The World of Waters
Mrs. David Osborne

Part 1 out of 5

Produced by Wilelmina Malliere and PG Distributed Proofreaders

[Illustration: A TROPICAL SCENE]

[Illustration: THE WORLD OF WATERS




A Peaceful Progress o'er the Unpathed Sea.


With Illustrations.




The Wilton Family.--Story of Frederic Hamilton


The Wiltons.--Dora Leslie.--Charles Dorning.--The Mediterranean.
--Corsica.--Candia.--Rhodes.--Malta.--Valetta.--The Caledonia.
--A Story by Krummacher.--Adriatic Sea.--Venice.--Turkish
Rowers.--Elgin Marbles.--Isle of Wight.--Thunder Storm.--Jersey.
--Romaine's Journal.--Slave Ship.--Horrible Cruelty.--Slave Trade.
--Wreck of the Royal George.--Eddystone Lighthouse


The Wiltons.--A great Naval Victory.--Monster Fish.--The Downs.--St.
Augustine.--Yarmouth.--Brock the Swimmer and Yarmouth Boatman.--The
North Sea.--The Bell Rock.--Mr. Barraud.--Jock of Jedburgh.--Wreck
of the Forfarshire.--Remarkable Providence.--Denmark.--The
Baltic.--Journey to the Gulf of Finland.--Reindeer and Sledge.
--Reval.--Superstitions.--Strange Fashions.--Ungern Sternberg.
--Gulf of Bothnia.--Islands of the Baltic.--Lapland.--Aurora


Stanzas by Mrs. Howitt.--Caspian Sea.--Astracan.--Droll
Legend.--Yellow Sea.--The Japanese.--Monsoons.--Trade
Winds.--Description of a Monsoon.--Asia.--The Red Sea.--Isthmus of
Suez.--An Interesting Locality.--The Arabs.--Sea of Aral.--Chinese
Islands.--Fishing for Mice.--The Typhon.--Fishing Birds.--Cinnamon
Forests.--Eating Birds' Nests.--Bible Lands.--The Sea of
Galilee.--The Dead Sea.--The Slave Merchant.--A Japan Puzzle


Story of Era.--Assistance of Goodwill.--Madeira.--Man-of-War.--Dinner
on Ship-board.--Computing Latitude.--Pipe to Dinner.--The Azores.--
Newfoundland.--Newfoundland Dogs.--Greenland.--Whale Fishing.--Flying
Fish.--A Ship In the Polar Regions.--An Awful Sight.--The Geysers.
--Icelanders.--Spitzbergen.--The Ferroe Islands.--Maelstrom.--The
Norwegian Mouse.--Hudson's Bay.--Hudson's Straits.--Nova Scotia.--Henry
May.--The Ancient Mariner.--Cuba.--Jamaica.--Beauty of Jamaica.--A
Hurricane.--Devastation.--Ruins of Yucatan.--Indians of Mexico.--The
American Lakes.--Niagara.--The Caribbean Sea.--Panama.--Gala
Days.--Diving for Pearls.--The Sea-Boy's Grave.--The Funeral.--Gulf
of Trieste.--Guiana.--Brazil.--Rio de Janeiro.--Montevideo.--Patagonia.
--Cape Horn.--Depth of the Atlantic


The Separation.--Deception Isle.--The Gulf of Penas.--Island of
Chiloe.--Juan Fernandez.--Alexander Selkirk.--The Ladies of
Lima.--The Peruvians.--Columbia.--Catching Wild Fowl.--The Two
Oceans.--A Singular Funeral.--Magellan.--Guatemala.--Ladies
Smoking.--Christian Indians.--California.--San Francisco.--Nootka
Sound.--Story of Boone and the Bear.--Cleaveland and the Infant.
--United States' Navy.--Cannibals.--Kamschatka.--Polynesia.--The
Sandwich Islands.--Captain Cook.--Contest.--Adventure of
Kapiolani.--A Delightful Anecdote.--Spanish Missionaries.--Philippine
Islands.--The Pelew Islands.--Birds of Paradise.--The Friendly
Islands.--Otaheite.--The Society Islanders.--Pitcairn's Islands.
--Shocking Barbarity.--Nobb's Letter.--Marquesas.--The Low
Islands.--New Caledonia.--New Zealand.--The Bay of Islands.--Captain
Cook's Story.--A Curious Idea.--Aranghie.--Cannibalism.--New
Holland.--Story of Mr. Meredith.--Australian Barbarism.--Australian
Lakes.--Van Diemen's Land.--Coral Reefs.--Story of Kemba


Packing up.--Letter from Mr. Stanley.--Mr. Stanley.--Celebes.--Dress
of the Alfoors.--Curious Hospitality.--Java.--Whimsical Superstition.
--Productions of Java.--Sumatra.--Water Spouts.--Burman Despotism.
--The White Elephant.--Sir James Brooke.--Borneo.--Isle of
Bourbon.--Isle of France.--Madagascar.--The Four Spirits.--The
Missionaries.--Horrible Custom.--The Pirates' Retreat.--Malagassy
Fable.--Kerguelen's Land.--Isle of Desolation.--Story of a
Sailor.--Morocco.--A Moorish Beauty.--Algiers.--Egypt.--Abyssinia.
--Abyssinian Customs.--Religion.--African Coast.--Seychelle
Isles.--Mozambique.--Smoking the Hubble-Bubble.--Caffraria.--Story
of the Little Caffre.--Algoa Bay.--Graham's Town.--Cape of Good
Hope.--Cape Town.--Constantia.--The Boschmen.--A Transformation.
--Dressing in Skins.--The Slave Trade.--Fish Bay.--St. Helena.
--Kabenda.--Black Jews.--Ferdinand Po.--The Ape and the Oven.
--The Slave-Coast.--Dahomey.--Ashantee.--King Opocco.--A
Singular Belief.--The Ashantee Wife.--Liberia.--A Bowchee
Mother.--Sierra Leone.--The Lakes of Africa.--Bornou.--The Sultan of
Bornou.--African Wedding.--The Deluge.--The Telescope.--The End


It is not my purpose to detain you with a long preface, because I am
aware that long prefaces are seldom read; but I wish to inform you
that I have written this book, in the humble hope of being useful to
those in whom I am so anxiously interested. I am myself happy in
acknowledging the endearing appellation of "Mother," and I love
_all_ children, and regard them as priceless treasures, entrusted to
the care and guidance of parents and teachers; with whom it rests in
a great measure to render them blessings to their fellow-creatures,
and happy themselves, or contrariwise.

Should the perusal of this little volume imbue you with a taste for
the beautiful and ennobling science of Geography, my object will be
gained; and that such may be the result of these humble endeavors is
the sincere wish of

Your affectionate Friend,




Oh ye seas and floods,
Bless ye the Lord:
Praise him, and magnify him forever.

"Oh! what beautiful weather," exclaimed George Wilton, as he drew
his chair nearer the fire. "This sort of evenings is so suitable for
story-telling, that I regret more than ever the disagreeable
necessity which has taken Mr. Stanley to foreign countries, and
broken up our delightful parties. But yet, there are enough of us
remaining at home to form a society; we _might_ manage without him.
Do not you remember, papa, you said, when Julia Manvers was with us
last summer, we were to examine into the particulars respecting the
seas and oceans of the world; and not once was the subject mentioned
while we were at Herne Bay, although the sea was continually before
us to remind us of it. Are we _ever_ to have any more of those
conversations? I liked them amazingly, and I am sure I learned a
great deal more geography by them than I ever did out of Goldsmith,
or any other dry lesson-book, which compels one to learn by rule. I
wish, dear papa, you would settle to have these meetings again; we
would write down all the particulars, and enclose them in a letter
to Mr. Stanley: I am sure he would be quite pleased."

"I think he would, George," replied Mr. Wilton, "and I also think
that we have been rather careless in this matter; but, at the same
time, you must remember that the fault does not rest solely with us,
for when we appointed certain times during our sojourn at Herne Bay
for these same geographical discussions, on every occasion something
occurred to prevent the meeting, and all our arrangements fell to
the ground. Since then, the illness of your sister,--which, thank
God, has terminated so happily,--the departure of Mr. Stanley, and
the removal to our present abode; all these circumstances conspired
to render ineffectual any attempt at regularity, and precluded the
possibility of an occasional quiet chat on this really important
subject. The past, present, and future, in the history of man, are
so connected with the positions of the great seas of the globe, and
the navigation of them, that I _do_ regard the study of geography as
one of the _most important_ branches of a Christian education; and,
now that all impediments are removed, I think we may venture to
propose the re-establishment of our little society; and as we are
deprived of the valuable services of Mr. Stanley, we must endeavor
to supply his place by procuring the aid of another _learned_
friend, who will not consider it derogatory to assist in our
edifying amusement. And, in order to render these meetings more
extensively beneficial and interesting, I further propose that we
increase our number by admitting two new members, to be selected by
you, my dear children, from amongst your juvenile acquaintances; but
we must not admit any except on the original terms, which were,
'that each member add his or her mite of information to the general
fund.' What says mamma about it? Suppose we put it to the vote?"

"Oh! dear papa," exclaimed Emma, "I am quite sure _that_ will be
unnecessary. Grandy has often talked of the meetings held last year,
and regretted that there seemed no disposition to renew them;
therefore, we are sure of _her_ vote. Mamma was so useful with _her_
descriptions, that _she_ is not likely to object. Then you know,
dear papa, how very much _I_ enjoyed these conversations; and, as
far as any one else is concerned, I am convinced that _my_ candidate
will be glad to prepare a portion of the subject as her admission
fee, and will be as much interested in the welfare of the society as
we old members are, who have already felt the advantages arising
from it. May we decide now, papa?"

All hands were raised in reply, and the resolution carried

"I have a question to ask," said George. "May we have the meetings
twice during the month, instead of once, as before? It will induce
us to be more industrious, as we shall be obliged to work to get up
the information. I can share the labor with Emma now, because I can
write easily, and quickly; besides, it will be such pleasant
employment for the half-holidays."

"Very well, my dear," said Mr. Wilton; "then once a fortnight it
shall be; and take care, as the time will be short, that you are
thoroughly prepared: do not reckon on me, for I cannot assist you as
Mr. Stanley did, so you must be, in a great measure, dependent upon
your own resources. My library is at your disposal, and I hope you
will have sufficient perseverance to investigate each point
carefully, before you come to a decision. Should you require
assistance in the preparation of any particular part of the subject,
of course, I shall have no objections to render it; but remember, I
do not promise to be an active member, as I wish you to exert
yourselves, and be in some degree independent. It will thus be more
advantageous to you: it will not only impress all you learn
effectually on your mind, but improve your reasoning faculties, and
enable you to understand much that the most careful explanation
might fail to render intelligible."

"And when shall we begin, papa?" asked Emma.

MR. WILTON. "My engagements until the 7th of February are so
numerous as to preclude the possibility of my presence at a meeting
before that time; but after the 7th inst. I shall be more at
liberty, and we will, if you please, commence our voyage, and (wind
and weather permitting) travel on regularly and perseveringly until
we have circumnavigated the globe."

"Agreed! agreed!" merrily shouted the children.

"I know which of my friends I shall ask," said George; "and I fancy
I can guess who will be Emma's new member."

"I fancy you cannot," returned Emma: "I do not intend to tell any
one, either, until I hear whether or not she can come; therefore
check your inquisitiveness, Master George, and wait patiently, for
you will not know before the 7th, when I will introduce my friend."

