Through Central Borneo:
Carl Lumholtz

Part 8 out of 8

Oma-Tapi, the

Ome-Tepe, the


Omen birds;
not eaten;
kapatongs of images of

Omens: fire, before tuba-fishing;
taken from birds;
from pig's liver;
the centipede;
taken by top-spinning;
concerning headhunting;
from dreams;
from banana leaves before naming children;
hunting expeditions abandoned because of;
good and evil, among the Katingans

"Onder," the;
head-hunting by

Ong Sangi, village of

Onions, white

Oostenbroek, G.

Orang Bahau, the;
meaning of name;
tribes included in

Orang-utan, Dayak resembling;
shot by Chonggat;
rare in Central Borneo;
cries like child when wounded;
supposed to be able to swim;
stories of attacks of;
as food;
belief in soul of;
folk-tale about

_Orang-Utan and the Dayak,_ _The_, folk-tale

Orchids, of Borneo;
with aromatic fragrance;
search for rare variety of

Ornaments worn by natives

Ot-Danums, the;
at Telok Djulo;
physical appearance of;
the village of;
ornaments of;
tatuing of;
story of an unfaithful wife;
cure of disease by;
on the Katingan River;
funeral customs of;
of Tevang Karangan;
known as Duhoi on the Samba River;
headhunting of;
meaning of the name;
the kapatongs;
location and number of;
primitive conditions of;
customs regarding childbirth;
belief concerning number and location of souls;
folklore of

Ot-tjin, the game

Otter, fish caught by;
folk-tale about

_Otto_, government river steamer

Outfit for travel in the tropics, principal items in

Ox, wild


Paddi. _See_ Rice

Paddlers. _See_ Boatmen

_Pagan Tribes in Borneo_, quoted


Pahit (antoh), legend of

Paint, face, of Malay women

Pajamas, worn by a native

Palapak tree, the

Pani River, the

Pantars (memorial poles)

Panyanggaran, the (memorial pole)

Paradise flycatcher, the

Parang (short sword);
inlaid work on blade of

Pasang-grahan (camping-house);
at Belimbing;
at Beringan;
at Kandangan;
at Long Iram;
at Long Pangian;
at Samarinda;
at Sembulo;
protected by palm-leaf mats

the ex-Sultan of

_Patin Fish_, _The_, folk-tale

Peanuts, cultivation of

Peas, green, of the East Indies

Pembuang River, the, approach to;
the trip up

Pendahara, camp at

_Penganun_, _the Huge Serpent_, folk-tale

Pengaron, arrival at

Penihings, the, belief of, in friendly spirit;
a stay among;
articles sold by;
murder committed by chief of;
characteristics of;
houses of;
the blian's shield;
physical appearance of;
valuable collections made while among;
a burial cave of;
funeral customs of;
tribal name of;
the raja or chief of;
omens of;
customs of;
hair colour of;
voices of;
weapons of;
the women of;
the cradle of;
sacred number of;
top-spinning by;
religious ideas of;
the five souls of;
method of curing disease;
Ibans feared by;
weaving done by;
Saputans formerly governed by;
impossible to obtain folk-tales from;
tuba-fishing practised by;
included in Orang Bahau;
cure for snake-bite known to;
death from lightning unknown to;
marriage customs of;
customs regarding childbirth;
filing of teeth by;
game played by;
use by, of nagah in designs;
interpretation of basket designs by

Penyahbongs, the, kampong of Tamaloe formed by;
a nomadic people;
boat crew of;
rhinoceros hunting expedition of;
characteristics of;
head ornament of;
ear ornamentation of;
garments of;
tatuing of;
food of;
customs of;
no disease among;
marriage customs of;
the women of;
the children of;
hunting of;
weapons of;
no divorce among;
funeral customs of;
compared with the Saputans;
the Ulu-Ots;
folk-tales of;
gold not used by;
allied to Punans;
number of;
known as Kreho;
tuba-fishing practised by;
name applied also to mountain range;
belief of, in antoh;
customs regarding childbirth;
omens taken by

Penyakit, evil antoh

Peppers, red

value of, in the jungle

_Phalaenopsis gigantea_

Pheasants of Borneo;
the argus;
white-tail, wattled

Phonographs, in Tandjong Selor

Phosphorescent lights in the jungle

Photography in the tropics:
camera feared by natives;
payment made for privilege of photographing natives;
refusal to be photographed;
ornaments put on by natives, before being photographed;
refusal to permit photograph to be taken while working;
disapproval by Raja Paron;
bathing of natives to cleanse themselves after being photographed;
the harvesters;
the ear-piercing operation;
the Raja Besar;
women rajas;
a kapala and his wife

