Tour through the Eastern Counties of England, 1722
Daniel Defoe

Part 2 out of 3

gentleman of very agreeable parts, and well esteemed in the

From this part of the country, I returned north-west by Lenham, to
visit St. Edmund's Bury, a town of which other writers have talked
very largely, and perhaps a little too much. It is a town famed
for its pleasant situation and wholesome air, the Montpelier of
Suffolk, and perhaps of England. This must be attributed to the
skill of the monks of those times, who chose so beautiful a
situation for the seat of their retirement; and who built here the
greatest and, in its time, the most flourishing monastery in all
these parts of England, I mean the monastery of St. Edmund the
Martyr. It was, if we believe antiquity, a house of pleasure in
more ancient times, or to speak more properly, a court of some of
the Saxon or East Angle kings; and, as Mr. Camden says, was even
then called a royal village, though it much better merits that name
now; it being the town of all this part of England, in proportion
to its bigness, most thronged with gentry, people of the best
fashion, and the most polite conversation. This beauty and
healthiness of its situation was no doubt the occasion which drew
the clergy to settle here, for they always chose the best places in
the country to build in, either for richness of soil, or for health
and pleasure in the situation of their religious houses.

For the like reason, I doubt not, they translated the bones of the
martyred king St. Edmund to this place; for it is a vulgar error to
say he was murdered here. His martyrdom, it is plain, was at Hoxon
or Henilsdon, near Harlston, on the Waveney, in the farthest
northern verge of the county; but Segebert, king of the East
Angles, had built a religions house in this pleasant rich part of
the county; and as the monks began to taste the pleasure of the
place, they procured the body of this saint to be removed hither,
which soon increased the wealth and revenues of their house, by the
zeal of that day, in going on pilgrimage to the shrine of the
blessed St. Edmund.

We read, however, that after this the Danes, under King Sweno,
over-running this part of the country, destroyed this monastery and
burnt it to the ground, with the church and town. But see the turn
religion gives to things in the world; his son, King Canutus, at
first a Pagan and a tyrant, and the most cruel ravager of all that
crew, coming to turn Christian, and being touched in conscience for
the soul of his father, in having robbed God and his holy martyr
St. Edmund, sacrilegiously destroying the church, and plundering
the monastery; I say, touched with remorse, and, as the monks
pretend, terrified with a vision of St. Edmund appearing to him, he
rebuilt the house, the church, and the town also, and very much
added to the wealth of the abbot and his fraternity, offering his
crown at the feet of St. Edmund, giving the house to the monks,
town and all; so that they were absolute lords of the town, and
governed it by their steward for many ages. He also gave them a
great many good lordships, which they enjoyed till the general
suppression of abbeys, in the time of Henry VIII.

But I am neither writing the history or searching the antiquity of
the abbey, or town; my business is the present state of the place.

The abbey is demolished; its ruins are all that is to be seen of
its glory: out of the old building, two very beautiful churches
are built, and serve the two parishes, into which the town is
divided, and they stand both in one churchyard. Here it was, in
the path-way between these two churches, that a tragical and almost
unheard-of act of barbarity was committed, which made the place
less pleasant for some time than it used to be, when Arundel Coke,
Esq., a barrister-at-law, of a very ancient family, attempted, with
the assistance of a barbarous assassin, to murder in cold blood,
and in the arms of hospitality, Edward Crisp, Esq., his brother-in-
law, leading him out from his own house, where he had invited him,
his wife and children, to supper; I say, leading him out in the
night, on pretence of going to see some friend that was known to
them both; but in this churchyard, giving a signal to the assassin
he had hired, he attacked him with a hedge-bill, and cut him, as
one might say, almost in pieces; and when they did not doubt of his
being dead, they left him. His head and face was so mangled, that
it may be said to be next to a miracle that he was not quite
killed: yet so Providence directed for the exemplary punishment of
the assassins, that the gentleman recovered to detect them, who
(though he outlived the assault) were both executed as they
deserved, and Mr. Crisp is yet alive. They were condemned on the
statute for defacing and dismembering, called the Coventry Act.

But this accident does not at all lessen the pleasure and agreeable
delightful show of the town of Bury; it is crowded with nobility
and gentry, and all sorts of the most agreeable company; and as the
company invites, so there is the appearance of pleasure upon the
very situation; and they that live at Bury are supposed to live
there for the sake of it.

The Lord Jermin, afterwards Lord Dover, and, since his lordship's
decease, Sir Robert Davers, enjoyed the most delicious seat of
Rushbrook, near this town.

The present members of Parliament for this place are Jermyn Davers
and James Reynolds, Esquires.

Mr. Harvey, afterwards created Lord Harvey, by King William, and
since that made Earl of Bristol by King George, lived many years in
this town, leaving a noble and pleasantly situated house in
Lincolnshire, for the more agreeable living on a spot so completely
qualified for a life of delight as this of Bury.

The Duke of Grafton, now Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, has also a
stately house at Euston, near this town, which he enjoys in right
of his mother, daughter to the Earl of Arlington, one of the chief
ministers of State in the reign of King Charles II., and who made
the second letter in the word "cabal," a word formed by that famous
satirist Andrew Marvell, to represent the five heads of the
politics of that time, as the word "smectymnus" was on a former

I shall believe nothing so scandalous of the ladies of this town
and the country round it as a late writer insinuates. That the
ladies round the country appear mighty gay and agreeable at the
time of the fair in this town I acknowledge; one hardly sees such a
show in any part of the world; but to suggest they come hither, as
to a market, is so coarse a jest, that the gentlemen that wait on
them hither (for they rarely come but in good company) ought to
resent and correct him for it.

It is true, Bury Fair, like Bartholomew Fair, is a fair for
diversion, more than for trade; and it may be a fair for toys and
for trinkets, which the ladies may think fit to lay out some of
their money in, as they see occasion. But to judge from thence
that the knights' daughters of Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and
Suffolk--that is to say, for it cannot be understood any otherwise,
the daughters of all the gentry of the three counties--come hither
to be picked up, is a way of speaking I never before heard any
author have the assurance to make use of in print.

The assembly he justly commends for the bright appearance of the
beauties; but with a sting in the tail of this compliment, where he
says they seldom end without some considerable match or intrigue;
and yet he owns that during the fair these assemblies are held
every night. Now that these fine ladies go intriguing every night,
and that too after the comedy is done, which is after the fair and
raffling is over for the day, so that it must be very late. This
is a terrible character for the ladies of Bury, and intimates, in
short, that most of them are loose women, which is a horrid abuse
upon the whole country.

Now, though I like not the assemblies at all, and shall in another
place give them something of their due, yet having the opportunity
to see the fair at Bury, and to see that there were, indeed,
abundance of the finest ladies, or as fine as any in Britain, yet I
must own the number of the ladies at the comedy, or at the
assembly, is no way equal to the number that are seen in the town,
much less are they equal to the whole body of the ladies in the
three counties; and I must also add, that though it is far from
true that all that appear at the assembly are there for matches or
intrigues, yet I will venture to say that they are not the worst of
the ladies who stay away, neither are they the fewest in number or
the meanest in beauty, but just the contrary; and I do not at all
doubt, but that the scandalous liberty some take at those
assemblies will in time bring them out of credit with the virtuous
part of the sex here, as it has done already in Kent and other
places, and that those ladies who most value their reputation will
be seen less there than they have been; for though the institution
of them has been innocent and virtuous, the ill use of them, and
the scandalous behaviour of some people at them, will in time arm
virtue against them, and they will be laid down as they have been
set up without much satisfaction.

But the beauty of this town consists in the number of gentry who
dwell in and near it, the polite conversation among them, the
affluence and plenty they live in, the sweet air they breathe in,
and the pleasant country they have to go abroad in.

Here is no manufacturing in this town, or but very little, except
spinning, the chief trade of the place depending upon the gentry
who live there, or near it, and who cannot fail to cause trade
enough by the expense of their families and equipages among the
people of a county town. They have but a very small river, or
rather but a very small branch of a small river, at this town,
which runs from hence to Milden Hall, on the edge of the fens.
However, the town and gentlemen about have been at the charge, or
have so encouraged the engineer who was at the charge, that they
have made this river navigable to the said Milden Hall, from whence
there is a navigable dyke, called Milden Hall Drain, which goes
into the River Ouse, and so to Lynn; so that all their coal and
wine, iron, lead, and other heavy goods, are brought by water from
Lynn, or from London, by the way of Lynn, to the great ease of the

This town is famous for two great events. One was that in the year
1447, in the 25th year of Henry VI., a Parliament was held here.

The other was, that at the meeting of this Parliament, the great
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, regent of the kingdom during the
absence of King Henry V. and the minority of Henry VI., and to his
last hour the safeguard of the whole nation, and darling of the
people, was basely murdered here; by whose death the gate was
opened to that dreadful war between the houses of Lancaster and
York, which ended in the confusion of that very race who are
supposed to have contrived that murder.

From St. Edmund's Bury I returned by Stowmarket and Needham to
Ipswich, that I might keep as near the coast as was proper to my
designed circuit or journey; and from Ipswich, to visit the sea
again, I went to Woodbridge, and from thence to Orford, on the sea

Woodbridge has nothing remarkable, but that it is a considerable
market for butter and corn to be exported to London; for now begins
that part which is ordinarily called High Suffolk, which, being a
rich soil, is for a long tract of ground wholly employed in
dairies, and they again famous for the best butter, and perhaps the
worst cheese, in England. The butter is barrelled, or often
pickled up in small casks, and sold, not in London only, but I have
known a firkin of Suffolk butter sent to the West Indies, and
brought back to England again, and has been perfectly good and
sweet, as at first.

The port for the shipping off their Suffolk butter is chiefly
Woodbridge, which for that reason is full of corn factors and
butter factors, some of whom are very considerable merchants.

From hence, turning down to the shore, we see Orfordness, a noted
point of land for the guide of the colliers and coasters, and a
good shelter for them to ride under when a strong north-east wind
blows and makes a foul shore on the coast.

South of the Ness is Orford Haven, being the mouth of two little
rivers meeting together. It is a very good harbour for small
vessels, but not capable of receiving a ship of burden.

Orford was once a good town, but is decayed, and as it stands on
the land side of the river the sea daily throws up more land to it,
and falls off itself from it, as if it was resolved to disown the
place, and that it should be a seaport no longer.

A little farther lies Aldborough, as thriving, though without a
port, as the other is decaying, with a good river in the front of

There are some gentlemen's seats up farther from the sea, but very
few upon the coast.

From Aldborough to Dunwich there are no towns of note; even this
town seems to be in danger of being swallowed up, for fame reports
that once they had fifty churches in the town; I saw but one left,
and that not half full of people.

This town is a testimony of the decay of public things, things of
the most durable nature; and as the old poet expresses it,

"By numerous examples we may see,
That towns and cities die as well as we."

