and Wa-heh; they descend from the southern barbarians called Ho-nhi. At
the time of the kingdom of Nan-Chao, the Ho-nhi, called In-yuen, tribes
were a dependence of the Kiang (Xieng) of Wei-yuen (Prefecture of
P'u-erh). They are now to be found in the Yunnanese prefectures of
Lin-ngan, King-tung, Chen-yuen, Yuen-kiang and Yun-nan. (See _Deveria_, p.

We give one of M. Garnier's woodcuts representing some of the races in
this vicinity. Their dress, as he notices, has, in some cases, a curious
resemblance to costumes of Switzerland, or of Brittany, popular at fancy
balls.[1] Coloured figures of some of these races will be found in the
Atlas to Garnier's work; see especially Plate 35.

NOTE 2.--All the French MSS. and other texts except Ramusio's read 15. We
adopt Ramusio's reading, 25, for reasons which will appear below.

[1] There is a little uncertainty in the adjustment of names and figures
of some of these tribes, between the illustrations and the incidental
notices in Lieutenant Garnier's work. But all the figures in the
present cut certainly belong to the tract to which we point as Anin;
and the two middle figures answer best to what is said of the



Coloman is a province towards the east, the people of which are Idolaters
and have a peculiar language, and are subject to the Great Kaan. They are
a [tall and] very handsome people, though in complexion brown rather than
white, and are good soldiers.[NOTE 1] They have a good many towns, and a
vast number of villages, among great mountains, and in strong
positions.[NOTE 2]

When any of them die, the bodies are burnt, and then they take the bones
and put them in little chests.

These are carried high up the mountains, and placed in great caverns,
where they are hung up in such wise that neither man nor beast can come at

A good deal of gold is found in the country, and for petty traffic they
use porcelain shells such as I have told you of before. All these
provinces that I have been speaking of, to wit Bangala and Caugigu and
Anin, employ for currency porcelain shells and gold. There are merchants
in this country who are very rich and dispose of large quantities of
goods. The people live on flesh and rice and milk, and brew their wine
from rice and excellent spices.

NOTE 1.--The only MSS. that afford the reading _Coloman_ or _Choloman_
instead of _Toloman_ or _Tholoman_, are the Bern MS., which has _Coloman_
in the initial word of the chapter, Paris MS. 5649 (Pauthier's C) which
has _Coloman_ in the Table of Chapters, but not in the text, the Bodleian,
and the Brandenburg MS. quoted in the last note. These variations in
themselves have little weight. But the confusion between _c_ and _t_ in
mediaeval MSS., when dealing with strange names, is so constant that I
have ventured to make the correction, in strong conviction that it is the
right reading. M. Pauthier indeed, after speaking of tribes called _Lo_ on
the south-west of China, adds, "on les nommait _To-lo-man_ ('les nombreux
Barbares Lo')." Were this latter statement founded on actual evidence we
might retain that form which is the usual reading. But I apprehend from
the manner in which M. Pauthier produces it, without corroborative
quotation, that he is rather hazarding a conjecture than speaking with
authority. Be that as it may, it is impossible that Polo's Toloman or
Coloman should have been in the south of Kwangsi, where Pauthier locates

On the other hand, we find tribes of both _Kolo_ and _Kihlau_ Barbarians
(i.e. _Man_, whence KOLO-MAN or _Kihlau-man_) very numerous on the
frontier of Kweichau. (See _Bridgman's transl. of Tract on Meautsze_, pp.
265, 269, 270, 272, 273, 274, 275, 278, 279, 280.) Among these the _Kolo_,
described as No. 38 in that Tract, appear to me from various particulars
to be the most probable representatives of the Coloman of Polo,
notwithstanding the sentence with which the description opens: "_Kolo_
originally called _Luluh_; the modern designation _Kolo_ is incorrect."[1]
They are at present found in the prefecture of Tating (one of the
departments of Kweichau towards the Yun-nan side). "They are _tall, of a
dark complexion_, with sunken eyes, aquiline nose, wear long whiskers, and
have the beard shaved off above the mouth. They pay great deference to
demons, and on that account are sometimes called 'Dragons of Lo.' ... At
the present time these Kolo are divided into 48 clans, the elders of which
are called Chieftains (lit. 'Head-and-Eyes') and are of nine grades....
The men bind their hair into a tuft with blue cloth and make it fast on
the forehead like a horn. Their upper dresses are short, with large
sleeves, and their lower garments are fine blue. When one of the
chieftains dies, all that were under him are assembled together clad in
armour and on horseback. Having dressed his corpse in silk and woollen
robes, they burn it in the open country; then, invoking the departed
spirit, they inter the ashes. Their attachment to him as their sole master
is such that nothing can drive or tempt them from their allegiance. Their
large bows, long spears, and sharp swords, are strong and well-wrought.
They train excellent horses, love archery and hunting; and so expert are
they in tactics that _their soldiers rank as the best among all the
uncivilized tribes_. There is this proverb: 'The Lo Dragons of Shwui-si
rap the head and strike the tail,' which is intended to indicate their
celerity in defence." (_Bridgman_, pp. 272-273.)

The character _Lo_, here applied in the Chinese Tract to these people, is
the same as that in the name of the Kwangsi _Lo_ of M. Pauthier.

I append a cut (opposite page) from the drawing representing these
Kolo-man in the original work from which Bridgman translated, and which is
in the possession of Dr. Lockhart.

[I believe we must read _To-lo-man. Man_, barbarian, _T'u-lao_ or
_Shan-tzu_ (mountaineers) who live in the Yunnanese prefectures of
Lin-ngan, Cheng-kiang, etc. T'u-la-Man or T'u-la barbarians of the Mongol
Annals. (_Yuen-shi lei-pien_, quoted by Deveria, p. 115.)--H.C.]

NOTE 2.--Magaillans, speaking of the semi-independent tribes of Kwei-chau
and Kwang-si, says: "Their towns are usually so girt by high mountains
and scarped rocks that it seems as if nature had taken a pleasure in
fortifying them" (p. 43). (See cut at p. 131.)

[1] On the other hand, M. Garnier writes: "I do not know any name at all
like _Kolo_, except _Lolo_, the generic name given by the
Chinese to the wild tribes of Yun-nan." Does not this look as if
_Kolo_ were really the old name, _Luluh_ or Lolo the later?



Cuiju is a province towards the East.[NOTE 1] After leaving Coloman you
travel along a river for 12 days, meeting with a good number of towns and
villages, but nothing worthy of particular mention. After you have
travelled those twelve days along the river you come to a great and noble
city which is called FUNGUL.

The people are Idolaters and subject to the Great Kaan, and live by trade
and handicrafts. You must know they manufacture stuffs of the bark of
certain trees which form very fine summer clothing.[NOTE 2] They are good
soldiers, and have paper-money. For you must understand that henceforward
we are in the countries where the Great Kaan's paper-money is current.

[Illustration: The Koloman after a Chinese drawing

"Coloman est une provence vers levant
El sunt mult belles jens et ne
sunt mie bien blances mes biunz
El sunt bien homes d'armes"]

The country swarms with lions to that degree that no man can venture to
sleep outside his house at night.[NOTE 3] Moreover, when you travel on
that river, and come to a halt at night, unless you keep a good way from
the bank the lions will spring on the boat and snatch one of the crew and
make off with him and devour him. And but for a certain help that the
inhabitants enjoy, no one could venture to travel in that province,
because of the multitude of those lions, and because of their strength and

But you see they have in this province a large breed of dogs, so fierce
and bold that two of them together will attack a lion.[NOTE 4] So every
man who goes a journey takes with him a couple of those dogs, and when a
lion appears they have at him with the greatest boldness, and the lion
turns on them, but can't touch them for they are very deft at eschewing
his blows. So they follow him, perpetually giving tongue, and watching
their chance to give him a bite in the rump or in the thigh, or wherever
they may. The lion makes no reprisal except now and then to turn fiercely
on them, and then indeed were he to catch the dogs it would be all over
with them, but they take good care that he shall not. So, to escape the
dogs' din, the lion makes off, and gets into the wood, where mayhap he
stands at bay against a tree to have his rear protected from their
annoyance. And when the travellers see the lion in this plight they take
to their bows, for they are capital archers, and shoot their arrows at him
till he falls dead. And 'tis thus that travellers in those parts do
deliver themselves from those lions.