"Now," said Grandy, "having settled the most important part of the
business, I have a few words to say. You must all be aware, that in
the accounts of seas and oceans, there cannot possibly be so much
time disposed of in descriptive facts as there was in our former
conversations concerning the rivers of the world, which are so
numerous, and require so many minute particulars in tracing their
courses, that they positively (although occupying a smaller portion
of the globe,) take more time to sail over in our ship 'The
Research,' than the boundless ocean, which occupies two thirds of
our world; it will, under these circumstances, be advisable to
illustrate our subject largely, and to lose no opportunity of
extending it for our benefit. We need not fear to exhaust the topic;
for do not the vast waters encompass the globe; and can we
contemplate these great works of our Creator, without having our
hearts filled with wonder and admiration? This, my children, will
lead us to the right source; to the Author of all the wonders
contained in 'heaven and earth, and in the waters under the earth;'
and, if we possess any gratitude, our hearts will be raised in
thankfulness to Him who 'hath done all things well;' and we shall
bless him for giving us powers of discernment and reasoning
faculties, which not only enable us to see and appreciate the
goodness of God, but also, by his grace assisting us, to turn our
knowledge to advantage for our temporal and eternal good."

"We may now," said Mr. Wilton, "leave these resolutions to be acted
upon at a proper time; and, as we have two hours' leisure before
supper, if you, dear mother, will tell us one of your sweet stories
of real life, it will be both a pleasant and profitable way of
passing the evening. We have all employment for our fingers, and can
work while we listen; George and I with our pencils, and you ladies
with your sewing and knitting."

GRANDY. "Well, what must it be? Something nautical, I suppose; for
as we are about to set sail in a few days, it will be appropriate,
will it not?"

GEORGE. "Oh yes! dear Grandy, a nautical story, if you please."

#Story of Frederic Hamilton#

"The first time I saw Frederic Hamilton was on board the 'Neptune,'
outward bound for Jamaica: he was then a lad of twelve or fourteen
years: I cannot be sure which; but I remember he was tall for his
age, and extremely good looking.

"There were so many circumstances during the voyage, which brought
me in contact with this boy, and so many occasions to arouse my
sympathies in his behalf, (for he was evidently in delicate health,
and unfit for laborious work.) that in a short time I became deeply
interested concerning him, and I determined as soon as I had
recovered from sea-sickness, to watch for an opportunity of
inquiring into the particulars of his earlier history.

"I must first tell you, before proceeding with the story of my hero,
that the captain of the 'Neptune' was a very harsh, cruel man, and
made every one on board his vessel as uncomfortable as he could by
his violent temper, and ungentlemanly conduct. I was the only
lady-passenger; and had it not been for the kindness of my
fellow-travellers, I scarcely think I could have survived all the
terrors of that dreadful voyage. The sailors, without one
dissentient voice, declared they had never sailed with such a
master, and wished they had known a trifle of the rough side of his
character before they engaged with him, and then he would have had
to seek long enough to make up a crew, for not one of them would
have shipped with him.' They even went so far as to say, that if at
any time they could escape from the vessel, they would not hesitate
a moment, but would get away, and leave the captain to work the ship
by himself. I could not take part with the captain, because I saw
too much of his tyranny to entertain a particle of respect for him,
and I confess I was not in the least surprised at the language of
the ill-used sailors. He had no good feature in his character that I
could discover; for he was mean, vulgar, discontented, and brutal.
He never encouraged the men in the performance of their duty, by
kind expressions; on the contrary, he never addressed them on the
most simple matter without oaths and imprecations, and oftentimes
enforced his commands with a rope's end or his fist.

"We had yet other causes of discomfort besides these continual
uproars. Contrary winds, constant gales, and violent storms, made
our hearts fail from fear. We knew the captain could not expect
_His_ blessing, whose laws he openly set at defiance; indeed, by his
life and conversation, he proved that he 'cared for none of these

"I believe he was a clever seaman: he had certainly had much
experience, having been upwards of fifty times across the Atlantic:
so that we felt at ease with regard to the _management_ of the ship.
But we did not put our trust in the skill of the captain alone; for
of what avail would that be if the Lord withheld his hand, and left
us to perish? No! my dears, we saw that the captain never prayed,
and we felt there was a greater necessity for us to be diligent in
the duty; and daily, nay hourly, we entreated the forbearance and
assistance of Almighty God to conduct us in safety to land.

"After a time, the men became very unmanageable; for they hated the
captain: he treated them like slaves, and imposed upon them on every
occasion; so that at length, goaded to desperation by his cruelty,
they positively refused to handle a rope until he agreed to the
terms they intended to propose.

"The captain, fierce as he was, felt it would be useless to contend
with twenty angry men, and he knew the passengers would not befriend
him: he therefore deemed it expedient to endeavor to conciliate them
by promises he never intended to perform, and, after a few hours'
confusion, all was again comparatively quiet.

"I could tell you much more about the quarrels and disturbances of
which we unfortunate passengers had to be the passive witnesses, and
which, accustomed as we were to them in the day-time, filled me with
greater horror than I can describe, breaking upon the stillness of
the night, when all was quiet but the troubled ocean, whose murmurs,
instead of arousing, served to lull us into a deeper repose. Yes,
often, when no other sound but the low splashing of the waves
against the side of the ship was to be heard, and we were all either
sleeping quietly, or thinking deeply of home and friends, loud cries
and shouts would reach us, and, in an instant, we would all be
gathered together to inquire into the cause of the disturbance. It
was always the captain and some of the men fighting; and on one
occasion, the battle was so close to us, actually in the cabin,
between the captain and the steward, that I screamed aloud, and do
not remember ever to have been so much alarmed.

"But as my principal object is to make you acquainted with Frederic
Hamilton, and not with _my_ adventures, I will say no more about
Captain Simmons, and his ship, than is necessary in the course of my

"I was just getting over the unpleasant sensations of sea-sickness,
when, one morning as I was dressing in my berth, a noise of
scuffling on the quarter-deck, over my head, interrupted my
operations. I laid my brush on the table, and listened. At first I
could distinguish nothing, and, thinking it was the captain and a
sailor disputing, I continued my toilet; when, suddenly, a piercing
cry reached me, and I knew the voice to be Frederic's. At the same
time the sound of heavy blows fell on my ear, and again I recognized
his voice: he called out so loudly, that I heard him distinctly say,
'Oh, sir! have mercy. Pray, pray do not kill me! Oh, sir! think of
my mother, and have pity upon me. I _will_ try to please you, sir;
indeed, indeed, I will. Oh, mercy! mercy!' His cries became fainter
and fainter, while the blows continued, accompanied occasionally by
the gruff voice of the captain, until, my soul shrinking with
horror, I could endure it no longer. I rushed out of my cabin, and
there on the poop beheld a sight I can never forget. Poor Frederic
was lashed to the shrouds with his hands above his head, which was
then drooping on his shoulder; his back bare and bleeding. The
brutal captain was standing by with a thick rope in his grasp,
which, by the crimson stains upon it, sufficiently proved the vile
purpose for which its services had just been required.

"I called out hastily and angrily to the captain to cease beating
the boy, and declared I would fetch out the gentlemen to interfere
if he did not stop his unmanly behavior. He glared on me with the
fiercest expression imaginable (for he was in a towering rage,) and
told me I had better not meddle with _him_ in the performance of his
duty, for he would do as he liked; _he_ was master of the ship and
nobody else, and he would like to see anybody else try to be. Then
he made use of such fearful language, that I dreaded to approach
him; but my fear lest he should again attack the boy, overcame my
fear for him in his anger; and I ascended the ladder. He desired,
nay _commanded_, me to retire to my cabin; but I said, 'No, captain,
I will not stir hence until you release Frederic, and if you strike
him again I will be a witness of your cowardly behavior towards a
poor boy whose only fault is want of strength to do the work
assigned him. I am quite sure, whatever you may say on board-ship,
you will not be able to justify your conduct on shore.'

"He did not again address me; but, muttering curses loud and deep,
he untied the fainting boy, and, giving him a savage push, laid him
prostrate on the deck: he then walked forward, and began to shout
aloud his orders to the men on the main-deck.

"The man at the helm, pitying the poor boy, called to the boatswain,
who was standing on the forecastle, and begged him to send some
water to throw over the lad, and some dressing for his wounded back.
I stayed by him for a short time, and when he was somewhat
recovered, I went below.

"I fancied, when I met the captain at the dinner-table, that he
looked rather ashamed; for I had related the whole affair to the
other passengers, and he could perceive, by their indifference
towards him, that they despised him for his cowardice. He tried to
be jocular, but could not succeed in exciting our risibility: we did
not even encourage his jokes by the shadow of a smile, and he seemed
uneasy during the remainder of the time we sat at table.

"I now felt more than ever interested in the fate of Frederic
Hamilton and was not sorry I had said so much in the morning.
Prudence might have dictated milder language certainly; but my
indignation was aroused; and when I found that my remonstrance had
the desired effect, I did not repent of my impetuosity.

"About a week after this unhappy occurrence, as I was leaning over
the rail on the quarter-deck, watching the shoals of porpoises (for
we were then in a warm latitude) playing in the bright blue sea at
the vessel's side, the boatswain, who was a fine specimen of a
sea-faring man, came up and, seating himself on a fowl-coop near me,
commenced sorting rope-yarns for the men to spin. Presently Frederic
walked up the ladder with a bucket of water to pour into the troughs
for the thirsty poultry, who were stretching their necks through the
bars and opening their bills, longing for the refreshing draught:
the heat was overpowering, and the poor things were closely packed
in their miserable coops.

"I remarked to Williams how pale the boy looked, and how thin, and
said, I feared he was not only badly treated, but had not proper

"'Why, ma'am,' said he, 'to say the truth, the lad's not been used
to this kind of living, and it was the worst thing as ever happened
to him to be brought on board the "Neptune," with our skipper for a
master. You see, madam,' he continued, 'his father was a parson; but
_he_ is dead, and the mother tried hard to persuade the lad (for,
poor thing, he is her only boy,) to turn parson too, when his father
died. But no. The boy had set his mind on going to sea; and as he
had no friends who could help him to go to school or college, and
his godfather, Captain Hartly, offered to pay the apprenticeship
fees if his mother would let him learn navigation, she at last,
though much against her will, consented that he should be bound
apprentice to our skipper here. But it pretty nigh broke her heart
to part with the child; and she begged the captain to use him gently
and bear with him a little, for he was not so hardy as many boys of
his age; and, moreover, had been accustomed to kindness and delicate
treatment. The lad is a fine noble-hearted lad, but he is not
strong; and it is my opinion that the master wants to get rid of him
to have the fee for nothing, and he's trying what hard living, hard
work, and hard usage will do towards making him go the faster. But
he had better mind what he is about. There's many a man on board
that can speak a good word for Frederic when he gets ashore; and, if
all comes out, it will go hard with the master. The poor lad cries
himself to sleep every night, and when he is asleep he has no rest,
for in his dreams he talks of his mother and sister, and often sobs
loud enough to wake the men whose hammocks swing near him. I am very
sorry to see all this, for he is a fine boy, as I said before, and
we are all fond of him; but he's not fit for this kind of work,
leastwise not yet. I am glad you have taken notice of him, madam;
for, though you cannot do any good while we're at sea, may be when
you come ashore you won't forget poor Frederic Hamilton.'

"When the boatswain left me, I walked up and down the deck pondering
on these things, and contriving all sorts of schemes for the relief
of my young friend, and wondering how I could manage to have some
conversation with him on the subject; when a circumstance occurred,
which at once enabled me not only to learn all I was anxious to
know, but also in a great measure to improve his condition on board
the 'Neptune.'