The ruins of Carthage, of the great city of Jerusalem, or of
ancient Rome, are not at all wonderful to me. The ruins of
Nineveh, which are so entirety sunk as that it is doubtful where
the city stood; the ruins of Babylon, or the great Persepolis, and
many capital cities, which time and the change of monarchies have
overthrown, these, I say, are not at all wonderful, because being
the capitals of great and flourishing kingdoms, where those
kingdoms were overthrown, the capital cities necessarily fell with
them; but for a private town, a seaport, and a town of commerce, to
decay, as it were, of itself (for we never read of Dunwich being
plundered or ruined by any disaster, at least, not of late years);
this, I must confess, seems owing to nothing but to the fate of
things, by which we see that towns, kings, countries, families, and
persons, have all their elevation, their medium, their declination,
and even their destruction in the womb of time, and the course of
nature. It is true, this town is manifestly decayed by the
invasion of the waters, and as other towns seem sufferers by the
sea, or the tide withdrawing from their ports, such as Orford, just
now named, Winchelsea in Kent, and the like, so this town is, as it
were, eaten up by the sea, as above; and the still encroaching
ocean seems to threaten it with a fatal immersion in a few years

Yet Dunwich, however ruined, retains some share of trade, as
particularly for the shipping of butter, cheese, and corn, which is
so great a business in this county, that it employs a great many
people and ships also; and this port lies right against the
particular part of the county for butter, as Framlingham, Halstead,
etc. Also a very great quantity of corn is bought up hereabout for
the London market; for I shall still touch that point how all the
counties in England contribute something towards the subsistence of
the great city of London, of which the butter here is a very
considerable article; as also coarse cheese, which I mentioned
before, used chiefly for the king's ships.

Hereabouts they begin to talk of herrings and the fishery; and we
find in the ancient records that this town, which was then equal to
a large city, paid, among other tribute to the government, fifty
thousand of herrings. Here also, and at Swole, or Southole, the
next seaport, they cure sprats in the same manner as they do
herrings at Yarmouth; that is to say, speaking in their own
language, they make red sprats; or to speak good English, they make
sprats red.

It is remarkable that this town is now so much washed away by the
sea, that what little trade they have is carried on by Walderswick,
a little town near Swole, the vessels coming in there, because the
ruins of Dunwich make the shore there unsafe and uneasy to the
boats; from whence the northern coasting seamen a rude verse of
their own using, and I suppose of their own making, as follows,

"Swoul and Dunwich, and Walderswick,
All go in at one lousie creek."

This "lousie creek," in short, is a little river at Swoul, which
our late famous atlas-maker calls a good harbour for ships, and
rendezvous of the royal navy; but that by-the-bye; the author, it
seems, knew no better.

From Dunwich we came to Southwold, the town above-named: this is a
small port town upon the coast, at the mouth of a little river
called the Blith. I found no business the people here were
employed in but the fishery, as above, for herrings and sprats,
which they cure by the help of smoke, as they do at Yarmouth.

There is but one church in this town, but it is a very large one
and well built, as most of the churches in this county are, and of
impenetrable flint; indeed, there is no occasion for its being so
large, for staying there one Sabbath day, I was surprised to see an
extraordinary large church, capable of receiving five or six
thousand people, and but twenty-seven in it besides the parson and
the clerk; but at the same time the meeting-house of the Dissenters
was full to the very doors, having, as I guessed, from six to eight
hundred people in it.

This town is made famous for a very great engagement at sea, in the
year 1672, between the English and Dutch fleets, in the bay
opposite to the town, in which, not to be partial to ourselves, the
English fleet was worsted; and the brave Montague, Earl of
Sandwich, Admiral under the Duke of York, lost his life. The ship
Royal Prince, carrying one hundred guns, in which he was, and which
was under him, commanded by Sir Edward Spragg, was burnt, and
several other ships lost, and about six hundred seamen; part of
those killed in the fight were, as I was told, brought on shore
here and buried in the churchyard of this town, as others also were
at Ipswich.

At this town in particular, and so at all the towns on this coast,
from Orfordness to Yarmouth, is the ordinary place where our summer
friends the swallows first land when they come to visit us; and
here they may be said to embark for their return, when they go back
into warmer climates; and as I think the following remark, though
of so trifling a circumstance, may be both instructing as well as
diverting, it may be very proper in this place. The case is this;
I was some years before at this place, at the latter end of the
year, viz., about the beginning of October, and lodging in a house
that looked into the churchyard, I observed in the evening, an
unusual multitude of birds sitting on the leads of the church.
Curiosity led me to go nearer to see what they were, and I found
they were all swallows; that there was such an infinite number that
they covered the whole roof of the church, and of several houses
near, and perhaps might of more houses which I did not see. This
led me to inquire of a grave gentleman whom I saw near me, what the
meaning was of such a prodigious multitude of swallows sitting
there. "Oh, sir," says he, turning towards the sea, "you may see
the reason; the wind is off sea." I did not seem fully informed by
that expression, so he goes on, "I perceive, sir," says he, "you
are a stranger to it; you must then understand first, that this is
the season of the year when the swallows, their food here failing,
begin to leave us, and return to the country, wherever it be, from
whence I suppose they came; and this being the nearest to the coast
of Holland, they come here to embark" (this he said smiling a
little); "and now, sir," says he, "the weather being too calm or
the wind contrary, they are waiting for a gale, for they are all

This was more evident to me, when in the morning I found the wind
had come about to the north-west in the night, and there was not
one swallow to be seen of near a million, which I believe was there
the night before.

How those creatures know that this part of the Island of Great
Britain is the way to their home, or the way that they are to go;
that this very point is the nearest cut over, or even that the
nearest cut is best for them, that we must leave to the naturalists
to determine, who insist upon it that brutes cannot think.

Certain it is that the swallows neither come hither for warm
weather nor retire from cold; the thing is of quite another nature.
They, like the shoals of fish in the sea, pursue their prey; they
are a voracious creature, they feed flying; their food is found in
the air, viz., the insects, of which in our summer evenings, in
damp and moist places, the air is full. They come hither in the
summer because our air is fuller of fogs and damps than in other
countries, and for that reason feeds great quantities of insects.
If the air be hot and dry the gnats die of themselves, and even the
swallows will be found famished for want, and fall down dead out of
the air, their food being taken from them. In like manner, when
cold weather comes in the insects all die, and then of necessity
the swallows quit us, and follow their food wherever they go. This
they do in the manner I have mentioned above, for sometimes they
are seen to go off in vast flights like a cloud. And sometimes
again, when the wind grows fair, they go away a few and a few as
they come, not staying at all upon the coast.

Note.--This passing and re-passing of the swallows is observed
nowhere so much, that I have heard of, or in but few other places,
except on this eastern coast, namely, from above Harwich to the
east point of Norfolk, called Winterton Ness, North, which is all
right against Holland. We know nothing of them any farther north,
the passage of the sea being, as I suppose, too broad from
Flamborough Head and the shore of Holderness in Yorkshire, etc.

I find very little remarkable on this side of Suffolk, but what is
on the sea-shore as above. The inland country is that which they
properly call High Suffolk, and is full of rich feeding grounds and
large farms, mostly employed in dairies for making the Suffolk
butter and cheese, of which I have spoken already. Among these
rich grounds stand some market towns, though not of very
considerable note; such as Framlingham, where was once a royal
castle, to which Queen Mary retired when the Northumberland
faction, in behalf of the Lady Jane, endeavoured to supplant her.
And it was this part of Suffolk where the Gospellers, as they were
then called, preferred their loyalty to their religion, and
complimented the Popish line at expense of their share of the
Reformation. But they paid dear for it, and their successors have
learned better politics since.

In these parts are also several good market towns, some in this
county and some in the other, as Beccles, Bungay, Harlston, etc.,
all on the edge of the River Waveney, which parts here the counties
of Suffolk and Norfolk. And here in a bye-place, and out of common
remark, lies the ancient town of Hoxon, famous for being the place
where St. Edmund was martyred, for whom so many cells and shrines
have been set up and monasteries built, and in honour of whom the
famous monastery of St. Edmundsbury, above mentioned, was founded,
which most people erroneously think was the place where the said
murder was committed.

Besides the towns mentioned above, there are Halesworth,
Saxmundham, Debenham, Aye, or Eye, all standing in this eastern
side of Suffolk, in which, as I have said, the whole country is
employed in dairies or in feeding of cattle.

This part of England is also remarkable for being the first where
the feeding and fattening of cattle, both sheep as well as black
cattle, with turnips, was first practised in England, which is made
a very great part of the improvement of their lands to this day,
and from whence the practice is spread over most of the east and
south parts of England to the great enriching of the farmers and
increase of fat cattle. And though some have objected against the
goodness of the flesh thus fed with turnips, and have fancied it
would taste of the root, yet upon experience it is found that at
market there is no difference, nor can they that buy single out one
joint of mutton from another by the taste. So that the complaint
which our nice palates at first made begins to cease of itself, and
a very great quantity of beef and mutton also is brought every year
and every week to London from this side of England, and much more
than was formerly known to be fed there.

I cannot omit, however little it may seem, that this county of
Suffolk is particularly famous for furnishing the City of London
and all the counties round with turkeys, and that it is thought
there are more turkeys bred in this county and the part of Norfolk
that adjoins to it than in all the rest of England, especially for
sale, though this may be reckoned, as I say above, but a trifling
thing to take notice of in these remarks; yet, as I have hinted,
that I shall observe how London is in general supplied with all its
provisions from the whole body of the nation, and how every part of
the island is engaged in some degree or other of that supply. On
this account I could not omit it, nor will it be found so
inconsiderable an article as some may imagine, if this be true,
which I received an account of from a person living on the place,
viz., that they have counted three hundred droves of turkeys (for
they drive them all in droves on foot) pass in one season over
Stratford Bridge on the River Stour, which parts Suffolk from
Essex, about six miles from Colchester, on the road from Ipswich to
London. These droves, as they say, generally contain from three
hundred to a thousand each drove; so that one may suppose them to
contain five hundred one with another, which is one hundred and
fifty thousand in all; and yet this is one of the least passages,
the numbers which travel by Newmarket Heath and the open country
and the forest, and also the numbers that come by Sudbury and Clare
being many more.

For the further supplies of the markets of London with poultry, of
which these countries particularly abound, they have within these
few years found it practicable to make the geese travel on foot
too, as well as the turkeys, and a prodigious number are brought up
to London in droves from the farthest parts of Norfolk; even from
the fen country about Lynn, Downham, Wisbech, and the Washes; as
also from all the east side of Norfolk and Suffolk, of whom it is
very frequent now to meet droves with a thousand, sometimes two
thousand in a drove. They begin to drive them generally in August,
by which time the harvest is almost over, and the geese may feed in
the stubbles as they go. Thus they hold on to the end of October,
when the roads begin to be too stiff and deep for their broad feet
and short legs to march in.