They have a good deal of silk and other products which are carried up and
down, by the river of which we spoke, into various quarters.[NOTE 5]

You travel along the river for twelve days more, finding a good many towns
all along, and the people always Idolaters, and subject to the Great Kaan,
with paper-money current, and living by trade and handicrafts. There are
also plenty of fighting men. And after travelling those twelve days you
arrive at the city of Sindafu of which we spoke in this book some time
ago.[NOTE 6]

From Sindafu you set out again and travel some 70 days through the
provinces and cities and towns which we have already visited, and all
which have been already particularly spoken of in our Book. At the end of
those 70 days you come to Juju where we were before.[NOTE 7]

From Juju you set out again and travel four days towards the south,
finding many towns and villages. The people are great traders and
craftsmen, are all Idolaters, and use the paper-money of the Great Kaan
their Sovereign. At the end of those four days you come to the city of
Cacanfu belonging to the province of Cathay, and of it I shall now speak.

NOTE 1.--In spite of difficulties which beset the subject (see Note 6
below) the view of Pauthier, suggested doubtingly by Marsden, that the
Cuiju of the text is KWEI-CHAU, seems the most probable one. As the latter
observes, the reappearance of paper money shows that we have got back into
a province of China Proper. Such, Yun nan, recently conquered from a Shan
prince, could not be considered. But, according to the best view we can
form, the traveller could only have passed through the extreme west of the
province of Kwei-chau.

The name of _Fungul_, if that be a true reading, is suggestive of
_Phungan_, which under the Mongols was the head of a district called
PHUNGAN-LU. It was founded by that dynasty, and was regarded as an
important position for the command of the three provinces Kwei-chau,
Kwang-si, and Yun-nan. (_Biot_, p. 168; _Martini_, p. 137.) But
we shall explain presently the serious difficulties that beset the
interpretation of the itinerary as it stands.

NOTE 2.--Several Chinese plants afford a fibre from the bark, and some of
these are manufactured into what we call _grass-cloths_. The light
smooth textures so called are termed by the Chinese _Hiapu_ or
"summer cloths." Kwei-chau produces such. But perhaps that specially
intended is a species of hemp (_Urtica Nivea?_) of which M. Perny of
the R.C. Missions says, in his notes on Kwei-chau: "It affords a texture
which may be compared to _batiste_. This has the notable property of
keeping so cool that many people cannot wear it even in the hot weather.
Generally it is used only for summer clothing." (_Dict. des Tissus_,
VII. 404; _Chin. Repos._ XVIII. 217 and 529; _Ann. de la Prop. de
la Foi_, XXXI. 137.)

NOTE 3.--Tigers of course are meant. (See supra, vol. i. p. 399.)
M. Perny speaks of tigers in the mountainous parts of Kwei-chau. (Op.
cit. 139.)

NOTE 4.--These great dogs were noticed by Lieutenant (now General)
Macleod, in his journey to Kiang Hung on the great River Mekong, as
accompanying the caravans of Chinese traders on their way to the Siamese
territory. (See _Macleod's Journal_, p. 66.)

NOTE 5.--The trade in wild silk (i.e. from the oak-leaf silkworm) is in
truth an important branch of commerce in Kwei-chau. But the chief seat of
this is at Tsuni-fu, and I do not think that Polo's route can be sought so
far to the eastward. (_Ann. de la Prop._ XXXI. 136; _Richthofen_, Letter
VII. 81.)

NOTE 6.--We have now got back to Sindafu, i.e. Ch'eng-tu fu in
Sze-ch'wan, and are better able to review the geography of the track we
have been following. I do not find it possible to solve all its

The different provinces treated of in the chapters from lv. to lix. are
strung by Marco upon an easterly, or, as we must interpret,
_north-easterly_ line of travel, real or hypothetical. Their names and
intervals are as follows: (1) Bangala; whence 30 marches to (2) Caugigu; 25
marches to (3) Anin; 8 marches to (4) Toloman or Coloman; 12 days in Cuiju
along a river to the city of (5) Fungul, Sinugul (or what not); 12 days
further, on or along the same river, to (6) Ch'eng-tu fu. Total from
Bangala to Ch'eng-tu fu 87 days.

I have said that the line of travel is real _or hypothetical_, for no
doubt a large part of it was only founded on hearsay. We last left our
traveller at Mien, or on the frontier of Yun-nan and Mien. _Bangala_ is
reached _per sallum_ with no indication of interval, and its position is
entirely misapprehended. Marco conceives of it, not as in India, but as
being, like Mien, a province _on the confines_ of India, as being under
the same king as Mien, as lying to the south of that kingdom, and as being
at the (south) western extremity of a great traverse line which runs
(north) east into Kwei-chau and Sze-ch'wan. All these conditions point
consistently to one locality; that, however, is not Bengal but _Pegu_. On
the other hand, the circumstances of manners and products, so far as they
go, _do_ belong to Bengal. I conceive that Polo's information regarding
these was derived from persons who had really visited Bengal by sea, but
that he had confounded what he so heard of the Delta of the Ganges with
what he heard on the Yun-nan frontier of the Delta of the Irawadi. It is
just the same kind of error that is made about those great Eastern Rivers
by Fra Mauro in his Map. And possibly the name of Pegu (in Burmese
_Bagoh_) may have contributed to his error, as well as the probable fact
that the Kings of Burma did at this time _claim_ to be Kings of Bengal,
whilst they actually _were_ Kings of Pegu.

_Caugigu_.--We have seen reason to agree with M. Pauthier that the
description of this region points to Laos, though we cannot with him
assign it to Kiang-mai. Even if it be identical with the Papesifu of the
Chinese, we have seen that the centre of that state may be placed at Muang
Yong not far from the Mekong; whilst I believe that the limits of Caugigu
must be drawn much nearer the Chinese and Tungking territory, so as to
embrace Kiang Hung, and probably the _Papien_ River. (See note at p. 117.)

As regards the name, it is _possible_ that it may represent some specific
name of the Upper Laos territory. But I am inclined to believe that we are
dealing with a case of erroneous geographical perspective like that of
Bangala; and that whilst the _circumstances_ belong to Upper Laos, the
_name_, read as I read it, _Caugigu_ (or Cavgigu), is no other than the
_Kafchikue_ of Rashiduddin, the name applied by him to Tungking, and
representing the KIAOCHI-KWE of the Chinese. D'Anville's Atlas brings
Kiaochi up to the Mekong in immediate contact with Che-li or Kiang Hung. I
had come to the conclusion that Caugigu was _probably_ the correct reading
before I was aware that it is an _actual_ reading of the Geog. Text more
than once, of Pauthier's A more than once, of Pauthier's C _at least_ once
and possibly twice, and of the Bern MS.; all which I have ascertained from
personal examination of those manuscripts.[1]

_Anin_ or _Aniu_.--I have already pointed out that I seek this in the
territory about Lin-ngan and Homi. In relation to this M. Garnier writes:
"In starting from Muang Yong, or even if you prefer it, from Xieng Hung
(Kiang Hung of our maps), ... it would be physically impossible in 25 days
to get beyond the arc which I have laid down on your map (viz. extending a
few miles north-east of Homi). There are scarcely any roads in those
mountains, and easy lines of communication begin only _after_ you have got
to the Lin-ngan territory. In Marco Polo's days things were certainly not
better, but the reverse. All that has been done of consequence in the way
of roads, posts, and organisation in the part of Yun-nan between Lin-ngan
and Xieng Hung, dates in some degree from the Yuen, but in a far greater
degree from K'ang-hi." Hence, even with the Ramusian reading of the
itinerary, we cannot place _Anin_ much beyond the position indicated

[Illustration: Script _thai_ of Xieng-hung.]

