Webster's Unabridged Dictionary
Part 15 out of 18
2. Any place of public contest or exertion; any sphere of
action; as, the arenaof debate; the arena of line.
3. (Med.) =Sand8 or =gravel8 in the kidneys.
Ar7eOna6ceous (?), a. [L. arenaceus, fr. arena sand.] Sandy
or consisting largely of sand; of the nature of sand; easily
disintegrating into sand; friable; as, arenaceous limestone.
Ar7eOna6riOous (?), a. [L. arenarius, fr. arena sand.]
Sandy; as, arenarious soil.
<-- p. 80 -->
Ar7eOna6tion (?), n. [L. arenatio, fr. arena sand.] (Med.) A
sand bath; application of hot sand to the body.
X Ar7enOda6tor (?), n. [LL. arendator, arrendator, fr.
arendare, arrendare, to pay rent, fr. arenda yearly rent;
ad + renda, F. rente, E. rent. Cf. Arrentation and Rent.] In
some provinces of Russia, one who farms the rents or
5 A person who rents an estate belonging to the crown is
called crown arendator.
X AOreng6 (?), X AOren6ga (?), n. [Malayan.] A palm tree
(Saguerus saccharifer) which furnishes sago, wine, and
fibers for ropes; the gomuti palm.
Ar7eOnic6oOlite (?), n. [L. arena sand + colere to cherish
or live.] (Paleon.) An ancient wormhole in sand, preserved
in the rocks.
AOren7iOlit6ic (?), a. [L. arena sand + Gr. ? stone.] Of or
pertaining to sandstone; as, arenilitic mountains.
Ar6eOnose (?), a. [L. arenosus, fr. arena sand.] Sandy; full
AOren6uOlous (?), a. [L. arenula fine sand, dim. of arena.]
Full of fine sand; like sand. [Obs.]
AOre6oOla (?), n.; pl. Areol (?). [L. areola, dim. of area:
cf. F. arole. See Area.] 1. An interstice or small space,
as between the cracks of the surface in certain crustaceous
lichens; or as between the fibers composing organs or
vessels that interlace; or as between the nervures of an
2. (Anat. & Med.) The colored ring around the nipple, or
around a vesicle or pustule.
AOre6oOlar (?), a. Pertaining to, or like, an areola; filled
with interstices or areol.
w tissue (Anat.), a form of fibrous connective tissue in
which the fibers are loosely arranged with numerous spaces,
or areol, between them.
AOre6oOlate (?), AOre6oOlaOted, } a. [L. areola: cf. F.
arole.] Divided into small spaces or areolations, as the
wings of insects, the leaves of plants, or the receptacle of
A7reOoOla6tion (?), n. 1. Division into areol.
2. Any small space, bounded by some part different in color
or structure, as the spaces bounded by the nervures of the
wings of insects, or those by the veins of leaves; an
A6reOole (?), n. Same as Areola.
AOre6oOlet (?), n. [Dim. of L. areola.] (Zol.) A small
inclosed area; esp. one of the small spaces on the wings of
insects, circumscribed by the veins.
A7reOom6eOter (?; 277), n. [Gr. ? ??in, rare + Ometer: cf.
tre.] (Physics) An instrument for measuring the
specific gravity of fluids; a form hydrometer.
A7reOoOmet6ric (?), A7reOoOmet6ricOal (?), } a. Pertaining
to, or measured by, an areometer.
A7reOom6eOtry (?), n. [Gr. ? thin, rare + Ometry.] The art
or process of measuring the specific gravity of fluids.
Ar7eOop6aOgist (?), n. See Areopagite.
Ar7eOop6aOgite (?), n. [L. Areopagites, Gr. ?.] A member of
Acts xvii. 34.
Ar7eOop7aOgit6ic (?), a. [L. Areopagiticus, Gr. ?.]
Pertaining to the Areopagus.
Ar7eOop6aOgus , n. [L., fr. Gr. ?, and ? ?, hill of Ares
(Mars' Hill).] The highest judicial court at Athens. Its
sessions were held on Mars' Hill. Hence, any high court or
AOre6oOstyle (?), a. & n. See Intercolumniation, and
AOre7oOsys6tyle (?), a. & n. See Intercolumniation, and
AOrere6 (?), v. t. & i. Arear. [Obs.]
AOrest6 (?), n. A support for the spear when couched for the
AOret6 (?), v. t. [OE. aretten, OF. areter; a (L. ad) + OF.
reter, L. reputare. See Repute.] To reckon; to ascribe; to
Ar7eOta6ics (?), n. [Gr. ? virtue.] The ethical theory which
excludes all relations between virtue and happiness; the
science of virtue; P contrasted with eudemonics.
Ar7eOtol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? virtue + ? discourse, ? to
speak: cf. F. artologie.] That part of moral philosophy
which treats of virtue, its nature, and the means of
attaining to it.
AOrew6 . adv. [See Arow, Row.] In a row. [Obs.] =All her
Ar6gal (?), n. Crude tartar. See Argol.
Ar6gal, adv. A ludicrous corruption of the Latin word ergo,
X Ar6gal (?), X Ar6gaOli , } n. [Mongolian.] (Zol.) A
species of wild sheep (Ovis ammon, or O. argali), remarkable
for its large horns. It inhabits the mountains of Siberia
and central Asia.
5 The bearded argali is the aoudad. See Aoudad. The name is
also applied to the bighorn sheep of the Rocky Mountains.
X Ar6gaOla (?), n. [Native name.] (Zol.) The adjutant bird.
Ar6gand lamp7(?) . [Named from the inventor, Aim Argand of
Geneva.] A lamp with a circular hollow wick and glass
chimney which allow a current of air both inside and outside
of the flame.
Argand burner, a burner for and Argand lamp, or a gas burner
in which the principle of that lamp is applied.
X Ar6gas (?), n. A genus of venomous ticks which attack men
and animals. The famous Persian Argas, also called Miana
bug, is A. Persicus; that of Central America, called talaje
by the natives, is A. Talaje.
ArOge6an (?), a. Pertaining to the ship Argo. See Argo.
Ar6gent (?), n. [F. argent, fr. L. argentum, silver; akin to
Gr. ? silver, ?, ?, white, bright, Skr. rajata white,
silver, raj to shine, Ir. arg white, milk, airgiod silver,
money, and L. arguere to make clear. See Argue.] 1. Silver,
or money. [Archaic]
2. (Fig. & Poet.) Whiteness; anything that is white.
The polished argent of her breast.
3. (Her.) The white color in coats of arms, intended to
represent silver, or, figuratively, purity, innocence,
beauty, or gentleness; P represented in engraving by a plain
Ar6gent, a. Made of silver; of a silvery color; white;
Yonder argent fields above.
ArOgen6tal (?), a. Of or pertaining to silver; resembling,
containing, or combined with, silver.
Ar6genOtan , n. An alloy of nicked with copper and zinc;
Ar6genOtate , a. [L. argentatus silvered.] (Bot.) Silvery
Ar7genOta6tion , n. [L. argentare to silver, fr. argentum
silver. See Argent.] A coating or overlaying with silver.
ArOgen6tic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or
containing, silver; P said of certain compounds of silver in
which this metal has its lowest proportion; as, argentic
Ar7genOtif6erOous (?), a. [L. argentum silver + Oferous: cf.
re.] Producing or containing silver; as,
argentiferous lead ore or veins.
Ar6genOtine (?; in the 2d sense, commonly ?), a. 1.
Pertaining to, or resembling, silver; made of, or sounding
like, silver; silvery.
Celestial Dian, goddess argentine.
2. Of or pertaining to the Argentine Republic in South
Ar6genOtine, n. [Cf. F. argentin, fr. L. argentum silver.]
1. (Min.) A siliceous variety of calcite, or carbonate of
lime, having a silveryPwhite, pearly luster, and a waving
or curved lamellar structure.
2. White metal coated with silver.
3. (Zol.) A fish of Europe (Maurolicus Pennantii) with
silvery scales. The name is also applied to various fishes
of the genus Argentina.
4. A citizen of the Argentine Republic.
Ar6genOtite (?), n. [L. argentum silver.] (Min.) Sulphide of
silver; P also called vitreous silver, or silver glance. It
has a metallic luster, a leadPgray color, and is sectile
ArOgen6tous (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or
containing, silver; P said of certain silver compounds in
which silver has a higher proportion than in argentic
compounds; as, argentous chloride.
Ar6gentOry (?), n. [F. argenterie, fr. argent silver, L.
argentum.] Silver plate or vessels. [Obs.]
Bowls of frosted argentry.
Ar6gil (?), n. [F. argile, L. argilla white clay, akin to
Gr. ? or ? ~, ? white. See Argent.] (Min.) Clay, or potter's
earth; sometimes pure clay, or alumina. See Clay.
Ar7gilOla6ceous (?), a. [L. argillaceus, fr. argilla.] Of
the nature of clay; consisting of, or containing, argil or
w sandstone (Geol.), a sandstone containing much clay. P w
iron ore, the clay ironstone. P w schist or state. See
Ar7gilOlif6erOous (?), a. [L. argilla white clay + Oferous.]
Producing clay; P applied to such earths as abound with
Ar6gilOlite (?), n. [Gr. ? clay + Olite.] (Min.)
Argillaceous schist or slate; clay slate. Its colors is
bluish or blackish gray, sometimes greenish gray, brownish
red, etc. P Ar7gilOlit6ic , a.
ArOgil7loPare7eOna6ceous (?), a. Consisting of, or
containing, clay and sand, as a soil.
ArOgil7loPcalOca6reOous (?), a. Consisting of, or
containing, clay and calcareous earth.
ArOgil7loPferOru6giOnous (?), a. Containing clay and iron.
ArOgil6lous (?), a. [L. argillosus, fr. argilla. See Argil.]
Sir T. Browne.
Ar6give (?), a. [L. Argivus, fr. Argos, Argi.] Of or
performance to Argos, the capital of Argolis in Greece. P n.
A native of Argos. Often used as a generic term, equivalent
to Grecian or Greek.
X Ar6go (?), n. [L. Argo, Gr. ?.] 1. (Myth.) The name of the
ship which carried Jason and his fiftyfour companions to
Colchis, in quest of the Golden Fleece.
2. (Astron.) A large constellation in the southern
hemisphere, called also Argo Navis. In modern astronomy it
is replaced by its three divisions, Carina, Puppis, and
ArOgo6an (?), a. Pertaining to the ship Argo.
Ar6goile (?), n. Potter's clay. [Obs.]
Ar6gol (?), n. [Cf. Argal, Orgal. Of unknown origin.] Crude
tartar; an acidulous salt from which cream of tartar is
prepared. It exists in the juice of grapes, and is deposited
from wines on the sides of the casks.
ArOgol6ic (?), a. [L. Argolicus, Gr. ?.] Pertaining to
Argolis, a district in the Peloponnesus.