"I knew that Frederic must have been trained up in the fear of the
Lord, for his daily conduct testified that he not only knew what was
right, but tried to perform it also; and notwithstanding the severe
trials he had to undergo, while with us on the voyage to Jamaica,
yet I never heard a harsh or disrespectful expression fall from his
lips; but he would attribute all the captain's unkind treatment of
him to something wrong in himself, and he every day tried beyond his
strength to obtain a look of approbation from his stern master. But,
alas! he knew not to whom he looked; although he was cuffed and
kicked about whenever he tried to be brisk in the task allotted to
him, he was always the same patient, melancholy little fellow,
throughout the voyage.

"Sometimes during the night watch, I have caught the musical tones
of his voice, as he walked the quarter-deck; when, the captain being
in his berth fast asleep, the boy was comparatively happy; and as
the ship sailed quietly along in the pale moonlight, his thoughts
would wander back to the home of his beloved mother and sister, and,
the buoyancy of youthful spirits gaining the ascendency over more
melancholy musings, he would for a while forget his present sorrows,
and almost involuntarily break out in singing some of the sweet
hymns in which he had been accustomed to join when the little family
assembled for devotional exercises.

"It was then I used to open my cabin window, and breathlessly listen
to the clear voice of my gentle protege; and not unfrequently could
even distinguish the words he sang; now loud--now soft, as he
approached or retreated. One hymn in particular seemed to be a
special favorite, and was so applicable to his situation, that I
have remembered several of the verses.

"'Jesus, I my cross have taken,
All to leave and follow thee:
Destitute, despised, forsaken,
Thou from hence my all shall be.
Perish every fond ambition,
All I've sought, and hoped, and known;
Yet how rich is my condition,--
God and heaven are still my own!

"'Man may trouble and distress me;
'Twill but drive me to thy breast.
Life with trials hard may press me;
Heaven will bring me sweeter rest.
Oh! 'tis not in grief to harm me,
While thy love is left to me!
Oh! 'twere not in joy to charm me,
Were that joy unmixed with Thee.

"'Take, my soul, thy full salvation;
Rise o'er sin, and fear, and care;
Joy to find in every station
Something still to do or bear!
Think what Spirit dwells within thee;
What a Father's smile is thine;
What thy Saviour did to win thee,--
Child of Heav'n, should'st thou repine?

"'Haste then on from grace to glory,
Armed by faith, and winged by prayer;
Heaven's eternal day's before thee;
Heaven's own hand shall guide thee there.
Soon shall close thy earthly mission;
Swift shall pass thy pilgrim days;
Hope soon change to glad fruition,
Faith to sight, and prayer to praise.'"

EMMA. "What a beautiful hymn, grandmamma. I should like to learn
those words. But I want to hear how you got Frederic away from that
horrid man, and what became of him afterwards, because I cannot
understand why you are telling us _this_ story. I know you never
tell us anything for amusement only."

GRANDY. "No, my dear child; this story is not solely for your
amusement. This morning I observed a strangeness in George's
behavior, when he was requested to put up his microscope, and assist
in laying the cloth, because John was out, and he was aware that
Hannah had sprained her foot, and could not walk up and down stairs.
He said such extraordinary things about being ill-used, and worked
hard, and never having an hour to amuse himself, that I am desirous
of convincing him that it is quite possible (with God's assistance)
not only to bear all this, without thinking it a shame, as George
termed it, but even to praise God for the troubles and trials which
may fall to your lot; and I also wish to inform him, that there
_are_ some boys more patient and grateful than himself. But I see,
by the color mounting to his cheeks, that my boy is sorry for his
past behavior; nevertheless, I will continue my story. And now for
the _incident_, as I presume you will call it, Emma.

"We were about a week's voyage from Jamaica. The wind was favorable,
but light, the sky clear, the sun directly overhead;--we were all
beginning to feel the effects of a warm climate; the sailors were
loosely clad in canvass trousers, striped shirts, and straw hats,
and went lazily about their work;--the ship moved as lazily through
the rippling waves;--the man at the helm drew his hat over his eyes,
to shade them from the glare of the sun, and lounged listlessly upon
the wheel;--the captain was below taking a nap, to the great relief
of men and boys;--some of the passengers were sitting on the poop,
under an awning, drowsily perusing a book or old newspaper; some
leaning on the taffrail, watching the many-colored dolphin, and
those beautiful, but spiteful, little creatures, the Portuguese
men-of-war, which look so splendid as they sail gently on the smooth
surface of the blue ocean, every little ripple causing a change of
color in their transparent sails. I was admiring these curious
navigators, as I stood with two or three friends, who, like myself,
felt idle, and cared only to dispose of the time in the most
agreeable manner attainable in such a ship, with such a commander;
and I said, rather thoughtlessly, considering Frederic was at my
side, 'How I should like to possess one of those little creatures; I
suppose they _can_ be caught?'

"Frederic moved from me, and an instant after he was on the
forecastle; presently, I heard a splash in the water, and, leaning
over the rail, I saw him swimming after a fine specimen, which shone
in all the bright and varied colors of the rainbow, as it floated
proudly by. He had no sooner reached the treasure, and made a grasp
at it, than he gave a loud scream, for the creature had encircled
the poor boy's body with its long fibrous legs, or, as they are
properly called, 'tentacula'. He struggled violently, for he was in
great agony; at length he escaped, and was helped on deck by one of
the men, who said, he wished, 'he had known what the youngster had
in his head, and he would have prevented him attempting to catch
such a thing,' for _he_ was aware of the extraordinary peculiarities
of these singular little creatures. When he came on deck, he looked
exactly as if he had been rolled in a bed of nettles, and the
steward had to rub him with oil, and give him medicine to reduce
the fever caused by the pain of the sting.

"You may be sure, that directly the captain heard of this affair, he
was more disposed to chastise, than to pity, our friend Frederic;
but I interfered, and begged he would leave him to me, as I had been
the cause of the disaster, and must now make amends by attending
him, until he was well enough to return to his duty. The captain was
very much displeased, and I regretted extremely that a foolish wish
of mine should have caused so much annoyance, and felt it my duty to
endeavor to alleviate the boy's sufferings as much as possible. Poor
Frederic! he was laid up three or four days, and had experienced
enough to caution him against ever again attempting to _capture_ a
'Portuguese man-of-war.'[1]

[Footnote 1: The ancients are said to have derived the art of
navigation from these animals, which, in calm weather, are seen
floating on the surface of the water, with some of their tentacula
extended at their sides, while two arms that are furnished with
membranaceous appendages serve the office of sails. These animals
raise themselves to the surface of the sea, by ejecting the
sea-water from their shells; and on the approach of danger, they
draw their arms, and with them a quantity of water, which occasions
them to sink immediately. By possessing this power, they are but
rarely taken perfect, as the instant they are disturbed they
disappear. They are more frequently caught in the nets of fishermen
than any other way, or found left dry on rocks.]

"I used to sit by his hammock for hours talking and reading to him;
when one day, as I closed my book to leave him, he said with a sigh,
while tears filled his eyes, 'I am very grateful to you, madam, for
your kindness to me: you have been a friend when I most needed one;
how my dear mother would love you if she knew what you had done for
her boy. But I do not deserve that any one should love _me_; I have
been wilful and disobedient, and my sorrows are not half so great
as, in justice for my wickedness, they ought to be; but every day
proves to me that God is long-suffering and merciful, and doeth us
good continually. I have thanked him often and often for making you
love me, and I feel so happy that in the midst of my trials, God has
raised me up a friend to cheer me in the path of duty; to teach me
how to correct my faults; and to sympathize with me in my daily
sorrows. God will bless you for it, madam,' he continued: 'he will
bless you for befriending the orphan in his loneliness; and my
mother will bless you, and pray God to shower his mercies thick and
plenteous on you all the days of your life.' He paused, and, burying
his face in the scanty covering of his bed, he wept unrestrainedly.
I was hastening away, for my heart was full, and the effort to check
my tears almost choked me; when he raised his head, and, stretching
his hand towards me, said, 'I want to tell you something more,
madam, if you will not think me bold; but my heart reproaches me
every time I see your kind face; I feel as if I were imposing upon
you, and fancy that, did you know more about me, you would deem me
unworthy of your interest and attention. May I relate to you all I
can remember of myself before I came here? It will be such a comfort
to have some person near me, who will allow me to talk of those I
love, without ridiculing me, and calling me "home-sick."'

"This was the very point at which I had been for some time aiming,
as I did not wish to ask him for the particulars, not knowing
whether the question might wound his feelings; but now that he
offered to tell me, I was delighted, and readily answered his
appeal, assuring him nothing would give me greater pleasure than to
hear an account of himself from his own lips: 'But,' I added, 'I
cannot wait now, for they are striking "eight bells:" I must go in
to dinner: after dinner I will come to you again, and listen to all
you have to say; so farewell for the present, my dear boy, in an
hour's time I will be with you.'

"As soon as dinner was over, I returned to Frederic: he looked so
pleased, I shall never forget the glow that overspread his fair
face, as I entered the berth, for he was really handsome; his eyes
were bright hazel, his hair auburn, and waving over his head in the
most graceful curls, while his complexion was the clearest and most
beautiful I had ever seen. I found a seat on a chest near his
hammock, and, telling him I was ready to attend to his narrative, he

"'The first impression I have of home was when I was about five
years old, and was surrounded by a little troop of brothers and
sisters, for I can remember when there was seven healthy, happy
children in my "boyhood's home." We lived at Feltham, Middlesex, in
the pretty parsonage-house. It was situated at the end of a long
avenue of elm-trees whose arching boughs, meeting over our heads,
sheltered us from the mid-day glare. Here in the winter we used to
trundle our hoops; and in the summer stroll about to gather bright
berries from the hedges to make chains for the adornment of our
bowers. But death came to our happy home, and made sad the hearts of
our good parents: the whooping-cough was very prevalent in the
village, and a child of one of the villagers, who occasionally came
to my father for relief, brought the contagion amongst us, and in a
short time we were all seized with it. Two sisters died in one day,
and the morning they were laid in the grave, sweet baby breathed his
last. Then my mother fell sick, and she was very ill indeed; my
brother and I were placed in a cot by her bedside, and when pain has
prevented me sleeping, I have been comforted by hearing this dear,
kind mother beseeching God to spare her boys. She seemed regardless
of her own sufferings, and only repined when she thought how useful
she might have been to us, had _she_ too not been laid on a bed of
sickness. But fever and delirium came on, and we were removed from
her chamber. The next day poor Frank died, and was buried by the
side of Clara and Lucy. The funeral service was read by my dear
father, who was enabled to stand under all these trials of his
faith, for God sustained him; and, having trained us up in the fear
and admonition of the Lord, he did not grieve as one without hope,
when his darlings were taken from him, for he knew they were gone to
a better world, and were happy in the bosom of their heavenly
Father. His greatest trial was the illness of my mother; but before
we were all quite well, she was able to leave her chamber, and once
again kneel with us at our family altar, to return thanks to God for
his many mercies. There were only three of her seven children left
to her, and when my father blessed God that they were not rendered
childless, my mother's feelings overpowered her, and she was borne
fainting from the room.