_Koloman_.--We have seen that the position of this region is probably near
the western frontier of Kwei-chau. Adhering to _Homi_ as the
representative of Anin, and to the 8 days' journey of the text, the most
probable position of Koloman would be about _Lo-ping_ which lies about 100
English miles in a straight line north-east from Homi. The first character
of the name here is again the same as the _Lo_ of the Kolo tribes.

Beyond this point the difficulties of devising an interpretation,
consistent at once with facts and with the text as it stands, become

The narrative demands that from Koloman we should reach _Fungul_, a great
and noble city, by travelling 12 days along a river, and that Fungul
should be within twelve days' journey of Ch'eng-tu fu, along the same
river, or at least along rivers connected with it.

In advancing from the south-west guided by the data afforded by the texts,
we have not been able to carry the position of Fungul (_Sinugul_, or what
not of G.T. and other MSS.) further north than Phungan. But it is
impossible that Ch'eng-tu fu should have been reached in 12 days from this
point. Nor is it possible that a new post in a secluded position, like
Phungan, could have merited to be described as "a great and noble city."

Baron v. Richthofen has favoured me with a note in which he shows that in
reality the only place answering the more essential conditions of Fungul
is Siu-chau fu at the union of the two great branches of the Yang-tzu,
viz. the Kin-sha Kiang, and the Min-Kiang from Ch'eng-tu fu. (1) The
distance from Siu-chau to Ch'eng-tu by land travelling is just about 12
days, and the road is along a river. (2) In approaching "Fungul" from the
south Polo met with a good many towns and villages. This would be the case
along either of the navigable rivers that join the Yang-tzu below Siu-chau
(or along that which joins above Siu-chau, mentioned further on). (3) The
large trade in silk up and down the river is a characteristic that could
only apply to the Yang-tzu.

These reasons are very strong, though some little doubt must subsist until
we can explain the name (Fungul, or Sinugul) as applicable to Siu-chau.[2]
And assuming Siu-chau to be the city we must needs carry the position
of _Coloman_ considerably further north than Lo-ping, and must presume the
interval between _Anin_ and _Coloman_ to be greatly understated, through
clerical or other error. With these assumptions we should place Polo's
Coloman in the vicinity of Wei-ning, one of the localities of Kolo tribes.

From a position near Wei-ning it would be quite possible to reach Siu-chau
in 12 days, making use of the facilities afforded by one or other of the
partially navigable rivers to which allusion has just been made.

"That one," says M. Garnier in a letter, "which enters the Kiang a little
above Siu-chau fu, the River of _Lowa-tong_, which was descended by our
party, has a branch to the eastward which is navigable up to about the
latitude of Chao-tong. Is not this probably Marco Polo's route? It is to
this day a line much frequented, and one on which great works have been
executed; among others two iron suspension bridges, works truly gigantic
for the country in which we find them."

[Illustration: Iron Suspension Bridge at Lowatong. (From Garnier.)]

An extract from a Chinese Itinerary of this route, which M. Garnier has
since communicated to me, shows that at a point 4 days from Wei-ning the
traveller may embark and continue his voyage to any point on the great

We are obliged, indeed, to give up the attempt to keep to a line of
communicating rivers throughout the whole 24 days. Nor do I see how it is
possible to adhere to that condition literally without taking more
material liberties with the text.


Indo Chinese Regions (Book II, Chaps. 44-59)]

My theory of Polo's actual journey would be that he returned from Yun-nan
fu to Ch'eng-tu fu through some part of the province of Kwei-chau, perhaps
only its western extremity, but that he spoke of Caugigu, and probably of
Anin, as he did of Bangala, from report only. And, in recapitulation, I
would identify provisionally the localities spoken of in this difficult
itinerary as follows: _Caugigu_ with Kiang Hung; _Anin_ with Homi;
_Coloman_ with the country about Wei-ning in Western Kwei-chau; _Fungul_
or Sinugul with Siu-chau.

[This itinerary is difficult, as Sir Henry Yule says. It takes Marco Polo
24 days to go from Coloman or Toloman to Ch'eng-tu. The land route is 22
days from Yun-nan fu to Swi-fu, via Tung-ch'wan and Chao-t'ung. (_J.
China B.R.A.S._ XXVIII. 74-75.) From the Toloman province, which I
place about Lin-ngan and Cheng-kiang, south of Yun-nan fu, Polo must have
passed a second time through this city, which is indeed at the end of all
the routes of this part of South-Western China. He might go back to
Sze-ch'wan by the western route, via Tung-ch'wan and Chao-t'ung to Swi-fu,
or, by the eastern, easier and shorter route by Siuen-wei chau, crossing a
corner of the Kwei-chau province (Wei-ning), and passing by Yun-ning hien
to the Kiang, this is the route followed by Mr. A. Hosie in 1883 and by Mr.
F.S.A. Bourne in 1885, and with great likelihood by Marco Polo; he may
have taken the Yun-ning River to the district city of Na-ch'i hien, which
lies on the right bank both of this river and of the Kiang; the Kiang up to
Swi-fu and thence to Ch'eng-tu. I do not attempt to explain the difficulty
about Fungul.

I fully agree with Sir H. Yule when he says that Polo spoke of Caugigu and
of Bangala, probably of Anin, from report only. However, I believe that
Caugigu is the _Kiao-Chi kwe_ of the Chinese, that Ani_n_ must be read
Ani_u_, that Aniu is but a transcription of _Nan-yue_ that both Nan-yue
and Kiao-Chi represent Northern Annam, i.e. the portion of Annam which
we call Tung-king. Regarding the tattooed inhabitants of Caugigu, let it
be remembered that tattooing existed in Annam till it was prohibited by
the Chinese during the occupation of Tung-king at the beginning of the
15th century.--H.C.]

NOTE 7.--Here the traveller gets back to the road-bifurcation near Juju,
i.e. Chochau (_ante_ p. 11), and thence commences to travel southward.

[Illustration: Fortified Villages on Western frontier of Kweichau. (From

"Chastians ont-il grant quantite en grandismes montagnes et fortres."]

[1] A passing suggestion of the identity of Kafchi Kue and Caugigu is made
by D'Ohsson, and I formerly objected. (See _Cathay_, p. 272.)

[2] Cuiju might be read _Ciuju_--representing _Siuchau_, but the
difficulty about Fungul would remain.

BOOK II.--_Continued_.




