Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 1
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 1 out of 6

Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Keren Vergon,
Steve Schulze and PG Distributed Proofreaders









The Woman's Institute Library of Cookery consists of five volumes that
cover the various phases of the subject of cookery as it is carried on
in the home. These books contain the same text as the Instruction Papers
of the Institute's Course in Cookery arranged so that related subjects
are grouped together. Examination questions pertaining to the subject
matter appear at the end of each section. These questions will prove
helpful in a mastery of the subjects to which they relate, as they are
the same as those on which students of the Institute are required to
report. At the back of each volume is a complete index, which will
assist materially in making quick reference to the subjects contained
in it.

This volume, which is the first of the set, deals with the essentials of
cookery, cereals, bread, and hot breads. In _Essentials of Cookery_,
Parts 1 and 2, are thoroughly treated the selection, buying, and care of
food, as well as other matters that will lead to familiarity with terms
used in cookery and to efficiency in the preparation of food. In
_Cereals_ are discussed the production, composition, selection, and care
and the cooking and serving of cereals of all kinds. In _Bread_ and _Hot
Breads_ are described all the ingredients required for bread, rolls, and
hot breads of every kind, the processes and recipes to be followed in
making and baking them, the procedure in serving them, and the way in
which to care for such foods.

Whenever advisable, utensils for the preparation of food, as well as
labor-saving devices, are described, so as to enable beginners in the
art of cookery to become acquainted with them quickly. In addition, this
volume contains breakfast, luncheon, and dinner menus that will enable
the housewife to put into practical, every-day use many of the
recipes given.

It is our hope that these volumes will help the housewife to acquire the
knowledge needed to prepare daily meals that will contain the proper
sustenance for each member of her family, teach her how to buy her food
judiciously and prepare and serve it economically and appetizingly, and
also instil in her such a liking for cookery that she will become
enthusiastic about mastering and dignifying this womanly art.


The Problem of Food
Selection of Food
Food Substances
Food Value
Digestion and Absorption of Food
Preparation of Food
Methods of Cooking
Heat for Cooking
Utensils for Cooking
Preparing Foods for Cooking
Order of Work
Table for Cooking Foods
Care of Food
Menus and Recipes
Terms Used in Cookery

Production, Composition, and Selection
Cereals as a Food
Preparation of Cereals for the Table
Indian Corn, or Maize
Rye, Buckwheat, and Millet
Prepared, or Ready-to-Eat, Cereals
Serving Cereals
Italian Pastes
Breakfast Menu

Importance of Bread as Food
Ingredients for Bread Making
Utensils for Bread Making
Bread-Making Processes
Making the Dough
Care of the Rising Dough
Kneading the Dough
Shaping the Dough Into Loaves
Baking the Bread
Scoring Bread
Use of the Bread Mixer
Serving Bread
Bread Recipes
Recipes for Rolls, Buns, and Biscuits
Left-Over Bread

Hot Breads in the Diet
Principal Requirements for Hot Breads
Leavening Agents
Hot-Bread Utensils and Their Use
Preparing the Hot-Bread Mixture
Baking the Hot-Bread Mixture
Serving Hot Breads
Popover Recipes
Griddle-Cake Recipes
Waffle Recipes
Muffin Recipes
Corn-Cake Recipes
Biscuit Recipes
Miscellaneous Hot-Bread Recipes
Utilising Left-Over Hot Breads
Luncheon Menu


* * * * *



1. Without doubt, the greatest problem confronting the human race is
that of food. In order to exist, every person must eat; but eating
simply to keep life in the body is not enough. Aside from this, the body
must be supplied with an ample amount of energy to carry on each day's
work, as well as with the material needed for its growth, repair, and
working power. To meet these requirements of the human body, there is
nothing to take the place of _food_, not merely any kind, however, but
the _right_ kind. Indeed, so important is the right kind of food in the
scheme of life that the child deprived of it neither grows nor increases
in weight, and the adult who is unable to secure enough of it for
adequate nourishment is deficient in nerve force and working power. If a
person is to get the best out of life, the food taken into the body must
possess real sustaining power and supply the tissues with the necessary
building material; and this truth points out that there are facts and
principles that must be known in order that the proper selection of food
may be made, that it may be so prepared as to increase its value, and
that economy in its selection, preparation, use, and care may be