Ar6gon (?), n. [Gr. ? inactive.] (Chem.) A substance
regarded as an element, contained in the atmosphere and
remarkable for its chemical inertness.
Rayleigh and Ramsay.
Ar6goOnaut (?), n. [L. Argonauta, Gr. ?; ? + ? sailor, ?
ship. See Argo.] 1. Any one of the legendary Greek heroes
who sailed with Jason, in the Argo, in quest of the Golden
2.(Zol.) A cephalopod of the genus Argonauta.
X Ar7goOnau6ta (?), n. (Zol.) A genus of Cephalopoda. The
shell is called paper nautilus or paper sailor.
5 The animal has much resemblance to an Octopus. It has
eight arms, two of which are expanded at the end and clasp
the shell, but are never elevated in the air for sails as
was formerly supposed. The creature swims beneath the
surface by means of a jet of water, like other cephalopods.
The male has no shell, and is much smaller than the female.
Ar6goOnaut6ic (?), a. [L. Argonauticus.] Of or pertaining to
Ar6goOsy (?), n.; pl. Argosies (?). [Earlier ragusy, fr.
ragusa meaning orig. a vessel of Ragusa.] A large ship, esp.
a merchant vessel of the largest size.
Where your argosies with portly sail...
Do overpeer the petty traffickers.
X Ar7got6 (?), n. [F. Of unknown origin.] A secret language
or conventional slang peculiar to thieves, tramps, and
Ar6guOaOble (?), a. Capable of being argued; admitting of
Ar6gue (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Argued (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Arguing.] [OE. arguen, F. arguer, fr. L. argutare, freq. of
arguere to make clear; from the same root as E. argent.] 1.
To invent and offer reasons to support or overthrow a
proposition, opinion, or measure; to use arguments; to
I argue not
Against Heaven's hand or will.
2. To contend in argument; to dispute; to reason; P followed
by with; as, you may argue with your friend without
Ar6gue, v. t. 1. To debate or discuss; to treat by
reasoning; as, the counsel argued the cause before a full
court; the cause was well argued.
2. To prove or evince; too manifest or exhibit by inference,
deduction, or reasoning.
So many laws argue so many sins.
3. To persuade by reasons; as, to argue a man into a
4. To blame; to accuse; to charge with. [Obs.]
Thoughts and expressions... which can be truly argued of
obscenity, profaneness, or immorality.
Syn. - to reason; evince; discuss; debate; expostulate;
remonstrate; controvert. P To Argue, Dispute, Debate. These
words, as here compared, suppose a contest between two
parties in respect to some point at issue. To argue is to
adduce arguments or reasons in support of one's cause or
position. To dispute is to call in question or deny the
statements or arguments of the opposing party. To debate is
to strive for or against in a somewhat formal manner by
Men of many words sometimes argue for the sake of talking;
men of ready tongues frequently dispute for the sake of
victory; men in public life often debate for the sake of
opposing the ruling party, or from any other motive than the
love of truth.
Unskilled to argue, in dispute yet loud,
Bold without caution, without honors proud.
Betwixt the dearest friends to raise debate.
Ar6guOer (?), n. One who argues; a reasoner; a disputant.
Ar6guOfy (?), v. t. & i. [Argue + Ofly.] 1. To argue
2. To signify. [Colloq.]
X Ar6guOlus (?), n. [NL., dim of Argus.] (Zol.) A genus of
copepod Crustacea, parasitic of fishes; a fish louse. See
Ar6guOment (?), n. [F. argument, L. argumentum, fr. arguere
to argue.] 1. Proof; evidence. [Obs.]
There is.. no more palpable and convincing argument of the
existence of a Deity.
Why, then, is it made a badge of wit and an argument of
parts for a man to commence atheist, and to cast off all
belief of providence, all awe and reverence for religion?
2. A reason or reasons offered in proof, to induce belief,
or convince the mind; reasoning expressed in words; as, an
argument about, concerning, or regarding a proposition, for
or in favor of it, or against it.
3. A process of reasoning, or a controversy made up of
rational proofs; argumentation; discussion; disputation.
The argument is about things, but names.
4. The subject matter of a discourse, writing, or artistic
representation; theme or topic; also, an abstract or
summary, as of the contents of a book, chapter, poem.
You and love are still my argument.
The abstract or argument of the piece.
[Shields] with boastful argument portrayed.
5. Matter for question; business in hand. [Obs.]
Sheathed their swords for lack of argument.
6. (Astron.) The quantity on which another quantity in a
table depends; as, the altitude is the argument of the
7. (Math.) The independent variable upon whose value that of
a function depends.
Brande & C.
<-- p. 81 -->
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Ar6guOment (?), v. i. [L. argumentari.] To make an argument;
to argue. [Obs.]
Ar7guOmen6taOble (?), a. [L. argumentabilis.] Admitting of
Ar7guOmen6tal (?), a. [L. argumentalis.] Of, pertaining to,
or containing, argument; argumentative.
Ar7guOmenOta6tion (?), n. [L. argumentatio, from
argumentari: cf. F. argumentation.] 1. The act of forming
reasons, making inductions, drawing conclusions, and
applying them to the case in discussion; the operation of
inferring propositions, not known or admitted as true, from
facts or principles known, admitted, or proved to be true.
Which manner of argumentation, how false and naught it
is,... every man that hath with perceiveth.
2. Debate; discussion.
Syn. - Reasoning; discussion; controversy. See Reasoning.
Ar7guOmen6taOtive (?), a. 1. Consisting of, or characterized
by, argument; containing a process of reasoning; as, an
2. Adductive as proof; indicative; as, the adaptation of
things to their uses is argumentative of infinite wisdom in
the Creator. [Obs.]
3. Given to argument; characterized by argument;
disputatious; as, an argumentative writer.
P Ar7guOmen6taOtiveOly, adv. P Ar7guOmen6taOtiveOness, n.
Ar6guOmenOtize (?), v. i. To argue or discuss. [Obs.]
X Ar6gus (?), n. [L. Argus, Gr. ?.] 1. (Myth.) A fabulous
being of antiquity, said to have had a hundred eyes, who has
placed by Juno to guard Io. His eyes were transplanted to
the peacock's tail.
2. One very vigilant; a guardian always watchful.
3.(Zol.) A genus of East Indian pheasants. The common
species (A. giganteus) is remarkable for the great length
and beauty of the wing and tail feathers of the male. The
species A. Grayi inhabits Borneo.
Ar6gusPeyed (?), a. Extremely observant; watchful;
Ar6gus shell7 (?) . (Zol.) A species of shell (Cypra
argus), beutifully variegated with spots resembling those in
a peacock's tail.
Ar7guOta6tion (?), n. [L. argutatio. See Argue.] Caviling;
subtle disputation. [Obs.]
ArOgute6 (?), a. [L. argutus, p. p. of arguere. See Argue.]
1. Sharp; shrill. [Obs.]
2. Sagacious; acute; subtle; shrewd.
The active preacher... the argue schoolman.
ArOgute6ly, adv. In a subtle; shrewdly.
ArOgute6ness, n. Acuteness.
AOrhi6zal (?), AOrhi6zous (?), AOrhyth6Omic (?),
AOrhyth6mous (?), a. See Arrhizal, Arrhizous, Arrhythmic,
X A6riOa (?), n. [It., fr. L. a r. See Air.] (Mus.) An air
or song; a melody; a tune.
5 The Italian term is now mostly used for the more elaborate
accompanied melodies sung by a single voice, in operas,
oratorios, cantatas, anthems, etc., and not so much for
simple airs or tunes.
Ar6ian (?), a. & n. (Ethnol.) See Aryan.
A6riOan (?), a. [L. Arianus.] Pertaining to Arius, a
presbyter of the church of Alexandria, in the fourth
century, or to the doctrines of Arius, who held Christ to be
inferior to God the Father in nature and dignity, though the
first and noblest of all created beings. P n. One who
adheres to or believes the doctrines of Arius.
A6riOanOism (?), n. The doctrines of the Arians.
A6riOanOize (?), v. i. To admit or accept the tenets of the
Arians; to become an Arian.
A6riOanOize, v. t. To convert to Arianism.
Ar6iOcine (?), n. [From Arica, in Chile.] (Chem.) An
alkaloid, first found in white cinchona bark.
Ar6id (?), a. [L. aridus, fr. arere to be dry: cf. F.
aride.] Exhausted of moisture; parched with heat; dry;
barren. =An arid waste.8
AOrid6iOty (?), n.; pl. Aridities (?). [L. ariditas, fr.
aridus.] 1. The state or quality of being arid or without
2. Fig.: Want of interest of feeling; insensibility; dryness
of style or feeling; spiritual drought.
Ar6idOness (?), n. Aridity; dryness.
A6riOel (?), n., or A6riOel gaOzelle6 (?). [Ar. aryil,
ayyil, stag.] (Zol.) A) A variety of the gazelle (Antilope,
or Gazella, dorcas), found in Arabia and adjacent countries.
(b) A squirrelPlike Australian marsupial, a species of
Petaurus. (c) A beautiful Brazilian toucan Ramphastos
X A6riOes , n. [L.] 1. (Astron.) (a) The Ram; the first of
the twelve signs in the zodiac, which the sun enters at the
vernal equinox, about the 21st of March. (b) A constellation
west of Taurus, drawn on the celestial globe in the figure
of a ram.
2. (Rom. Antiq.) A batteringPram.
Ar6iOtate (?), v. i. [L. arietatus, p. p. of arietare, fr.
aries ram.] To butt, as a ram. [Obs.]
Ar7iOeOta6tion (?), n. [L. arietatio.] 1. The act of butting
like a ram; act of using a batteringPram. [Obs.]
2. Act of striking or conflicting. [R.]
X A7riOet6ta (?), Ar7iOette6 (?), } n. [It. arietta, dim. of
aria; F. ariette.] (Mus.) A short aria, or air. =A military
Sir W. Scott.
AOright6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + right.] Rightly; correctly;
in a right way or form; without mistake or crime; as, to
worship God aright.
Ar6il (?), X AOril6lus (?), n. [From LL. arilli dry grapes,
perh. fr. L. aridus dry: cf. F,. arille.] (Bot.) A exterior
covering, forming a false coat or appendage to a seed, as
the loose, transparent bag inclosing the seed or the white
water lily. The mace of the nutmeg is also an aril.
Ar6ilOlate (?). Ar6lOla7ted (?), Ar6iled (?), a. [Cf. NL.
arillatus, F. arill.] Having an aril.
A6riOman (?), n. See Ahriman.
Ar7iOoOla6tion (?), n. [L. ariolatio, hariolatio, fr.
hariolari to prophesy, fr. hariolus soothsayer.] A
soothsaying; a foretelling. [Obs.]
Sir T. Browne.
Ar6iOose (?), a. [It. arioso, fr. aria.] Characterized by
melody, as distinguished from harmony.
Mendelssohn wants the ariose beauty of Handel; vocal melody
is not his forte; the interest of his airs harmonic.
Foreign Quart. Rev.