Besides these methods of driving these creatures on foot, they have
of late also invented a new method of carriage, being carts formed
on purpose, with four stories or stages to put the creatures in one
above another, by which invention one cart will carry a very great
number; and for the smoother going they drive with two horses
abreast, like a coach, so quartering the road for the ease of the
gentry that thus ride. Changing horses, they travel night and day,
so that they bring the fowls seventy, eighty, or, one hundred miles
in two days and one night. The horses in this new-fashioned
voiture go two abreast, as above, but no perch below, as in a
coach, but they are fastened together by a piece of wood lying
crosswise upon their necks, by which they are kept even and
together, and the driver sits on the top of the cart like as in the
public carriages for the army, etc.

In this manner they hurry away the creatures alive, and infinite
numbers are thus carried to London every year. This method is also
particular for the carrying young turkeys or turkey poults in their
season, which are valuable, and yield a good price at market; as
also for live chickens in the dear seasons, of all which a very
great number are brought in this manner to London, and more
prodigiously out of this country than any other part of England,
which is the reason of my speaking of it here.

In this part, which we call High Suffolk, there are not so many
families of gentry or nobility placed as in the other side of the
country. But it is observed that though their seats are not so
frequent here, their estates are; and the pleasure of West Suffolk
is much of it supported by the wealth of High Suffolk, for the
richness of the lands and application of the people to all kinds of
improvement is scarce credible; also the farmers are so very
considerable and their farms and dairies so large that it is very
frequent for a farmer to have 1,000 pounds stock upon his farm in
cows only.


From High Suffolk I passed the Waveney into Norfolk, near Schole
Inn. In my passage I saw at Redgrave (the seat of the family) a
most exquisite monument of Sir John Holt, Knight, late Lord Chief
Justice of the King's Bench several years, and one of the most
eminent lawyers of his time. One of the heirs of the family is now
building a fine seat about a mile on the south side of Ipswich,
near the road.

The epitaph or inscription on this monument is as follows:-

M. S.
D. Johannis Holt, Equitis Aur.
Totius Anglioe in Banco Regis
per 21 Annos continuos
Capitalis Justitiarii
Gulielmo Regi Annoequr Reginae
Consiliarii perpetui:
Libertatis ac Legum Anglicarum
Assertoris, Vindicis, Custodis,
Vigilis Acris & intrepidi,
Rolandus Frater Uncius & Hoeres
Optime de se Merito
Die Martis Vto. 1709. Sublatus est
ex Oculis nostris
Natus 30 Decembris, Anno 1642.

When we come into Norfolk, we see a face of diligence spread over
the whole country; the vast manufactures carried on (in chief) by
the Norwich weavers employs all the country round in spinning yarn
for them; besides many thousand packs of yarn which they receive
from other countries, even from as far as Yorkshire and
Westmoreland, of which I shall speak in its place.

This side of Norfolk is very populous, and thronged with great and
spacious market-towns, more and larger than any other part of
England so far from London, except Devonshire, and the West Riding
of Yorkshire; for example, between the frontiers of Suffolk and the
city of Norwich on this side, which is not above 22 miles in
breadth, are the following market-towns, viz.:-

Thetford, Hingham, Harleston,
Diss, West Dereham, E. Dereham,
Harling, Attleborough, Watton,
Bucknam, Windham, Loddon, etc.

Most of these towns are very populous and large; but that which is
most remarkable is, that the whole country round them is so
interspersed with villages, and those villages so large, and so
full of people, that they are equal to market-towns in other
countries; in a word, they render this eastern part of Norfolk
exceeding full of inhabitants.

An eminent weaver of Norwich gave me a scheme of their trade on
this occasion, by which, calculating from the number of looms at
that time employed in the city of Norwich only, besides those
employed in other towns in the same county, he made it appear very
plain, that there were 120,000 people employed in the woollen and
silk and wool manufactures of that city only; not that the people
all lived in the city, though Norwich is a very large and populous
city too: but, I say, they were employed for spinning the yarn
used for such goods as were all made in that city. This account is
curious enough, and very exact, but it is too long for the compass
of this work.

This shows the wonderful extent of the Norwich manufacture, or
stuff-weaving trade, by which so many thousands of families are
maintained. Their trade, indeed, felt a very sensible decay, and
the cries of the poor began to be very loud, when the wearing of
painted calicoes was grown to such a height in England, as was seen
about two or three years ago; but an Act of Parliament having been
obtained, though not without great struggle, in the years 1720 and
1721, for prohibiting the use and wearing of calicoes, the stuff
trade revived incredibly; and as I passed this part of the country
in the year 1723, the manufacturers assured me that there was not,
in all the eastern and middle part of Norfolk, any hand unemployed,
if they would work; and that the very children, after four or five
years of age, could every one earn their own bread. But I return
to speak of the villages and towns in the rest of the county; I
shall come to the city of Norwich by itself.

This throng of villages continues through all the east part of the
country, which is of the greatest extent, and where the manufacture
is chiefly carried on. If any part of it be waste and thin of
inhabitants, it is the west part, drawing a line from about Brand,
or Brandon, south, to Walsinghan, north. This part of the country
indeed is full of open plains, and somewhat sandy and barren, and
feeds great flocks of good sheep; but put it all together, the
county of Norfolk has the most people in the least tract of land of
any county in England, except about London, and Exon, and the West
Riding of Yorkshire, as above.

Add to this, that there is no single county in England, except as
above, that can boast of three towns so populous, so rich, and so
famous for trade and navigation, as in this county. By these three
towns, I mean the city of Norwich, the towns of Yarmouth and Lynn.
Besides that, it has several other seaports of very good trade, as
Wisbech, Wells, Burnham, Clye, etc.

Norwich is the capital of all the county, and the centre of all the
trade and manufactures which I have just mentioned; an ancient,
large, rich, and populous city. If a stranger was only to ride
through or view the city of Norwich for a day, he would have much
more reason to think there was a town without inhabitants, than
there is really to say so of Ipswich; but on the contrary if he was
to view the city, either on a Sabbath-day, or on any public
occasion, he would wonder where all the people could dwell, the
multitude is so great. But the case is this: the inhabitants
being all busy at their manufactures, dwell in their garrets at
their looms, and in their combing shops (so they call them),
twisting-mills, and other work-houses, almost all the works they
are employed in being done within doors. There are in this city
thirty-two parishes besides the cathedral, and a great many
meeting-houses of Dissenters of all denominations. The public
edifices are chiefly the castle, ancient and decayed, and now for
many years past made use of for a gaol. The Duke of Norfolk's
house was formerly kept well, and the gardens preserved for the
pleasure and diversion of the citizens, but since feeling too
sensibly the sinking circumstances of that once glorious family,
who were the first peers and hereditary earl-marshals of England.

The walls of this city are reckoned three miles in circumference,
taking in more ground than the City of London, but much of that
ground lying open in pasture-fields and gardens; nor does it seem
to be, like some ancient places, a decayed, declining town, and
that the walls mark out its ancient dimensions; for we do not see
room to suppose that it was ever larger or more populous than it is
now. But the walls seem to be placed as if they expected that the
city would in time increase sufficiently to fill them up with

The cathedral of this city is a fine fabric, and the spire steeple
very high and beautiful. It is not ancient, the bishop's see
having been first at Thetford, from whence it was not translated
hither till the twelfth century. Yet the church has so many
antiquities in it, that our late great scholar and physician, Sir
Thomas Brown, thought it worth his while to write a whole book to
collect the monuments and inscriptions in this church, to which I
refer the reader.

The River Yare runs through this city, and is navigable thus far
without the help of any art (that is to say, without locks or
stops), and being increased by other waters, passes afterwards
through a long tract of the richest meadows, and the largest, take
them all together, that are anywhere in England, lying for thirty
miles in length, from this city to Yarmouth, including the return
of the said meadows on the bank of the Waveney south, and on the
River Thyrn north.

Here is one thing indeed strange in itself, and more so, in that
history seems to be quite ignorant of the occasion of it. The
River Waveney is a considerable river, and of a deep and full
channel, navigable for large barges as high as Beccles; it runs for
a course of about fifty miles, between the two counties of Suffolk
and Norfolk, as a boundary to both; and pushing on, though with a
gentle stream, towards the sea, no one would doubt, but, that when
they see the river growing broader and deeper, and going directly
towards the sea, even to the edge of the beach--that is to say,
within a mile of the main ocean--no stranger, I say, but would
expect to see its entrance into the sea at that place, and a noble
harbour for ships at the mouth of it; when on a sudden, the land
rising high by the seaside, crosses the head of the river, like a
dam, checks the whole course of it, and it returns, bending its
course west, for two miles, or thereabouts; and then turning north,
through another long course of meadows (joining to those just now
mentioned) seeks out the River Yare, that it may join its water
with hers, and find their way to the sea together

Some of our historians tell a long, fabulous story of this river
being once open, and a famous harbour for ships belonging to a town
of Lowestoft adjoining; but that the town of Yarmouth envying the
prosperity of the said town of Lowestoft, made war upon them; and
that after many bloody battles, as well by sea as by land, they
came at last to a decisive action at sea with their respective
fleets, and the victory fell to the Yarmouth men, the Lowestoft
fleet being overthrown and utterly destroyed; and that upon this
victory, the Yarmouth men either actually did stop up the mouth of
the said river, or obliged the vanquished Lowestoft men to do it
themselves, and bound them never to attempt to open it again.

I believe my share of this story, and I recommend no more of it to
the reader; adding, that I see no authority for the relation,
neither do the relators agree either in the time of it, or in the
particulars of the fact; that is to say, in whose reign, or under
what government all this happened; in what year, and the like; so I
satisfy myself with transcribing the matter of fact, and then leave
it as I find it.

In this vast tract of meadows are fed a prodigious number of black
cattle which are said to be fed up for the fattest beef, though not
the largest in England; and the quantity is so great, as that they
not only supply the city of Norwich, the town of Yarmouth, and
county adjacent, but send great quantities of them weekly in all
the winter season to London.

And this in particular is worthy remark, that the gross of all the
Scots cattle which come yearly into England are brought hither,
being brought to a small village lying north of the city of
Norwich, called St. Faith's, where the Norfolk graziers go and buy

These Scots runts, so they call them, coming out of the cold and
barren mountains of the Highlands in Scotland, feed so eagerly on
the rich pasture in these marshes, that they thrive in an unusual
manner, and grow monstrously fat; and the beef is so delicious for
taste, that the inhabitants prefer them to the English cattle,
which are much larger and fairer to look at; and they may very well
do so. Some have told me, and I believe with good judgment, that
there are above forty thousand of these Scots cattle fed in this
county every year, and most of them in the said marshes between
Norwich, Beccles, and Yarmouth.

Yarmouth is an ancient town, much older than Norwich; and at
present, though not standing on so much ground, yet better built;
much more complete; for number of inhabitants, not much inferior;
and for wealth, trade, and advantage of its situation, infinitely
superior to Norwich.

It is placed on a peninsula between the River Yare and the sea; the
two last lying parallel to one another, and the town in the middle.
The river lies on the west side of the town, and being grown very
large and deep, by a conflux of all the rivers on this side the
county, forms the haven; and the town facing to the west also, and
open to the river, makes the finest quay in England, if not in
Europe, not inferior even to that of Marseilles itself.