2. Probably the most important of these principles is the _cooking of
food_. While this refers especially to the preparation of food by
subjecting edible materials to the action of heat, it involves much
more. The cooking of food is a science as well as an art, and it depends
for its success on known and established principles. In its full sense,
_cookery_ means not only the ability to follow a recipe, thereby
producing a successfully cooked dish, but also the ability to select
materials, a knowledge of the ways in which to prepare them, an
understanding of their value for the persons for whom they are prepared,
and ingenuity in serving foods attractively and in making the best use
of food that may be left over from the previous meals, so that there
will be practically no waste. Thus, while cookery in all its phases is a
broad subject, it is one that truly belongs to woman, not only because
of the pleasure she derives in preparing food for the members of her
family, but because she is particularly qualified to carry on the work.

3. The providing of food in the home is a matter that usually falls to
the lot of the housewife; in fact, on her depends the wise use of the
family income. This means, then, that whether a woman is earning her own
livelihood and has only herself to provide for, or whether she is
spending a part of some other person's income, as, for instance, her
father's or her husband's, she should understand how to proportion her
money so as to provide the essential needs, namely, food, clothing, and
shelter. In considering the question of providing food, the housewife
should set about to determine what three meals a day will cost, and in
this matter she should be guided by the thought that the meals must be
the best that can possibly be purchased for the amount of money allowed
for food from the family income and that their cost must not exceed the
allotment. To a great extent she can control the cost of her foods by
selecting them with care and then making good use of what her money has
bought. It is only by constant thought and careful planning, however,
that she will be able to keep within her means, and she will find that
her greatest assistance lies in studying foods and the ways in which to
prepare them.

4. A factor that should not be disregarded in the problem of food is
_waste_, and so that the housewife can cope with it properly she should
understand the distinction between waste and refuse. These terms are
thought by some to mean the same thing and are often confused; but there
is a decided difference between them. _Waste_, as applied to food, is
something that could be used but is not, whereas _refuse_ is something
that is rejected because it is unfit for use. For example, the fat of
meat, which is often eaten, is waste if it is thrown away, but potato
parings, which are not suitable as food, are refuse.

In connection with the problem of waste, it may be well to know that
leakage in the household is due to three causes. The first one is lack
of knowledge on the part of the housekeeper as to the difference between
waste and refuse and a consequent failure to market well. As an
illustration, many housewives will reject turkey at a certain price a
pound as being too expensive and, instead, will buy chicken at, say, 5
cents a pound less. In reality, chicken at 5 cents a pound less than the
price of turkey is more expensive, because turkey, whose proportion of
meat to bone is greater than that of chicken, furnishes more edible
material; therefore, in buying chicken, they pay more for refuse in
proportion to good material. The second cause for this leakage in the
household is excessive waste in the preparation of food for the table,
arising from the selection of the wrong cooking method or the lack of
skill in cooking; and the third cause is the serving of too large
quantities and a consequent waste of food left on individual plates and
unfit for any other use in the home.

5. Another matter that constantly confronts the housewife is what foods
she shall select for each day's meals. To be successful, all meals
should be planned with the idea of making them wholesome and appetizing,
giving them variety, and using the left-overs. Every woman should
understand that food is cooked for both hygienic and esthetic reasons;
that is, it must be made safe and wholesome for health's sake and must
satisfy the appetite, which to a considerable degree is mental and, of
course, is influenced by the appearance of the food. When the housewife
knows how to cook ordinary foods well, she has an excellent foundation
from which to obtain variety in the _diet_--by which in these lessons is
meant the daily food and drink of any individual, and not something
prescribed by a physician for a person who is ill--for then it is simply
a matter of putting a little careful thought into the work she is doing
in order to get ideas of new ways in which to prepare these same foods
and of utilizing foodstuffs she has on hand. However, ample time must
always be allowed for the preparation of meals, for no one can expect to
produce tasty meals by rushing into the kitchen just before meal time
and getting up the easiest thing in the quickest manner. Well-planned
meals carefully prepared will stimulate interest in the next day's bill
of fare and will prove extremely beneficial to all concerned.