"'But I fear I am tiring you with these melancholy accounts, madam.
You know not how deeply I enjoy the recollection of those days, for
through this wilderness of sorrow there was a narrow stream of
happiness placidly gliding, to which we could turn amidst the
troubles of the world, and refresh our fainting souls; and, though
we grieved at the remembrance of the loved ones now gone from us,
yet we would not have recalled them to these scenes of woe, to share
future troubles with us. Oh no! my dear father was a faithful
follower of Christ; he used to show us so many causes for
thankfulness in our late afflictions, which he said were "blessings
in disguise," that happiness and tranquillity were soon restored to
our home.

"'Two or three years glided by, and when I was eleven years old, my
father, one day, called me into his study, and, looking seriously at
me, said, "Frederic, my child, God has been very good to you; he has
spared your life through many dangers; you, of all my sons, only
remain to me, and may your days be many and prosperous! Now, what
can you render unto the Lord for all his mercies towards you; ought
not the life God has so graciously spared be in gratitude
consecrated to his service? Tell me what you think in this matter. I
speak thus early, my dear Frederic, because I wish you to consider
well, before you are sent from home, what are to be your future
plans; for as life is uncertain, and none of us know the day nor the
hour in which the summons may arrive, I should feel more happy, were
I assured that you would tread in my footsteps when I am gone; that
you, my only boy," and he clasped me in his arms as he spoke, "that
you would be a comfort to your mother and sisters, when my labors
are ended, and would carry on the work which I have begun in this
portion of the Lord's vineyard, and His blessing and the blessing of
a fond father will ever attend your steps."

"'I raised my eyes to my father's face, and, for the first time,
noticed how pale and haggard he looked; all the bright and joyous
expression of his countenance when in health had given place to a
mild and melancholy shade of sadness, which affected me painfully;
for the thought struck me that my father was soon to be called away.

"'I evaded answering his question, and when he found I did not
reply, he said, "My son, let us ask the direction of Almighty God in
this great work." I knelt with him, and was lost in admiration. I
could not remove my eyes from his face during the prayer; his whole
soul seemed absorbed in communion with God, and as I gazed, I
wondered what the glorious angels must be like, when the face of my
beloved father, while here on earth, looked so exquisitely lovely,
glowing in the beauty of holiness.

"'For several days, the conversation in the study was continually in
my mind; I could think of nothing else. I did not like the
profession well enough to have chosen it myself, for I disliked
retirement; but after an inward struggle, betwixt my inclination and
my duty, I resolved, that, to please my father, I would study for
the church. One day, my godfather, Captain Hartly, came to see us,
and he took great notice of me. He asked me if I should like to go
to sea? Then he told me such fine things about life in the navy, and
on board ship, that my wavering mind fired at his descriptions, and
I determined to be a sailor, for such a life would be more congenial
to my feelings than the quiet life of a country clergyman. I did not
mention this to my father, for he was ill, and I feared to grieve
him; nevertheless, had he asked me, I should certainly have opened
my heart to him without dissimulation. I often fretted when I
thought how sorry he would be to hear that I did not care to be
engaged in the service of _his_ Master; when one morning, as I was
lying in bed, a servant came into my room, and desired me to hasten
to my father's chamber, to receive his blessing, for he was dying.

"'I did hasten. I know not how I got there. I rushed into his arms,
I threw myself on his neck, and felt as if I too must die. He was
too much exhausted to speak; but he placed his hand on my head, and,
slightly moving his lips, the expression of his features told, in
plain language, that his heart was engaged in prayer. He _was_
praying, and for me,--me, his unworthy son, and when I considered
that I could not comply with his wishes without being a hypocrite, I
thought my heart would burst. For several minutes, was my dear
father thus occupied; then, turning to my weeping mother, who was
kneeling by the bedside, he softly uttered her name. Alas! it was
with his parting breath, for gently, as an infant falls asleep on
the bosom of its nurse, did my revered parent fall asleep in the
arms of that Saviour who had been his guide and comforter through
life, and who accompanied him through the dark valley, and by his
presence made bright the narrow path which leads to the abode of the

"'The only earthly friend we had to look to, in our bereavement, was
Captain Hartly; and he could only promise to assist me if I would
enter the navy, or go on board a merchant-ship. My poor mother
objected to this, and I remained at home another twelvemonth, and
again mourned the loss of a dear relative. My sister Bertha fell a
victim to consumption, exactly nine months after the death of my
lamented father. It was cruel to leave my mother under such
circumstances, particularly as she remonstrated with me so earnestly
on my project of going to sea, and offered to make any sacrifice, if
I would consent to go to college, and follow out my father's plans.
But my heart was fixed; and every visit from my godfather tended to
inflame me still more with a longing for a sea-faring life; and, at
length, I told him I was willing to be bound apprentice to a captain
of a merchant-ship, rather than lose the chance of going to sea. He
eagerly embraced the offer, and in a few weeks the affair was
settled satisfactorily for all parties but my dear mother and
sister. Marian wept bitterly when the letter came which concluded
the arrangements, and informed me what day to be on board. My mother
went to see the captain, and entreated him to be kind to me. But she
knew not the disposition of the man to whose care I was entrusted,
or I am sure nothing would have induced her to consent to my plans.
I dare say it is all for the best. I shall, perhaps, learn my duty
better with Captain Simmons than I should have done with a kinder
master. It is well my mother knows nothing of this; for, even
believing I should be treated with the utmost kindness, the
separation was almost more than she had fortitude to bear, and she
bade me farewell nearly heart-broken. I have never ceased to regret
that I preferred my own will to the authority of my parents; I
deserve all I suffer, and much more, for my rebellion against them.
This, madam, is all I have to tell you. I hope you will not cast me
off, because I have been so self-willed; for _here_ I have no friend
to aid me, and I still feel the same desire for my present mode of
life. I am quite sure I am not suited for a clergyman; but I do not
think I could live long with _this_ captain. If I could get shipped
in another vessel, with a master not quite so severe, in a little
time I should be able to work for money, and assist my dear mother;
and if she saw me occasionally, and knew I was well and happy, she
would be content and thankful.'

"Such was Frederic's simple account of himself. In five days we came
in sight of Port Royal, and anchored off there during the night: the
next day we went ashore, and my brother Herbert, who was a merchant
in Kingston, was ready to receive me, and welcome me to his house.

"I took the earliest opportunity of speaking to him concerning
Frederic: he promised to make some arrangement for the boy's
advantage, and he fulfilled his promise. He got him transferred to
the 'Albatross,' Captain Hill, a kind, gentlemanly man. There
Frederic remained for several years, and gained such approbation by
his exemplary conduct, that, at length, he became first mate, and
afterwards (on the death of Captain Hill) master.

"A few years back, Captain Hartly died; leaving him considerable
property. He made it his first business to settle his mother
comfortably, and she is now residing with Marian (who married a
surgeon,) in St. John's Wood. He next purchased a ship, and has
already made six voyages in her to the West Indies; so that you see
all things have prospered with Frederic Hamilton, because 'he feared
the Lord always.' I hear from him after every voyage, and have seen
him several times since he became a great man and a ship-owner; but
he is not altered in _one_ respect, for he is still the same
grateful, affectionate creature as when I first met him on board the
'Neptune.' His story proves the truth of the text, 'I have never
seen the righteous forsaken, nor his children begging their bread.'"

Mr. and Mrs. Wilton were as much pleased as the children with this
little story of Grandy's reminiscences. "And now, George," said Mr.
Wilton, "carry my drawings into the study, for I hear John coming
up-stairs with the supper."

George collected his papa's pencils and paper. Emma folded up the
cotton frock she had been making for one of her young pupils in the
Sunday-school, locked her work-box, cleared the table of all signs
of their recent occupation, and took her seat by the side of her

The children were not allowed except on particular occasions to sit
up after ten o'clock; but as it was Mr. Wilton's wish that they
should be present night and morning at family prayers he always had
supper about nine o'clock, to give them time for their devotions
before retiring to rest.

Supper over, the domestics were summoned, and, having humbly
petitioned for pardon and grace, they besought the protection of
Almighty God during the night season; then, with hearts filled with
love to God, and good-will towards all men, they retired to their
several apartments, and silence reigned throughout the house.


Beautiful, sublime and glorious;
Mild, majestic, foaming, free;--
Over time itself victorious,
Image of eternity.

Every day throughout the following week the young folks were busily
engaged. It is needless to specify the nature of their occupations,
or the reason of their untiring industry: it will be sufficient for
their credit to mention that they did not work with the foolish
desire of ostentatiously displaying a larger portion of information
than the rest of the party, but really because they were fond of
study; and as they advanced in knowledge, they became more sensible
of their own comparative ignorance, and more anxious to learn. They
made no parade of their own abilities; were equally gratified at the
meetings, whether they were required to speak, or be silent; and no
evil passions disturbed their repose, when they heard other members
more praised than themselves. To prove this, the young lady to whom
Emma had decidedly given the preference amongst her companions, was
three years her senior, had nearly completed her education, and was
a clever intelligent girl; consequently, it was very probable that
she would far surpass her in knowledge, and be in fact more
serviceable to the society than Emma ever had been, or could hope to
be, for some time to come. But Emma's heart was a stranger to the
wicked feeling of jealousy; it was overflowing with kindness; and
she was delighted that she knew a person so agreeable, and so
efficient to introduce, and thought how admirably they would travel
"o'er the glad waters of the bright blue sea," if all the new
members were as well qualified as Dora Leslie.

Day after day passed, and every day added to their stores, for they
devoted at least two hours of their recreation to the pleasant and
profitable occupation of making discoveries in the great oceans and
smaller seas; and when they closed their books, it was with a sigh,
that they were obliged to leave this interesting study to attend to
other business of equal importance.

On the evening of the 7th instant the large round table in the front
drawing-room presented a formidably learned appearance, covered with
maps, papers, and books, and surrounded with chairs placed at
convenient distances for the accommodation of the members of the
Geographical Society.

They were to take tea in another apartment that evening, to give
them an opportunity of arranging the requisite documents before the
party assembled, and thereby prevent much trouble and confusion.

George's blue eyes sparkled with joy, as he carefully folded his
large paper of notes, and placed it in an Atlas; and then, for the
first time, he confessed that he felt very curious to see the "new

They had scarcely concluded their arrangements, when there was a
knocking at the hall-door, and, seizing his sister's hand, George
hurried down stairs.

The arrivals were shortly announced; for strange to say, the two
young friends arrived at the same instant. John opened the parlor
door, and ushered in "Miss Dora Leslie,"--"Master Charles Dorning."

These young people never having previously met at Mr. Wilton's
house, as members of his Geographical Society, it seemed necessary
that there should be a formal introduction,--at least, so thought
George; and as he proposed it, they required him to perform the
ceremony, which he did in a most facetious way, affixing the
initials M.G.S. after every name.

They were all seated around the cheerful fire, laughing heartily,
when again John threw open the door, and announced "Mr. Barraud."
Immediately their mirth was checked, for to the younger folks this
gentleman was a total stranger. Mr. Wilton advanced to greet his
friend, and Mrs. Wilton and Grandy both appeared delighted to see
him: they conversed together some time, until tea was ready, when
the conversation became more general, and our little friends were
occasionally required to give an opinion.