Physical appearance of natives

Pig, domestic, reading of liver of, as augury;
sacrifice of, at dancing feast;
sacrifice of, at rubber gatherers' feast;
sacrifice of, at ear-piercing operation;
meat of, as eaten by natives;
killing of, for great triennial festival;
dancing around;
sacrifice of, at rice-planting

Pig, wild;
food of Punans;
colour of;
capture and killing of;
along the Busang River;
harassed by dogs;
herds of;
folktale about

Pigafetta, expedition of, to Brunei

legend of

Pillars, sacred, for benefit of the dead. _See_ Kapatongs



Pipa River, the

Pirates, Malay

Pisha, Penyahbong chief;
marriage of daughter of

Pitcher-plant, the

Plague, the, measures taken to eradicate

Plandok (mouse-deer);
superstition concerning


Podjungan, the Kenyahs in

Poison, used in blow-pipe


Pomelo, the

Pomosing, village of

Pontianak, evil antoh

Population, of Borneo;
of Bulungan

Porcupine, killing of;
legend of

Portuguese, the, early trade relations of, with Brunei

Poru, village of

Potatoes, unknown to natives

Prahu (native, keelless boat), construction of;
a gay flotilla;
difficulty in procuring;
loss and recovery of;
time required to build;
loading the;
of the Kenyahs;
bailing out leaky;
difficulty in securing men for;
given to the natives;
upsetting of;
with collection of animals and birds, nearly swamped;
an unusually large;
towed by motor-boat;
with bamboo covering in bottom;
the flying;
legend of the flying

Prickly heat

Priest-doctors. _See_ Blians

Priok, Sultan of

Prison at Sampit, beri-beri among inmates of

Protestant mission on Kahayan River


Provisions, hints on proper;
for trip up Barito River, in;
the end of, reached

Pulau Tombak

Punai (pigeon), legend of

Punans, the;
a nomadic tribe;
shy people of the jungle;
avoidance of sun's rays by;
skin colour of;
different tribes of;
physical characteristics of;
food of;
customs of;
filing off of teeth by;
renowned for skill in use of sumpitan;
a hunting party of;
headhunting raid of;
two headhunter prisoners;
settlement of, at Serrata;
marriage customs of;
punishment for marital infidelity;
original location of;
makers of the sumpitan;
manner of curing disease;
the women of;
customs regarding childbirth;
the Ulu-Ots;
Penyahbongs allied to;
tuba-fishing practised by;
remedy of, for disease;
possess no remedy for bite of snake;
death from lightning unknown to;
included in Orang Bahau

Puruk Tjahu, in

Python, man-eating

Rails, marsh

Rain, in Borneo;
storms in the jungle;
at Long Nawang;
usual occurrence of, at Tamaloe;
storms on Lake Sembulo

Rainy season in the tropics

Raja, the Sultan's;
represented by kapatong;
office of, hereditary;
women rajas

Raja Besar, Ledjuli, a visit from;
articles bought from;
a trip up the Merasi River with

Raja bird, the

Raja Paron

Rajimin, taxidermist;
illness and return of

Rambutan (wild fruit)

Rapids, of the Barito River;
of the Busang River;
of the Kasao River;
of the Katingan River;
of the Kayan River;
of the Mahakam River;
of the Samba River

Rat, large white

Rattan, abundance of, in Borneo;
cigar-cases made from;
uses of split;
gatherers of;
mats made from;
floated down Kasao River;
no longer found on Upper Mahakam;
caps of

Rattles, worn by women;
used by blian at wedding

Raven, Harry C.

Religion, native ideas of

Retribution, folk-tale

horns of;
red rubber statue of;
folk-lore tale about

Rhinoflax vigil

Riam Kiwa River, the;
elevation of watershed of

Rice, brandy made from;
polished a cause of beri-beri;
cooked in bamboo;
harvesting of;
method of husking;
cooking of, for great festival;
throwing of;
making new field for;
planting of;
time required for cooking;
season for planting, determined by togallan;
considered unfit for food day after cooking

Rickshaw men, the

Rifle, loaned by Sultan

Rijckmans, L.F.J.