X A7riOo6so (?), adv. & a. [It.] (Mus.) In the smooth and
melodious style of an air; ariose.
AOrise6 (?), v. i. [ imp. Arose (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Arising; p. p. Arisen (?). [AS. >rFsan; > (equiv. to Goth.
usO, urO, G. erO, orig. meaning out) + rFsan to rise; cf.
Goth. urreisan to arise. See Rise.] 1. To come up from a
lower to a higher position; to come above the horizon; to
come up from one's bed or place of repose; to mount; to
ascend; to rise; as, to arise from a kneeling posture; a
cloud arose; the sun ariseth; he arose early in the
2. To spring up; to come into action, being, or notice; to
become operative, sensible, or visible; to begin to act a
part; to present itself; as, the waves of the sea arose; a
persecution arose; the wrath of the king shall arise.
There arose up a new king... which knew not Joseph.
Ex. i. 8.
The doubts that in his heart arose.
3. To proceed; to issue; to spring.
Whence haply mention may arise
Of something not unseasonable to ask.
AOrise6, n. Rising. [Obs.]
AOrist6 (?), 3d sing. pres. of Arise, for ariseth. [Obs.]
X AOris6ta (?), n. [L.] (Bot.) An awn.
Ar6isOtarch (?), n. [From Aristarchus, a Greek grammarian
and critic, of Alexandria, about 200 b. c.] A severe critic.
Ar7isOtar6chiOan (?), a. Severely critical.
Ar6isOtar7chy (?), n. Severely criticism.
Ar6isOtar7chy (?), n. Severe criticism. [Obs.]
Sir J. Harrington.
AOris6tate (?), a. [L. aristatus, fr. arista. See Arista.]
1. (Bot.) Having a pointed, beardlike process, as the glumes
of wheat; awned.
2. (Zol.)Having a slender, sharp, or spinelike tip.
Ar7isOtoc6raOcy (?), n.; pl. Aristocracies (?). [Gr. ?; ?
best + ? to be strong, to rule, ? strength; ? is perh. from
the same root as E. arm, and orig. meant fitting: cf. F.
aristocratie. See Arm, and Create, which is related to Gr.
?.] 1. Government by the best citizens.
2. A ruling body composed of the best citizens. [Obs.]
In the Senate
Right not our quest in this, I will protest them
To all the world, no aristocracy.
3. A form a government, in which the supreme power is vested
in the principal persons of a state, or in a privileged
order; an oligarchy.
The aristocracy of Venice hath admitted so many abuses,
trough the degeneracy of the nobles, that the period of its
duration seems approach.
4. The nobles or chief persons in a state; a privileged
class or patrician order; (in a popular use) those who are
regarded as superior to the rest of the community, as in
rank, fortune, or intellect.
AOris6toOcrat (?; 277), n. [F. aristocrate. See
Aristocracy.] 1. One of the aristocracy or people of rank in
a community; one of a ruling class; a noble.
2. One who is overbearing in his temper or habits; a proud
or haughty person.
A born aristocrat, bred radical.
3. One who favors an aristocracy as a form of government, or
believes the aristocracy should govern.
His whole family are accused of being aristocrats.
Ar7isOtoOcrat6ic (?), Ar7isOtoOcrat6icOal (?), } a. [Gr. ?:
cf. F. aristocratique.] 1. Of or pertaining to an
aristocracy; consisting in, or favoring, a government of
nobles, or principal men; as, an aristocratic constitution.
2. Partaking of aristocracy; befitting aristocracy;
characteristic of, or originating with, the aristocracy; as,
an aristocratic measure; aristocratic pride or manners. P
Ar7isOtoOcrat6icOalOly, adv. P Ar7isOtoOcrat6icOalOness, n.
Ar6isOtoOcrat7ism (?), n. 1. The principles of aristocrats.
2. Aristocrats, collectively. [R.]
Ar7isOtol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? dinner + Ology.] The science
Ar7isOtoOphan6ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to Aristophanes,
the Athenian comic poet.
Ar7isOtoOte6liOan (?; 277), a. Of or pertaining to
Aristotle, the famous Greek philosopher (384P322 b. c.). P
n. A follower of Aristotle; a Peripatetic. See Peripatetic.
Ar7isOtoOte6liOanOism (?). The philosophy of Aristotle,
otherwise called the Peripatetic philosophy.
Ar7isOtoOtel6ic (?), a. Pertaining to Aristotle or to his
philosophy. =Aristotelic usage.8
Sir W. Hamilton.
Ar6isOto7tle's lan6tern (?). (Zol.) The five united jaws
and accessory ossicles of certain sea urchins.
AOris6tuOlate (?; 135), a. [Dim. fr. arista.] (Bot.)
Pertaining a short beard or awn.
Ar6ithOman7cy (?), n. [Gr. ? number + Omancy.] Divination by
means of numbers.
AOrith6meOtic (?), n. [OE. arsmetike, OF. arismetique, L.
arithmetica, fr. Gr. ? (sc. ?), fr. ? arithmetical, fr. ? to
number, fr. ? number, prob. fr. same root as E. arm, the
idea of counting coming from that of fitting, attaching. See
Arm. The modern Eng. and French forms are accommodated to
the Greek.] 1. The science of numbers; the art of
computation by figures.
2. A book containing the principles of this science.
w of sines, trigonometry. P Political ~, the application of
the science of numbers to problems in civil government,
political economy, and social science. P Universal ~, the
name given by Sir Isaac Newton to algebra.
Ar7ithOmet6icOal (?), a. Of or pertaining to arithmetic;
according to the rules or method of arithmetic.
w complement of a logarithm. See Logarithm. P w mean. See
Mean. P w progression. See Progression. P w proportion. See
Ar7ithOmet6icOalOly, adv. Conformably to the principles or
methods of arithmetic.
AOrith7meOti6cian (?), n. [Cf. F. arithmticien.] One
skilled in arithmetic.
AOrith6moOman6cy (?), n. Arithmancy.
Ar7ithOmom6eOter (?), n. [Gr. ? number + Ometer: cf. F.
tre.] A calculating machine.
Ark (?), n. [OE. ark, arke, arche, AS. arc, earc, earce, fr.
L. arca, fr. arcere to inclose, keep off; akin to Gr. ? to
keep off.] 1. A chest, or coffer. [Obs.]
Bearing that precious relic in an ark.
2. (Jewish Hist.) The oblong chest of acacia wood, overlaid
with gold, which supported the mercy seat with its golden
cherubs, and occupied the most sacred place in the
sanctuary. In it Moses placed the two tables of stone
containing the ten commandments. Called also the Ark of the
3. The large, chestlike vessel in which Noah and h?? family
were preserved during the Deluge. Gen. vi. Hence: Any place
4. A large flatboat used on Western American rivers to
transport produce to market.
Ark6ite (?), a. Belonging to the ark. [R.]
Ark6 shell7 (?). (Zol.) A marine bivalve shell belonging to
the genus Arca and its allies.
Arles (?), n. pl. [Cf. F. arrhes, Scot. airles. Cf. Earles
penny.] An earnest; earnest money; money paid to bind a
w penny, earnest money given to servants.
Arm (?), n. [AS. arm, earm; akin to OHG. aram, G., D., Dan.,
& Sw. arm, Icel. armr, Goth. arms, L. armus arm, shoulder,
and prob. to Gr. ? joining, joint, shoulder, fr. the root ?
to join, to fit together; cf. Slav. rame. ?. See Art,
Article.] 1. The limb of the human body which extends from
the shoulder to the hand; also, the corresponding limb of a
2. Anything resembling an arm; as, (a) The fore limb of an
animal, as of a bear. (b) A limb, or locomotive or
prehensile organ, of an invertebrate animal. (c) A branch of
a tree. (d) A slender part of an instrument or machine,
projecting from a trunk, axis, or fulcrum; as, the arm of a
steelyard. (e) (Naut) The end of a yard; also, the part of
an anchor which ends in the fluke. (f) An inlet of water
from the sea. (g) A support for the elbow, at the side of a
chair, the end of a sofa, etc.
3. Fig.: Power; might; strength; support; as, the secular
arm; the arm of the law.
To whom is the arm of the Lord revealed?
Isa. lii. 1.
Arm's end, the end of the ~; a good distance off. Dryden. P
Arm's length, the length of the ~. P Arm's reach, reach of
the ~; the distance the ~ can reach. P To go (or walk) ~ in
~, to go with the ~ or hand of one linked in the ~ of
another. =When arm in armwe went along.8 Tennyson. P To keep
at arm's length, to keep at a distance (literally or
figuratively); not to allow to come into close contact or
familiar intercourse. P To work at arm's length, to work
Arm, n. [See Arms.] (Mil.) (a) A branch of the military
service; as, the cavalry arm was made efficient. (b) A
weapon of offense or defense; an instrument of warfare; P
commonly in the pl.
Arm, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Armed (?) p. pr. & vb. n. Arming.]
[OE. armen, F. armer, fr. L. armare, fr. arma, pl., arms.
See arms.] 1. To take by the arm; to take up in one's arms.
And make him with our pikes and partisans
A grave: come, arm him.
Arm your prize;
I know you will not lose him.
Two N. Kins.
2. To furnish with arms or limbs. [R.]
His shoulders broad and strong,
Armed long and round.
Beau. & Fl.
3. To furnish or equip with weapons of offense or defense;
as, to arm soldiers; to arm the country.
Abram... armed his trained servants.
Gen. xiv. 14.
4. To cover or furnish with a plate, or with whatever will
add strength, force, security, or efficiency; as, to arm the
hit of a sword; to arm a hook in angling.
5. Fig.: To furnish with means of defense; to prepare for
resistance; to fortify, in a moral sense.
Arm yourselves... with the same mind.
1 Pet. iv. 1.
To ~ a magnet, to fit it with an armature.
Arm, v. i. To provide one's self with arms, weapons, or
means of attack or resistance; to take arms. = 'Ti? time to
<-- p. 82 -->
ArOma6da (?), n. [Sp. armada, L. as if armata (sc. classic
fleet), fr. armatus, p. p. of armare. See Arm, v. t. Army.]
A fleet of armed ships; a squadron. Specifically, the
Spanish fleet which was sent to assail England, a. d. 1558.
Ar7maOdil6lo (?), n.; pl. Armadillos (?). [Sp. armadillo,
dim. of armado armed, p. p. of armar to arm. Do called from
being armed with a bony shell.] (Zol.) (a) Any edentate
animal if the family Dasypid, peculiar to America. The body
and head are incased in an armor composed of small bony
plates. The armadillos burrow in the earth, seldom going
abroad except at night. When attacked, they curl up into a
ball, presenting the armor on all sides. Their flesh is good
food. There are several species, one of which (the peba) ?
found as far north as Texas. See Peba, Poyou, Tatouay. (b) A
genus of small isopod Crustacea that can roll themselves
into a ball.
ArOma6do (?), n. Armada. [Obs.]