Before I proceed any farther, I should like to make you acquainted
with Charles Dorning and Dora Leslie. Perhaps if I give you a slight
sketch of their personal appearance, you could contrive to form a
tolerably correct estimate of their characters from the
conversations in which they both figured to such advantage at the
evening meetings held in the drawing-room of Mr. Wilton's hospitable

Charles Dorning--No! We ought to describe the lady first. Dora
Leslie was fourteen years of age; a gentle, quiet girl, with a meek
yet intelligent countenance, which spoke of sorrow far beyond her
years; and a decided expression of placidity, which none but the
people of God wear, was stamped upon her delicate features and
glowing in her mild blue eye. She had been in early childhood
encompassed by the heavy clouds of worldly sorrow: she had wept over
the tomb of both her parents; but now that she could think calmly of
her afflictions, she could kiss the rod which chastened her, and
praise God for thus testifying his exceeding love towards a sinful
child. Her trials had indeed been sanctified to her; they had
changed, but not saddened, her heart; for she was at the time of her
visit to the Wiltons a cheerful, happy girl, delighting in the
innocent amusements suitable to her age, though ever ready to turn
all events to the advantage of her fellow-creatures, and the glory
of her God. But I am telling you more than I intended. I was only to
describe her person, and here I am giving a full, true, and
particular account of the beauties of her mind also. Well, I trust
you will excuse me; for the mind and the body are so nearly
connected, that it is impossible to give a just idea of the graces
of one without in some degree touching upon the merits of the other.
I will now turn to Charles Dorning, as I think I have said enough
of Dora Leslie to induce you to regard her with friendliness.

Charles Dorning was a fine romping boy of eleven years; he had no
bright flaxen curls like our friend George, but straight dark hair,
which, however, was so glossy and neat that no person thought it
unbecoming. His eyes were the blackest I ever saw, and so sparkling
when animated with merriment, that it was impossible to resist their
influence, and maintain a serious deportment if he were inclined to
excite your risibility. Charles was a merry boy, but so innocent in
his mirth, that Mr. Wilton was always pleased to have him for his
son's companion, knowing by observation that his mirth was devoid of
mischief, and that he possessed a most inquiring mind, which urged
George on to the attainment of much solid knowledge that would be
greatly serviceable to him in after years.

I flatter myself you will, from this slight sketch, be able to form
some idea of the "new members," and regard them as old acquaintances,
as you already do Emma and George.

While they were drinking tea, there was an animated conversation,
which still continued when the meal was over, until the tray had
disappeared, and John had brushed the crumbs from the table; when
Mrs. Wilton said, "Suppose we adjourn into the next room, and
commence business"

There was a general move, and in a few moments the table was
surrounded, and each person preparing to enjoy the evening's
occupation. Miss Leslie seated George next to her, because she could
assist him considerably in finding places on the maps; and Charles
Dorning was gallant enough to offer to point out the localities for
Emma. Thus they were arranged. Grandy only was away from the table:
she was in her customary seat by the fire, with the pussy at her
feet, and her fingers nimbly engaged on a _par a tete_, which she
was knitting with extraordinary facility considering her age and
impaired vision.

"Who is to commence?" inquired Mr. Wilton. "Emma, what have you

EMMA. "Dora is to begin, papa, and my paper will be required

MR. WILTON. "Very well. We are all ready, Dora, and most attentive.
I think, as we have hitherto commenced with our own quarter of the
world, it would be more systematic to do so now. Are you prepared
for the seas of Europe?"

DORA. "I will readily impart all _I_ have prepared, sir, and be
thankful to listen to the rest.

"Europe is bounded on the north by the frozen ocean, south by the
Mediterranean sea, east by Asia, and west by the Atlantic ocean.
Seas being smaller collections of water than oceans, I have selected
them for our first consideration, and, thinking the Mediterranean
the most important of Europe, I have placed it at the head of my
list. This sea separates Europe from Africa, and is the largest
inland sea in the world. It contains some beautiful islands, and
washes the shores of many countries planted with the myrtle, the
palm, and the olive, and famous both in history and geography as
scenes of remarkable adventures, warfares, and discoveries.
Numerous rivers from Italy, Turkey, Spain, and France empty their
waters into this great sea. Africa sends a contribution from the
mighty Nile, that valuable river which is of such inestimable
benefit to the Egyptians.

"The principal islands in the Mediterranean are Sicily, Sardinia,
Corsica, Candia, Cyprus, Rhodes, Majorca, Minorca, and Iviza. There
are scores of smaller isles, such as Malta, Zante, Cephalonia (the
two latter are included in the Ionian isles); but it would be
endless work to particularize each spot of earth fertile or
otherwise, inhabited or uninhabited in every sea, unless there be
something positively interesting connected with them, or something
important to be known concerning them. I believe Mrs. Wilton
undertakes to supply the particulars of which we are in need with
respect to the various islands already specified. Therefore I close
my paper for the present"

MRS. WILTON. "Sicily, formerly called Trinacria, from its triangular
shape, is separated from Italy by the Straits of Messina, which are
seven miles across. In these straits were the ancient Scylla and
Charybdis, long regarded as objects of terror; but now, owing to the
improved state of navigation, they are of little consequence, and
have ceased to excite fears in the hearts of the poor mariners. The
chief towns of Sicily are Messina, Palermo, and Syracuse. In the
middle of this island stands the famous burning mountain Etna.

"Of Sardinia, the chief town is Cagliari.

"Corsica is a beautifully wooded country: its capital is Bastia. The
great Napoleon Bonaparte was borne at Ajaccio, a sea port in this

MR. BARRAUD. "There are two interesting associations with Napoleon
to be seen in the Mediterranean off Toulon. One is an old dismantled
frigate, which is moored just within the watergates of the basin,
and carefully roofed over and painted. She is the 'Muiron,' with an
inscription in large characters on the stern, as follows:--'Cette
fregate prise a Venise est celle qui ramena Napoleon d'Egypte.'
Every boat which passes from the men of war to the town must go
immediately under the stern of the Muiron. The hold of the Muiron is
at present used as a dungeon for the forcats or galley-slaves who

"The next association with the Emperor is a stately frigate in deep
mourning, painted entirely black, which claims the distinction of
having brought the remains of Napoleon to France. 'La belle Poule'
is the pride of French frigates."[2]

[Footnote 2: Vide Sketches of Travel by Francis Schroeder.]

MRS. WILTON. "Candia is the ancient Crete: it is a fine fertile
island, about 160 miles Jong, and 30 broad. The famous mount Ida of
heathen mythology (now only a broken rock) stands here, with many
other remains of antiquity; and through nearly the whole length of
this island runs the chain of White Mountains, so called on account
of their snow coverings. The island abounds with cattle, sheep,
swine, poultry, and game, all excellent; and the wine made there is
balmy and delicious. The people of Candia were formerly celebrated
for their want of veracity; St. Paul alludes to their evil habits in
the first chapter of his epistle to Titus, where he says, 'The
Cretians are always liars.' There are some remarkably ugly dogs in
Candia, which seem to be a race between the wolf and the fox.

"Cyprus contains the renowned Paphos: it is not quite so long an
island as Candia, but it is ten miles broader.

"Rhodes is fifty miles long, and twenty-five broad. At the north of
the harbor stood the celebrated colossus of brass, once reckoned one
of the wonders of the world. It was placed with a foot on either
side of the harbor, so that ships in full sail passed between its
legs. This enormous statue was 130 feet high; it was thrown down by
an earthquake, and afterwards destroyed, and taken to pieces in the
year A.D. 653.

"Of Majorca I have little to say: its chief town is Majorca.

"Port Mahon is the capital of Minorca; and Iviza is the principal
town in the island of that name.


[Illustration: VALETTE.]

GEORGE. "Excuse me for interrupting you, dear mamma; but I wish
Grandy to tell me if Malta is the same island as the Melita
mentioned in the 28th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, where St.
Paul was shipwrecked?"

GRANDY. "Yes, my dear; it is commonly supposed to be the same. It is
a very rocky island, inhabited by a people whom most modern
travellers describe as very selfish, very insincere, and very
superstitious. The population amounts to upwards of 63,000. In the
days of St. Paul, the inhabitants were, without doubt, an
uncivilized race, for he calls them a barbarous people! 'And the
barbarous people showed us no little kindness: for they kindled a
fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and
because of the cold.' Here it was that from the circumstance of St.
Paul experiencing no evil effects from the viper clinging to his
hand, that the people concluded him to be a god; here too he was
allowed to perform many mighty works, such as healing the sick, &c.,
which caused him to be 'honored with many honors;' and 'when they
departed, they were laden with the bounty of the people.' Can any
one of you young folks tell me the name of the chief town in this
little island?"

"Yes, madam," replied Charles, "I know it; it is Valetta, so named
from the noble Provencal Valette, who, after vainly endeavoring to
defend the holy sepulchre from the defilements of the infidels, was
by them driven with his faithful Christian army from island to
island, until he ultimately planted the standard of the cross on
this sea-girt rock, and bravely and successfully withstood the
attacks of his enemies. Malta was given to the Knights of St. John
of Jerusalem in 1530 by the Emperor Charles V., when the Turks drove
them out of Rhodes. They have since been called 'Knights of Malta.'
The island is in possession of the English."

DORA. "And so are the Ionian Islands, which include Zante,
Cephalonia, and St. Maura: they are all pretty spots near the coast
of Greece."

MR. WILTON. "In the Mediterranean Sea lays the largest ship in the
world, the 'Mahmoud:' it is floating off Beyrout."

"I can tell you, papa," said George, "the size of the largest ship
in the time of Henry VIII.; it was called the 'Henri Grace a Dieu,'
and was of 1000 tons burthen; it required 349 soldiers, 301 sailors,
and 50 gunners to man her."

MR. WILTON. "That was the first double-decked ship built in England;
it cost L14,000, and was completed in 1509. Before this, twenty-four
gun-ships were the largest in our navy; and these had no port-holes,
the guns being on the upper decks only. Port-holes were invented by
Descharges, a French builder at Brest, in the year 1500."

CHARLES. "That was a useful and simple invention enough: it must
have been very inconvenient to have all the guns on the upper decks;
besides, there could not be space for so many as the vessels of war
carry now. Pray what is the size of a first-rate man-of-war, and how
many guns does she carry?"

MR. BARRAUD. "The 'Caledonia,' built at Plymouth in 1808, is 2616
tons burthen, carries 120 guns, and requires 875 men without
officers. You can imagine the size of a vessel that could contain so
many men. But all are not so large: that is a first-rate: there are
some sixth-rate, which only carry twenty guns, are not more than 400
tons burthen, and their complement of men is only 155. The
intermediate ships, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th rate, vary in every respect
according to their size, and are classed according to their force
and burthen. Only first and second-rate men-of-war have three decks.
Ships of the line include all vessels up to the highest rate, and
not lower than the frigate."

GEORGE. "How I should like to have a fleet of ships. Will you buy me
more, dear papa, when I have rigged the 'Stanley?' I am getting on
very fast with her; Emma has stitched all the sails, and only three
little men remain to be dressed; while I have cut the blocks, and
set the ropes in order. It will look very handsome when it is quite
finished; but a miniature fleet would be beautiful to launch on the
lake at Horbury next summer. If I rig this vessel properly, may I
have some others of different sizes, with port-holes to put cannon
in? The 'Stanley,' you know, is a merchantman; but _now_ I want some

MR. WILTON. "My dear, when your friend sent you the 'Stanley,' do
you remember how delighted you were, and the remark you made at the
time? _I_ have not forgotten your exclamation--'Now I am a
ship-owner! I should be quite satisfied if I were a man to possess
one vessel to cross the great ocean, and bring all sorts of
curiosities from foreign lands. I should not care to have half a
dozen, because they would be a great deal of trouble to me, and
would make me anxious and unhappy.' How quickly you have changed
your opinion. I fear that if you had a little fleet, your desires
would not be checked, for you would, after a while, be wishing for
large ships, and real men, and, instead of being a contented
ship-owner, would not be satisfied with any station short of the
Lord High Admiral. I do not think it would be wise in me to gratify
your desires in this matter, for then I should be like the foolish
father of whom Krummacher relates a story."