The ships ride here so close, and, as it were, keeping up one
another, with their headfasts on shore, that for half a mile
together they go across the stream with their bowsprits over the
land, their bows, or heads touching the very wharf; so that one may
walk from ship to ship as on a floating bridge, all along by the
shore-side. The quay reaching from the drawbridge almost to the
south gate, is so spacious and wide, that in some places it is near
one hundred yards from the houses to the wharf. In this pleasant
and agreeable range of houses are some very magnificent buildings,
and among the rest, the Custom House and Town Hall, and some
merchant's houses, which look like little palaces rather than the
dwelling-houses of private men.

The greatest defect of this beautiful town seems to be that, though
it is very rich and increasing in wealth and trade, and
consequently in people, there is not room to enlarge the town by
building, which would be certainly done much more than it is, but
that the river on the land side prescribes them, except at the
north end without the gate; and even there the land is not very
agreeable. But had they had a larger space within the gates there
would before now have been many spacious streets of noble fine
buildings erected, as we see is done in some other thriving towns
in England, as at Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Frome, etc.

The quay and the harbour of this town during the fishing fair, as
they call it, which is every Michaelmas, one sees the land covered
with people, and the river with barques and boats, busy day and
night landing and carrying of the herrings, which they catch here
in such prodigious quantities, that it is incredible. I happened
to be there during their fishing fair, when I told in one tide 110
barques and fishing vessels coming up the river all laden with
herrings, and all taken the night before; and this was besides what
was brought on shore on the Dean (that is the seaside of the town)
by open boats, which they call cobles, and which often bring in two
or three last of fish at a time. The barques often bring in ten
last a piece.

This fishing fair begins on Michaelmas Day, and lasts all the month
of October, by which time the herrings draw off to sea, shoot their
spawn, and are no more fit for the merchant's business--at least,
not those that are taken thereabouts.

The quantity of herrings that are caught in this season are
diversely accounted for. Some have said that the towns of Yarmouth
and Lowestoft only have taken 40,000 last in a season. I will not
venture to confirm that report; but this I have heard the merchants
themselves say, viz., that they have cured--that is to say, hanged
and dried in the smoke--40,000 barrels of merchantable red herrings
in one season, which is in itself (though far short of the other)
yet a very considerable article; and it is to be added that this is
besides all the herrings consumed in the country towns of both
those populous counties for thirty miles from the sea, whither very
great quantities are carried every tide during the whole season.

But this is only one branch of the great trade carried on in this
town. Another part of this commerce is in the exporting these
herrings after they are cured; and for this their merchants have a
great trade to Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, Messina, and Venice; as also
to Spain and Portugal, also exporting with their herring very great
quantities of worsted stuffs, and stuffs made of silk and worsted,
camblets, etc., the manufactures of the neighbouring city of
Norwich and of the places adjacent.

Besides this, they carry on a very considerable trade with Holland,
whose opposite neighbours they are; and a vast quantity of woollen
manufactures they export to the Dutch every year. Also they have a
fishing trade to the North Seas for white fish, which from the
place are called the North Sea cod.

They have also a considerable trade to Norway and to the Baltic,
from whence they bring back deals and fir timber, oaken plank,
balks, spars, oars, pitch, tar, hemp, flax, spruce canvas, and
sail-cloth, with all manner of naval stores, which they generally
have a consumption for in their own port, where they build a very
great number of ships every year, besides refitting and repairing
the old.

Add to this the coal trade between Newcastle and the river of
Thames, in which they are so improved of late years that they have
now a greater share of it than any other town in England, and have
quite worked the Ipswich men out of it who had formerly the chief
share of the colliery in their hands.

For the carrying on all these trades they must have a very great
number of ships, either of their own or employed by them: and it
may in some measure be judged of by this that in the year 1697, I
had an account from the town register that there was then 1,123
sail of ships using the sea and belonged to the town, besides such
ships as the merchants of Yarmouth might be concerned in, and be
part owners of, belonging to any other ports.

To all this I must add, without compliment to the town or to the
people, that the merchants, and even the generality of traders of
Yarmouth, have a very good reputation in trade as well abroad as at
home for men of fair and honourable dealing, punctual and just in
their performing their engagements and in discharging commissions;
and their seamen, as well masters as mariners, are justly esteemed
among the ablest and most expert navigators in England.

This town, however populous and large, was ever contained in one
parish, and had but one church; but within these two years they
have built another very fine church near the south end of the town.
The old church is dedicated to St. Nicholas, and was built by that
famous Bishop of Norwich, William Herbert, who flourished in the
reign of William II., and Henry I., William of Malmesbury, calls
him Vir Pecuniosus; he might have called him Vir Pecuniosissimus,
considering the times he lived in, and the works of charity and
munificence which he has left as witnesses of his immense riches;
for he built the Cathedral Church, the Priory for sixty monks, the
Bishop's Palace, and the parish church of St. Leonard, all in
Norwich; this great church at Yarmouth, the Church of St. Margaret
at Lynn, and of St. Mary at Elmham. He removed the episcopal see
from Thetford to Norwich, and instituted the Cluniack Monks at
Thetford, and gave them or built them a house. This old church is
very large, and has a high spire, which is a useful sea-mark.

Here is one of the finest market-places and the best served with
provisions in England, London excepted; and the inhabitants are so
multiplied in a few years that they seem to want room in their town
rather than people to fill it, as I have observed above.

The streets are all exactly straight from north to south, with
lanes or alleys, which they call rows, crossing them in straight
lines also from east to west, so that it is the most regular built
town in England, and seems to have been built all at once; or that
the dimensions of the houses and extent of the streets were laid
out by consent.

They have particular privileges in this town and a jurisdiction by
which they can try, condemn, and execute in especial cases without
waiting for a warrant from above; and this they exerted once very
smartly in executing a captain of one of the king's ships of war in
the reign of King Charles II. for a murder committed in the street,
the circumstance of which did indeed call for justice; but some
thought they would not have ventured to exert their powers as they
did. However, I never heard that the Government resented it or
blamed them for it.

It is also a very well-governed town, and I have nowhere in England
observed the Sabbath day so exactly kept, or the breach so
continually punished, as in this place, which I name to their

Among all these regularities it is no wonder if we do not find
abundance of revelling, or that there is little encouragement to
assemblies, plays, and gaming meetings at Yarmouth as in some other
places; and yet I do not see that the ladies here come behind any
of the neighbouring counties, either in beauty, breeding, or
behaviour; to which may be added too, not at all to their
disadvantage, that they generally go beyond them in fortunes.

From Yarmouth I resolved to pursue my first design, viz., to view
the seaside on this coast, which is particularly famous for being
one of the most dangerous and most fatal to the sailors in all
England--I may say in all Britain--and the more so because of the
great number of ships which are continually going and coming this
way in their passage between London and all the northern coasts of
Great Britain. Matters of antiquity are not my inquiry, but
principally observations on the present state of things, and, if
possible, to give such accounts of things worthy of recording as
have never been observed before; and this leads me the more
directly to mention the commerce and the navigation when I come to
towns upon the coast as what few writers have yet meddled with.

The reason of the dangers of this particular coast are found in the
situation of the county and in the course of ships sailing this
way, which I shall describe as well as I can thus:- The shore from
the mouth of the River of Thames to Yarmouth Roads lies in a
straight line from SSE. to NNW., the land being on the W. or
larboard side.

From Wintertonness, which is the utmost northerly point of land in
the county of Norfolk, and about four miles beyond Yarmouth, the
shore falls off for nearly sixty miles to the west, as far as Lynn
and Boston, till the shore of Lincolnshire tends north again for
about sixty miles more as far as the Humber, whence the coast of
Yorkshire, or Holderness, which is the east riding, shoots out
again into the sea, to the Spurn and to Flamborough Head, as far
east, almost, as the shore of Norfolk had given back at Winterton,
making a very deep gulf or bay between those two points of
Winterton and the Spurn Head; so that the ships going north are
obliged to stretch away to sea from Wintertonness, and leaving the
sight of land in that deep bay which I have mentioned, that reaches
to Lynn and the shore of Lincolnshire, they go, I say, N. or still
NNW. to meet the shore of Holderness, which I said runs out into
the sea again at the Spurn; and the first land they make or desire
to make, is called as above, Flamborough Head, so that
Wintertonness and Flamborough Head are the two extremes of this
course, there is, as I said, the Spurn Head indeed between; but as
it lies too far in towards the Humber, they keep out to the north
to avoid coming near it.

In like manner the ships which come from the north, leave the shore
at Flamborough Head, and stretch away SSE. for Yarmouth Roads; and
they first land they make is Wintertonness (as above). Now, the
danger of the place is this: if the ships coming from the north
are taken with a hard gale of wind from the SE., or from any point
between NE. and SE., so that they cannot, as the seamen call it,
weather Wintertonness, they are thereby kept within that deep bay;
and if the wind blows hard, are often in danger of running on shore
upon the rocks about Cromer, on the north coast of Norfolk, or
stranding upon the flat shore between Cromer and Wells; all the
relief they have, is good ground tackle to ride it out, which is
very hard to do there, the sea coming very high upon them; or if
they cannot ride it out then, to run into the bottom of the great
bay I mentioned, to Lynn or Boston, which is a very difficult and
desperate push: so that sometimes in this distress whole fleets
have been lost here altogether.

The like is the danger to ships going northward, if after passing
by Winterton they are taken short with a north-east wind, and
cannot put back into the Roads, which very often happens, then they
are driven upon the same coast, and embayed just as the latter.
The danger on the north part of this bay is not the same, because
if ships going or coming should be taken short on this side
Flamborough, there is the river Humber open to them, and several
good roads to have recourse to, as Burlington Bay, Grimsby Road,
and the Spurn Head, and others, where they ride under shelter.

The dangers of this place being thus considered, it is no wonder,
that upon the shore beyond Yarmouth there are no less than four
lighthouses kept flaming every night, besides the lights at Castor,
north of the town, and at Goulston S., all of which are to direct
the sailors to keep a good offing in case of bad weather, and to
prevent their running into Cromer Bay, which the seamen call the
devil's throat.

As I went by land from Yarmouth northward, along the shore towards
Cromer aforesaid, and was not then fully master of the reason of
these things, I was surprised to see, in all the way from
Winterton, that the farmers and country people had scarce a barn,
or a shed, or a stable, nay, not the pales of their yards and
gardens, not a hogstye, not a necessary house, but what was built
of old planks, beams, wales, and timbers, etc., the wrecks of
ships, and ruins of mariners' and merchants' fortunes; and in some
places were whole yards filled and piled up very high with the same
stuff laid up, as I supposed to sell for the like building
purposes, as there should he occasion.