Rings, tin and brass, worn in ear-lobes

River system of Borneo

Rongkang, epidemic at

Roth, Ling

Royal Dutch Packet Boat Company

feast of gatherers of;
an English plantation;
gathering, at Sembulo

Rubea, the natives at

Rumphius, Dutch steamer

Rusa. See Deer

Sacrifice, of pig;
of hens;
of food, to antohs;
of slave in building of houses;
of water-buffalo;
at paddi-planting;
when tree falls


Sailors, Javanese;

Salap (fish)

Salt, use of

Salt water, issuing from rock;
pool of

Salutations, when meeting;
at leave-taking;
on entering and leaving a house

arrival at;
climate of;
the natives in


Samba River, the, fish in;
houses on;
an expedition up;
passing the rapids of;
night on;
first European to visit;
gold in;
data from, concerning natives

Sambil goreng (native stew)

Samoan tribe. See Tamoans

Sampit, village of;
start for;
return to;
beri-beri at;
banquet given by controleur of

Sampit River, the

Sand-bars, at mouth of Pembuang River

Sand, white

Sandpiper, the

Sandung (funeral house)

Sangiang, the (antoh)

Sankuvai, the (bird that calls antoh)

Sapundo, the (memorial post)

Saputans, the;
characteristics of;
number of;
the women and children of;
habits and customs of;
marriage customs of;
food of;
belief of, about disease and its cure;
funeral customs of;
piercing of ears of;
shy about being photographed;
makers of the sumpitan;
headhunting of;
the Ulu-Ots;
folklore of;
governed formerly by Penihings;
tuba-fishing practised by;
derivation of the name;
four villages of;
customs of, regarding childbirth;
included in Orang Bahau

Sarawak, James Brooke made raja of;
success of government of, under white rajas;
five groups of people in;
fires at

Schouten, H.P.

Schreuder, R.

Schwaner Mountains, the, mineral possibilities of;
exploration of;
the natives in

Sea, water from, reaches Mandumei

Sea Dayaks, the

Seat, plank used as

Segai, the, Kayan sub-tribe

_Selatan_, government steam-launch;
rough weather on board

_Semang, the Bad Boy_, folk-tale

Sembulo, Lake, an expedition to;
description of;
visit to, postponed;
the Dayaks on;
legend of the tailed people of;
second expedition to;
storms on;
depth of;
no evidence of tailed men found at

Sembulo, village of, arrival at;
mosque and cemetery of;
legend of the tailed people of;
population, Malay;
rubber gathering, chief occupation of;
natives from Bangkal brought to;
epidemic of beri-beri at;
Tamoans superseded by Malays at

Senamang River, the, natives of

Serpent, huge, man-eating;
legends of golden-horned.
_See also_ Snake


Shelters, in the jungle

Shield: blian's, used as musical instrument;
picture of antoh on warrior's;
of the Penihings

Shyness of natives

Siangs, the;
tatuing of

climate of

Singing, of Kayan women;
of head-hunters;
to cure disease;
of Penyahbong chief;
of the Penyahbong men;
of blian at funeral ceremonies;
of Katingan women

Sins, kinds of, among Katingans

Skin, colour of natives';
formations on thighs

Skins, animal, drying of;
spoiled by weather conditions

Skulls, natives unwilling to sell;
used as drinking-vessels

Slave, formerly sacrificed to attract antoh;
buried alive under houses;
stones thought to be;
debtors as;
killing of, for wealthy man's funeral;
formerly sacrificed at tiwah feast;
cuts inflicted on, when raja dies


Snake, poisonous;
curious adventure with;
deadly bite of black;
a fight with;
as food;
caught and set free;
huge, man-eating;
bite of cobra;
cure for bite of;
folk-tales about


Snares, for catching birds

Social classes, among tribes

Soerabaia, point of steamboat connection with Borneo;
important commercial centre;
arrival at;
head-hunters imprisoned at;
an earthquake at

Soldiers, killing of, by Dayaks

Song, of native women;
of the head-hunters

Sonora Desert, the

_Sophia_, government steamship

Sora, folk-tale about

Souls, belief of various tribes concerning
number and location of;
departure of, through top of head;
of animals presented to soul of deceased person;
method of recalling;
of animals

Spaan, A.W.