6. In the practice of cookery it is also important that the meals be
planned and the cooking done for the sake of building the human body
and caring for it. As soon as any woman realizes that both the present
and the future welfare of the persons for whom she is providing foods
depend on so many things that are included in cookery, her interest in
this branch of domestic science will increase; and in making a study of
it she may rest assured that there is possibly no other calling that
affords a more constant source of enjoyment and a better opportunity for
acquiring knowledge, displaying skill, and helping others to be well
and happy.

The fact that people constantly desire something new and different in
the way of food offers the housewife a chance to develop her ingenuity
along this line. Then, too, each season brings with it special foods for
enjoyment and nourishment, and there is constant satisfaction in
providing the family with some surprise in the form of a dish to which
they are unaccustomed, or an old one prepared in a new or a better way.
But the pleasure need not be one-sided, for the adding of some new touch
to each meal will give as much delight to the one who prepares the food
as to those who partake of it. When cookery is thought of in this way,
it is really a creative art and has for its object something more than
the making of a single dish or the planning of a single meal.

7. From what has been pointed out, it will readily be seen that a
correct knowledge of cookery and all that it implies is of extreme
importance to those who must prepare food for others; indeed, it is for
just such persons--the housewife who must solve cookery problems from
day to day, as well as girls and women who must prepare themselves to
perform the duties with which they will be confronted when they take up
the management of a household and its affairs--that these lessons in
cookery are intended.

In the beginning of this course of study in cookery it is deemed
advisable to call attention to the order in which the subject matter is
presented. As will be seen before much progress is made, the lessons are
arranged progressively; that is, the instruction begins with the
essentials, or important fundamentals, of food--its selection,
preparation, and care--and, from these as a foundation, advances step by
step into the more complicated matters and minor details. The beginner
eager to take up the actual work of cookery may feel that too much
attention is given to preliminaries. However, these are extremely
essential, for they are the groundwork on which the actual cooking of
food depends; indeed, without a knowledge of them, very little
concerning cookery in its various phases could be readily comprehended.

8. Each beginner in cookery is therefore urged to master every lesson in
the order in which she receives it and to carry out diligently every
detail. No lesson should be disregarded as soon as it is understood, for
the instruction given in it bears a close relation to the entire subject
and should be continually put into practice as progress is made. This
thought applies with particular emphasis to the Sections relating to the
essentials of cookery. These should be used in connection with all other
Sections as books of reference and an aid in calling to mind points that
must eventually become a part of a woman's cookery knowledge. By
carrying on her studies systematically and following directions
carefully, the beginner will find the cooking of foods a simple matter
and will take delight in putting into practice the many things that
she learns.

* * * * *



9. Each one of the phases of cookery has its importance, but if success
is to be achieved in this art, careful attention must be given to the
selection of what is to be cooked, so as to determine its value and
suitability. To insure the best selection, therefore, the housewife
should decide whether the food material she purchases will fit the needs
of the persons who are to eat it; whether the amount of labor involved
in the preparation will be too great in proportion to the results
obtained; whether the loss in preparation, that is, the proportion of
refuse to edible matter, will be sufficient to affect the cost
materially; what the approximate loss in cooking will be; whether the
food will serve to the best advantage after it is cooked; and, finally,
whether or not all who are to eat it will like it. The market price also
is a factor that cannot be disregarded, for, as has been explained, it
is important to keep within the limits of the amount that may be spent
and at the same time provide the right kind of nourishment for each
member of the family.