Ar6maOment (?), n. [L. armamenta, pl., utensils, esp. the
tackle of a ship, fr. armare to arm: cf. LL. armamentum, F.
armement.] 1. A body of forces equipped for war; P used of a
land or naval force. =The whole united armament of Greece.8
2. (Mil. & Nav.) All the cannon and small arms collectively,
with their equipments, belonging to a ship or a
3. Any equipment for resistance.
Ar7maOmen6taOry (?), n. [L. armamentarium, fr. armamentum:
cf. F. armamentaire.] An armory; a magazine or arsenal. [R.]
Ar6maOture (?), n. [L. armatura, fr. armare to arm: cf. F.
armature. See Arm, v. t., Armor.] 1. Armor; whatever is worn
or used for the protection and defense of the body, esp. the
protective outfit of some animals and plants.
2. (Magnetism) A piece of soft iron used to connect the two
poles of a magnet, or electroPmagnet, in order to complete
the circuit, or to receive and apply the magnetic force. In
the ordinary horseshoe magnet, it serves to prevent the
dissipation of the magnetic force.
3. (Arch.) Iron bars or framing employed for the
consolidation of a building, as in sustaining slender
columns, holding up canopies, etc.
Arm6chair7 (?), n. A chair with arms to support the elbows
Armed (?), a. 1. Furnished with weapons of offense or
defense; furnished with the means of security or protection.
=And armed host.8
2. Furnished with whatever serves to add strength, force, or
A distemper eminently armed from heaven.
3. (Her.) Having horns, beak, talons, etc; P said of beasts
and birds of prey.
w at all points (Blazoning), completely incased in armor,
sometimes described as armed capPPpie. Cussans. P w en
flute. (Naut.) See under Flute. P w magnet, a magnet
provided with an armature. P w neutrality. See under
ArOme6niOan (?), a. [Cf. F. Armnien, L. Armenias, fr.
Armenia.] Of or pertaining to Armenia.
w bole, a soft clayey earth of a bright red color found in
Armenia, Tuscany, etc. P w stone. (a) The commercial name of
lapis lazurit. (b) Emery.
ArOme6niOan, n. 1. A native or one of the people of Armenia;
also, the language of the Armenians.
2. (Eccl. Hist.) An adherent of the w Church, an
organization similar in some doctrines and practices to the
Greek Church, in others to the Roman Catholic.
Arm6et (?), n. [F., dim. of arme arm, or corrupted for
healmet helmet.] A kind of helmet worn in the 14th, 15th,
and 16th centuries.
Arm6ful (?), n.; pl. Armfulus (?). As much as the arm can
Arm6gaunt7 (?), a. With gaunt or slender legs (?) =An
5 This word is peculiar to Shakespeare. Its meaning has not
yet been satisfactorily explained.
Arm6Pgret7 (?), a. Great as a man's arm. [Obs.]
A wreath of gold, armPgret.
Arm6hole7 (?), n. [Arm + hole.] 1. The cavity under the
shoulder; the armpit.
2. A hole for the arm in a garment.
ArOmif6erOous (?), a. [L. armifer; arma arms + ferre to
bear.] Bearing arms or weapons. [R.]
Ar6miOger (?), n. [L. armiger armor bearer; arma arms +
gerere to bear.] Formerly, an armor bearer, as of a knight,
an esquire who bore his shield and rendered other services.
In later use, one next in degree to a knight, and entitled
to armorial bearings. The term is now superseded by esquire.
ArOmig6erOous (?), a. Bearing arms. [R.]
They belonged to the armigerous part of the population, and
were entitled to write themselves Esquire.
Ar6mil (?), n. [L. armilla a bracelet, fr. armus arm: cf.
OF. armille.] 1. A bracelet. [Obs.]
2. An ancient astronomical instrument.
5 When composed of one ring placed in the plane of the
equator for determining the time of the equinoxes, it is
called an equinoctial armil; when of two or more rings, one
in the plane of the meridian, for observing the solstices,
it is called a solstitial armil.
X ArOmil6la (?), n.; pl. E. Armillas (?), L. Armill (?).
[L., a bracelet.] 1. An armil.
2. (Zol.) A ring of hair or feathers on the legs.
Ar6milOlaOry (?), a. [LL. armillarius, fr. L. armilla arm
ring, bracelet, fr. armus arm: cf. F. armillaire. See Arm,
n.] Pertaining to, or resembling, a bracelet or ring;
consisting of rings or circles.
w sphere, an ancient astronomical machine composed of an
assemblage of rings, all circles of the same sphere,
designed to represent the positions of the important circles
of the celestial sphere.
Arm6ing (?), n. 1. The act of furnishing with, or taking,
The arming was now universal.
2. (Naut.) A piece of tallow placed in a cavity at the lower
end of a sounding lead, to bring up the sand, shells, etc.,
of the sea bottom.
3. pl. (Naut.) Red dress cloths formerly hung fore and aft
outside of a ship's upper works on holidays.
w press (Bookbinding), a press for stamping titles and
designs on the covers of books.
ArOmin6iOan (?; 277), a. Of or pertaining to Arminius of his
followers, or to their doctrines. See note under Arminian,
ArOmin6iOan, n. (Eccl. Hist.) One who holds the tenets of
Arminius, a Dutch divine (b. 1560, d. 1609).
The ~ doctrines are: 1. Conditional election and
reprobation, in opposition to absolute predestination. 2.
Universal redemption, or that the atonement was made by
Christ for all mankind, though none but believers can be
partakers of the benefit. 3. That man, in order to exercise
true faith, must be regenerated and renewed by the operation
of the Holy Spirit, which is the gift of God. 4. That man
may resist divine grace. 5. That man may relapse from a
state of grace.
ArOmin6iOanOism (?), n. The religious doctrines or tenets of
ArOmip6oOtence (?), n. [L. armipotentia, fr. armipotents.]
Power in arms. [R.]
ArOmip6oOtent (?), a. [L. armipotents; arma arms + potens
powerful, p. pr. of posse to be able.] Powerful in arms;
mighty in battle.
The temple stood of Mars armipotent.
ArOmis6oOnant (?), ArOmis6oOnous (?), } a. [L. armisonus;
arma arms + sonare (p. pr. sonans) to sound.] Rustling in
arms; resounding with arms. [Obs.]
Ar6misOtice (?), n. [F. armistice, fr. (an assumed word) L.
armistitium; arma arms + stare, statum (combining form,
Ostitum), to stand still.] A cessation of arms for a short
time, by convention; a temporary suspension of hostilities
by agreement; a truce.
Arm6less (?), a. 1. Without any arm or branch.
2. Destitute of arms or weapons.
Arm6let (?), n. [Arm + Olet.] 1. A small arm; as, an armlet
of the sea.
2. An arm ring; a bracelet for the upper arm.
3. Armor for the arm.
ArOmo6niOac (?), a. Ammoniac. [Obs.]
Ar6mor (?), n. [OE. armure, fr. F. armure, OF. armeure, fr.
L. armatura. See Armature.] [Spelt also armour.] 1.
Defensive arms for the body; any clothing or covering worn
to protect one's person in battle.
5 In English statues, armor is used for the whole apparatus
of war, including offensive as well as defensive arms. The
statues of armor directed what arms every man should
2. Steel or iron covering, whether of ships or forts,
protecting them from the fire of artillery.
Coat ~, the escutcheon of a person or family, with its
several charges and other furniture, as mantling, crest,
supporters, motto, etc. P Submarine , a waterPtight dress or
covering for a diver. See under Submarine.
Ar6morPbear7er (?), n. One who carries the armor or arms of
another; an armiger.
Judg. ix. 54.
Ar6mored (?), a. Clad with armor.
Ar6morOer (?), n. [OE. armurer, armerer, fr. F. armurter,
fr. armure armor.] 1. One who makes or repairs armor or
2. Formerly, one who had care of the arms and armor of a
knight, and who dressed him in armor.
3. One who has the care of arms and armor, cleans or repairs
ArOmo6riOal (?), a. [F. armorial, fr. armoiries arms, coats
of arms, for armoieries, fr. OF. armoier to paint arms,
coats of arms, fr. armes, fr. L. arma. See Arms, Armory.]
Belonging to armor, or to the heraldic arms or escutcheon of
Figures with armorial signs of race and birth.
w bearings. See Arms, 4.
ArOmor6ic (?), ArOmor6iOcan (?), } a. [L. Armoricus, fr.
Celtic ar on, at + mor sea.] Of or pertaining to the
northwestern part of France (formerly called Armorica, now
Bretagne or Brittany), or to its people. P n. The language
of the Armoricans, a Celtic dialect which has remained to
the present times.
ArOmor6iOcan, n. A native of Armorica.
Ar6morOist (?), n. [F. armoriste.] One skilled in coat armor
Ar6morPplat7ed (?), a. Covered with defensive plates of
metal, as a ship of war; steelPclad.
This day will be launched... the first armorPplated steam
frigate in the possession of Great Britain.
Times (Dec. 29, 1860).
Ar6moOry (?), n.; pl. Armories (?). [OF. armaire, armarie,
F. armoire, fr. L. armarium place for keeping arms; but
confused with F. armoiries. See Armorial, Ambry.] 1. A place
where arms and instruments of war are deposited for safe
2. Armor: defensive and offensive arms.
Celestial armory, shields, helms, and spears.
3. A manufactory of arms, as rifles, muskets, pistols,
bayonets, swords. [U.S.]
4. Ensigns armorial; armorial bearings.
5. That branch of heraldry which treats of coat armor.
The science of heraldry, or, more justly speaking, armory,
which is but one branch of heraldry, is, without doubt, of
very ancient origin.
Ar7moOzeen6, Ar7moOzine6 } (?), n. [F. armosin, armoisin.] A
thick plain silk, generally black, and used for clerical.
Arm6pit7 (?), n. [Arm + pit.] The hollow beneath the
junction of the arm and shoulder; the axilla.
Arm6rack7 (?), n. A frame, generally vertical, for holding
Arms (?), n. pl. [OE. armes, F. arme, pl. armes, fr. L.
arma, pl., arms, orig. fittings, akin to armus shoulder, and
E. arm. See Arm, n.] 1. Instruments or weapons of offense or
He lays down his arms, but not his wiles.
Three horses and three goodly suits of arms.
2. The deeds or exploits of war; military service or
science. =Arms and the man I sing.8
3. (Law) Anything which a man takes in his hand in anger, to
strike or assault another with; an aggressive weapon.
4. (Her.) The ensigns armorial of a family, consisting of
figures and colors borne in shields, banners, etc., as marks
of dignity and distinction, and descending from father to
5. (Falconry) The legs of a hawk from the thigh to the foot.
Bred to ~, educated to the profession of a soldier. P In ~,
armed for war; in a state of hostility. P Small ~, portable
firearms known as muskets, rifles, carbines, pistols, etc. P
A stand of ~, a complete set for one soldier, as a musket,
bayonet, cartridge box and belt; frequently, the musket and
bayonet alone. P To ~! a summons to war or battle. P Under
~, armed and equipped and in readiness for battle, or for a
Arm's end, Arm's length, Arm's reach. See under Arm.