"Oh! what is it, papa," inquired George: "will you tell us?"

MR. WILTON. "A father returned from the sea-coast to his own home,
and brought with him, for his son, some beautiful shells, which he
had picked up on the shore. The delight of the boy was great. He
took them, and sorted them, and counted them over. He called all his
playfellows, to show them his treasures; and they could talk of
nothing but the beautiful shells. He daily found new beauties, and
gave each of them a name. But in a few months, the boy's father said
to himself, 'I will now give him a still higher pleasure; I will
take him to the coast of the sea itself; there he will see thousands
more of beautiful shells, and may choose for himself.' When they
came to the beach, the boy was amazed at the multitude of shells
that lay around, and he went to and fro and picked them up. But one
seemed still more beautiful than another, and he kept always
changing those he had gathered for fresh shells. In this manner he
went about changing, vexed, and out of humor with himself. At
length, tired of stooping and comparing, and selecting, he threw
away all he had picked up, and, returning home weary of shells, he
gave away all those which had afforded him so much pleasure. Then
his father was sorry, and said, 'I have acted unwisely; the boy was
happy in his small pleasures, and I have robbed him of his
simplicity, and both of us of a gratification.' Now, my boy, does
not this advise you to be content with such things as you have? King
Solomon says, 'Better is a little with the fear of the Lord, than
great treasure and trouble therewith;' and surely your trouble would
be largely increased were you to have a whole fleet of ships to rig
and fit up against next summer; and I rather think Emma would be
bringing forward various objections, as her time would be required
to prepare the sails and dress the sailors."

"Indeed, dear papa," said Emma, "I have had quite enough trouble
with his 'merchantman,' for George is so very particular. I am sure
I could not dress the marines for a man-of-war: they require an
immense deal of care in fitting their clothes: loose trousers and
check shirts are easy to make, but tight jackets and trousers, with
all the other _et ceteras_ required to dress a marine, would be more
than I should like to undertake, as I feel convinced I could not do
it to the _admiral's_ satisfaction."

CHARLES. "George, shall I give you the dictionary definition of an

GEORGE. "I know what an admiral is. He is an officer of the first
rank; but I do not know what the dictionary says."

CHARLES. "Then I will tell you how to distinguish him: according to
Falconer, an admiral may be distinguished by a flag displayed at
his main-top-gallant-mast-head."

This caused a burst of merriment, when Emma exclaimed, "That sounds
very droll, Charles, but I understand it: it refers to the admiral's
ship, does it not, papa?"

MR. WILTON. "Yes, my dear. The Sicilians were the first by whom the
title was adopted in 1244: they took it from the Eastern nations,
who often visited them. Well, George, do not you think you had
better be content with your merchant-ship, because, then, you can
reckon on Emma's services?"

GEORGE. "I will try, papa, to exercise my patience on the 'Stanley,'
and be satisfied to _read_ of the men-of-war. Now, dear papa, I want
to know if the Mediterranean has ever been frozen over like the

MR. WILTON. "Not exactly like the Thames, but it _has_ been frozen.
In the year 1823, the Mediterranean was one sheet of ice; the people
of the south never experienced so severe a winter, or, if they did,
there is no mention made of it in history."

EMMA. "Ought not Venice, being nearly or totally surrounded by
water, to be included in the islands of the Mediterranean?"

MRS. WILTON. "It is not in the Mediterranean, my dear, but situated
to the north of the Adriatic Sea, which sea is undoubtedly connected
with the Mediterranean, as are many other seas and gulfs; for
instance, we may include the Archipelago or Egean Sea, the Sea of
Marmora, the Gulf of Tarento, and the first-mentioned, the Adriatic
Sea, or Gulf of Venice, the mouth of which is also called the
Ionian Sea; and I cannot tell you how many smaller gulfs, or, more
properly speaking, bays, beside; for in the Archipelago alone there
are no fewer than eleven. However, while we are so near, it may be
of some advantage to take a peep at Venice, 'the dream-like city of
a hundred isles:' that expression is a poetical exaggeration, for
Venice is built upon seventy-two small islands. Over the several
canals, are laid nearly five hundred bridges, most of them built of
stone. The Rialto was once considered the largest single-arched
bridge in the world, and is well known to English readers from the
work of our greatest dramatist, Shakspeare,--the 'Merchant of
Venice,' and from 'Venice Preserved,' written by the unhappy poet
Otway, who died of starvation. Although no longer the brilliant and
prosperous city, from whose stories Shakspeare selected such
abundant subjects for his pen, there is yet much to admire and
wonder at. On the great canal, which has a winding course between
the two principal parts of the city, are situated the most
magnificent of the great houses, or palaces as they are termed; some
of them of a beautiful style of architecture, with fronts of Istrian
marble, and containing valuable collections of pictures. The canals
penetrate to every part of the town, so that almost every house has
a communication by a landing-stair, leading directly into the house
by one way, and on to the water by another. The place of coaches is
supplied by gondolas, which are light skiffs with cabins, in which
four or five persons can sit, covered and furnished with a door and
glass windows like a carriage. They are propelled by one man
standing near the stern, with a single oar, which he pushes, moving
the boat in the same direction as he looks. Those persons who are
not rich enough to possess a gondola of their own, hire them, as we
do cabs, when they require to go abroad. The Venetian territories
are as fruitful as any in Italy, abounding with vineyards, and
mulberry plantations. Its chief towns are Venice (which I have
described), Padua, Verona, Milan, Cremona, Lodi, and Mantua. Venice
was once at the head of the European naval powers; 'her merchants
were princes, and her traffickers the honorable of the earth,' but

"'Her pageants on the sunny waves are gone,
Her glory lives in memory's page alone.'

"In a beautiful poem written by the lamented Miss Landon, there are
some very appropriate lines:--

"'But her glory is departed,
And her pleasure is no more,
Like a pale queen broken-hearted,
Left lonely on the shore.
No more thy waves are cumbered
With her galleys bold and free;
For her days of pride are numbered,
And she rules no more the sea.
Her sword has left her keeping,
Her prows forget the tide,
And the Adriatic, weeping,
Wails round his mourning bride.'

* * * * *

"'In those straits is desolation,
And darkness and dismay--
Venice, no more a nation,
Has owned the stranger's sway.'"

CHARLES. "I have some scraps belonging to the 'tideless sea,' which
will come in here very well. The first is the account of the
Bosphorus, now called the Canal of Constantinople, situated between
the Euxine and the Sea of Marmora. The whole length of it is about
seventeen miles, and most delightful excursions are made on it in
pretty vessels called 'Caiques.' They rest so lightly on the water,
that you are never certain of being 'safely stowed.' The rowers are
splendid-looking fellows from two to four in number, each man with
two light sculls, and they sit lightly on thwarts on the same level
with the gunwale of the caique. Their costume is beautiful; the head
covered with the crimson tarbouche, and the long silk tassel
dangling over the shoulders; a loose vest of striped silk and
cotton, fine as gauze, with wide open collar, and loose flowing
sleeves; a brilliant-colored shawl envelops the waist, and huge
folds of Turkish trousers extend to the knee; the leg is bare, and a
yellow slipper finishes the fanciful costume. In the aft part of
this caique is the space allotted for the 'fare,' a
crimson-cushioned little divan[3] in the bottom of the boat, in
which two persons can lounge comfortably. The finish of the caique
is often extraordinary--finest fret-work and moulding, carved and
modelled as for Cleopatra. The caiques of the Sultan are the richest
boats in the world, and probably the most rapid and easy. They are
manned by twenty or thirty oarsmen, and the embellishment, and
conceits of ornament are superb. Nothing can exceed the delightful
sensation of the motion; and the skill of the rowers in swiftly
turning, and avoiding contact with the myriads of caiques is
astonishing. My next scrap is about the Hellespont,[4] situated
between the Sea of Marmora and the Archipelago: it is broader at the
mouth than at any other part; about half-way up, the width is not
more than a mile, and the effect is more like a superb river than a
strait; its length of forty-three miles should also give it a better
claim to the title of a river. In the year 1810, on the 10th of May,
Lord Byron accompanied by a friend, a lieutenant on board the
'Salsette,' swam across the Hellespont, from Abydos to Sestos, a
distance of four miles; but this was more than the breadth of the
stream, and caused principally by the rapidity of the current, which
continually carried them out of the way, the stream at this
particular place being only a mile in width. It was here also that
Leander is reported to have swam every night in the depth of winter,
to meet his beloved Hero; and, alas! for both, swam once too often."

[Footnote 3: More properly written "diwaun."]

[Footnote 4: Thus named from Helle, who, according to poetical
tradition, perished in these waters, and from Pontus, the Greek word
for sea.]

MR. WILTON. "Before we sail out of the Mediterranean, I wish to
mention the singular loss of the 'Mentor,' a vessel belonging to
Lord Elgin, the collector of the Athenian marbles, now called by his
name, and to be seen in the British Museum. The vessel was cast away
off Cerigo, with no other cargo on board but the sculptures: they
were, however, too valuable to be given up for lost, because they
had gone to the bottom of the sea. A plan was adopted for recovering
them, and it occupied a number of divers three years, before the
operations were completed, for the Mentor was sunk in ten fathoms
water, and the cases of marble were so heavy as to require amazing
skill and good management to be ultimately successful. The cases
were all finally recovered, and none of the contents in the least
damaged, when they were forwarded to England. The whole cost of
these marbles, all expenses included, in the collecting, weighing
up, and conveying, is estimated at the enormous sum of 36,000_l_."

CHARLES. "When was this valuable collection made, sir?"

MR. WILTON. "It was many years in hand. I believe about the year
1799 investigations commenced; but the 'Mentor' was lost in 1802,
and the marbles did not all arrive in England until the end of the
year 1812; since then an immense number of valuable medals have been
added to the collection."

DORA. "May we now sail through the straits of Gibraltar into the

MR. WILTON. "We must necessarily pass through the straits of
Gibraltar to get out of the Mediterranean; but as we proposed to
examine into the different situations of the lesser divisions of
water, _first_, we will merely sail through a _portion_ of the
Atlantic, and have a little information concerning the Bay of

DORA. "The Bay of Biscay washes the shores of France and Spain; but
the sea is so very rough there, that I think, were our voyage _real_
instead of _imaginary_, we should all be anxious to leave this Bay
as quickly as possible: and the next name on the list is the British

EMMA. "I have that. The British Channel is the southern boundary of
Great Britain, and extends to the coast of France. The islands in
this channel are the Isle of Wight--capital Newport,--Guernsey,
Jersey, Alderney and Sark."

MRS. WILTON. "The Isle of Wight has, from time immemorial, been
eulogized for its beautiful scenery. It is about twenty-three miles
from east to west, and twelve from north to south. You have all
heard of the Needles, which obtained their name from a lofty pointed
rock on the western coast, bearing a resemblance to that little
implement; and which, with other pieces of rock, had been disjointed
from the mainland by the force of the waves. This rock was 120 feet
high. About seventy years ago, it fell, and totally disappeared in
the sea. The height of the cliffs now standing, is in some places
600 feet, and, when viewed from a distance, they are magnificent in
the extreme. In this island her majesty Queen Victoria has a
delightful residence.