10. In order to select food material that will meet the requirements
just set forth, three important matters must be considered; namely, the
_substances_ of which it is composed; its measure of energy-producing
material, or what is called its _food_, or _fuel, value_; and its
_digestion_ and _absorption_. Until these are understood, the actual
cost of any article of food cannot be properly determined, although its
price at all times may be known.

However, before a study of any of these matters is entered into, it is
necessary to know just what is meant by food and what food does for the
body. As is well understood, the body requires material by which it may
be built and its tissues repaired when they are torn down by work and
exercise. In addition it requires a supply of heat to maintain it at
normal temperature and provide it with sufficient energy to do the work
required of it. The material that will accomplish these important things
is food, which may therefore be regarded as anything that, when taken
into the body, will build and repair its tissues or will furnish it with
the energy required to do its work.


11. Although, as has just been stated, food may be considered as
anything that the human engine can make over into tissue or use in
living and working, not all foods are equally desirable any more than
all materials are equally good in the construction of a steam engine and
in the production of its working power. Those food substances which are
the most wholesome and healthful are the ones to be chosen, but proper
choice cannot be made unless the buyer knows of what the particular food
consists and what it is expected to do. To aid in the selection of food,
therefore, it is extremely necessary to become familiar with the five
substances, constituents, or principles of which foods are made up;
namely, water, mineral matter, or ash, protein, fat, and carbohydrate. A
knowledge of these will help also in determining the cooking methods to
adopt, for this depends on the effect that heat has on the various
substances present in a food. Of course, so far as flavor is concerned,
it is possible for the experienced cook to prepare many dishes
successfully without knowing the effect of heat on the different food
constituents; but to cook intelligently, with that success which makes
for actual economy and digestibility, certain facts must be known
concerning the food principles and the effect of dry and moist heat
on foods.

12. Water.--Of the various constituents that are found in the human
body, water occurs in the largest quantity. As a food substance, it is
an extremely important feature of a person's diet. Its chief purpose is
to replenish the liquids of the body and to assist in the digestion of
food. Although nature provides considerable amounts of water in most
foods, large quantities must be taken in the diet as a beverage. In
fact, it is the need of the body for water that has led to the
development of numerous beverages. Besides being necessary in building
up the body and keeping it in a healthy condition, water has a special
function to perform in cooking, as is explained later. Although this
food substance is extremely essential to life, it is seldom considered
in the selection of food, because, as has just been mentioned, nearly
all foods contain water.

13. Mineral Matter.--Ranking next to water in the quantity contained in
the human body is mineral matter. This constituent, which is also called
_ash_ or _mineral salts_, forms the main part of the body's framework,
or skeleton. In the building and maintaining of the body, mineral salts
serve three purposes--to give rigidity and permanence to the skeleton,
to form an essential element of active tissue, and to provide the
required alkalinity or acidity for the digestive juices and other

The origin and distribution of these mineral substances are of interest.
Plants in their growth seize from the earth the salts of minerals and
combine them with other substances that make up their living tissue.
Then human beings, as well as other living creatures, get their supply
of these needed salts from the plants that they take as food, this being
the only form in which the salts can be thoroughly assimilated. These
salts are not affected by cooking unless some process is used that
removes such of them as are readily soluble in water. When this occurs,
the result is usually waste, as, for instance, where no use is made of
the water in which some vegetables are boiled. As is true of water,
mineral matter, even though it is found in large quantities in the body,
is usually disregarded when food is purchased. This is due to the fact
that this important nutritive material appears in some form in nearly
all foods and therefore does not necessitate the housewife's stopping to
question its presence.