Spear, the hunting

Spiders, effect of bite of;
in caves of Kong Beng

Spirits, good and evil;
Hindu names for good. _See also_ Antohs

Squirrel, shot by Chonggat

Stalactites, in cave of Kimanis;
in caves near Kandangan

_Star_, the Montreal, assistance given by reporter for

Stars, native belief concerning;
tatu-marks representing;
rice-planting season determined by

Statue, brass, of Hindu origin

Stealing, Dayak belief concerning punishment for;
of tin cans;
scruples about, overcome by Malay influence;
of expedition's moneybox;
among jungle people

Steamers: coaling of, in Japanese harbours;
unpleasant trip on Barito River;
voyage on a rattan transport;
the _De Weert_;
the _Grotius_;
the _Otto_;
the _Selatan_;
the _Sophia_

Steel trunk

Stew, native, katjang idju;
sambil goreng

Stones, believed to be alive


_Story of the Bird Punai_, folk-tale

alcohol from

Suicide among natives

Sultan of Bulungan, the, a visit to;
marriage of brother of

Sultanates established by Malays

Sumatra, formerly a part of Asia

Sumpitan, the (blow-pipe);
expert makers of;
method of holding;
poison for darts of;
the poison-carrying point;
the spear point on

Sun, belief concerning;
exposure to, feared by natives;
under equatorial, without head covering

Sungei Lobang

Sungei Paroi, preparation for journey to

Sword, short, of the Dayak


Tabedjeh, legend of

Tail, skin formation resembling

Tailed men, the, legend of;
no evidence of, found at Lake Sembulo

Talinka, folk-lore from

Tamaloe, the journey to;
arrival at;
kampong of, formed by Penyahbongs;
origin of the name;
usual occurrence of rain at;
animals and birds not plentiful at;
folk-tales from

Tamoans, the;
meaning of name;
scarcity of food of;
cholera ravages among;
superseded by Malays at Sembulo;
tatuing of

Tandjong Priok

Tandjong Selor

Tapang trees

Tapen Bini, Hindu remains at

Tapir, the

Tappin River, the

_Tarsius borneanus_

Tatu-markings: the full moon;
the durian fruit;
the nagah;
the rayong;
colour of, from damar;
the clothing of the liao, or soul;
on entire body;
to prevent disease

Taxidermy in the tropics

Teeth, filing off of;
metal plugs worn in

Tehi, frame for drying fish

Telang kliman, magic liquid

Telen River, the

Telok Djulo, village of

Temang, brass statue at

Temperature: maximum in inland Borneo;
in Bandjermasin;
at Tumbang Marowei;
on the equator;
at Long Iram;
at summit of watershed of the Riam Kiwa River

Temple. _See_ Balei

Tent, preferred to house;
the rot-proof

Teong, the bird

Teroian tribe, the


Tevang Karangan, Upper Katingans at

Throat, sick in his, Saputan expression


Tiger-cat, representation of, as protection;
not eaten;
image of, on flying prahu;
image of, guarding house;
soul of

Tigers, Indian

cans, stolen by natives

_Tinea imbricata_

Tingan, interpreter

Tipang Tingai

Tiwah feast (second funeral feast)

Tjehan River, the

asked for by women;
given to natives

Togallan, time for planting rice determined by

Top-spinning, omens taken by


Trade in Borneo, mainly conducted by Chinese

Traders, native, from Apo Kayan


Traps, fishing

Travellers, and omens

Travelling, Malay outfit for;
Penihing custom of travelling at night

_Tree of which Antoh is Afraid, The_, folktale

Trees, of Borneo;
felling of;
hardwood, of the jungle;
methods of climbing tall;
poison from;
falling, and head-hunting raids;
fallen but still living;
punishment of, when man is killed by falling from;
antohs in;
sacrifices made on falling of;
the crevaia;
the durian;
the lansat;
the tapang;
folk-tales about

Tribes, native, of Borneo: classification of;
intermingling of;
friendly relations among;
characteristics and capabilities of;
the Bahau;
Katingans, Upper and Lower;
Orang Bahau;

Triennial feast, the great;
the purpose of;
building of place of worship;
food regulations at;
service imparting health and strength at;
dance of blians at;
dance of the people;
killing and preparation of pigs for;
the banquet;
practical joking at;
rice-throwing at;
march of blians;
end of

Trumpets, as accompaniment to singing

Trunk, steel

Trustworthiness of natives

Truthfulness of natives

Tuak. _See_ Brandy

Tuan Allah


Tumbang Djuloi, village of

Tumbang Mantike, iron ore at

Tumbang Marowei, village of;
return to;
data from, concerning Murungs

Tumingki, village of

supposed to be poisonous

Twins, among children of the Dayaks

_Two Orphans, The_, folk-lore tale

Ugga River, the

Uljee, J.A.