Cacanfu is a noble city. The people are Idolaters and burn their dead;
they have paper-money, and live by trade and handicrafts. For they have
plenty of silk from which they weave stuffs of silk and gold, and sendals
in large quantities. [There are also certain Christians at this place, who
have a church.] And the city is at the head of an important territory
containing numerous towns and villages. [A great river passes through it,
on which much merchandise is carried to the city of Cambaluc, for by many
channels and canals it is connected therewith.[NOTE 1]]

We will now set forth again, and travel three days towards the south, and
then we come to a town called CHANGLU. This is another great city
belonging to the Great Kaan, and to the province of Cathay. The people
have paper-money, and are Idolaters and burn their dead. And you must know
they make salt in great quantities at this place; I will tell you how 'tis
done.[NOTE 2]

A kind of earth is found there which is exceedingly salt. This they dig up
and pile in great heaps. Upon these heaps they pour water in quantities
till it runs out at the bottom; and then they take up this water and boil
it well in great iron cauldrons, and as it cools it deposits a fine white
salt in very small grains. This salt they then carry about for sale to
many neighbouring districts, and get great profit thereby.

There is nothing else worth mentioning, so let us go forward five days'
journey, and we shall come to a city called Chinangli.

NOTE 1.--In the greater part of the journey which occupies the remainder
of Book II., Pauthier is a chief authority, owing to his industrious
Chinese reading and citation. Most of his identifications seem well
founded, though sometimes we shall be constrained to dissent from them
widely. A considerable number have been anticipated by former editors, but
even in such cases he is often able to bring forward new grounds.

CACANFU is HO-KIEN FU in Pe Chih-li, 52 miles in a direct line south by
east of Chochau. It was the head of one of the _Lu_ or circuits into which
the Mongols divided China. (_Pauthier_.)

NOTE 2.--Marsden and Murray have identified Changlu with T'SANG-CHAU in Pe
Chih-li, about 30 miles east by south of Ho-kien fu. This seems
substantially right, but Pauthier shows that there was an old town
actually called CH'ANGLU, separated from T'sang-chau only by the great
canal. [Ch'ang-lu was the name of T'sang-chau under the T'ang and the Kin.
(See _Playfair, Dict._, p. 34.)--H.C.]

The manner of obtaining salt, described in the text, is substantially the
same as one described by Duhalde, and by one of the missionaries, as being
employed near the mouth of the Yang-tzu kiang. There is a town of the
third order some miles south-east of T'sang-chau, called _Yen-shan_ or
"salt-hill," and, according to Pauthier, T'sang-chau is the mart for salt
produced there. (_Duhalde_ in _Astley_, IV. 310; _Lettres Edif._ XI. 267
seqq.; _Biot._ p. 283.)

Polo here introduces a remark about the practice of burning the dead,
which, with the notice of the idolatry of the people, and their use of
paper-money, constitutes a formula which he repeats all through the
Chinese provinces with wearisome iteration. It is, in fact, his definition
of the Chinese people, for whom he seems to lack a comprehensive name.

A great change seems to have come over Chinese custom, since the Middle
Ages, in regard to the disposal of the dead. Cremation is now entirely
disused, except in two cases; one, that of the obsequies of a Buddhist
priest, and the other that in which the coffin instead of being buried has
been exposed in the fields, and in the lapse of time has become decayed.
But it is impossible to reject the evidence that it was a common practice
in Polo's age. He repeats the assertion that it was _the_ custom at every
stage of his journey through Eastern China; though perhaps his taking
absolutely no notice of the practice of burial is an instance of that
imperfect knowledge of strictly Chinese peculiarities which has been
elsewhere ascribed to him. It is the case, however, that the author of the
Book of the Estate of the Great Kaan (circa 1330) also speaks of
cremation as the usual Chinese practice, and that Ibn Batuta says
positively: "The Chinese are infidels and idolaters, and they burn their
dead after the manner of the Hindus." This is all the more curious,
because the Arab _Relations_ of the 9th century say distinctly that the
Chinese bury their dead, though they often kept the body long (as they do
still) before burial; and there is no mistaking the description which
Conti (15th century) gives of the Chinese mode of sepulture. Mendoza, in
the 16th century, alludes to no disposal of the dead except by burial, but
Semedo in the early part of the 17th says that bodies were occasionally
burnt, especially in Sze-ch'wan.

I am greatly indebted to the kindness of an eminent Chinese scholar, Mr.
W.F. Mayers, of Her Majesty's Legation at Peking, who, in a letter, dated
Peking, 18th September, 1874, sends me the following memorandum on the

"_Colonel Yule's Marco Polo_, II. 97 [First Edition], _Burning of the

"On this subject compare the article entitled _Huo Tsang_, or 'Cremation
Burials,' in Bk. XV of the _Jih Che Luh_, or 'Daily Jottings,' a great
collection of miscellaneous notes on classical, historical, and
antiquarian subjects, by Ku Yen-wu, a celebrated author of the 17th
century. The article is as follows:--

"'The practice of burning the dead flourished (or flourishes) most
extensively in Kiang-nan, and was in vogue already in the period of the
Sung Dynasty. According to the history of the Sung Dynasty, in the 27th
year of the reign Shao-hing (A.D. 1157), the practice was animadverted
upon by a public official.' Here follows a long extract, in which the
burning of the dead is reprehended, and it is stated that cemeteries were
set apart by Government on behalf of the poorer classes.

"In A.D. 1261, Hwang Chen, governor of the district of Wu, in a memorial
praying that the erection of cremation furnaces might thenceforth be
prohibited, dwelt upon the impropriety of burning the remains of the
deceased, for whose obsequies a multitude of observances were prescribed
by the religious rites. He further exposed the fallacy of the excuse
alleged for the practice, to wit, that burning the dead was a fulfilment
of the precepts of Buddha, and accused the priests of a certain monastery
of converting into a source of illicit gain the practice of cremation."

[As an illustration of the cremation of a Buddhist priest, I note the
following passage from an article published in the _North-China Herald_,
20th May, 1887, p. 556, on Kwei Hua Ch'eng, Mongolia: "Several Lamas are
on visiting terms with me and they are very friendly. There are seven
large and eight small Lamaseries, in care of from ten to two hundred
Lamas. The principal Lamas at death are cremated. A short time ago, a
friendly Lama took me to see a cremation. The furnace was roughly made of
mud bricks, with four fire-holes at the base, with an opening in which to
place the body. The whole was about 6 feet high, and about 5 feet in
circumference. Greased fuel was arranged within and covered with glazed
foreign calico, on which were written some Tibetan characters. A tent was
erected and mats arranged for the Lamas. About 11:30 A.M. a scarlet
covered bier appeared in sight carried by thirty-two beggars. A box 2 feet
square and 2-1/2 feet high was taken out and placed near the furnace. The
Lamas arrived and attired themselves in gorgeous robes and sat
cross-legged. During the preparations to chant, some butter was being
melted in a corner of the tent. A screen of calico was drawn round the
furnace in which the cremator placed the body, and filled up the opening.
Then a dozen Lamas began chanting the burial litany in Tibetan in deep bass
voices. Then the head priest blessed the torches and when the fires were
lit he blessed a fan to fan the flames, and lastly some melted butter,
which was poured in at the top to make the whole blaze. This was frequently
repeated. When fairly ablaze, a few pieces of Tibetan grass were thrown in
at the top. After three days the whole cooled, and a priest with one gold
and one silver chopstick collects the bones, which are placed in a bag for
burial. If the bones are white it is a sign that his sin is purged, if
black that perfection has not been attained."--H.C.]

And it is very worthy of note that the Chinese envoy to Chinla (Kamboja)
in 1295, an individual who may have personally known Marco Polo, in
speaking of the custom prevalent there of exposing the dead, adds: "There
are some, however, who burn their dead. _These are all descendants of
Chinese immigrants._"

[Professor J.J.M. de Groot remarks that "being of religious origin,
cremation is mostly denoted in China by clerical terms, expressive of the
metamorphosis the funeral pyre is intended to effect, viz. 'transformation
of man'; 'transformation of the body'; 'metamorphosis by fire.' Without
the clerical sphere it bears no such high-sounding names, being simply
called 'incineration of corpses.' A term of illogical composition, and
nevertheless very common in the books, is 'fire burial.'" It appears that
during the Sung Dynasty cremation was especially common in the provinces
of Shan-si, Cheh-kiang, and Kiang-su. During the Mongol Dynasty, the
instances of cremation which are mentioned in Chinese books are,
relatively speaking, numerous. Professor de Groot says also that "there
exists evidence that during the Mongol domination cremation also throve in
Fuhkien." (_Religious System of China_, vol. iii. pp. 1391, 1409, 1410.)