14. Protein.--The food substance known as protein is a very important
factor in the growth and repair of the body; in fact, these processes
cannot be carried on unless protein is present in the diet. However,
while a certain quantity of protein is essential, the amount is not very
large and more than is required is likely to be harmful, or, since the
body can make no use of it, to be at least waste material. The principal
sources of protein are lean meat, eggs, milk, certain grains, nuts, and
the legumes, which include such foods as beans and peas. Because of the
ease with which they are digested, meat, fish, eggs, and milk are more
valuable sources of protein than bread, beans, and nuts. However, as the
foods that are most valuable for proteins cost more than others, a mixed
diet is necessary if only a limited amount of money with which to
purchase foods is available.

15. So much is involved in the cooking of foods containing protein that
the effect of heat on such foods should be thoroughly understood. The
cooking of any food, as is generally understood, tends to break up the
food and prepare it for digestion. However, foods have certain
characteristics, such as their structure and texture, that influence
their digestibility, and the method of cooking used or the degree to
which the cooking is carried so affects these characteristics as to
increase or decrease the digestibility of the food. In the case of foods
containing protein, unless the cooking is properly done, the application
of heat is liable to make the protein indigestible, for the heat first
coagulates this substance--that is, causes it to become thick--and
then, as the heat increases, shrinks and hardens it. This fact is
clearly demonstrated in the cooking of an egg, the white of which is the
type of protein called _albumin_. In a raw egg, the albumin is nearly
liquid, but as heat is applied, it gradually coagulates until it becomes
solid. If the egg is cooked too fast or too long, it toughens and
shrinks and becomes less palatable, less attractive, and less
digestible. However, if the egg is properly cooked after the heat has
coagulated the albumin, the white will remain tender and the yolk will
be fine and mealy in texture, thus rendering it digestible.

Similar results, although not so evident to the sight, are brought about
through the right or wrong way of cooking practically all other foods
that contain much protein. Milk, whose principal ingredient is a protein
known as _casein_, familiar as the curd of cheese, illustrates this fact
very plainly. When it is used to make cottage cheese, heating it too
long or to too high a degree will toughen the curd and actually spoil
the texture of the product, which will be grainy and hard, instead of
smooth and tender.

16. FATS.--The food substances just discussed--water, mineral matter,
and protein--yield the materials required for building and repairing the
tissues of the body, but, as has been explained, the body also requires
foods that produce energy, or working power. By far the greater part of
the total solids of food taken into the body serve this purpose, and of
these fats form a large percentage. Although fats make up such a large
proportion of the daily food supply, they enter into the body
composition to a less extent than do the food substances that have been
explained. The fats commonly used for food are of both animal and
vegetable origin, such as lard, suet, butter, cream, olive oil, nut oil,
and cottonseed oil. The ordinary cooking temperatures have comparatively
little effect on fat, except to melt it if it is solid. The higher
temperatures decompose at least some of it, and thus liberate substances
that may be irritating to the digestive tract.

17. CARBOHYDRATES.--Like fats, the food substances included in the term
carbohydrates supply the body with energy. However, fats and
carbohydrates differ in the forms in which they supply energy, the
former producing it in the most concentrated form and the latter in the
most economical form.

So that the term _carbohydrate_ may be clearly understood and firmly
fixed in the mind, it is deemed advisable to discuss briefly the
composition of the body and the food that enters it. Of course, in a
lesson on cookery, not so much attention need be given to this matter as
in a lesson on _dietetics_, which is a branch of hygiene that treats of
diet; nevertheless, it is important that every person who prepares food
for the table be familiar with the fact that the body, as well as food,
is made up of a certain number of chemical elements, of which nitrogen,
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen form a large part. Protein owes its
importance to the fact that of the various food substances it alone
contains the element nitrogen, which is absolutely essential to the
formation of any plant or animal tissue. The other three elements,
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, go to make up the carbohydrates; in fact,
it is from the names of these three elements that the term carbohydrate
is derived. The carbohydrates include the starches and sugars that are
used and eaten in so many forms, and these contain the three elements
mentioned, the hydrogen and oxygen contained in them being in the
proportion that produces water. Thus, as will readily be seen, by
separating the name into its parts--_carbo_ (carbon) and _hydrate_
(hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion of two parts of hydrogen and one
of oxygen, that is, in the form of water)--carbohydrate is simply carbon
united with water. While the facts just brought out have much to do with
food economy, they are of interest here chiefly because they help to
make clear the term carbohydrate, which, as will be admitted, is the
only correct name for the food substance it represents.