"Guernsey is the most westerly of the Channel Islands: it is eight
miles one way, and six miles the other, very fertile, with a mild
and healthy climate. A striking object presents itself on
approaching Guernsey, called Castle Cornet, situated on a rock
somewhat less than half a mile from the shore, entirely surrounded
by water, supposed to have been built by the Romans, and formerly
the residence of the governors."

MR. BARRAUD. "I have read a curious description of a most remarkable
thunder storm, which visited this place in December, 1672. It is as

"On Sunday night, about 12 o'clock, the magazine of the castle was
blown up with the powder in it by the lightning. The night was very
stormy and tempestuous, and the wind blew hard. In an instant of
time, not only the whole magazine containing the powder was blown up
in the air, but also the houses and lodgings of the castle,
particularly some fair and beautiful buildings, that had just before
been erected at great expense, under the care and direction of Lord
Viscount Hatton (then governor.) who was at the same time within the
buildings of the castle, all which buildings were with many others,
reduced to a confused heap of stones, and several persons buried in
the ruins. In the upper part of the castle, at a place called the
New Buildings, was killed by the accident the dowager Lady Hatton,
by the fall of the ceiling of her chamber, which fell in four
pieces, one of them upon her breast, and killed her on the spot. The
Lady Hatton, wife to the governor, was likewise destroyed in the
following manner:--Her ladyship, being greatly terrified at the
thunder and lightning, insisted (before the magazine blew up,) upon
being removed from the chamber she was in to the nursery; where,
having caused her woman to come also to be with her, in order to
have joined in prayer, in a few minutes after, that noble lady and
her woman fell a sacrifice, by one corner of the nursery-room
falling in upon them, and were the next morning both found dead. In
the same room was also killed a nurse, who was found dead, having my
lord's second daughter fast in her arms, holding a small silver cup
in her hands, which she usually played with, and which was all
rimpled and bruised. Yet the young lady did not receive the least
hurt. The nurse had likewise one of her hands fixed upon the cradle,
in which lay my lord's youngest daughter, and the cradle was almost
filled with rubbish: yet the child received no sort of prejudice. A
considerable number of other persons were all destroyed by the same

[Footnote 5: Vide History of Guernsey, by Dicey.]

MRS. WILTON. "What a very remarkable preservation of those little
children. Who could deny the finger of God, with such wonderful
instances of his Omnipotence before their eyes? Surely such events
must shake the tottering foundations of infidelity, and cause the
most disbelieving to confess 'The Lord He is God.' Jersey is the
next island for consideration; but I know so little of it, that I
must refer you to some person better acquainted with the subject."

CHARLES. "I have been to Jersey, madam, and shall be happy to afford
you the trifling information I have gained respecting its
peculiarities. Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, is
situated in a deep bay of the French coast, from which it is distant
twenty miles. Its extreme length from east to west is twelve miles,
its breadth six. The island is fertile and beautiful, it enjoys a
mild and salubrious climate; the coast is studded with granite
rocks, and indented by small bays, which add greatly to the beauty
of the scenery. The chief town is St. Helier's,--its principal trade
is with Newfoundland: ship-building is carried on extensively. The
natives are kind, but thrifty and parsimonious."

MRS. WILTON. "Thank you, Charles; your description is short, and
very much to the purpose. The Channel Islands, I believe, were
attached to England, as the private property of William the
Conqueror: the French have made several unsuccessful attempts to
gain possession of them. The natives are Norman, and the language
Norman-French. These islands enjoy a political constitution of their
own; exemption from all duties, and various privileges granted them
by Royal Charter; they are much attached to the English government,
but entirely averse to the French. We will now pass over the other
islands, and, 'putting our ship about,' we will stop to view the
Eddystone lighthouse."

MR. WILTON. "Before we quit the shores of France, I wish to read you
an extract from Leigh Ritchie's Travelling Sketches. You remember in
our conversations on the Rivers last winter, that we mentioned the
stain that would ever remain on Havre from the prominent part taken
by the inhabitants in the dreadful traffic in slaves. The extract I
am about to read is from the journal of a youth named Romaine, on
board the 'Rodeur,' a vessel of 200 tons, which cleared out of Havre
for Guadaloupe, on the 15th January, 1819. The boy writes to his
mother, while the vessel lay at Bony in the river Calabar, on the
coast of Africa:--'Since we have been at this place, I have become
more accustomed to the howling of these negroes. At first it alarmed
me, and I could not sleep. The captain says if they behave well they
will be much better off at Guadaloupe; and I am sure I wish the
ignorant creatures would come quietly, and have it over. To-day, one
of the blacks, whom they were forcing into the hold, suddenly
knocked down a sailor, and attempted to leap overboard. He was
caught, however, by the leg, by another of the crew; and the sailor,
rising in a passion, hamstrung him with his cutlass. The captain,
seeing this, knocked the butcher flat upon the deck with a
handspike. "I will teach you to keep your temper," said he; "he was
the best slave of the lot!"' The boy then runs to the chains, and
sees the slave who was found to be 'useless,' dropped into the sea,
where he continued to swim after he had sunk under the water, making
a red track, which broke, widened, faded, and was seen no more. At
last they got fairly to sea. The captain is described as being in
the best temper in the world; walking the deck, rubbing his hands,
humming a tune, and rejoicing that he had six dozen slaves on board;
men, women, and children; and all in 'prime marketable condition.'
The boy says, their cries were so terrible, that he dare not go and
look into the hold; that at first he could not close his eyes, the
sound so froze his blood; and that one night he jumped up, and in
horror ran to the captain's room; he was sleeping profoundly with
the lamp shining upon his face, calm as marble. The boy did not like
to disturb him. The next day, two of the slaves were found dead in
the hold, suffocated by the foulness of the atmosphere. The captain
is informed of this, and orders them in gangs to the forecastle to
take the fresh air. The boy runs up on deck to see them; he did not
find them so very unwell, but adds, 'that blacks are so much alike
that one can hardly tell.' On reaching the ship's side, first one,
then another, then a third, of the slaves leaped into the sea,
before the eyes of the astonished sailors. Others made the attempt,
but were knocked flat on the deck, and the crew kept watch over them
with handspikes and cutlasses, until they should receive orders from
the captain. The negroes who had escaped, kept gambolling upon the
waves, yelling what appeared like a song of triumph, in the burden
of which some on deck joined. The ship soon left the 'ignorant
creatures' behind, and their voices were heard more and more faint;
the black head of one, and then another, disappearing, until the
sea was without a spot and the air without a sound. The captain,
having finished his breakfast, came on deck, and was informed of the
revolt. He grew pale with rage, and, in dread of losing all his
cargo, determined to make an example. He selects six from those who
had joined in the chorus, has three hanged, and three shot before
their companions. That night the boy could not sleep. The negroes,
in consequence of the revolt, are kept closer than ever. As a
consequence, ophthalmia makes its appearance among them. The captain
is compelled to have them between decks, and the surgeon attends
them 'just as if they were white men.' All the slaves, then the
crew, save one, the captain, surgeon, and mate, the boy, and at last
the solitary one of the crew, are stone blind. 'Mother,' says the
boy, 'your son was blind for ten days.'

"Some of the crew were swearing from morning till night, some
singing abominable songs, some kissing the crucifix and making vows
to the saints. The ship in the meanwhile helmless, but with sails
set, driving on like the phantom vessel, is assailed by a storm, and
the canvass bursts with loud reports, the masts strain and crack,
she carrying on her course down the abyss of billows, and being cast
forth like a log on the heights of the waters. The storm dies away,
when the crew are startled with a sound which proves to be a hail
from another vessel. They ask for hands, and are answered with a
demand for like assistance. The one crew is too few to spare them,
and the other is too blind to go. 'At the commencement of this
horrible coincidence,' continues the boy, 'there was a silence among
us for some moments, like that of death. It was broken by a fit of
_laughter_ in which I joined myself; and before our awful merriment
was over, we could hear, by the sound of the curses which the
Spaniard shouted against us, that the St. Leo had drifted away.'

"The captain, crew, and some of the slaves gradually recover; some
partially, with the loss of an eye, others entirely. The conclusion
of the journal must be told in the boy's own words:--

"'This morning the captain called all hands on deck, negroes and
all. The shores of Guadaloupe were in sight. I thought he was going
to return God thanks publicly for our miraculous escape. "Are you
quite certain," said the mate, "that the cargo is insured?" "I am,"
replied the captain: "every slave that is lost must be made good by
the underwriters. Besides, would you have _me_ turn my ship into a
hospital for the support of blind negroes? They have cost us enough
already; do your duty." The mate picked out the thirty-nine negroes
who were completely blind, and, with the assistance of the rest of
the crew, tied a piece of ballast to the legs of each. The miserable
wretches were then thrown into the sea!'"

Tears glistened in the eyes of the children during the perusal of
this melancholy account, and Emma, covering her face with her hands,
wept aloud.

"Poor, poor people!" exclaimed George; "oh! how glad I am that the
English have no slaves; those wicked captains and sailors deserve
to be hanged for treating them so cruelly."

GRANDY. "'Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord.' These wicked men will
one day be called to an awful account for the cruelties exercised on
their hapless brethren; and not _they_ alone, but also the
purchasers of these wretched slaves, who, when possessed of them,
still caused them to groan in bondage and misery; without once
considering that negroes also are the work of God's hands, and are
made immortal equally with themselves, notwithstanding their
different complexion; for 'God is no respecter of persons,' and He
takes as much interest in the soul of a poor negro as in that of the
greatest white potentate on the earth."

MR. BARRAUD. "The glory of one of our celebrated navigators is
tarnished, by not merely a participation in, but by being actually
the originator of, the slave-trade in the English dominions. Sir
John Hawkins was the first Englishman who engaged in the
slave-trade; and he acquired such reputation for his skill and
success on a voyage to Guinea made in 1564, that, on his return
home, Queen Elizabeth granted him by patent, for his crest, a
_demi-moor_, in his proper color, bound with a cord. It was in those
days considered an honorable employment, and was common in most
other civilized countries of the world: it was the vice of the age:
therefore we must not condemn Sir John Hawkins individually, for it
is probable that he merely regarded it as a lucrative branch of
trade, and, like the rest of the world at that period, did no
consider it as in the slightest degree repugnant to justice or
Christianity. I presume our next halting-place will be Portsmouth?"

DORA. "Yes, sir; we are to anchor in Portsmouth harbor, because
Charles has an excellent account of the wreck of the 'Royal George,'
which, being so immediately connected with this naval town, will be
more appropriate here than elsewhere. Will you read it, Charles?"

CHARLES. "Willingly. The narrative is written by one of the
survivors, a Mr. Ingram, who lived many years after, at Wood ford,
near Bristol.

#The Wreck of the Royal George.#

"'The "Royal George" was a ship of one hundred guns. In August,
1782, she came to Spithead in a very complete state, so that there
was no occasion for the pumps to be touched oftener than once in
every three or four days. By the 29th of August she had got six
months' provisions on board and also many tons of shot. The ship had
her top gallant-yards up, the blue flag of Admiral Kempenfeldt was
flying at the mizen, and the ensign was hoisted on the
ensign-staff,--and she was to have sailed in about two days, to join
the grand fleet in the Mediterranean. It was ascertained that the
water-cock must be taken out, and a new one put in. The water-cock
is something like a tap of a barrel; it is in the hold of a ship on
the starboard side, and at that part of the ship called the well.
By turning a handle which is inside the ship, the sea-water is let
into a cistern in the hold, and it is from that pumped up to wash
the decks. In some ships, the water is drawn up the side in buckets,
and there is no water-cock. To get out the old water-cock, it was
necessary to make the ship heel so much on her larboard side as to
raise the outside of this apparatus above water. This was done at
about eight o'clock, on the morning of the 27th August. To do it,
the whole of the guns on the larboard side were run out as far as
they would go, quite to the breasts of the guns, and the starboard
guns drawn in amidships and secured by tackles, two to every gun,
one on each side. This brought the water-nearly on a level with the
port-holes of the larboard side of the lower gun-deck. The men were
working at the water-cock on the outside of the ship for near an
hour, the ship remaining all on one side, as I have stated.