(_Doolittle_, 190; _Deguignes_, I. 69; _Cathay_, pp. 247, 479; _Reinaud_,
I. 56; _India in the XVth Century_, p. 23; _Semedo_, p. 95; _Rem. Mel.
Asiat._ I. 128.)



Chinangli is a city of Cathay as you go south, and it belongs to the Great
Kaan; the people are Idolaters, and have paper-money. There runs through
the city a great and wide river, on which a large traffic in silk goods
and spices and other costly merchandize passes up and down.

When you travel south from Chinangli for five days, you meet everywhere
with fine towns and villages, the people of which are all Idolaters, and
burn their dead, and are subject to the Great Kaan, and have paper-money,
and live by trade and handicrafts, and have all the necessaries of life in
great abundance. But there is nothing particular to mention on the way
till you come, at the end of those five days, to TADINFU.[NOTE 1]

This, you must know, is a very great city, and in old times was the seat
of a great kingdom; but the Great Kaan conquered it by force of arms.
Nevertheless it is still the noblest city in all those provinces. There
are very great merchants here, who trade on a great scale, and the
abundance of silk is something marvellous. They have, moreover, most
charming gardens abounding with fruit of large size. The city of Tadinfu
hath also under its rule eleven imperial cities of great importance, all
of which enjoy a large and profitable trade, owing to that immense produce
of silk.[NOTE 2]

Now, you must know, that in the year of Christ, 1273, the Great Kaan had
sent a certain Baron called LIYTAN SANGON,[NOTE 3] with some 80,000
horse, to this province and city, to garrison them. And after the said
captain had tarried there a while, he formed a disloyal and traitorous
plot, and stirred up the great men of the province to rebel against the
Great Kaan. And so they did; for they broke into revolt against their
sovereign lord, and refused all obedience to him, and made this Liytan,
whom their sovereign had sent thither for their protection, to be the
chief of their revolt.

When the Great Kaan heard thereof he straightway despatched two of his
Barons, one of whom was called AGUIL and the other MONGOTAY;[NOTE 4]
giving them 100,000 horse and a great force of infantry. But the affair
was a serious one, for the Barons were met by the rebel Liytan with all
those whom he had collected from the province, mustering more than 100,000
horse and a large force of foot. Nevertheless in the battle Liytan and his
party were utterly routed, and the two Barons whom the Emperor had sent
won the victory. When the news came to the Great Kaan he was right well
pleased, and ordered that all the chiefs who had rebelled, or excited
others to rebel, should be put to a cruel death, but that those of lower
rank should receive a pardon. And so it was done. The two Barons had all
the leaders of the enterprise put to a cruel death, and all those of lower
rank were pardoned. And thenceforward they conducted themselves with
loyalty towards their lord.[NOTE 5]

Now having told you all about this affair, let us have done with it, and I
will tell you of another place that you come to in going south, which is
called SINJU-MATU.

NOTE 1.--There seems to be no solution to the difficulties attaching to
the account of these two cities (Chinangli and Tadinfu) except that the
two have been confounded, either by a lapse of memory on the traveller's
part or by a misunderstanding on that of Rusticiano.

The position and name of CHINANGLI point, as Pauthier has shown, to
T'SI-NAN FU, the chief city of Shan-tung. The second city is called in the
G. Text and Pauthier's MSS. _Candinfu_, _Condinfu_, and _Cundinfu_, names
which it has not been found possible to elucidate. But adopting the reading
_Tadinfu_ of some of the old printed editions (supported by the _Tudinfu_
of Ramusio and the _Tandifu_ of the Riccardian MS.), Pauthier shows that
the city now called _Yen-chau_ bore under the Kin the name of TAI-TING FU,
which may fairly thus be recognised. [Under the Sung Dynasty Yen-chau was
named T'ai-ning and Lung-k'ing. (_Playfair's Dict._ p. 388.)--H.C.]

It was not, however, Yen-chau, but _T'si-nan fu_, which was "the noblest
city in all those provinces," and had been "in old times the seat of a
kingdom," as well as recently the scene of the episode of Litan's
rebellion. T'si-nan fu lies in a direct line 86 miles south of T'sang-chau
(_Changlu_), near the banks of the Ta-t'singho, a large river which
communicates with the great canal near T'si-ning chau, and which was, no
doubt, of greater importance in Polo's time than in the last six
centuries. For up nearly to the origin of the Mongol power it appears to
have been one of the main discharges of the Hwang-Ho. The recent changes
in that river have again brought its main stream into the same channel,
and the "New Yellow River" passes three or four miles to the north of the
city. T'si-nan fu has frequently of late been visited by European
travellers, who report it as still a place of importance, with much life
and bustle, numerous book-shops, several fine temples, two mosques, and
all the furniture of a provincial capital. It has also a Roman Catholic
Cathedral of Gothic architecture. (_Williamson_, I. 102.)

[Tsi-nan "is a populous and rich city; and by means of the river (Ta Tsing
ho, Great Clear River) carries on an extensive commerce. The soil is
fertile, and produces grain and fruits in abundance. Silk of an excellent
quality is manufactured, and commands a high price. The lakes and rivers
are well stored with fish." (_Chin. Rep._ XI. p. 562.)--H.C.]

NOTE 2.--The Chinese Annals, more than 2000 years B.C., speak of silk as
an article of tribute from Shan-tung; and evidently it was one of the
provinces most noted in the Middle Ages for that article. Compare the
quotation in note on next chapter from Friar Odoric. Yet the older modern
accounts speak only of the _wild_ silk of Shan-tung. Mr. Williamson,
however, points out that there is an extensive produce from the genuine
mulberry silkworm, and anticipates a very important trade in Shan-tung
silk. Silk fabrics are also largely produced, and some of extraordinary
quality. (_Williamson_, I. 112, 131.)

The expressions of Padre Martini, in speaking of the wild silk of
Shan-tung, strongly remind one of the talk of the ancients about the origin
of silk, and suggest the possibility that this may not have been mere
groundless fancy: "Non in globum aut ovum ductum, sed in longissimum filum
paulatim ex ore emissum, albi coloris, quae arbustis dumisque, adhaerentia,
atque a vento huc illucque agitata colliguntur," etc. Compare this with
Pliny's "Seres lanitia silvarum nobiles, perfusam aqua depectentes frondium
caniciem," or Claudian's "Stamine, quod molli tondent de stipite Seres,
Frondea lanigerae carpentes vellera silvae; Et longum tenues tractus
producit in aurum."

NOTE 3.--The title _Sangon_ is, as Pauthier points out, the Chinese
_Tsiang-kiun_, a "general of division", [or better "Military Governor".
--H.C.] John Bell calls an officer, bearing the same title, "Merin
_Sanguin_" I suspect _T'siang-kiun_ is the _Jang-Jang_ of Baber.

NOTE 4.--AGUL was the name of a distant cousin of Kublai, who was the
father of Nayan (supra, ch. ii. and Genealogy of the House of Chinghiz in
Appendix A). MANGKUTAI, under Kublai, held the command of the third Hazara
(Thousand) of the right wing, in which he had succeeded his father Jedi
Noyan. lie was greatly distinguished in the invasion of South China under
Bayan. (_Erdmann's Temudschin_, pp. 220, 455; _Gaubil_, p. 160.)