18. STARCH, one of the chief forms of carbohydrates, is found in only
the vegetable kingdom. It is present in large quantities in the grains
and in potatoes; in fact, nearly all vegetables contain large or small
amounts of it. It is stored in the plant in the form of granules that
lie within the plant cells.

Cooking applied to starch changes it into a form that is digestible.
Moist heat cooks the granules until they expand and burst and thus
thicken the mass. Dry heat changes starch first into a soluble form and
finally into what is called _dextrine_, this being the intermediate step
in the changing of starch into sugar.

19. SUGAR, another important form of carbohydrate, is mainly of
vegetable origin, except that which is found in milk and called
_lactose_. This, together with the fat found in milk, supplies the child
with energy before it is able to digest a variety of foods. The sap of
various plants contains such large quantities of sugar that it can be
crystalized out and secured in dry form. The liquid that remains is
valuable as food, for, by boiling it down, it forms molasses. Sugar is
also present in considerable amounts in all fruits, and much of it is in
a form that can be assimilated, or taken up by the body, quickly. A
sugar very similar to this natural fruit sugar is made from the starch
of corn and is called _glucose_. Much of the carbohydrate found in
vegetables, especially young, tender vegetables, is in the form of
sugar, which, as the vegetables grow older, changes to starch.

Sugar melts upon the application of heat or, if it is in a melted
condition, as sirup or molasses, it boils down and gives off water. When
all the water has boiled away, the sugar begins to caramelize or become
brown, and develops a characteristic flavor. If the cooking is continued
too long, a dark-brown color and a bitter taste are developed. Because
the sugar in fruits and vegetables is in solution, some of it is lost
when they are boiled, unless, of course, the water in which they are
cooked is utilized.

20. CELLULOSE is a form of carbohydrate closely related to starch. It
helps to form the structure of plants and vegetables. Very little
cellulose is digested, but it should not be ignored, because it gives
the necessary bulk to the food in which it occurs and because strict
attention must be paid to the cooking of it. As cellulose usually
surrounds nutritive material of vegetable origin, it must be softened
and loosened sufficiently by cooking to permit the nutritive material to
be dissolved by the digestive juices. Then, too, in old vegetables,
there is more starch and the cellulose is harder and tougher, just as an
old tree is much harder than a sapling. This, then, accounts for the
fact that rapid cooking is needed for some vegetables and slow cooking
for others, the method and the time of cooking depending on the presence
and the consistency of the cellulose that occurs in the food.

21. IMPORTANCE OF A VARIETY OF FOODS.--Every one of the five food
substances just considered must be included in a person's diet; yet,
with the exception of milk, no single food yields the right amounts of
material necessary for tissue building and repair and for heat and
energy. Even milk is in the right proportion, as far as its food
substances are concerned, only for babies and very young children. It
will thus be seen that to provide the body with the right foods, the
diet must be such as to include all the food substances. In food
selection, therefore, the characteristics of the various food substances
must be considered well. Fats yield the most heat, but are the most
slowly digested. Proteins and carbohydrates are more quickly digested
than fats, but, in equal amounts, have less than half as much food
value. Water and mineral salts do not yield heat, but are required to
build tissue and to keep the body in a healthy condition. In addition,
it is well to note that a well-balanced diet is one that contains all of
the five food substances in just the right proportion in which the
individual needs them to build up the body, repair it, and supply it
with energy. What this proportion should be, however, cannot be stated
offhand, because the quantity and kind of food substances necessarily
vary with the size, age, and activity of each person.