Ar6mure (?), n. [F. See Armor.] 1. Armor. [Obs.]
2. A variety of twilled fabric ribbed on the surface.
Ar6my (?), n. [F. arme, fr. L. armata, fem. of armatus, p.
p. of armare to arm. Cf. Armada.] 1. A collection or body of
men armed for war, esp. one organized in companies,
battalions, regiments, brigades, and divisions, under proper
2. A body of persons organized for the advancement of a
cause; as, the Blue Ribbon Army.
3. A great number; a vast multitude; a host.
An army of good words.
Standing ~, a permanent ~ of professional soldiers, as
distinguished from militia or volunteers.
Ar6my worm7 (?). (Zol.) (a) A lepidopterous insect, which
in the larval state often travels in great multitudes from
field to field, destroying grass, grain, and other crops.
The common army worm of the northern United States is
Leucania unipuncta. The name is often applied to other
related species, as the cotton worm. (b) The larva of a
small twoPwinged fly (Sciara), which marches in large
companies, in regular order. See Cotton worm, under Cotton.
X Ar6na (?), X Ar6nee (?), } n. (Zol.) The wild buffalo of
India (Bos, or Bubalus, arni), larger than the domestic
buffalo and having enormous horns.
ArOnat6to (?), n. See Annotto.
Ar6niOca (?), n. [Prob. a corruption of ptarmica.] (Bot.) A
genus of plants; also, the most important species (Arnica
montana), native of the mountains of Europe, used in
medicine as a narcotic and stimulant.
5 The tincture of arnica is applied externally as a remedy
for bruises, sprains, etc.
Ar6niOcin (?), n. [See Arnica.] (Chem.) An active principle
of Arnica montana. It is a bitter resin.
Ar6niOcine (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid obtained from the
Ar6not (?), Ar6nut (?), } n. [Cf. D. aardnoot, E. earthut.]
The earthnut. [Obs.]
ArOnot6to (?), n. Same as Annotto.
A6roid (?), AOroid6eOous (?), a. [Arum + Ooid.] (Bot.)
Belonging to, or resembling, the Arum family of plants.
AOroint6 (?), interj. [Cf. Prov. E. rynt, rynt thee, roynt,
or runt, terms used by milkmaids to a cow that has been
milked, in order to drive her away, to make room for others;
AS. r?man to make room or way, fr. r?m room. The final t is
perh. for ta, for thou. Cf. Room space.] Stand off, or
Aroint thee, witch, the rumpPfed ronyon cries.
AOroint6, v. t. To drive or scare off by some exclamation.
[R.] =Whiskered cats arointed flee.8 Mrs. Browning.
AOro6ma (?), n. [L. aroma, Gr. ?: cf. OE. aromaz, aromat,
spice, F. aromate.] 1. The quality or principle of plants or
other substances which constitutes their fragrance;
agreeable odor; as, the aroma of coffee.
2. Fig.: The fine diffusive quality of intellectual power;
flavor; as, the subtile aroma of genius.
Ar7oOmat6ic (?), Ar7oOmat6icOal (?), } a. [L. aromaticus,
Gr. ?: cf. F. aromatique. See Aroma.] Pertaining to, or
containing, aroma; fragrant; spicy; strongPscented;
odoriferous; as, aromatic balsam.
<-- p. 83 -->
Aromatic compound (Chem.), one of a large class of organic
substances, as the oils of bitter almonds, wintergreen, and
turpentine, the balsams, camphors, etc., many of which have
an aromatic odor. They include many of the most important of
the carbon compounds and may all be derived from the benzene
group, C6H6. The term is extended also to many of their
derivatives. P Aromatic vinegar. See under Vinegar.
Ar7oOmat6ic (?), n. A plant, drug, or medicine,
characterized by a fragrant smell, and usually by a warm,
pungent taste, as ginger, cinnamon spices.
Ar7oOmat7iOza6tion (?), n. [Cf. F. aromatisation.] The act
of impregnating or secting with aroma.
AOro6maOtize (?; 277), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aromatized (?);
p. pr. & vb. n. Aromatizing.] [ L. aromatizare, Gr. ?: cf.
F. aromatiser.] To impregnate with aroma; to render
aromatic; to give a spicy scent or taste to; to perfume.
AOro6maOti7zer (?), n. One who, or that which, aromatizes or
AOro6maOtous (?), a. Aromatic. [Obs.]
Ar6oph (?), n. [A contraction of aroma philosophorum.] A
barbarous word used by the old chemists to designate various
medical remedies. [Obs.]
AOrose6 (?). The past or preterit tense of Arise.
AOround6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + round.] 1. In a circle;
circularly; on every side; round.
2. In a circuit; here and there within the surrounding
space; all about; as, to travel around from town to town.
3. Near; in the neighborhood; as, this man was standing
around when the fight took place. [Colloq. U. S.]
5 See Round, the shorter form, adv. & prep., which, in some
of the meanings, is more commonly used.
AOround6, prep. 1. On all sides of; encircling;
encompassing; so as to make the circuit of; about.
A lambent flame arose, which gently spread
Around his brows.
2. From one part to another of; at random through; about; on
another side of; as, to travel around the country; a house
standing around the corner. [Colloq. U. S.]
AOrous6al (?), n. The act of arousing, or the state of being
Whatever has associated itself with the arousal and activity
of our better nature.
AOrouse6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Aroused (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Arousing.] [Pref. aO + rouse.] To excite to action from a
state of rest; to stir, or put in motion or exertion; to
rouse; to excite; as, to arouse one from sleep; to arouse
the dormant faculties.
Grasping his spear, forth issued to arouse
His brother, mighty sovereign on the host.
No suspicion was aroused.
AOrow6 (?), adv. [Pref. aO + row.] In a row, line, or rank;
successively; in order.
And twenty, rank in rank, they rode arow.
AOroynt6 (?), interj. See Aroint.
X ArOpeg6gio (?), n. [It., fr. arpeggiare to play on the
harp, fr. arpa harp.] (Mus.) The production of the tones of
a chord in rapid succession, as in playing the harp, and not
simultaneously; a strain thus played.
Ar6pent (?), Ar6pen (?), } n. [F. arpent, fr. L. arepennis,
arapennis. According to Columella, a Gallic word for a
measure equiv. to half a Roman jugerum.] Formerly, a measure
of land in France, varying in different parts of the
country. The arpent of Paris was 46o88 sq. yards, or nearly
five sixths of an English acre. The woodland arpent was
about 1 acre, 1 rood, 1 perch, English.
Ar7penOta6tor (?), n. [See Arpent.] The Anglicized form of
the French arpenteur, a land surveyor. [R.]
Ar6pine (?), n. An arpent. [Obs.]
Ar6quaOted (?), a. Shaped like a bow; arcuate; curved. [R.]
Ar6queObus, Ar6queObuse } (?; 277), n. [F. arquebuse, OF.
harquebuse, fr. D. haakPbus; cf. G. hakenbchse a gun with a
hook. See Hagbut.] A sort of hand gun or firearm a
contrivance answering to a trigger, by which the burning
match was applied. The musket was a later invention.
[Written also harquebus.]
Ar7queObusOade6 (?), n. [F. arquebusade shot of an arquebus;
eau d'arquebusade a vulnerary for gunshot wounds.] 1. The
shot of an arquebus.
2. A distilled water from a variety of aromatic plants, as
rosemary, millefoil, etc.; P originally used as a vulnerary
in gunshot wounds.
Ar7queObusOier (?), n. [F. arquebusier.] A soldier armed
with an arquebus.
Soldiers armed with guns, of whatsoever sort or
denomination, appear to have been called arquebusiers.
Ar6quiOfoux (?), n. Same as Alquifou.
Ar6rach (?), n. See Orach.
Ar6rack (?; 277), n. [Ar. araq sweat, juice, spirituous
liquor, fr. araqa to sweat. Cf. Rack arrack.] A name in the
East Indies and the Indian islands for all ardent spirits.
Arrack is often distilled from a fermented mixture of rice,
molasses, and palm wine of the cocoanut tree or the date
ArOrag6oOnite (?), n. See Aragonite.
ArOraign6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arraigned (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Arraigning.] [OE. arainen, arenen, OF. aragnier,
aranier, araisnier, F. arraisonner, fr. LL. arrationare to
address to call before court; L. ad + ratio reason,
reasoning, LL. cause, judgment. See Reason.] 1. (Law) To
call or set as a prisoner at the bar of a court to answer to
the matter charged in an indictment or complaint.
2. To call to account, or accuse, before the bar of reason,
taste, or any other tribunal.
They will not arraign you for want of knowledge.
It is not arrogance, but timidity, of which the Christian
body should now be arraigned by the world.
Syn. - To accuse; impeach; charge; censure; criminate;
indict; denounce. See Accuse.
ArOraign6, n. Arraignment; as, the clerk of the arraigns.
ArOraign6 (?), v. t. [From OF. aramier, fr. LL. adhramire.]
(Old Eng. Law) To appeal to; to demand; as, to arraign an
assize of novel disseizin.
ArOraign6er (?), n. One who arraigns.
ArOraign6ment (?), n. [Cf. OF. arraynement, aresnement.] 1.
(Law) The act of arraigning, or the state of being
arraigned; the act of calling and setting a prisoner before
a court to answer to an indictment or complaint.
2. A calling to an account to faults; accusation.
In the sixth satire, which seems only an Arraignment of the
whole sex, there is a latent admonition.
ArOrai6ment, ArOray6ment (?), n. [From Array, v. t.]
Clothes; raiment. [Obs.]
ArOrange6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arranged ; p. pr. & vb.
n. Arranging (?).] [OE. arayngen, OF. arengier, F. arranger,
fr. a (L. ad) + OF. rengier, rangier, F. ranger. See Range,
v. t.] 1. To put in proper order; to dispose (persons, or
parts) in the manner intended, or best suited for the
purpose; as, troops arranged for battle.
So [they] came to the market place, and there he arranged
his men in the streets.
[They] were beginning to arrange their hampers.
A mechanism previously arranged.
2. To adjust or settle; to prepare; to determine; as, to
arrange the preliminaries of an undertaking.
Syn. - Adjust; adapt; range; dispose; classify.
ArOrange6ment (?), n. [Cf. F. arrangement.] 1. The act of
arranging or putting in an orderly condition; the state of
being arranged or put in order; disposition in suitable
2. The manner or result of arranging; system of parts
disposed in due order; regular and systematic
classification; as, arrangement of one's dress; the Linnan
arrangement of plants.
3. Preparatory proceeding or measure; preparation; as, we
have made arrangement for receiving company.
4. Settlement; adjustment by agreement; as, the parties have
made an arrangement between themselves concerning their
disputes; a satisfactory arrangement.