About the year 1692 (I think it was that year) there was a
melancholy example of what I have said of this place: a fleet of
200 sail of light colliers (so they call the ships bound northward
empty to fetch coals from Newcastle to London) went out of Yarmouth
Roads with a fair wind, to pursue their voyage, and were taken
short with a storm of wind at NE. after they were past
Wintertonness, a few leagues; some of them, whose masters were a
little more wary than the rest, or perhaps, who made a better
judgment of things, or who were not so far out as the rest, tacked,
and put back in time, and got safe into the roads; but the rest
pushing on in hopes to keep out to sea, and weather it, were by the
violence of the storm driven back, when they were too far embayed
to weather Wintertonness as above, and so were forced to run west,
everyone shifting for themselves as well as they could; some run
away for Lynn Deeps, but few of them (the night being so dark)
could find their way in there; some, but very few, rode it out at a
distance; the rest, being above 140 sail, were all driven on shore
and dashed to pieces, and very few of the people on board were
saved: at the very same unhappy juncture, a fleet of laden ships
were coming from the north, and being just crossing the same bay,
were forcibly driven into it, not able to weather the Ness, and so
were involved in the same ruin as the light fleet was; also some
coasting vessels laden with corn from Lynn and Wells, and bound for
Holland, were with the same unhappy luck just come out to begin
their voyage, and some of them lay at anchor; these also met with
the same misfortune, so that, in the whole, above 200 sail of
ships, and above a thousand people, perished in the disaster of
that one miserable night, very few escaping.

Cromer is a market town close to the shore of this dangerous coast.
I know nothing it is famous for (besides it being thus the terror
of the sailors) except good lobsters, which are taken on that coast
in great numbers and carried to Norwich, and in such quantities
sometimes too as to be conveyed by sea to London.

Farther within the land, and between this place and Norwich, are
several good market towns, and innumerable villages, all diligently
applying to the woollen manufacture, and the country is exceedingly
fruitful and fertile, as well in corn as in pastures; particularly,
which was very pleasant to see, the pheasants were in such great
plenty as to be seen in the stubbles like cocks and hens--a
testimony though, by the way, that the county had more tradesmen
than gentlemen in it; indeed, this part is so entirely given up to
industry, that what with the seafaring men on the one side, and the
manufactures on the other, we saw no idle hands here, but every man
busy on the main affair of life, that is to say, getting money;
some of the principal of these towns are:- Alsham, North Walsham,
South Walsham, Worsted, Caston, Reepham, Holt, Saxthorp, St.
Faith's, Blikling, and many others. Near the last, Sir John
Hobart, of an ancient family in this county, has a noble seat, but
old built. This is that St. Faith's, where the drovers bring their
black cattle to sell to the Norfolk graziers, as is observed above.

From Cromer we ride on the strand or open shore to Weyburn Hope,
the shore so flat that in some places the tide ebbs out near two
miles. From Weyburn west lies Clye, where there are large salt-
works and very good salt made, which is sold all over the county,
and sometimes sent to Holland and to the Baltic. From Clye we go
to Masham and to Wells, all towns on the coast, in each whereof
there is a very considerable trade carried on with Holland for
corn, which that part of the county is very full of. I say nothing
of the great trade driven here from Holland, back again to England,
because I take it to be a trade carried on with much less honesty
than advantage, especially while the clandestine trade, or the art
of smuggling was so much in practice: what it is now, is not to my
present purpose.

Near this town lie The Seven Burnhams, as they are called, that is
to say, seven small towns, all called by the same name, and each
employed in the same trade of carrying corn to Holland, and
bringing back,--etc.

From hence we turn to the south-west to Castle Rising, an old
decayed borough town, with perhaps not ten families in it, which
yet (to the scandal of our prescription right) sends two members to
the British Parliament, being as many as the City of Norwich itself
or any town in the kingdom, London excepted, can do.

On our left we see Walsingham, an ancient town, famous for the old
ruins of a monastery of note there, and the Shrine of our Lady, as
noted as that of St. Thomas-a-Becket at Canterbury, and for little

Near this place are the seats of the two allied families of the
Lord Viscount Townsend and Robert Walpole, Esq.; the latter at this
time one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury and Minister of
State, and the former one of the principal Secretaries of State to
King George, of which again.

From hence we went to Lynn, another rich and populous thriving
port-town. It stands on more ground than the town of Yarmouth, and
has, I think, parishes, yet I cannot allow that it has more people
than Yarmouth, if so many. It is a beautiful, well built, and well
situated town, at the mouth of the River Ouse, and has this
particular attending it, which gives it a vast advantage in trade;
namely, that there is the greatest extent of inland navigation here
of any port in England, London excepted. The reason whereof is
this, that there are more navigable rivers empty themselves here
into the sea, including the washes, which are branches of the same
port, than at any one mouth of waters in England, except the Thames
and the Humber. By these navigable rivers, the merchants of Lynn
supply about six counties wholly, and three counties in part, with
their goods, especially wine and coals, viz., by the little Ouse,
they send their goods to Brandon and Thetford, by the Lake to
Mildenhall, Barton Mills, and St. Edmundsbury; by the River Grant
to Cambridge, by the great Ouse itself to Ely, to St. Ives, to St.
Neots, to Barford Bridge, and to Bedford; by the River Nyne to
Peterborough; by the drains and washes to Wisbeach, to Spalding,
Market Deeping, and Stamford; besides the several counties, into
which these goods are carried by land-carriage, from the places,
where the navigation of those rivers end; which has given rise to
this observation on the town of Lynn, that they bring in more coals
than any sea-port between London and Newcastle; and import more
wines than any port in England, except London and Bristol; their
trade to Norway and to the Baltic Sea is also great in proportion,
and of late years they have extended their trade farther to the

Here are more gentry, and consequently is more gaiety in this town
than in Yarmouth, or even in Norwich itself--the place abounding in
very good company.

The situation of this town renders it capable of being made very
strong, and in the late wars it was so; a line of fortification
being drawn round it at a distance from the walls; the ruins, or
rather remains of which works appear very fair to this day; nor
would it be a hard matter to restore the bastions, with the
ravelins, and counterscarp, upon any sudden emergency, to a good
state of defence: and that in a little time, a sufficient number
of workmen being employed, especially because they are able to fill
all their ditches with water from the sea, in such a manner as that
it cannot be drawn off.

There is in the market-place of this town a very fine statue of
King William on horseback, erected at the charge of the town. The
Ouse is mighty large and deep, close to the very town itself, and
ships of good burthen may come up to the quay; but there is no
bridge, the stream being too strong and the bottom moorish and
unsound; nor, for the same reason, is the anchorage computed the
best in the world; but there are good roads farther down.

They pass over here in boats into the fen country, and over the
famous washes into Lincolnshire, but the passage is very dangerous
and uneasy, and where passengers often miscarry and are lost; but
then it is usually on their venturing at improper times, and
without the guides, which if they would be persuaded not to do,
they would very rarely fail of going or coming safe.

From Lynn I bent my course to Downham, where is an ugly wooden
bridge over the Ouse; from whence we passed the fen country to
Wisbeach, but saw nothing that way to tempt our curiosity but deep
roads, innumerable drains and dykes of water, all navigable, and a
rich soil, the land bearing a vast quantity of good hemp, but a
base unwholesome air; so we came back to Ely, whose cathedral,
standing in a level flat country, is seen far and wide, and of
which town, when the minster, so they call it, is described,
everything remarkable is said that there is room to say. And of
the minster, this is the most remarkable thing that I could hear
it, namely, that some of it is so ancient, totters so much with
every gust of wind, looks so like a decay, and seems so near it,
that whenever it does fall, all that it is likely will be thought
strange in it will be that it did not fall a hundred years sooner.

From hence we came over the Ouse, and in a few miles to Newmarket.
In our way, near Snaybell, we saw a noble seat of the late Admiral
Russell, now Earl of Orford, a name made famous by the glorious
victory obtained under his command over the French fleet and the
burning their ships at La Hogue--a victory equal in glory to, and
infinitely more glorious to the English nation in particular, than
that at Blenheim, and, above all, more to the particular advantage
of the confederacy, because it so broke the heart of the naval
power of France that they have not fully recovered it to this day.
But of this victory it must be said it was owing to the haughty,
rash, and insolent orders given by the King of France to his
admiral, viz., to fight the confederate fleet wherever he found
them, without leaving room for him to use due caution if he found
them too strong, which pride of France was doubtless a fate upon
them, and gave a cheap victory to the confederates, the French
coming down rashly, and with the most impolitic bravery, with about
five-and-forty sail to attack between seventy and eighty sail, by
which means they met their ruin. Whereas, had their own fleet been
joined, it might have cost more blood to have mastered them if it
had been done at all.

The situation of this house is low, and on the edge of the fen
country, but the building is very fine, the avenues noble, and the
gardens perfectly finished. The apartments also are rich, and I
see nothing wanting but a family and heirs to sustain the glory and
inheritance of the illustrious ancestor who raised it--sed caret
pedibus; these are wanting.

Being come to Newmarket in the month of October, I had the
opportunity to see the horse races and a great concourse of the
nobility and gentry, as well from London as from all parts of
England, but they were all so intent, so eager, so busy upon the
sharping part of the sport--their wagers and bets--that to me they
seemed just as so many horse-coursers in Smithfield, descending
(the greatest of them) from their high dignity and quality to
picking one another's pockets, and biting one another as much as
possible, and that with such eagerness as that it might be said
they acted without respect to faith, honour, or good manners.

There was Mr. Frampton the oldest, and, as some say, the cunningest
jockey in England; one day he lost one thousand guineas, the next
he won two thousand; and so alternately he made as light of
throwing away five hundred or one thousand pounds at a time as
other men do of their pocket-money, and as perfectly calm,
cheerful, and unconcerned when he had lost one thousand pounds as
when he had won it. On the other side there was Sir R Fagg, of
Sussex, of whom fame says he has the most in him and the least to
show for it (relating to jockeyship) of any man there, yet he often
carried the prize. His horses, they said, were all cheats, how
honest soever their master was, for he scarce ever produced a horse
but he looked like what he was not, and was what nobody could
expect him to be. If he was as light as the wind, and could fly
like a meteor, he was sure to look as clumsy, and as dirty, and as
much like a cart-horse as all the cunning of his master and the
grooms could make him, and just in this manner he beat some of the
greatest gamesters in the field.

I was so sick of the jockeying part that I left the crowd about the
posts and pleased myself with observing the horses: how the
creatures yielded to all the arts and managements of their masters;
how they took their airings in sport, and played with the daily
heats which they ran over the course before the grand day. But
how, as knowing the difference equally with their riders, would
they exert their utmost strength at the time of the race itself!
And that to such an extremity that one or two of them died in the
stable when they came to be rubbed after the first heat.

Here I fancied myself in the Circus Maximus at Rome seeing the
ancient games and the racings of the chariots and horsemen, and in
this warmth of my imagination I pleased and diverted myself more
and in a more noble manner than I could possibly do in the crowds
of gentlemen at the weighing and starting-posts and at their coming
in, or at their meetings at the coffee-houses and gaming-tables
after the races were over, where there was little or nothing to be
seen but what was the subject of just reproach to them and reproof
from every wise man that looked upon them.