"'At about nine o'clock, A.M., or rather before, we had just
finished our breakfast, and the last lighter, with rum on board, had
come alongside: this vessel was a sloop of about fifty tons, and
belonged to three brothers, who used to carry things on board the
man-of-war. She was lashed to the larboard side of the "Royal
George," and we were piped to clear the lighter, and get the rum out
of her, and stow it in the hold of the "Royal George." I was in the
waist of our ship, on the larboard side, bearing the rum-casks over,
as some of our men were aboard the sloop to sling them.

"'At first no danger was apprehended from the ship being on one
side, although the water kept dashing in at the port-holes at every
wave; and there being mice in the lower part of the ship, which were
disturbed by the water which dashed in, they were hunted in the
water by the men, and there had been a rare game going on. However,
by nine o'clock the additional quantity of rum aboard the ship, and
also the quantity of sea-water which had dashed in through the
port-holes, brought the larboard port-holes of the lower gun-deck
nearly level with the sea.

"As soon as that was the case, the carpenter went on the
quarter-deck to the lieutenant of the watch, to ask him to give
orders to "right ship," as the ship could not bear it. However, the
lieutenant made him a very short answer, and the carpenter then went
below. This officer was the third lieutenant; he had not joined us
long: his name I do not recollect; he was a good-sized man, between
thirty and forty years of age. The men called him "Jib
and-stay-sail-Jack;" for if _he_ had the watch in the night, he
would be always bothering the men to alter the sails, and it was "up
jib" and "down jib," and "up foresail" and "down foresail," every
minute. However, the men considered him more of a troublesome
officer than a good one; and, from a habit he had of moving his
fingers about when walking the quarter-deck, the men said he was an
organ-player from London: but I have no reason to know this was the
case. The captain's name was Waghorn. He was on board, but where he
was I do not know: however, captains, if anything is to be done
when the ship is in harbor, seldom interfere, but leave it all to
the officer of the watch. The Admiral was, either in his cabin, or
in the steerage (I do not know which); and the barber, who had been
to shave him, had just left. The Admiral was a man upwards of
seventy years of age; he was a thin tall man, and stooped a good

"'As I have already stated, the carpenter left the quarter-deck and
went below. In a very short time he came up again, and asked the
lieutenant of the watch to "right ship," and said again that the
ship could not bear it. Myself and a good many more were at the
waist of the ship and at the gangways, and heard what passed, as we
knew the danger, and began to feel aggrieved; for there were some
capital seamen aboard, who knew what they were about quite as well
or better than the officers.

"'In a very short time, in a minute or two, I should think,
Lieutenant (now Admiral Sir P.H.) Durham ordered the drummer to be
called to beat to "right ship." The drummer was called in a moment,
and the ship was then just beginning to sink. I jumped off the
gangway as soon as the drummer was called. There was no time for him
to beat his drum, and I do not know that he had even had time to get
it. I ran down to my station, and, by the time I had got there, the
men were tumbling down the hatchways one over another, to get to
their stations as quick as possible to "right ship." My station was
at the third gun from the head of the ship, on the starboard side of
the lower gun-deck close by where the cable passes. I said to the
second captain of our gun whose name was Carrell, (for every gun has
a first and second captain, though they are only sailors,) "Let us
try to bouse our gun out, without waiting for the drum, as it will
help to 'right ship.'" We pushed the gun, but it ran back upon us,
and we could not start him. The water then rushed in at nearly all
the port-holes of the larboard side of the lower gun-deck, and I
directly said to Carrell, "Ned, lay hold of the ring-bolt, and jump
out of the port-hole; the ship is sinking, and we shall all be
drowned." He laid hold of the ring-bolt, and jumped out at the
port-hole into the sea: I believe he was drowned, for I never saw
him afterwards. I immediately got out at the same port-hole, which
was the third from the head of the ship on the starboard side of the
lower gun-deck, and when I had done so, I saw the port-hole as full
of heads as it could cram, all trying to get out.

"'I caught hold of the best bower-anchor, which was just above me,
to prevent falling back again into the port-hole, and seized hold of
a woman who was trying to get out of the same place. I dragged her
out. The ship was full of Jews, women, and people, selling all sorts
of things. I threw the woman from me, and saw all the heads drop
back again in at the port-hole, for the ship had got so much on her
larboard side, that the starboard port-holes were as much upright as
if the men had tried to get out of the top of a chimney, with
nothing for their legs and feet to act upon. I threw the woman from
me, and just after that moment, the air that was between decks,
drafted out at the port-holes very swiftly. It was quite a huff of
wind, and it blew my hat off. The ship then sunk in a moment. I
tried to swim, but I could not, although I plunged as hard as I
could, both hands and feet. The sinking of the ship drew me down so:
indeed, I think I must have gone down within a yard as low as the
ship did. When the ship touched the bottom, the water boiled up a
great deal, and then I felt that I could swim, and began to rise.

"'When I was about half-way up to the top of the water, I put my
right hand on the head of a man who was nearly exhausted. He wore
long hair, as did many of the men at that time; he tried to grapple
me, and he put his four fingers into my right shoe, alongside the
outer edge of my foot. I succeeded in kicking my shoe off, and,
putting my hand on his shoulder, I shoved him away: I then rose to
the surface of the water.

"'At the time the ship was sinking, there was a barrel of tar on the
starboard side of her deck, and that had rolled to the larboard, and
staved as the ship went down, and when I rose to the top of the
water, the tar was floating like fat on the top of a boiler. I got
the tar about my hair and face: but I struck it away as well as I
could, and when my head came above water, I heard the cannon ashore
firing for distress. I looked about me, and at the distance of eight
or ten yards from me, I saw the main topsail halyard block above
water: the water was about thirteen fathoms deep, and at that time
the tide was coming in. I swam to the main topsail halyard block,
got on it, and sat upon it, and then I rode. The fore, main, and
mizen tops were all above water, as were a part of the bow-sprit,
and part of the ensign-staff, with the ensign upon it.

"'In going down, the mainyard of the "Royal George" caught the boom
of the rum-lighter, and sunk her; and there is no doubt that this
made the "Royal George" more upright in the water, when sunk, than
she otherwise would have been, as she did not lie much more on her
beam-ends than small vessels often do, when left dry on a bank of

"'When I got on the main topsail halyard block, I saw the admiral's
baker in the shrouds of the mizen-top-mast, and directly after that,
the woman, whom I had pulled out of the port-hole, came rolling by:
I said to the baker, who was an Irishman, named Robert Cleary, "Bob,
reach out your hand, and catch hold of that woman; that is a woman I
pulled out of the port-hole: I dare say she is not dead." He said,
"I dare say she is dead enough; it is of no use to catch hold of
her." I replied, "I dare say she is not dead." He caught hold of the
woman, and hung her head over one of the ratlines of the mizen
shrouds, and there she hung by the chin, which was hitched over the
ratlin; but a surf came and knocked her backwards, and away she went
rolling over and over. A captain of a frigate which was lying at
Spithead came up in a boat as fast as he could. I dashed out my left
hand in a direction towards the woman as a sign to him. He saw it,
and saw the woman. His men left off rowing, and they pulled the
woman aboard their boat, and laid her on one of the thwarts. The
captain of the frigate called out to me, "My man, I must take care
of those who are in more danger than you." I said, "I am safely
moored, now, sir." There was a seaman named Hibbs, hanging by his
two hands from the main-stay, and as he hung, the sea washed over
him every now and then, as much as a yard deep over his head; and
when he saw it coming, he roared out: however, he was but a fool for
that; for if he had kept himself quiet, he would not have wasted his
strength, and he would have been able to take the chance of holding
on so much the longer. The captain of the frigate had his boat rowed
to the main-stay; but they got the stay over part of the head of the
boat, and were in great danger, before they got Hibbs on board. The
captain of the frigate then got all the men that were in the
different parts of the rigging, including myself and the baker, into
his boat, and took us on board the "Victory;" where the doctors
recovered the woman, but she was very ill for three or four days. On
board the "Victory," I saw the body of the carpenter lying on the
hearth before the galley fire: some women were trying to recover
him, but he was quite dead.

"'The captain of the "Royal George," who could not swim, was picked
up and saved by one of the seamen. The lieutenant of the watch, I
believe, was drowned. The number of persons who lost their lives, I
cannot state with any degree of accuracy, because of there being so
many Jews, women, and other persons on board who did not belong to
the ship. The complement of the ship was nominally 1000 men, but she
was not full. Some were ashore; sixty marines had gone ashore that

"'The Government allowed 5_l._ each to the seamen who were on board,
and not drowned, for the loss of their things. I saw the list, and
there were only seventy-five. A vast number of the best men were in
the hold stowing-away the rum-casks: they must all have perished,
and so must many of the men who were slinging the casks in the
sloop. Two of the three brothers belonging to the sloop perished,
and the other was saved. I have no doubt that the men caught hold of
each other, forty or fifty together, and drowned one another; those
who could not swim catching hold of those who could; and there is
also little doubt that as many got into the launch as could cram
into her, hoping to save themselves in that way, and went down in
her altogether.

"'In a few days after the "Royal George" sunk, bodies would come up
thirty or forty nearly at a time. A body would rise, and come up so
suddenly as to frighten any one. The watermen, there is no doubt,
made a good thing of it: they took from the bodies of the men their
buckles, money, and watches, and then made fast a rope to their
heels, and towed them to land.'

CHARLES. "That is all I have copied, as the remaining part of the
narrative is too full of nautical terms for us to understand; and,
as it only relates to the state of the weather, the condition of
the vessel, and the perverseness of the lieutenant, it is of no
particular advantage to us in the explanation of the wreck, for we
already know the why and wherefore of the disastrous event. But Mr.
Ingram does not precisely state the number of persons lost. Was it
not ascertained soon after?"

MR. WILTON. "Yes; I believe the number of persons who perished on
this sadly memorable occasion was upwards of 800, out of whom 200
were women."

GEORGE. "And was the taking out the water-cock the original cause of
the sinking of the 'Royal George'?"

MR. WILTON. "No doubt it was, because, to effect this, the vessel
was hove on one side, and while in that situation, a sudden squall
threw her broadside into the water, and the lower deck ports not
having been lashed down, she filled, and sunk in about three

DORA. "Dear me! how very sudden; what an awful scene it must have
been, so many poor creatures hurried, with scarcely a moment's
warning or time to cry for mercy, into the presence of their
Creator! Were the bodies all washed ashore? Oh! what a mourning and
lamentation there must have been at Spithead, when the fatal truth
was borne to their sorrowing friends."

MR. WILTON. "They were not _all_ washed ashore, Dora, for the good
old Admiral Kempenfeldt was never found. Vast portions of the wreck
have been recovered, and many of her stores; but they are
comparatively worthless when we think of the widows and orphans left
to pine in poverty and wretchedness."

EMMA. "Cowper has written some touching-lines on this awful
calamity, with which we shall wind up the subject:--

"'Toll for the brave!
The brave that are no more!
All sunk beneath the wave,
Fast by their native shore!

"'Eight hundred of the brave,


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