NOTE 5.--LITAN, a Chinese of high military position and reputation under
the Mongols, in the early part of Kublai's reign, commanded the troops in
Shan-tung and the conquered parts of Kiang-nan. In the beginning of 1262
he carried out a design that he had entertained since Kublai's accession,
declared for the Sung Emperor, to whom he gave up several important
places, put detached Mongol garrisons to the sword, and fortified T'si-nan
and T'sing-chau. Kublai despatched Prince Apiche and the General
Ssetienche against him. Litan, after some partial success, was beaten and
driven into T'si-nan, which the Mongols immediately invested. After a
blockade of four months, the garrison was reduced to extremities. Litan,
in despair, put his women to death and threw himself into a lake adjoining
the city; but he was taken out alive and executed. T'sing-chau then
surrendered. (_Gaubil_, 139-140; _De Mailla_, IX. 298 seqq.; _D'Ohsson_,
II. 381.)

Pauthier gives greater detail from the Chinese Annals, which confirm the
amnesty granted to all but the chiefs of the rebellion.

The date in the text is wrong or corrupt, as is generally the case.



On leaving Tadinfu you travel three days towards the south, always finding
numbers of noble and populous towns and villages flourishing with trade
and manufactures. There is also abundance of game in the country, and
everything in profusion.

When you have travelled those three days you come to the noble city of
SINJUMATU, a rich and fine place, with great trade and manufactures. The
people are Idolaters and subjects of the Great Kaan, and have paper-money,
and they have a river which I can assure you brings them great gain, and I
will tell you about it.

You see the river in question flows from the South to this city of
Sinjumatu. And the people of the city have divided this larger river in
two, making one half of it flow east and the other half flow west; that is
to say, the one branch flows towards Manzi and the other towards Cathay.
And it is a fact that the number of vessels at this city is what no one
would believe without seeing them. The quantity of merchandize also which
these vessels transport to Manzi and Cathay is something marvellous; and
then they return loaded with other merchandize, so that the amount of
goods borne to and fro on those two rivers is quite astonishing.[NOTE 1]

NOTE 1.--Friar Odoric, proceeding by water northward to Cambaluc about
1324-1325, says: "As I travelled by that river towards the east, and
passed many towns and cities, I came to a certain city which is called
SUNZUMATU, which hath a greater plenty of silk than perhaps any place on
earth, for when silk is at the dearest you can still have 40 lbs. for less
than eight groats. There is in the place likewise great store of
merchandise," etc. When commenting on Odoric, I was inclined to identify
this city with Lin-t'sing chau, but its position with respect to the two
last cities in Polo's itinerary renders this inadmissible; and Murray and
Pauthier seem to be right in identifying it with T'SI-NING CHAU. The affix
_Matu_ (_Ma-t'eu_, a jetty, a place of river trade) might easily
attach itself to the name of such a great depot of commerce on the canal
as Marco here describes, though no Chinese authority has been produced for
its being so styled. The only objection to the identification with
T'si-ning chau is the difficulty of making 3 days' journey of the short
distance between Yen-chau and that city.

Polo, according to the route supposed, comes first upon the artificial
part of the Great Canal here. The rivers _Wen_ and _Sse_ (from near
Yen-chau) flowing from the side of Shan-tung, and striking the canal line
at right angles near T'si-ning chau, have been thence diverted north-west
and south-east, so as to form the canal; the point of their original
confluence at Nan-wang forming, apparently, the summit level of the canal.
There is a little confusion in Polo's account, owing to his describing the
river as coming from the _south_, which, according to his orientation,
would be the side towards Hunan. In this respect his words would apply more
accurately to the _Wei_ River at Lin-t'sing (see _Biot_ in _J. As._ ser.
III. tom. xiv. 194, and _J.N.C.B.R.A.S._, 1866, p. ii; also the map with
ch. lxiv.) [Father Gandar (_Canal Imperial_, p. 22, note) says that the
remark of Marco Polo: "The river flows from the south to this city of
Sinjumatu," cannot be applied to the _Wen-ho_ nor to the _Sse-ho_, which
are rivers of little importance and running from the east, whilst the
_Wei-ho_, coming from the south-east, waters Lin-ts'ing, and answers well
to our traveller's text.--H.C.] Duhalde calls T'si-ning chau "one of the
most considerable cities of the empire"; and Nieuhoff speaks of its large
trade and population. [Sir John F. Davis writes that Tsi-ning chau is a
town of considerable dimensions.... "The _ma-tow_, or platforms, before the
principal boats had ornamental gateways over them.... The canal seems to
render this an opulent and flourishing place, to judge by the gilded and
carved shops, temples, and public offices, along the eastern banks."
(Sketches of China, I. pp. 255-257.)--H.C.]



On leaving the city of Sinju-matu you travel for eight days towards the
south, always coming to great and rich towns and villages flourishing with
trade and manufactures. The people are all subjects of the Great Kaan, use
paper-money, and burn their dead. At the end of those eight days you come
to the city of LINJU, in the province of the same name of which it is the
capital. It is a rich and noble city, and the men are good soldiers,
natheless they carry on great trade and manufactures. There is great
abundance of game in both beasts and birds, and all the necessaries of
life are in profusion. The place stands on the river of which I told you
above. And they have here great numbers of vessels, even greater than
those of which I spoke before, and these transport a great amount of
costly merchandize[NOTE 1].

So, quitting this province and city of Linju, you travel three days more
towards the south, constantly finding numbers of rich towns and villages.
These still belong to Cathay; and the people are all Idolaters, burning
their dead, and using paper-money, that I mean of their Lord the Great
Kaan, whose subjects they are. This is the finest country for game,
whether in beasts or birds, that is anywhere to be found, and all the
necessaries of life are in profusion.

At the end of those three days you find the city of PIJU, a great, rich,
and noble city, with large trade and manufactures, and a great production
of silk. This city stands at the entrance to the great province of Manzi,
and there reside at it a great number of merchants who despatch carts from
this place loaded with great quantities of goods to the different towns of
Manzi. The city brings in a great revenue to the Great Kaan.[NOTE 2]

NOTE 1.--Murray suggests that Lingiu is a place which appears in
D'Anville's Map of Shan-tung as _Lintching-y_ and in Arrowsmith's Map of
China (also in those of Berghaus and Keith Johnston) as _Lingchinghien_.
The position assigned to it, however, on the west bank of the canal,
nearly under the 35th degree of latitude, would agree fairly with Polo's
data. [_Lin-ch'ing, Lin-tsing_, lat. 37 deg. 03', _Playfair's Dict._
No. 4276; _Biot_, p. 107.--H.C.]

In any case, I imagine Lingiu (of which, perhaps, _Lingin_ may be the
correct reading) to be the _Lenzin_ of Odoric, which he reached in
travelling by water from the south, before arriving at Sinjumatu.
(_Cathay_, p. 125.)

NOTE 2.--There can be no doubt that this is PEI-CHAU on the east bank of
the canal. The abundance of game about here is noticed by Nieuhoff (in
_Astley_, III. 417). [See _D. Gandar, Canal Imperial_, 1894.--H.C.]



When you leave Piju you travel towards the south for two days, through
beautiful districts abounding in everything, and in which you find
quantities of all kinds of game. At the end of those two days you reach
the city of SIJU, a great, rich, and noble city, flourishing with trade
and manufactures. The people are Idolaters, burn their dead, use
paper-money, and are subjects of the Great Kaan. They possess extensive and
fertile plains producing abundance of wheat and other grain.[NOTE 1] But
there is nothing else to mention, so let us proceed and tell you of the
countries further on.