5. (Mus.) (a) The adaptation of a composition to voices or
instruments for which it was not originally written. (b) A
piece so adapted; a transcription; as, a pianoforte
arrangement of Beethoven's symphonies; an orchestral
arrangement of a song, an opera, or the like.
ArOran6ger (?), n. One who arranges.
Ar6rant (?), a. [OE. erraunt, errant, errand, equiv. to E.
errant wandering, which was first applied to vagabonds, as
an errant rogue, an errant thief, and hence passed gradually
into its present and worse sense. See Errant.] Notoriously
or pre minently bad; thorough or downright, in a bad sense;
shameless; unmitigated; as, an arrant rogue or coward.
I discover an arrant laziness in my soul.
2. Thorough or downright, in a good sense. [Obs.]
An arrant honest woman.
Ar6rantOly, adv. Notoriously, in an ill sense; infamously;
Ar6ras (?), n. [From Arras the capital of Artois, in the
French Netherlands.] Tapestry; a rich figured fabric;
especially, a screen or hangings of heavy cloth with
Stateliest couches, with rich arras spread.
Behind the arras I'll convey myself.
Ar6ras, v. t. To furnish with an ~.
Ar7rasOene6 (?), n. [From Arras.] A material of wool or silk
used for working the figures in embroidery.
X ArOras6tre (?), n. [Sp.] A rude apparatus for pulverizing
ores, esp. those containing free gold.
Ar6rasOwise7 (?), Ar6rasOways7 , adv. [Prob. a corruption of
arriswise. See Arris.] Placed in such a position as to
exhibit the top and two sides, the corner being in front; P
said of a rectangular form.
Encyc. Brit. Cussans.
ArOraught6 (?). [The past tense of an old v. areach or
arreach. Cf. Reach, obs. pret. raught.] Obtained; seized.
ArOray6 (?), n. [OE. arai, arrai, OF. arrai, arrei, arroi,
order, arrangement, dress, F. arroi; a (L. ad) + OF. rai,
rei, roi, order, arrangement, fr. G. or Scand.; cf. Goth.
raidjan, garaidjan, to arrange, MHG. gereiten, Icel. rei?i
rigging, harness; akin to E. ready. Cf. Ready, Greith,
Curry.] 1. Order; a regular and imposing arrangement;
disposition in regular lines; hence, order of battle; as,
drawn up in battle array.
Wedged together in the closest array.
2. The whole body of persons thus placed in order; an
orderly collection; hence, a body of soldiers.
A gallant array of nobles and cavaliers.
3. An imposing series of things.
Their long array of sapphire and of gold.
4. Dress; garments disposed in order upon the person; rich
or beautiful apparel.
5. (Law) (a) A ranking or setting forth in order, by the
proper officer, of a jury as impaneled in a cause. (b) The
panel itself. (c) The whole body of jurors summoned to
attend the court.
To challenge the ~ (Law), to except to the whole panel.
Cowell. Tomlins. Blount. P Commission of ~ (Eng. Hist.), a
commission given by the prince to officers in every county,
to muster and array the inhabitants, or see them in a
condition for war.
ArOray6, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arrayed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
Arraying.] [OE. araien, arraien, fr. OE. arraier, arreier,
arreer, arroier, fr. arrai. See Array, n.] 1. To place or
dispose in order, as troops for battle; to marshal.
By torch and trumpet fast arrayed,
Each horseman drew his battle blade.
These doubts will be arrayed before their minds.
2. To deck or dress; to adorn with dress; to cloth to
envelop; P applied esp. to dress of a splendid kind.
Pharaoh... arrayed him in vestures of fine linen.
Gen. xli. ?.
In gelid caves with horrid glo?m arrayed.
3. (Law) To set in order, as a jury, for the trial of a
cause; that is, to call them man by man.
To ~ a panel, to set forth in order the m?n that are
Syn. - To draw up; arrange; dispose; set in order.
ArOray6er , n. One who arrays. In some early English
statutes, applied to an officer who had care of the
soldiers' armor, and who saw them duly accoutered.
ArOrear6 (?), adv. [OE. arere, OF. arere, ariere, F.
re, fr. L. ad + retro backward. See Rear.] To or in
the rear; behind; backwards. [Obs.]
ArOrear6, n. That which is behind in payment, or which
remains unpaid, though due; esp. a remainder, or balance
which remains due when some part has been paid; arrearage; P
commonly used in the plural, as, arrears of rent, wages, or
For much I dread due payment by the Greeks
Of yesterday's arrear.
I have a large arrear of letters to write.
J. D. Forbes.
In ~ or In arrears, behind; backward; behindhand; in debt.
ArOrear6age (?), n. [F. arrrage, fr. arri
re, OF. arere.
See Arrear.] That which remains unpaid and overdue, after
payment of a part; arrears.
The old arrearages... being defrayed.
ArOrect6 (?), ArOrect6ed, } a. [L. arrectus, p. p. of
arrigere to raise, erect; ad + regere to lead straight, to
direct.] 1. Lifted up; raised; erect.
2. Attentive, as a person listening. [Obs.]
God speaks not the idle and unconcerned hearer, but to the
vigilant and arrect.
ArOrect6, v. t. 1. To direct. [Obs.]
My supplication to you I arrect.
2. [See Aret.] To impute. [Obs.]
Sir T. More.
ArOrect6aOry (?), n. [L. arrectarius, fr. arrigere o set
up.] An upright beam. [Obs.]
Ar7reOnot6oOkous (?), a. [Gr. ? bearing males; ? a male + ?
a bringing forth.] (Zol.) Producing males from unfertilized
eggs, as certain wasps and bees.
Ar7renOta6tion (?)(?). [Cf. F. arrenter to give or take as
rent. See Arendator.] (O. Eng. Law) A letting or renting,
esp. a license to inclose land in a forest with a low hedge
and a ditch, under a yearly rent.
ArOrep6tion (?), n. [L. arripere, arreptum, to seize,
snatch; ad + rapere to snatch. See Rapacious.] The act of
taking away. [Obs.] =This arreption was sudden.8
Ar7repOti6tious (?), a. [L. arreptitius.] Snatched away;
seized or possessed, as a demoniac; raving; mad;
Odd, arreptitious, frantic extravagances.
ArOrest6 (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arrested; p. pr. & vb. n.
Arresting.] [OE. aresten, OF. arester, F. arrter, fr. LL.
arrestare; L. ad + restare to remain, stop; re + stare to
stand. See Rest remainder.] 1. To stop; to check or hinder
the motion or action of; as, to arrest the current of a
river; to arrest the senses.
Nor could her virtues the relentless hand
Of Death arrest.
2. (Law) To take, seize, or apprehend by authority of law;
as, to arrest one for debt, or for a crime.
5 After his word Shakespeare uses of (=I arrest thee of high
treason8) or on; the modern usage is for.
3. To seize on and fix; to hold; to catch; as, to arrest the
eyes or attention.
4. To rest or fasten; to fix; to concentrate. [Obs.]
We may arrest our thoughts upon the divine mercies.
Syn. - To obstruct; delay; detain; check; hinder; stop;
apprehend; seize; lay hold of.
ArOrest6, v. i. To tarry; to rest. [Obs.]
ArOrest6, n. [OE. arest, arrest, OF. arest, F. arrt, fr.
arester. See Arrest, v. t., Arr?t.] 1. The act of stopping,
or restraining from further motion, etc.; stoppage;
hindrance; restraint; as, an arrest of development.
As the arrest of the air showeth.
2. (Law) The taking or apprehending of a person by authority
of law; legal restraint; custody. Also, a decree, mandate,
William... ordered him to be put under arrest.
[Our brother Norway] sends out arrests
On Fortinbras; which he, in brief, obeys.
5 An ~ may be made by seizing or touching the body; but it
is sufficient in the party be within the power of the
officer and submit to the ~. In Admiralty law, and in old
English practice, the term is applied to the seizure of
3. Any seizure by power, physical or moral.
The sad stories of fire from heaven, the burning of his
sheep, etc.,.. were sad arrests to his troubled spirit.
4. (Far.) A scurfiness of the back part of the hind leg of a
horse; P also named ratOtails.
w of judgment (Law), the staying or stopping of a judgment,
after verdict, for legal cause. The motion for this purpose
is called a motion in arrest of judgment.
Ar7resOta6tion (?), n. [F. arrestation, LL. arrestatio.]
The arrestation of the English resident in France was
decreed by the National Convention.
H. M. Williams.
Ar7resOtee6 (?), n. [See Arrest, v.] (Scots Law) The person
in whose hands is the property attached by arrestment.
ArOrest6er (?), n. 1. One who arrests.
2. (Scots Law) The person at whose suit an arrestment is
made. [Also written arrestor.]
<-- p. 84 -->
ArOrest6ing (?), a. Striking; attracting attention;
This most solemn and arresting occurrence.
J. H. Newman.
ArOrest6ive (?), a. Tending to arrest.
ArOrest6ment , n. [OF. arrestement.] 1. (Scots Law) The
arrest of a person, or the seizure of his effects; esp., a
process by which money or movables in the possession of a
third party are attached.
2. A stoppage or check.
X ArOrt (?), n. [F. See Arrest, n.] (F. Law) (a) A
judgment, decision, or decree of a court or high tribunal;
also, a decree of a sovereign. (b) An arrest; a legal
ArOret6 (?), v. t. Same as Aret. [Obs.]
Ar7rhaOphos6tic (?), a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? to sew
together.] Seamless. [R.]
ArOrhi6zal (?), ArOrhi6zous (?), } a. [Gr. ? not rooted; ?
priv. + ? a root.] (Bot.) Destitute of a true root, as a
ArOrhyth6mic (?), ArOrhyth6mous (?), } a. [Gr. ?; ? priv. +
? rhythm.] (Med.) Being without rhythm or regularity, as the
Ar6rhytOmy (?), n. [Gr. ?; ? priv. + ? rhythm.] Want of
ArOride6 (?), v. t. [L. arridere; ad + ridere to laugh.] To
please; to gratify. [Archaic]
Above all thy rarities, old Oxenford, what do most arride
and solace me are thy repositories of moldering learning.
ArOriere6 (?), n. [F. arri
re. See Arrear.] =That which is
behind8; the rear; P chiefly used as an adjective in the
sense of behind, rear, subordinate.
w fee, w fief, a fee or fief dependent on a superior fee, or
a fee held of a feudatory. P w vassal, the vassal of a
ArOriere6Pban7 (?), n. [F., fr. OE. arban, heriban, fr. OHG.
hariban, heriban, G. heerbann, the calling together of an
army; OHG. heri an army + ban a public call or order. The
French have misunderstood their old word, and have changed
it into arri
rePban, though arri
re has no connection with
its proper meaning. See Ban, Abandon.] A proclamation, as of
the French kings, calling not only their immediate
feudatories, but the vassals of these feudatories, to take
the field for war; also, the body of vassals called or
liable to be called to arms, as in ancient France.