N.B.--Pray take it with you, as you go, you see no ladies at
Newmarket, except a few of the neighbouring gentlemen's families,
who come in their coaches on any particular day to see a race, and
so go home again directly.

As I was pleasing myself with what was to be seen here, I went in
the intervals of the sport to see the fine seats of the gentlemen
in the neighbouring county, for this part of Suffolk, being an open
champaign country and a healthy air, is formed for pleasure and all
kinds of country diversion, Nature, as it were, inviting the
gentlemen to visit her where she was fully prepared to receive
them, in conformity to which kind summons they came, for the
country is, as it were, covered with fine palaces of the nobility
and pleasant seats of the gentlemen.

The Earl of Orford's house I have mentioned already; the next is
Euston Hall, the seat of the Duke of Grafton. It lies in the open
country towards the side of Norfolk, not far from Thetford, a place
capable of all that is pleasant and delightful in Nature, and
improved by art to every extreme that Nature is able to produce.

From thence I went to Rushbrook, formerly the seat of the noble
family of Jermyns, lately Lord Dover, and now of the house of
Davers. Here Nature, for the time I was there, drooped and veiled
all the beauties of which she once boasted, the family being in
tears and the house shut up, Sir Robert Davers, the head thereof,
and knight of the shire for the county of Suffolk, and who had
married the eldest daughter of the late Lord Dover, being just
dead, and the corpse lying there in its funeral form of ceremony,
not yet buried. Yet all looked lovely in their sorrow, and a
numerous issue promising and grown up intimated that the family of
Davers would still flourish, and that the beauties of Rushbrook,
the mansion of the family, were not formed with so much art in vain
or to die with the present possessor.

After this we saw Brently, the seat of the Earl of Dysert, and the
ancient palace of my Lord Cornwallis, with several others of
exquisite situation, and adorned with the beauties both of art and
Nature, so that I think any traveller from abroad, who would desire
to see how the English gentry live, and what pleasures they enjoy,
should come into Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, and take but a light
circuit among the country seats of the gentlemen on this side only,
and they would be soon convinced that not France, no, not Italy
itself, can outdo them in proportion to the climate they lived in.

I had still the county of Cambridge to visit to complete this tour
of the eastern part of England, and of that I come now to speak.

We enter Cambridgeshire out of Suffolk, with all the advantage in
the world; the county beginning upon those pleasant and agreeable
plains called Newmarket Heath, where passing the Devil's Ditch,
which has nothing worth notice but its name, and that but fabulous
too, from the hills called Gogmagog, we see a rich and pleasant
vale westward, covered with corn-fields, gentlemen's seats,
villages, and at a distance, to crown all the rest, that ancient
and truly famous town and university of Cambridge, capital of the
county, and receiving its name from, if not, as some say, giving
name to it; for if it be true that the town takes its name of
Cambridge from its bridge over the river Cam, then certainly the
shire or county, upon the division of England into counties, had
its name from the town, and Cambridgeshire signifies no more or
less than the county of which Cambridge is the capital town.

As my business is not to lay out the geographical situation of
places, I say nothing of the buttings and boundings of this county.
It lies on the edge of the great level, called by the people here
the Fen Country; and great part, if not all, the Isle of Ely lies
in this county and Norfolk. The rest of Cambridgeshire is almost
wholly a corn country, and of that corn five parts in six of all
they sow is barley, which is generally sold to Ware and Royston,
and other great malting towns in Hertfordshire, and is the fund
from whence that vast quantity of malt, called Hertfordshire malt,
is made, which is esteemed the best in England. As Essex, Suffolk,
and Norfolk are taken up in manufactures, and famed for industry,
this county has no manufacture at all; nor are the poor, except the
husbandmen, famed for anything so much as idleness and sloth, to
their scandal be it spoken. What the reason of it is I know not.

It is scarce possible to talk of anything in Cambridgeshire but
Cambridge itself; whether it be that the county has so little worth
speaking of in it, or, that the town has so much, that I leave to
others; however, as I am making modern observations, not writing
history, I shall look into the county, as well as into the
colleges, for what I have to say.

As I said, I first had a view of Cambridge from Gogmagog hills; I
am to add that there appears on the mountain that goes by this
name, an ancient camp or fortification, that lies on the top of the
hill, with a double, or rather treble, rampart and ditch, which
most of our writers say was neither Roman nor Saxon, but British.
I am to add that King James II. caused a spacious stable to be
built in the area of this camp for his running homes, and made old
Mr. Frampton, whom I mentioned above, master or inspector of them.
The stables remain still there, though they are not often made use
of. As we descended westward we saw the Fen country on our right,
almost all covered with water like a sea, the Michaelmas rains
having been very great that year, they had sent down great floods
of water from the upland countries, and those fens being, as may be
very properly said, the sink of no less than thirteen counties--
that is to say, that all the water, or most part of the water, of
thirteen counties falls into them; they are often thus overflowed.
The rivers which thus empty themselves into these fens, and which
thus carry off the water, are the Cam or Grant, the Great Ouse and
Little Ouse, the Nene, the Welland, and the river which runs from
Bury to Milden Hall. The counties which these rivers drain, as
above, are as follows:-

Lincoln, Warwick, Norfolk,
* Cambridge, Oxford, Suffolk,
* Huntingdon, Leicester, Essex,
* Bedford, * Northampton
Buckingham, * Rutland.

Those marked with (*) empty all their waters this way, the rest but
in part.

In a word, all the water of the middle part of England which does
not run into the Thames or the Trent, comes down into these fens.

In these fens are abundance of those admirable pieces of art called
decoys that is to say, places so adapted for the harbour and
shelter of wild fowl, and then furnished with a breed of those they
call decoy ducks, who are taught to allure and entice their kind to
the places they belong to, that it is incredible what quantities of
wild fowl of all sorts, duck, mallard, teal, widgeon, &c., they
take in those decoys every week during the season; it may, indeed,
be guessed at a little by this, that there is a decoy not far from
Ely which pays to the landlord, Sir Thomas Hare, 500 pounds a year
rent, besides the charge of maintaining a great number of servants
for the management; and from which decoy alone, they assured me at
St. Ives (a town on the Ouse, where the fowl they took was always
brought to be sent to London) that they generally sent up three
thousand couple a week.

There are more of these about Peterborough, who send the fowl up
twice a week in waggon-loads at a time, whose waggons before the
late Act of Parliament to regulate carriers I have seen drawn by
ten and twelve horses a-piece, they were laden so heavy.

As these fens appear covered with water, so I observed, too, that
they generally at this latter part of the year appear also covered
with fogs, so that when the downs and higher grounds of the
adjacent country were gilded with the beams of the sun, the Isle of
Ely looked as if wrapped up in blankets, and nothing to be seen but
now and then the lantern or cupola of Ely Minster.

One could hardly see this from the hills and not pity the many
thousands of families that were bound to or confined in those fogs,
and had no other breath to draw than what must be mixed with those
vapours, and that steam which so universally overspreads the
country. But notwithstanding this, the people, especially those
that are used to it, live unconcerned, and as healthy as other
folks, except now and then an ague, which they make light of, and
there are great numbers of very ancient people among them.

I now draw near to Cambridge, to which I fancy I look as if I was
afraid to come, having made so many circumlocutions beforehand; but
I must yet make another digression before I enter the town (for in
my way, and as I came in from Newmarket, about the beginning of
September), I cannot omit, that I came necessarily through
Stourbridge Fair, which was then in its height.

If it is a diversion worthy a book to treat of trifles, such as the
gaiety of Bury Fair, it cannot be very unpleasant, especially to
the trading part of the world, to say something of this fair, which
is not only the greatest in the whole nation, but in the world;
nor, if I may believe those who have seen the mall, is the fair at
Leipzig in Saxony, the mart at Frankfort-on-the-Main, or the fairs
at Nuremberg, or Augsburg, any way to compare to this fair at

It is kept in a large corn-field, near Casterton, extending from
the side of the river Cam, towards the road, for about half a mile

If the husbandmen who rent the land, do not get their corn off
before a certain day in August, the fair-keepers may trample it
under foot and spoil it to build their booths, or tents, for all
the fair is kept in tents and booths. On the other hand, to
balance that severity, if the fair-keepers have not done their
business of the fair, and removed and cleared the field by another
certain day in September, the ploughmen may come in again, with
plough and cart, and overthrow all, and trample into the dirt; and
as for the filth, dung, straw, etc. necessarily left by the fair-
keepers, the quantity of which is very great, it is the farmers'
fees, and makes them full amends for the trampling, riding, and
carting upon, and hardening the ground.

It is impossible to describe all the parts and circumstances of
this fair exactly; the shops are placed in rows like streets,
whereof one is called Cheapside; and here, as in several other
streets, are all sorts of trades, who sell by retail, and who come
principally from London with their goods; scarce any trades are
omitted--goldsmiths, toyshops, brasiers, turners, milliners,
haberdashers, hatters, mercers, drapers, pewterers, china-
warehouses, and in a word all trades that can be named in London;
with coffee-houses, taverns, brandy-shops, and eating-houses,
innumerable, and all in tents, and booths, as above.

This great street reaches from the road, which as I said goes from
Cambridge to Newmarket, turning short out of it to the right
towards the river, and holds in a line near half a mile quite down
to the river-side: in another street parallel with the road are
like rows of booths, but larger, and more intermingled with
wholesale dealers; and one side, passing out of this last street to
the left hand, is a formal great square, formed by the largest
booths, built in that form, and which they call the Duddery; whence
the name is derived, and what its signification is, I could never
yet learn, though I made all possible search into it. The area of
this square is about 80 to 100 yards, where the dealers have room
before every booth to take down, and open their packs, and to bring
in waggons to load and unload.

This place is separated, and peculiar to the wholesale dealers in
the woollen manufacture. Here the booths or tents are of a vast
extent, have different apartments, and the quantities of goods they
bring are so great, that the insides of them look like another
Blackwell Hall, being as vast warehouses piled up with goods to the
top. In this Duddery, as I have been informed, there have been
sold one hundred thousand pounds worth of woollen manufactures in
less than a week's time, besides the prodigious trade carried on
here, by wholesale men, from London, and all parts of England, who
transact their business wholly in their pocket-books, and meeting
their chapmen from all parts, make up their accounts, receive money
chiefly in bills, and take orders: These they say exceed by far
the sales of goods actually brought to the fair, and delivered in
kind; it being frequent for the London wholesale men to carry back
orders from their dealers for ten thousand pounds' worth of goods a
man, and some much more. This especially respects those people,
who deal in heavy goods, as wholesale grocers, salters, brasiers,
iron-merchants, wine-merchants, and the like; but does not exclude
the dealers in woollen manufactures, and especially in mercery
goods of all sorts, the dealers in which generally manage their
business in this manner.