On leaving Siju you ride south for three days, constantly falling in with
fine towns and villages and hamlets and farms, with their cultivated lands.
There is plenty of wheat and other corn, and of game also; and the people
are all Idolaters and subjects of the Great Kaan.

At the end of those three days you reach the great river CARAMORAN, which
flows hither from Prester John's country. It is a great river, and more
than a mile in width, and so deep that great ships can navigate it. It
abounds in fish, and very big ones too. You must know that in this river
there are some 15,000 vessels, all belonging to the Great Kaan, and kept
to transport his troops to the Indian Isles whenever there may be
occasion; for the sea is only one day distant from the place we are
speaking of. And each of these vessels, taking one with another, will
require 20 mariners, and will carry 15 horses with the men belonging to
them, and their provisions, arms, and equipments.[NOTE 2]

Hither and thither, on either bank of the river, stands a town; the one
facing the other. The one is called COIGANJU and the other CAIJU; the
former is a large place, and the latter a little one. And when you pass
this river you enter the great province of MANZI. So now I must tell you
how this province of Manzi was conquered by the Great Kaan.[NOTE 3]

NOTE 1.--SIJU can scarcely be other than Su-t'sien (_Sootsin_ of Keith
Johnston's map) as Murray and Pauthier have said. The latter states that
one of the old names of the place was _Si-chau_, which corresponds to that
given by Marco. Biot does not give this name.

The town stands on the flat alluvial of the Hwang-Ho, and is approached by
high embanked roads. (_Astley_, III. 524-525.)

[Sir J.F. Davis writes: "From _Sootsien Hien_ to the point of junction
with the Yellow River, a length of about fifty miles, that great stream
and the canal run nearly parallel with each other, at an average distance
of four or five miles, and sometimes much nearer." (_Sketches of China_,
I. p. 265.)--H.C.]

[Illustration: Sketch Map, exhibiting the VARIATIONS of the TWO GREAT
RIVERS OF CHINA Within the Period of History]

NOTE 2.--We have again arrived on the banks of the Hwang-Ho, which was
crossed higher up on our traveller's route to Karajang.

No accounts, since China became known to modern Europe, attribute to the
Hwang-Ho the great utility for navigation which Polo here and elsewhere
ascribes to it. Indeed, we are told that its current is so rapid that its
navigation is scarcely practicable, and the only traffic of the kind that
we hear of is a transport of coal in Shan-si for a certain distance down
stream. This rapidity also, bringing down vast quantities of soil, has so
raised the bed that in recent times the tide has not entered the river, as
it probably did in our traveller's time, when, as it would appear from his
account, seagoing craft used to ascend to the ferry north of Hwai-ngan fu,
or thereabouts. Another indication of change is his statement that the
passage just mentioned was only one day's journey from the sea, whereas it
is now about 50 miles in a direct line. But the river has of late years
undergone changes much more material.

In the remotest times of which the Chinese have any record, the Hwang-Ho
discharged its waters into the Gulf of Chih-li, by two branches, the most
northerly of which appears to have followed the present course of the
Pei-ho below Tien-tsing. In the time of the Shang Dynasty (ending B.C.
1078) a branch more southerly than either of the above flowed towards
T'si-ning, and combined with the _T'si_ River, which flowed by T'si-nan fu,
the same in fact that was till recently called the Ta-t'sing. In the time
of Confucius we first hear of a branch being thrown off south-east towards
the Hwai, flowing north of Hwai-ngan, in fact towards the embouchure which
our maps still display as that of the Hwang-Ho. But, about the 3rd and 4th
centuries of our era, the river discharged exclusively by the T'si; and up
to the Mongol age, or nearly so, the mass of the waters of this great river
continued to flow into the Gulf of Chih-li. They then changed their course
bodily towards the Hwai, and followed that general direction to the sea;
this they had adopted before the time of our traveller, and they retained
it till a very recent period. The mass of Shan-tung thus forms a
mountainous island rising out of the vast alluvium of the Hwang-Ho, whose
discharge into the sea has alternated between the north and the south of
that mountainous tract. (_See Map opposite_.)

During the reign of the last Mongol emperor, a project was adopted for
restoring the Hwang-Ho to its former channel, discharging into the Gulf of
Chih-li; and discontents connected with this scheme promoted the movement
for the expulsion of the dynasty (1368).

A river whose regimen was liable to such vast changes was necessarily a
constant source of danger, insomuch that the Emperor Kia-K'ing in his will
speaks of it as having been "from the remotest ages China's sorrow." Some
idea of the enormous works maintained for the control of the river may be
obtained from the following description of their character on the north
bank, some distance to the west of Kai-fung fu:

"In a village, apparently bounded by an earthen wall as large as that of
the Tartar city of Peking, was reached the first of the outworks erected
to resist the Hwang-Ho, and on arriving at the top that river and the
gigantic earthworks rendered necessary by its outbreaks burst on the view.
On a level with the spot on which I was standing stretched a series of
embankments, each one about 70 feet high, and of breadth sufficient for
four railway trucks to run abreast on them. The mode of their arrangement
was on this wise: one long bank ran parallel to the direction of the
stream; half a mile distant from it ran a similar one; these two
embankments were then connected by another series exactly similar in size,
height, and breadth, and running at right angles to them right down to the
edge of the water."

In 1851, the Hwang-Ho burst its northern embankment nearly 30 miles east
of Kai-fung fu; the floods of the two following years enlarged the breach;
and in 1853 the river, after six centuries, resumed the ancient direction
of its discharge into the Gulf of Chih-li. Soon after leaving its late
channel, it at present spreads, without defined banks, over the very low
lands of South-Western Shan-tung, till it reaches the Great Canal, and
then enters the Ta-t'sing channel, passing north of T'si-nan to the sea.
The old channel crossed by Polo in the present journey is quite deserted.
The greater part of the bed is there cultivated; it is dotted with
numerous villages; and the vast trading town of Tsing-kiang pu was in 1868
extending so rapidly from the southern bank that a traveller in that year
says he expected that in two years it would reach the northern bank.

The same change has destroyed the Grand Canal as a navigable channel for
many miles south of Lin-t'sing chau. (_J.R.G.S._ XXVIII. 294-295;
_Escayrac de Lauture, Mem. sur la Chine; Cathay_, p. 125; _Reports of
Journeys in China_, etc. [by Consuls Alabaster, Oxenham, etc., Parl. Blue
Book], 1869, pp. 4-5, 14; _Mr. Elias_ in _J.R.G.S._ XL. p. 1 seqq.)

[Since the exploration of the Hwang-Ho in 1868 by Mr. Ney Elias and by Mr.
H.G. Hollingworth, an inspection of this river was made in 1889 and a
report published in 1891 by the Dutch Engineers J.G.W. Fijnje van
Salverda, Captain P.G. van Schermbeek and A. Visser, for the improvement
of the Yellow River.--H.C.]

NOTE 3.--Coiganju will be noticed below. _Caiju_ does not seem to be
traceable, having probably been carried away by the changes in the river.
But it would seem to have been at the mouth of the canal on the north side
of the Hwang-Ho, and the name is the same as that given below (ch. lxxii.)
to the town (_Kwachau_) occupying the corresponding position on the Kiang.

"Khatai," says Rashiduddin, "is bounded on one side by the country of
Machin, which the Chinese call MANZI.... In the Indian language Southern
China is called Maha-chin, i.e. 'Great China,' and hence we derive the
word _Machin_. The Mongols call the same country _Nangiass_. It is
separated from Khatai by the river called KARAMORAN, which comes from the
mountains of Tibet and Kashmir, and which is never fordable. The capital
of this kingdom is the city of _Khingsai_, which is forty days' journey
from Khanbalik." (_Quat. Rashid._, xci.-xciii.)