Ulu-Ots, supposed to be cannibals;
habitats of;
believed to have tails and to sleep in trees;
number and appearance of;
inveterate head-hunters;
collective name for several tribes

Ulung Ela, the fatherless boy

Ulung Tiung, the motherless boy

Umbrellas, carried by Malays;
useful for travel in Borneo

Upper Kahayan River, the, folk-lore from

Vaccinateur, the

Vancouver, arrival at

Van Dijl, Lieutenant J.


Vegetables, used in cure of diseases;
stew of

Vegetation in the jungle, change in denseness of;
rapid growth of

Vendetta among the Katingans

Vergouwen, J.C.

Villages, custom of changing location of

Voices, shrill

Von Luschan colour scale

Wages, paid to boatmen

Wah-wah (man-like ape);
traits of;
human behaviour of;
knife handles made from engraved bones of;
superstition concerning

Walking, native manner of

Wallace, A.R., quoted, on the Boro Budur;
his opinion of the durian;
his _Malay Archipelago_ quoted


War, European

Watch-tower, a

Water, boiling of drinking, essential in tropics;
temperature of bathing, in tropics;
salt, from rocks;
pool of salt

sacrifice of;
herd of, at Batokelau;
at times an antoh


Wealth of the Dayaks

Weapons: the klevang;
the parang;
the spear;
the sumpitan;
carried by women

Wearing apparel: aboriginal, added to collection;
the Dayak;
of Katingan women;
of Kenyah women;
of Penyahbongs;
mourning garments

Weather, variety in, in the tropics

Weaving, by the Bugis;
material for clothing;
rattan mats

Wedding, festival;
at Tumbang Marowei.
See also Marriage customs

_When Husband and Wife are Antohs,_ folklore tale

Widows, rules observed by

Wild men of Borneo (the Ulu-Ots)

Wind, lack of, in the tropics;
in cave of Kong Beng;
at Kuala Braui;
calling the;
on Lake Sembulo

Wives, number permitted by various tribes;
price paid for;

Women: coaling of steamers by Japanese;
song of the Kayan;
manners of;
few children of Dayak;
the Malay;
dress of;
mourning garments of;
frequent bathing of;
cigarette smoking by;
dancing of;
folk-lore tales sung by;
restrictions imposed on;
head ornament of;
weapons carried by;
occupations of;
lot of, not an unhappy one;
part taken by, on hunting trips;
rules observed by widows;
a visit from, at bathing time;
face paint used by Malay;
regarded as more alert than men;
hair-dressing of;
a Malay boatman's wife;
antohs which cause injury to;
polyandry among Duhoi;
customs regarding childbirth;
of the Bukats;
of the Bukits;
the Duhoi;
of the Kenyahs;
of the Murungs;

_Wonderful Tree, The_, folk-lore tale

Wong Su, cook

Woodcraftsmen, Dayaks able

Wrestling, in the water;
at great triennial feast


Year, the Katingan

Yokohama, the bay of


BRITISH ISLES (WHITE) (After Wallace)]


The figure of a man represents a Lower Katingan, particularly a kapala at
Tewang Rongkang, the only one I saw with tatu marks on the knees. These
depict a fish of ancient times. On each thigh is the representation of a
dog or possibly the nagah with a dog's head.

The central tatu design represents a tree, the trunk of which rises from
the navel; adjoining it above are two great oval designs stretching across
the chest and depicting the wings of a fowl. The tree which is called
garing, is a fabulous one that cannot be killed. This same pattern may be
observed on the mats of the Kayans.

Down the arms and over the shoulders are similar designs representing
leaves of the areca palm.

The border around the wrist is a representation of a bird called susulit.
The cross on the hand represents the beak of this bird; the starlike
figure is the eye of the hornbill.

The globular tatu mark on the calf of the leg (h) is peculiar to
Katingans, Ot-Danums, and other tribes. The design below, representing a
certain fruit, was seen on a Katingan.

The seven tatu marks to the right (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) represent the
durian in various phases. The upper (a) to the left is a ripe durian, a
design often observed in the tribes, one on each shoulder of a man. The
next three (b, c, d) are young fruit, often seen one above each nipple.
The next figure (e), usually observed on the upper arm (in front)
represents 14 durians.

Above the nails of the tatued hand of a Penihing woman (f) are seen
similar triangular marks, while across it runs a border representing the
protuberances of the fruit. The latter designs are also found on the foot
(g) of the same individual. The cross lines over fingers and toes
represent banana leaves.

Tatuing of Lower Katingan
a. Bukit
b. Bukit
c. Bukit
d. Saputan
e. Long-Glat
f, g. Hand and foot of Penihing woman, Durian designs
h. The globular tatu mark]


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