Here are clothiers from Halifax, Leeds, Wakefield and Huddersfield
in Yorkshire, and from Rochdale, Bury, etc., in Lancashire, with
vast quantities of Yorkshire cloths, kerseys, pennistons, cottons,
etc., with all sorts of Manchester ware, fustiains, and things made
of cotton wool; of which the quantity is so great, that they told
me there were near a thousand horse-packs of such goods from that
side of the country, and these took up a side and half of the
Duddery at least; also a part of a street of booths were taken up
with upholsterer's ware, such as tickings, sackings, kidderminster
stuffs, blankets, rugs, quilts, etc.

In the Duddery I saw one warehouse, or booth with six apartments in
it, all belonging to a dealer in Norwich stuffs only, and who, they
said, had there above twenty thousand pounds value in those goods,
and no other.

Western goods had their share here also, and several booths were
filled as full with serges, duroys, druggets, shalloons,
cantaloons, Devonshire kerseys, etc., from Exeter, Taunton,
Bristol, and other parts west, and some from London also.

But all this is still outdone at least in show, by two articles,
which are the peculiars of this fair, and do not begin till the
other part of the fair, that is to say for the woollen manufacture
begins to draw to a close. These are the wool and the hops; as for
the hops, there is scarce any price fixed for hops in England, till
they know how they sell at Stourbridge fair; the quantity that
appears in the fair is indeed prodigious, and they, as it were,
possess a large part of the field on which the fair is kept to
themselves; they are brought directly from Chelmsford in Essex,
from Canterbury and Maidstone in Kent, and from Farnham in Surrey,
besides what are brought from London, the growth of those and other

Enquiring why this fair should be thus, of all other places in
England, the centre of that trade; and so great a quantity of so
bulky a commodity be carried thither so far; I was answered by one
thoroughly acquainted with that matter thus: the hops, said he,
for this part of England, grow principally in the two counties of
Surrey and Kent, with an exception only to the town of Chelmsford
in Essex, and there are very few planted anywhere else.

There are indeed in the west of England some quantities growing:
as at Wilton, near Salisbury; at Hereford and Broomsgrove, near
Wales, and the like; but the quantity is inconsiderable, and the
places remote, so that none of them come to London.

As to the north of England, they formerly used but few hops there,
their drink being chiefly pale smooth ale, which required no hops,
and consequently they planted no hops in all that part of England,
north of the Trent; nor did I ever see one acre of hop-ground
planted beyond Trent in my observation; but as for some years past,
they not only brew great quantities of beer in the north, but also
use hops in the brewing their ale much more than they did before;
so they all come south of Trent to buy their hops; and here being
quantities brought, it is great part of their back carriage into
Yorkshire, and Northamptonshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire, and all
these counties; nay, of late, since the Union, even to Scotland
itself; for I must not omit here also to mention, that the river
Grant, or Cam, which runs close by the north-west side of the fair
in its way from Cambridge to Ely, is navigable, and that by this
means, all heavy goods are brought even to the fair-field, by water
carriage from London and other parts; first to the port of Lynn,
and then in barges up the Ouse, from the Ouse into the Cam, and so,
as I say, to the very edge of the fair.

In like manner great quantities of heavy goods, and the hops among
the rest, are sent from the fair to Lynn by water, and shipped
there for the Humber, to Hull, York, etc., and for Newcastle-upon-
Tyne, and by Newcastle, even to Scotland itself. Now as there is
still no planting of hops in the north, though a great consumption,
and the consumption increasing daily, this, says my friend, is one
reason why at Stourbridge fair there is so great a demand for the
hops. He added, that besides this, there were very few hops, if
any worth naming, growing in all the counties even on this side
Trent, which were above forty miles from London; those counties
depending on Stourbridge fair for their supply, so the counties of
Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Northampton, Lincoln,
Leicester, Rutland, and even to Stafford, Warwick, and
Worcestershire, bought most if not all of their hops at Stourbridge

These are the reasons why so great a quantity of hops are seen at
this fair, as that it is incredible, considering, too, how remote
from this fair the growth of them is as above.

This is likewise a testimony of the prodigious resort of the
trading people of all parts of England to this fair; the quantity
of hops that have been sold at one of these fairs is diversely
reported, and some affirm it to be so great, that I dare not copy
after them; but without doubt it is a surprising account,
especially in a cheap year.

The next article brought thither is wool, and this of several
sorts, but principally fleece wool, out of Lincolnshire, where the
longest staple is found; the sheep of those countries being of the
largest breed.

The buyers of this wool are chiefly indeed the manufacturers of
Norfolk and Suffolk and Essex, and it is a prodigious quantity they

Here I saw what I have not observed in any other county of England,
namely, a pocket of wool. This seems to be first called so in
mockery, this pocket being so big, that it loads a whole waggon,
and reaches beyond the most extreme parts of it hanging over both
before and behind, and these ordinarily weigh a ton or twenty-five
hundredweight of wool, all in one bag.

The quantity of wool only, which has been sold at this place at one
fair, has been said to amount to fifty or sixty thousand pounds in
value, some say a great deal more.

By these articles a stranger may make some guess at the immense
trade carried on at this place; what prodigious quantities of goods
are bought and sold here, and what a confluence of people are seen
here from all parts of England.

I might go on here to speak of several other sorts of English
manufactures which are brought hither to be sold; as all sorts of
wrought-iron and brass-ware from Birmingham; edged tools, knives,
etc., from Sheffield; glass wares and stockings from Nottingham and
Leicester; and an infinite throng of other things of smaller value
every morning.

To attend this fair, and the prodigious conflux of people which
come to it, there are sometimes no less than fifty hackney coaches
which come from London, and ply night and morning to carry the
people to and from Cambridge; for there the gross of the people
lodge; nay, which is still more strange, there are wherries brought
from London on waggons to ply upon the little river Cam, and to row
people up and down from the town, and from the fair as occasion

It is not to be wondered at, if the town of Cambridge cannot
receive, or entertain the numbers of people that come to this fair;
not Cambridge only, but all the towns round are full; nay, the very
barns and stables are turned into inns, and made as fit as they can
to lodge the meaner sort of people: as for the people in the fair,
they all universally eat, drink, and sleep in their booths and
tents; and the said booths are so intermingled with taverns,
coffee-houses, drinking-houses, eating-houses, cook-shops, etc.,
and all in tents too; and so many butchers and higglers from all
the neighbouring counties come into the fair every morning with
beef, mutton, fowls, butter, bread, cheese, eggs, and such things,
and go with them from tent to tent, from door to door, that there
is no want of any provisions of any kind, either dressed or

In a word, the fair is like a well-fortified city, and there is the
least disorder and confusion I believe, that can be seen anywhere
with so great a concourse of people.

Towards the latter end of the fair, and when the great hurry of
wholesale business begins to be over, the gentry come in from all
parts of the county round; and though they come for their
diversion, yet it is not a little money they lay out, which
generally falls to the share of the retailers, such as toy-shops,
goldsmiths, braziers, ironmongers, turners, milliners, mercers,
etc., and some loose coins they reserve for the puppet shows,
drolls, rope-dancers, and such like, of which there is no want,
though not considerable like the rest. The last day of the fair is
the horse-fair, where the whole is closed with both horse and foot
races, to divert the meaner sort of people only, for nothing
considerable is offered of that kind. Thus ends the whole fair,
and in less than a week more, there is scarce any sign left that
there has been such a thing there, except by the heaps of dung and
straw and other rubbish which is left behind, trod into the earth,
and which is as good as a summer's fallow for dunging the land; and
as I have said above, pays the husbandman well for the use of it.

I should have mentioned that here is a court of justice always
open, and held every day in a shed built on purpose in the fair;
this is for keeping the peace, and deciding controversies in
matters deriving from the business of the fair. The magistrates of
the town of Cambridge are judges in this court, as being in their
jurisdiction, or they holding it by special privilege: here they
determine matters in a summary way, as is practised in those we
call Pye Powder Courts in other places, or as a Court of
Conscience; and they have a final authority without appeal.

I come now to the town and university of Cambridge; I say the town
and university, for though they are blended together in the
situation, and the colleges, halls, and houses for literature are
promiscuously scattered up and down among the other parts, and some
even among the meanest of the other buildings, as Magdalene College
over the bridge is in particular; yet they are all incorporated
together by the name of the university, and are governed apart and
distinct from the town which they are so intermixed with.

As their authority is distinct from the town, so are their
privileges, customs, and government; they choose representatives,
or members of Parliament for themselves, and the town does the like
for themselves, also apart.

The town is governed by a mayor and aldermen; the university by a
chancellor, and vice-chancellor, etc. Though their dwellings are
mixed, and seem a little confused, their authority is not so; in
some cases the vice-chancellor may concern himself in the town, as
in searching houses for the scholars at improper hours, removing
scandalous women, and the like.

But as the colleges are many, and the gentlemen entertained in them
are a very great number, the trade of the town very much depends
upon them, and the tradesmen may justly be said to get their bread
by the colleges; and this is the surest hold the university may be
said to have of the townsmen, and by which they secure the
dependence of the town upon them, and consequently their

I remember some years ago a brewer, who being very rich and popular
in the town, and one of their magistrates, had in several things so
much opposed the university, and insulted their vice-chancellor, or
other heads of houses, that in short the university having no other
way to exert themselves, and show their resentment, they made a
bye-law or order among themselves, that for the future they would
not trade with him; and that none of the colleges, halls, etc.,
would take any more beer of him; and what followed? The man indeed
braved it out a while, but when he found he could not obtain a
revocation of the order, he was fain to leave off his brewhouse,
and if I remember right, quitted the town.

Thus I say, interest gives them authority; and there are abundance
of reasons why the town should not disoblige the university, as
there are some also on the other hand, why the university should
not differ to any extremity with the town; nor, such is their
prudence, do they let any disputes between them run up to any
extremities if they can avoid it. As for society; to any man who
is a lover of learning, or of learned men, here is the most
agreeable under heaven; nor is there any want of mirth and good
company of other kinds; but it is to the honour of the university
to say, that the governors so well understand their office, and the
governed their duty, that here is very little encouragement given
to those seminaries of crime, the assemblies, which are so much
boasted of in other places.

Again, as dancing, gaming, intriguing are the three principal
articles which recommend those assemblies; and that generally the
time for carrying on affairs of this kind is the night, and
sometimes all night, a time as unseasonable as scandalous; add to
this, that the orders of the university admit no such excesses; I
therefore say, as this is the case, it is to the honour of the
whole body of the university that no encouragement is given to them

As to the antiquity of the university in this town, the originals
and founders of the several colleges, their revenues, laws,
government, and governors, they are so effectually and so largely
treated of by other authors, and are so foreign to the familiar
design of these letters, that I refer my readers to Mr. Camden's
"Britannia" and the author of the "Antiquities of Cambridge," and
other such learned writers, by whom they may be fully informed.