Ar6ris (?), n. [OF. areste, F. arte, fr. L. arista the top
or beard of an ear of grain, the bone of a fish.] (Arch.)
The sharp edge or salient angle formed by two surfaces
meeting each other, whether plane or curved; P applied
particularly to the edges in moldings, and to the raised
edges which separate the flutings in a Doric column.
w fillet, a triangular piece of wood used to raise the
slates of a roof against a chimney or wall, to throw off the
rain. Gwilt. P w gutter, a gutter of a V form fixed to the
eaves of a building. Gwilt.
Ar6rish (?), n. [See Eddish.] The stubble of wheat or grass;
a stubble field; eddish. [Eng.] [Written also arish, ersh,
The moment we entered the stubble or arrish.
Ar6risOwise7 (?), adv. Diagonally laid, as ??es; ridgewise.
ArOriv6al (?), n. [From Arrive.] 1. The act of arriving, or
coming; the act of reaching a place from a distance, whether
by water (as in its original sense) or by land.
Our watchmen from the towers, with longing eyes,
Expect his swift arrival.
2. The attainment or reaching of any object, by effort, or
in natural course; as, our arrival at this conclusion was
3. The person or thing arriving or which has arrived; as,
news brought by the last arrival.
Another arrival still more important was speedily announced.
4. An approach. [Obs.]
The house has a corner arrival.
ArOriv6ance (?), n. Arrival. [Obs.]
ArOrive6 (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Arrived (?); p. pr. & vb.
n. Arriving.] [OE. ariven to arrive, land, OF. ariver, F.
arriver, fr. LL. arripare, adripare, to come to shore; L. ad
+ ripa the shore or sloping bank of a river. Cf. Riparian.]
1. To come to the shore or bank. In present usage: To come
in progress by water, or by traveling on land; to reach by
water or by land; P followed by at (formerly sometimes by
to), also by in and from. =Arrived in Padua.8
[neas] sailing with a fleet from Sicily, arrived... and
landed in the country of Laurentum.
There was no outbreak till the regiment arrived at Ipswich.
2. To reach a point by progressive motion; to gain or
compass an object by effort, practice, study, inquiry,
reasoning, or experiment.
To ~ at, or attain to.
When he arrived at manhood.
We arrive at knowledge of a law of nature by the
generalization of facts.
If at great things thou wouldst arrive.
3. To come; said of time; as, the time arrived.
4. To happen or occur. [Archaic]
Happy! to whom this glorious death arrives.
ArOrive6, v. t. 1. To bring to shore. [Obs.]
And made the seaPtrod ship arrive them.
2. To reach; to come to. [Archaic]
Ere he arrive the happy isle.
Ere we could arrive the point proposed.
Arrive at last the blessed goal.
ArOrive6, n. Arrival. [Obs.]
How should I joy of thy arrive to hear!
ArOriv6er (?), n. One who arrives.
X ArOro6ba (?), n. [Sp. and Pg., from Ar. arrub, arPrubu, a
fourth part.] 1. A Spanish weight used in Mexico and South
America ? 25736 lbs. avoir.; also, an old Portuguese weight,
used in Brazil ? 32738 lbs. avoir.
2. A Spanish liquid measure for wine ? 3754 imp. gallons,
and for oil ? 2.78 imp. gallons.
Ar6roOgance (?), n. [F., fr. L. arrogantia, fr. arrogans.
See Arrogant.] The act or habit of arrogating, or making
undue claims in an overbearing manner; that species of pride
which consists in exorbitant claims of rank, dignity,
estimation, or power, or which exalts the worth or
importance of the person to an undue degree; proud contempt
of others; lordliness; haughtiness; selfPassumption;
i hate not you for her proud arrogance.
Syn. - Haughtiness; hauteur; assumption; lordliness;
presumption; pride; disdain; insolence; conceit;
conceitedness. See Haughtiness.
Ar6roOganOcy (?), n. Arrogance.
Ar6roOgant (?), a. [F. arrogant, L. arrogans, p. pr. of
arrogare. See Arrogate.] 1. Making, or having the
disposition to make, exorbitant claims of rank or
estimation; giving one's self an undue degree of importance;
assuming; haughty; P applied to persons.
Arrogant Winchester, that haughty prelate.
2. Containing arrogance; marked with arrogance; proceeding
from undue claims or selfPimportance; P applied to things;
as, arrogant pretensions or behavior.
Syn. - Magisterial; lordly; proud; assuming; overbearing;
presumptuous; haughty. See Magisterial.
Ar6roOgantOly, adv. In an arrogant manner; with undue pride
Ar6roOgantOness, n. Arrogance. [R.]
Ar6roOgate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arrogated (?); p. pr. &
vb. n. Arrogating (?).] [L. arrogatus, p. p. of adrogare,
arrogare, to ask, appropriate to one's self; ad + rogare to
ask. See Rogation.] To assume, or claim as one's own,
unduly, proudly, or presumptuously; to make undue claims to,
from vanity or baseless pretensions to right or merit; as,
the pope arrogated dominion over kings.
He arrogated to himself the right of deciding dogmatically
what was orthodox doctrine.
Ar7roOga6tion (?), n. [L. arrogatio, fr. arrogare. Cf.
Adrogation.] 1. The act of arrogating, or making exorbitant
claims; the act of taking more than one is justly entitled
2. (Civ. Law) Adoption of a person of full age.
Ar6roOgaOtive (?), a. Making undue claims and pretension;
prone to arrogance. [R.]
Dr. H. More.
X Ar7ron7disse7ment6 (?), n. [F., fr. arrondir to make
round; ad + rond round, L. rotundus.] A subdivision of a
5 The territory of France, since the revolution, has been
divided into departments, those into arrondissements, those
into cantons, and the latter into communes.
ArOrose6 (?), v. t. [F. arroser.] To drench; to besprinkle;
to moisten. [Obs.]
The blissful dew of heaven does arrose you.
Two N. Kins.
ArOro6sion (?), n. [L. arrodere, arrosum, to gnaw: cf. F.
arrosion.] A gnawing. [Obs.]
Ar6row (?), n. [OE. arewe, AS. arewe, earh; akin to Icel.
r, rvar, Goth. arhwazna, and perh. L. arcus bow. Cf. Arc.]
A missile weapon of offense, slender, pointed, and usually
feathered and barbed, to be shot from a bow.
Broad ~. (a) An ~ with a broad head. (b) A mark placed upon
British ordnance and government stores, which bears a rude
resemblance to a broad arrowhead.
Ar6row grass7 (?), n. (Bot.) An herbaceous grasslike plant
(Triglochin palustre, and other species) with pods opening
so as to suggest barbed arrowheads.
Ar6rowOhead7 (?), n. 1. The head of an arrow.
2. (Bot.) An aquatic plant of the genus Sagittaria, esp. S.
sagittifolia, P named from the shape of the leaves.
Ar6rowOhead7ed, a. Shaped like the head of an arow;
w characters, characters the elements of which consist of
strokes resembling arrowheads, nailheads, or wedges; P hence
called also nailPheaded, wedgePformed, cuneiform, or
cuneatic characters; the oldest written characters used in
the country about the Tigris and Euphrates, and subsequently
in Persia, and abounding among the ruins of Persepolis,
Nineveh, and Babylon. See Cuneiform.
Ar6rowOroot7 (?), n. 1. (Bot.) A west Indian plant of the
genus Maranta, esp. M. arundinacea, now cultivated in many
hot countries. It said that the Indians used the roots to
neutralize the venom in wounds made by poisoned arrows.
2. A nutritive starch obtained from the rootstocks of
Maranta arundinacea, and used as food, esp. for children an
invalids; also, a similar starch obtained from other plants,
as various species of Maranta and Curcuma.
Ar6rowOwood7 (?), n. A shrub (Viburnum dentatum) growing in
damp woods and thickets; P so called from the long,
straight, slender shoots.
Ar6rowOworm7 , n. (Zol.) A peculiar transparent worm of the
genus Sagitta, living at the surface of the sea. See
Ar6rowOy (?), a. 1. Consisting of arrows.
How quick they wheeled, and flying, behind them shot
Sharp sleet of arrowy showers.
2. Formed or moving like, or in any respect resembling, an
arrow; swift; darting; piercing. =His arrowy tongue.8
By the blue rushing of the arrowy Rhone.
With arrowy vitalities, vivacities, and ingenuities.
X ArOroy6o (?), n.; pl Arroyos (?). [Sp., fr. LL. arrogium;
cf. Gr. ? river, stream, fr. ? to flow.] 1. A water course;
2. The dry bed of a small stream. [Western U. S.]
X Ar6schin (?), n. See Arshine.
Arse , n. [AS. ears; rs; akin to OHG. ars. G. arsch, D.
aars, Sw. ars, Dan. arts, Gr. ? (cf. ? tail).] The buttocks,
or hind part of an animal; the posteriors; the fundament;
Ar6seOnal , n. [Sp. & F. arsenal arsenal, dockyard, or It.
arzanale, arsenale (cf. It. & darsena dock); all fr. Ar.
d>r?in>'a house of industry or fabrication; d>r house + ?in>
art, industry.] A public establishment for the storage, or
for the manufacture and storage, of arms and all military
equipments, whether for land or naval service.
Ar6seOnate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of arsenic acid.
ArOse6niOate , n. See Arsenate. [R.]
Ar6seOnic (?; 277), n. [L. arsenicum, Gr. ?, ?, yellow
orpiment, perh. fr. ? or better Attic ? masculine, ? male,
on account of its strength, or fr. Per. zernFkh: cf. F.
arsenic.] 1. (Chem.) One of the elements, a solid substance
resembling a metal in its physical properties, but in its
chemical relations ranking with the nonmetals. It is of a
steelPgray color and brilliant luster, though usually dull
from tarnish. It is very brittle, and sublimes at 3560
Fahrenheit. It is sometimes found native, but usually
combined with silver, cobalt, nickel, iron, antimony, or
sulphur. Orpiment and realgar are two of its sulphur
compounds, the first of which is the true arsenticum of the
ancients. The element and its compounds are active poisons.
Specific gravity from 5.7 to 5.9. Atomic weight. Symbol As.
2. (Com.) Arsenious oxide or arsenious anhydride; P called
also arsenious acid, white arsenic, and ratsbane.
ArOsen6ic , a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, ~; P
said of those compounds of ~ in which this element hat its
highest equivalence; as, arsenic acid.
ArOsen6icOal , a. Of or pertaining to, or containing,
arsenic; as, arsenical vapor; arsenical wall papers.
~ silver, an ore of silver containing arsenic.
ArOsen6iOcate , v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arsenicated; p. pr. &
vb. n. Arsenicating.] To combine with arsenic; to treat or
impregnate with arsenic.
ArOsen6iOcism , n. (Med.) A diseased condition produced by
slow poisoning with arsenic.