MANZI (or Mangi) is a name used for Southern China, or more properly for
the territory which constituted the dominion of the Sung Dynasty at the
time when the Mongols conquered Cathay or Northern China from the Kin, not
only by Marco, but by Odoric and John Marignolli, as well as by the
Persian writers, who, however, more commonly call it _Machin_. I imagine
that some confusion between the two words led to the appropriation of the
latter name, also to _Southern_ China. The term _Man-tzu_ or _Man-tze_
signifies "Barbarians" ("Sons of Barbarians"), and was applied, it is
said, by the Northern Chinese to their neighbours on the south, whose
civilisation was of later date.[1] The name is now specifically applied
to a wild race on the banks of the Upper Kiang. But it retains its
mediaeval application in Manchuria, where _Mantszi_ is the name given to
the Chinese immigrants, and in that use is said to date from the time of
Kublai. (_Palladius_ in _J.R.G.S._ vol. xlii. p. 154.) And Mr. Moule
has found the word, apparently used in Marco's exact sense, in a Chinese
extract of the period, contained in the topography of the famous Lake of
Hang-chau (infra, ch. lxxvi.-lxxvii.)

Though both Polo and Rashiduddin call the Karamoran the boundary between
Cathay and Manzi, it was not so for any great distance. Ho-nan belonged
essentially to Cathay.

[1] Magaillans says the Southerns, in return, called the Northerns
_Pe-tai_, "Fools of the North"!



You must know that there was a King and Sovereign lord of the great
territory of Manzi who was styled FACFUR, so great and puissant a prince,
that for vastness of wealth and number of subjects and extent of dominion,
there was hardly a greater in all the earth except the Great Kaan himself.
[NOTE 1] But the people of his land were anything rather than warriors;
all their delight was in women, and nought but women; and so it was above
all with the King himself, for he took thought of nothing else but women,
unless it were of charity to the poor.

In all his dominion there were no horses; nor were the people ever inured
to battle or arms, or military service of any kind. Yet the province of
Manzi is very strong by nature, and all the cities are encompassed by
sheets of water of great depth, and more than an arblast-shot in width; so
that the country never would have been lost, had the people but been
soldiers. But that is just what they were not; so lost it was.[NOTE 2]

Now it came to pass, in the year of Christ's incarnation, 1268, that the
Great Kaan, the same that now reigneth, despatched thither a Baron of his
whose name was BAYAN CHINCSAN, which is as much as to say "Bayan Hundred
Eyes." And you must know that the King of Manzi had found in his horoscope
that he never should lose his Kingdom except through a man that had an
hundred eyes; so he held himself assured in his position, for he could not
believe that any man in existence could have an hundred eyes. There,
however, he deluded himself, in his ignorance of the name of Bayan.[NOTE 3]

This Bayan had an immense force of horse and foot entrusted to him by the
Great Kaan, and with these he entered Manzi, and he had also a great
number of boats to carry both horse and food when need should be. And when
he, with all his host, entered the territory of Manzi and arrived at this
city of COIGANJU--whither we now are got, and of which we shall speak
presently--he summoned the people thereof to surrender to the Great Kaan;
but this they flatly refused. On this Bayan went on to another city, with
the same result, and then still went forward; acting thus because he was
aware that the Great Kaan was despatching another great host to follow him
up.[NOTE 4]

What shall I say then? He advanced to five cities in succession, but got
possession of none of them; for he did not wish to engage in besieging
them and they would not give themselves up. But when he came to the sixth
city he took that by storm, and so with a second, and a third, and a
fourth, until he had taken twelve cities in succession. And when he had
taken all these he advanced straight against the capital city of the
kingdom, which was called KINSAY, and which was the residence of the King
and Queen.

And when the King beheld Bayan coming with all his host, he was in great
dismay, as one unused to see such sights. So he and a great company of his
people got on board a thousand ships and fled to the islands of the Ocean
Sea, whilst the Queen who remained behind in the city took all measures in
her power for its defence, like a valiant lady.

Now it came to pass that the Queen asked what was the name of the captain
of the host, and they told her that it was Bayan Hundred-Eyes. So when she
wist that he was styled Hundred-Eyes, she called to mind how their
astrologers had foretold that a man of an hundred eyes should strip them
of the kingdom.[NOTE 5] Wherefore she gave herself up to Bayan, and
surrendered to him the whole kingdom and all the other cities and
fortresses, so that no resistance was made. And in sooth this was a goodly
conquest, for there was no realm on earth half so wealthy.[NOTE 6] The
amount that the King used to expend was perfectly marvellous; and as an
example I will tell you somewhat of his liberal acts.

In those provinces they are wont to expose their newborn babes; I speak of
the poor, who have not the means of bringing them up. But the King used to
have all those foundlings taken charge of, and had note made of the signs
and planets under which each was born, and then put them out to nurse
about the country. And when any rich man was childless he would go to the
King and obtain from him as many of these children as he desired. Or, when
the children grew up, the King would make up marriages among them, and
provide for the couples from his own purse. In this manner he used to
provide for some 20,000 boys and girls every year.[NOTE 7]

I will tell you another thing this King used to do. If he was taking a
ride through the city and chanced to see a house that was very small and
poor standing among other houses that were fine and large, he would ask
why it was so, and they would tell him it belonged to a poor man who had
not the means to enlarge it. Then the King would himself supply the means.
And thus it came to pass that in all the capital of the kingdom of Manzi,
Kinsay by name, you should not see any but fine houses.

This King used to be waited on by more than a thousand young gentlemen and
ladies, all clothed in the richest fashion. And he ruled his realm with
such justice that no malefactors were to be found therein. The city in
fact was so secure that no man closed his doors at night, not even in
houses and shops that were full of all sorts of rich merchandize. No one
could do justice in the telling to the great riches of that country, and
to the good disposition of the people. Now that I have told you about the
kingdom, I will go back to the Queen.

You must know that she was conducted to the Great Kaan, who gave her an
honourable reception, and caused her to be served with all state, like a
great lady as she was. But as for the King her husband, he never more did
quit the isles of the sea to which he had fled, but died there. So leave
we him and his wife and all their concerns, and let us return to our
story, and go on regularly with our account of the great province of Manzi
and of the manners and customs of its people. And, to begin at the
beginning, we must go back to the city of Coiganju, from which we
digressed to tell you about the conquest of Manzi.

NOTE 1.--_Faghfur_ or _Baghbur_ was a title applied by old Persian and
Arabic writers to the Emperor of China, much in the way that we used to
speak of the _Great Mogul_, and our fathers of the _Sophy_. It is, as
Neumann points out, an old Persian translation of the Chinese title
_Tien-tzu_, "Son of Heaven"; _Bagh-Pur_ = "The Son of the Divinity," as
Sapor or _Shah-Pur_ = "The Son of the King." _Faghfur_ seems to have been
used as a proper name in Turkestan. (See _Baber_, 423.)

There is a word, _Takfur_, applied similarly by the Mahomedans to the
Greek emperors of both Byzantium and Trebizond (and also to the Kings of
Cilician Armenia), which was perhaps adopted as a jingling match to the
former term; Faghfur, the great infidel king in the East; Takfur, the
great infidel king in the West. Defremery says this is Armenian,
_Tagavor_, "a king." (_I.B._, II. 393, 427.)

["The last of the Sung Emperors (1276) 'Facfur' (i.e. the Arabic for


Back to Full Books