The present Vice-Chancellor is Dr. Snape, formerly Master of Eaton
School near Windsor, and famous for his dispute with, and evident
advantage over, the late Bishop of Bangor in the time of his
government; the dispute between the University and the Master of
Trinity College has been brought to a head so as to employ the pens
of the learned on both sides, but at last prosecuted in a judicial
way so as to deprive Dr. Bentley of all his dignities and offices
in the university; but the doctor flying to the royal protection,
the university is under a writ of mandamus, to show cause why they
do not restore the doctor again, to which it seems they demur, and
that demur has not, that we hear, been argued, at least when these
sheets were sent to the press. What will be the issue time must

From Cambridge the road lies north-west on the edge of the fens to
Huntingdon, where it joins the great north road. On this side it
is all an agreeable corn country as above, adorned with several
seats of gentlemen; but the chief is the noble house, seat, or
mansion of Wimple or Wimple Hall, formerly built at a vast expense
by the late Earl of Radnor, adorned with all the natural beauties
of situation, and to which was added all the most exquisite
contrivances which the best heads could invent to make it
artificially as well as naturally pleasant.

However, the fate of the Radnor family so directing, it was bought
with the whole estate about it by the late Duke of Newcastle, in a
partition of whose immense estate it fell to the Right Honourable
the Lord Harley, son and heir-apparent of the present Earl of
Oxford and Mortimer, in right of the Lady Harriet Cavendish, only
daughter of the said Duke of Newcastle, who is married to his
lordship, and brought him this estate and many other, sufficient to
denominate her the richest heiress in Great Britain.

Here his lordship resides, and has already so recommended himself
to this county as to be by a great majority chosen Knight of the
Shire for the county of Cambridge.

From Cambridge, my design obliging me, and the direct road in part
concurring, I came back through the west part of the county of
Essex, and at Saffron Walden I saw the ruins of the once largest
and most magnificent pile in all this part of England--viz., Audley
End--built by, and decaying with, the noble Dukes and Earls of

A little north of this part of the country rises the River Stour,
which for a course of fifty miles or more parts the two counties of
Suffolk and Essex, passing through or near Haveril, Clare,
Cavendish, Halsted, Sudbury, Bowers, Nayland, Stretford, Dedham,
Manningtree, and into the sea at Harwich, assisting by its waters
to make one of the best harbours for shipping that is in Great
Britain--I mean Orwell Haven or Harwich, of which I have spoken
largely already.

As we came on this side we saw at a distance Braintree and Bocking,
two towns, large, rich, and populous, and made so originally by the
bay trade, of which I have spoken at large at Colchester, and which
flourishes still among them.

The manor of Braintree I found descended by purchase to the name of
Olmeus, the son of a London merchant of the same name, making good
what I had observed before, of the great number of such who have
purchased estates in this county.

Near this town is Felsted, a small place, but noted for a free
school of an ancient foundation, for many years under the
mastership of the late Rev. Mr. Lydiat, and brought by him to the
meridian of its reputation. It is now supplied, and that very
worthily, by the Rev. Mr. Hutchins.

Near to this is the Priory of Lees, a delicious seat of the late
Dukes of Manchester, but sold by the present Duke to the Duchess
Dowager of Bucks, his Grace the Duke of Manchester removing to his
yet finer seat of Kimbolton in Northamptonshire, the ancient
mansion of the family. From hence keeping the London Road I came
to Chelmsford, mentioned before, and Ingerstone, five miles west,
which I mention again, because in the parish church of this town
are to be seen the ancient monuments of the noble family of Petre,
whose seat and large estate lie in the neighbourhood, and whose
whole family, by a constant series of beneficent actions to the
poor, and bounty upon all charitable occasions, have gained an
affectionate esteem through all that part of the country such as no
prejudice of religion could wear out, or perhaps ever may; and I
must confess, I think, need not, for good and great actions command
our respect, let the opinions of the persons be otherwise what they

From hence we crossed the country to the great forest, called
Epping Forest, reaching almost to London. The country on that side
of Essex is called the Roodings, I suppose, because there are no
less than ten towns almost together, called by the name of Roding,
and is famous for good land, good malt, and dirty roads; the latter
indeed in the winter are scarce passable for horse or man. In the
midst of this we see Chipping Onger, Hatfield Broad Oak, Epping,
and many forest towns, famed as I have said for husbandry and good
malt, but of no other note. On the south side of the county is
Waltham Abbey; the ruins of the abbey remain, and though antiquity
is not my proper business, I could not but observe that King
Harold, slain in the great battle in Sussex against William the
Conqueror, lies buried here; his body being begged by his mother,
the Conqueror allowed it to be carried hither; but no monument was,
as I can find, built for him, only a flat gravestone, on which was
engraven Harold Infelix.

From hence I came over the forest again--that is to say, over the
lower or western part of it, where it is spangled with fine
villages, and these villages filled with fine seats, most of them
built by the citizens of London, as I observed before, but the
lustre of them seems to be entirely swallowed up in the magnificent
palace of the Lord Castlemain, whose father, Sir Josiah Child, as
it were, prepared it in his life for the design of his son, though
altogether unforeseen, by adding to the advantage of its situation
innumerable rows of trees, planted in curious order for avenues and
vistas to the house, all leading up to the place where the old
house stood, as to a centre.

In the place adjoining, his lordship, while he was yet Sir Richard
Child only, and some years before he began the foundation of his
new house, laid out the most delicious, as well as most spacious,
pieces of ground for gardens that is to be seen in all this part of
England. The greenhouse is an excellent building, fit to entertain
a prince; it is furnished with stoves and artificial places for
heat from an apartment in which is a bagnio and other conveniences,
which render it both useful and pleasant. And these gardens have
been so the just admiration of the world, that it has been the
general diversion of the citizens to go out to see them, till the
crowds grew too great, and his lordship was obliged to restrain his
servants from showing them, except on one or two days in a week

The house is built since these gardens have been finished. The
building is all of Portland stone in the front, which makes it look
extremely glorious and magnificent at a distance, it being the
particular property of that stone (except in the streets of London,
where it is tainted and tinged with the smoke of the city) to grow
whiter and whiter the longer it stands in the open air.

As the front of the house opens to a long row of trees, reaching to
the great road at Leightonstone, so the back face, or front (if
that be proper), respects the gardens, and, with an easy descent,
lands you upon the terrace, from whence is a most beautiful
prospect to the river, which is all formed into canals and openings
to answer the views from above and beyond the river; the walks and
wildernesses go on to such a distance, and in such a manner up the
hill, as they before went down, that the sight is lost in the woods
adjoining, and it looks all like one planted garden as far as the
eye can see.

I shall cover as much as possible the melancholy part of a story
which touches too sensibly many, if not most, of the great and
flourishing families in England. Pity and matter of grief is it to
think that families, by estate able to appear in such a glorious
posture as this, should ever be vulnerable by so mean a disaster as
that of stock-jobbing. But the general infatuation of the day is a
plea for it, so that men are not now blamed on that account. South
Sea was a general possession, and if my Lord Castlemain was wounded
by that arrow shot in the dark it was a misfortune. But it is so
much a happiness that it was not a mortal wound, as it was to some
men who once seemed as much out of the reach of it. And that blow,
be it what it will, is not remembered for joy of the escape, for we
see this noble family, by prudence and management, rise out of all
that cloud, if it may be allowed such a name, and shining in the
same full lustre as before.

This cannot be said of some other families in this county, whose
fine parks and new-built palaces are fallen under forfeitures and
alienations by the misfortunes of the times and by the ruin of
their masters' fortunes in that South Sea deluge.

But I desire to throw a veil over these things as they come in my
way; it is enough that we write upon them, as was written upon King
Harold's tomb at Waltham Abbey, Infelix, and let all the rest sleep
among things that are the fittest to be forgotten.

From my Lord Castlemain's, house and the rest of the fine dwellings
on that side of the forest, for there are several very good houses
at Wanstead, only that they seem all swallowed up in the lustre of
his lordship's palace, I say, from thence, I went south, towards
the great road over that part of the forest called the Flats, where
we see a very beautiful but retired and rural seat of Mr.
Lethulier's, eldest son of the late Sir John Lethulier, of Lusum,
in Kent, of whose family I shall speak when I come on that side.

By this turn I came necessarily on to Stratford, where I set out.
And thus having finished my first circuit, I conclude my first
letter, and am,

Sir, your most humble and obedient servant.


Whoever travels, as I do, over England, and writes the account of
his observations, will, as I noted before, always leave something,
altering or undertaking by such a growing improving nation as this,
or something to discover in a nation where so much is hid,
sufficient to employ the pens of those that come after him, or to
add by way of appendix to what he has already observed.

This is my case with respect to the particulars which follow: (1)
Since these sheets were in the press, a noble palace of Mr.
Walpole's, at present First Commissioner of the Treasury, Privy-
counsellor, etc., to King George, is, as it were, risen out of the
ruins of the ancient seat of the family of Walpole, at Houghton,
about eight miles distant from Lynn, and on the north coast of
Norfolk, near the sea.

As the house is not yet finished, and when I passed by it was but
newly designed, it cannot be expected that I should be able to give
a particular description of what it will be. I can do little more
than mention that it appears already to be exceedingly magnificent,
and suitable to the genius of the great founder.

But a friend of mine, who lives in that county, has sent me the
following lines, which, as he says, are to be placed upon the
building, whether on the frieze of the cornice, or over the
portico, or on what part of the building, of that I am not as yet
certain. The inscription is as follows, viz.:-

"H. M. F.

"Fundamen ut essem Domus
In Agro Natali Extruendae,
Robertus ille Walpole
Quem nulla nesciet Posteritas:

Faxit Dues.

"Postquam Maturus Annis Dominus.
Diu Laetatus fuerit absoluta
Incolumem tueantur Incolames.
Ad Summam omnium Diem
Et nati natorum et qui nascentur ab illis.

Hic me Posuit."

A second thing proper to be added here, by way of appendix, relates
to what I have mentioned of the Port of London, being bounded by
the Naze on the Essex shore, and the North Foreland on the Kentish
shore, which some people, guided by the present usage of the Custom
House, may pretend is not so, to answer such objectors. The true
state of that case stands thus:

"(1) The clause taken from the Act of Parliament establishing the
extent of the Port of London, and published in some of the books of
rates, is this:

"'To prevent all future differences and disputes touching the
extent and limits of the Port of London, the said port is declared
to extend, and be accounted from the promontory or point called the
North Foreland in the Isle of Thanet, and from thence northward in
a right line to the point called the Naze, beyond the Gunfleet upon
the coast of Essex, and so continued westward throughout the river
Thames, and the several channels, streams, and rivers falling into
it, to London Bridge, saving the usual and known rights, liberties,
and privileges of the ports of Sandwich and Ipswich, and either of
them, and the known members thereof, and of the customers,
comptrollers, searchers, and their deputies, of and within the said
ports of Sandwich and Ipswich and the several creeks, harbours, and
havens to them, or either of them, respectively belonging, within
the counties of Kent and Essex.'

"II. Notwithstanding what is above written, the Port of London, as
in use since the said order, is understood to reach no farther than
Gravesend in Kent and Tilbury Point in Essex, and the ports of
Rochester, Milton, and Faversham belong to the port of Sandwich.


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