Ar6senOide (?), n. (Chem.) A compound of arsenic with a
metal, or positive element or radical; P formerly called
Ar7senOif6erOous (?), a. [Arsenic + Oferous.] Containing or
ArOse6niOous (?), a. [Cf. F. arsnieux.] 1. Pertaining to,
consisting of, or containing, arsenic; as, arsenious powder
2. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, arsenic, when
having an equivalence next lower than the highest; as,
Ar6senOite (?), n. [Cf. F. arsnite.] (Chem.) A salt formed
by the union of arsenious acid with a base.
Ar7seOni6uOret (?), n. (Chem.) See Arsenide.
Ar7seOni6uOret7ed, a.(Chem.) Combined with arsenic; P said
some elementary substances or radicals; as, arseniureted
hydrogen. [Also spelt arseniuretted.]
Ar7senOoOpyr6ite (?), n. [Arsenic + pyrite.] (Min.) A
mineral of a tinPwhite color and metallic luster, containing
arsenic, sulphur, and iron; P also called arsenical pyrites
Arse6smart (?), n. Smartweed; water pepper.
X Ar6shine (?), n. [Russ. arshin, of TurkishPTartar origin;
Turk. arshin, arsh?n, ell, yard.] A Russian measure of
length = 2 ft. 4.246 inches.
Ar6sine (?), n. [From Arsenic.] (Chem.) A compound of
arsenic and hydrogen, AsH3, a colorless and exceedingly
poisonous gas, having and odor like garlic; arseniureted
X Ar6sis (?), n. [L. arsis, Gr. ? a raising or lifting, an
elevation of the voice, fr. ? to raise or apprehension;
originally and properly it denotes the lifting of the hand
in beating time, and hence the unaccented part of the
rhythm.] 1. (Pros.) (a) That part of a foot where the ictus
is put, or which is distinguished from the rest (known as
the thesis) of the foot by a greater stress of voice.
Hermann. (b) That elevation of voice now called metrical
accentuation, or the rhythmic accent.
5 It is uncertain whether the arsis originally consisted in
a higher musical tone, greater volume, or longer duration of
sound, or in all combined.
2. (Mus.) The elevation of the hand, or that part of the bar
at which it is raised, in beating time; the weak or
unaccented part of the bar; P opposed to thesis.
Ars7met6rike (?), n. [An erroneous form of arithmetic, as if
from L. ars metrica the measuring art.] Arithmetic. [Obs.]
Ar6son (?; 277), n. [OF. arson, arsun, fr. L. ardere, arsum,
to burn.] (Law) The malicious burning of a dwelling house or
outhouse of another man, which by the common law is felony;
the malicious and voluntary firing of a building or ship.
5 The definition of this crime is varied by statues in
different countries and states. The English law of ~ has
been considerably modified in the United States; in some of
the States it has been materially enlarged, while in others,
various degrees of ~ have been established, with
Art (?). The second person singular, indicative mode,
present tense, of the substantive verb Be; but formed after
the analogy of the plural are, with the ending Ot, as in
thou shalt, witt, orig. an ending of the second person sing.
pret. Cf. Be. Now used only in solemn or poetical style.
<-- p. 85 -->
Art (?), n. [F. art, L. ars, artis, orig., skill in joining
or fitting; prob. akin to E. arm, aristocrat, article.] 1.
The employment of means to accomplish some desired end; the
adaptation of things in the natural world to the uses of
life; the application of knowledge or power to practical
Blest with each grace of nature and of art.
2. A system of rules serving to facilitate the performance
of certain actions; a system of principles and rules for
attaining a desired end; method of doing well some special
work; P often contradistinguished from science or
speculative principles; as, the art of building or
engraving; the art of war; the art of navigation.
Science is systematized knowledge... Art is knowledge made
J. F. Genung.
3. The systematic application of knowledge or skill in
effecting a desired result. Also, an occupation or business
requiring such knowledge or skill.
The fishermen can't employ their art with so much success in
so troubled a sea.
4. The application of skill to the production of the
beautiful by imitation or design, or an occupation in which
skill is so employed, as in painting and sculpture; one of
the fine arts; as, he prefers art to literature.
5. pl. Those branches of learning which are taught in the
academical course of colleges; as, master of arts.
In fearless youth we tempt the heights of arts.
Four years spent in the arts (as they are called in
colleges) is, perhaps, laying too laborious a foundation.
6. Learning; study; applied knowledge, science, or letters.
So vast is art, so narrow human wit.
7. Skill, dexterity, or the power of performing certain
actions, asquired by experience, study, or observation;
knack; a, a man has the art of managing his business to
8. Skillful plan; device.
They employed every art to soothe... the discontented
9. Cunning; artifice; craft.
Madam, I swear I use no art at all.
Animals practice art when opposed to their superiors in
10 To black art; magic. [Obs.]
w and part (Scots Law), share or concern by aiding and
abetting a criminal in the perpetration of a crime, whether
by advice or by assistance in the execution; complicity.
5 The arts are divided into various classes. The useful,
mechanical, or industrial arts are those in which the hands
and body are concerned than the mind; as in making clothes
and utensils. These are called trades. The fine arts are
those which have primarily to do with imagination taste, and
are applied to the production of what is beautiful. They
include poetry, music, painting, engraving, sculpture, and
architecture; but the term is often confined to painting,
sculpture, and architecture. The liberal arts (artes
liberales, the higher arts, which, among the Romans, only
freemen were permitted to pursue) were, in the Middle Ages,
these seven branches of learning, P grammar, logic,
rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. In
modern times the liberal arts include the sciences,
philosophy, history, etc., which compose the course of
academical or collegiate education. Hence, degrees in the
arts; master and bachelor of arts.
In America, literature and the elegant arts must grow up
side by side with the coarser plants of daily necessity.
Syn. - Science; literature; aptitude; readiness; skill;
dexterity; adroitness; contrivance; profession; business;
trade; calling; cunning; artifice; duplicity. See Science.
X ArOte6miOa (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, a Greek goddess.]
(Zol.) A genus of phyllopod Crustacea found in salt lakes
and brines; the brine shrimp. See Brine shrimp.
Ar7teOmi6siOa (?), n. [L. Artemisia, Gr. ?.] (Bot.) A genus
of plants including the plants called mugwort, southernwood,
and wormwood. Of these A. absinthium, or common wormwood, is
well known, and A. tridentata is the sage brush of the Rocky
ArOte6riOac (?), a. [L. arteriacus, Gr. ?. See Artery.] Of
or pertaining to the windpipe.
ArOte6riOal (?), a. [Cf. F. artriel.] 1. Of or pertaining
to an artery, or the arteries; as, arterial action; the
2. Of or pertaining to a main channel (resembling an
artery), as a river, canal, or railroad.
w blood, blood which has been changed and vitalized
(arterialized) during passage through the lungs.
ArOte7riOalOiOza6tion (?), n. (Physiol.) The process of
converting venous blood into arterial blood during its
passage through the lungs, oxygen being absorbed and
carbonic acid evolved; P called also a ration and hematosis.
ArOte6riOalOize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arterialized ; p.
pr. & vb. n. Arterializing.] To transform, as the venous
blood, into arterial blood by exposure to oxygen in the
lungs; to make arterial.
ArOte7riOog6raOphy , n. [Gr. ? + Ography.] A systematic
description of the arteries.
ArOte6riOole (?), n. [NL. arteriola, dim. of L. arteria: cf.
F. artriole.] A small artery.
ArOte7riOol6oOgy (?), n. [Gr. ? + Ology.] That part of
anatomy which treats of arteries.
ArOte7riOot6oOmy (?), n. [L. arteriotomia, Gr. ?; ? + ? a
cutting.] 1. (Med.) The opening of an artery, esp. for
2. That part of anatomy which treats of the dissection of
X Ar7teOri6tis (?), n. [Artery + Oetis.] Inflammation of an
artery or arteries.
Ar6terOy (?), n.; pl. Arteries (?). [L. arteria windpipe,
artery, Gr. ?.] 1. The trachea or windpipe. [Obs.] =Under
the artery, or windpipe, is the mouth of the stomach.8
2. (Anat.) One of the vessels or tubes which carry either
venous or arterial blood from the heart. They have tricker
and more muscular walls than veins, and are connected with
them by capillaries.
5 In man and other mammals, the arteries which contain
arterialized blood receive it from the left ventricle of the
heart through the aorta. See Aorta. The pulmonary artery
conveys the venous blood from the right ventricle to the
lungs, whence the arterialized blood is returned through
the pulmonary veins.
3. Hence: Any continuous or ramified channel of
communication; as, arteries of trade or commerce.
ArOte6sian (?), a. [F. artsien, fr. Artois in France, where
many such wells have been made since the middle of the last
century.] Of or pertaining to Artois (anciently called
Artesium), in France.
w wells, wells made by boring into the earth till the
instrument reaches water, which, from internal pressure,
flows spontaneously like a fountain. They are usually of
small diameter and often of great depth.
Art6ful (?), a. [From Art.] 1. Performed with, or
characterized by, art or skill. [Archaic] =Artful strains.8
2. Artificial; imitative.
3. Using or exhibiting much art, skill, or contrivance;
He [was] too artful a writer to set down events in exact
4. Cunning; disposed to cunning indirectness of dealing;
crafty; as, an artful boy. [The usual sense.]
Artful in speech, in action, and in mind.
The artful revenge of various animals.
Syn. - Cunning; skillful; adroit; dexterous; crafty; tricky;
deceitful; designing. See Cunning.
Art6fulOly, adv. In an artful manner; with art or cunning;
skillfully; dexterously; craftily.
Art6fulOness, n. The quality of being artful; art; cunning;
Ar6then (?), a. Same as Earthen. [Obs.] =An arthen pot.8
ArOthrit6ic (?), ArOthrit6icOal (?), } a. [L. arthriticus,
Gr. ?. See Arthritis.] 1. Pertaining to the joints. [Obs.]
Sir T. Browne.
2. Of or pertaining to arthritis; gouty.
X ArOthri6tis (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ? (as if fem. of ?
belonging to the joints, sc. ? disease) gout, fr. ? a
joint.] (Med.) Any inflammation of the joints, particularly
Ar6throOderm (?), n. [Gr. ? joint + 'derm.] (Zol.) The
external covering of an Arthropod.
X ArOthro6diOa (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? well
articulated; ? a joint + ? shape.] (Anat.) A form of
diarthrodial articulation in which the articular surfaces
are nearly flat, so that they form only an imperfect ball
ArOthro6diOal (?), ArOthrod6ic (?), } a. Of or pertaining to
X Ar7throOdyn6iOa (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ?? pain.]
(Med.) An affection characterized by pain in or about a
joint, not dependent upon structural disease.
Ar7throOdyn6ic , a. Pertaining to arthrodynia, or pain in
the joints; rheumatic.
X Ar7throOgas6tra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? joint + ?
stomach.] (Zol.) A division of the Arachnida, having the
abdomen annulated, including the scorpions, harvestmen,
ArOthrog6raOphy (?), n. [Gr. ? joint + Ography.] The
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