22. Nearly all foods are complex substances, and they differ from one
another in what is known as their _value_, which is measured by the work
the food does in the body either as a tissue builder or as a producer of
energy. However, in considering food value, the person who prepares food
must not lose sight of the fact that the individual appetite must be
appealed to by a sufficient variety of appetizing foods. There would be
neither economy nor advantage in serving food that does not please those
who are to eat it.

While all foods supply the body with energy, they differ very much in
the quantity they yield. If certain ones were chosen solely for that
purpose, it would be necessary for any ordinary person to consume a
larger quantity of them than could be eaten at any one time. For
instance, green vegetables furnish the body with a certain amount of
energy, but they cannot be eaten to the exclusion of other things,
because no person could eat in a day a sufficient amount of them to give
the body all the energy it would need for that day's work. On the other
hand, certain foods produce principally building material, and if they
were taken for the purpose of yielding only energy, they would be much
too expensive. Meats, for example, build up the body, but a person's
diet would cost too much if meat alone were depended on to provide the
body with all the energy it requires. Many foods, too, contain mineral
salts, which, as has been pointed out, are needed for building tissue
and keeping the body in a healthy condition.

23. To come to a correct appreciation of the value of different foods,
it is necessary to understand the unit employed to measure the amount of
work that foods do in the body. This unit is the CALORIE, or _calory_,
and it is used to measure foods just as the inch, the yard, the pound,
the pint, and the quart are the units used to measure materials and
liquids; however, instead of measuring the food itself, it determines
its food value, or fuel value. To illustrate what is meant, consider,
for instance, 1/2 ounce of sugar and 1/2 ounce of butter. As far as the
actual weight of these two foods is concerned, they are equal; but with
regard to the work they do in the body they differ considerably. Their
relative value in the body, however, can be determined if they are
measured by some unit that can be applied to both. It is definitely
known that both of them produce heat when they are oxidized, that is,
when they are combined with oxygen; thus, the logical way of measuring
them is to determine the quantity of heat that will be produced when
they are eaten and united with oxygen, a process that causes the
liberation of heat. The calorie is the unit by which this heat can be
measured, it being the quantity of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 pint of water 4 degrees Fahrenheit, which is the name
of the thermometer commonly used in the home. When burned as fuel, a
square of butter weighing 1/2 ounce produces enough heat to raise 1 pint
of water 400 degrees Fahrenheit, and it will yield the same amount of
heat when it is eaten and goes through the slow process of oxidation in
the body. On the other hand, 1/2 ounce of sugar upon being oxidized will
produce only enough heat to raise the temperature of 1 pint of water
about 230 degrees Fahrenheit. Thus, as will be seen, 1/2 ounce of butter
has a value of approximately 100 calories, whereas 1/2 ounce of sugar
contains only about 57-1/2 calories.

Other foods yield heat in varying degrees, and their food value is
determined in exactly the same way as that of butter and sugar. To give
an idea of the composition of various food materials, as well as the
number of calories that 1 pound of these food materials will yield, food
charts published by the United States Department of Agriculture are here
presented. As an understanding of these charts will prove extremely
profitable in the selection of food, a careful study of them at this
time is urged. In addition, reference to them should be made from time
to time as the various kinds of foods are taken up, as the charts will
then be more easily comprehended and their contents of more value.


24. The third requirement in the selection of food, namely, its
digestion and absorption, depends considerably on the persons who are to
be fed. Food that is chosen for adults entirely would not be the same as
that intended for both young persons and adults; neither would food that
is to be fed to children or persons who are ill be the same as that
which is to be served to robust adults who do a normal amount of work.
No hard-and-fast rules can be laid down here for this phase of
food selection, but as these lessons in cookery are taken up in turn,
the necessary knowledge regarding digestibility will be acquired.

[Illustration: Composition of food materials]

[Illustration: Composition of food materials]

* * * * *



25. The term cookery, as has been explained, means the preparation of
both hot and cold dishes for use as food, as well as the selection of
the materials or substances that are to be cooked. The importance of
cooking foods by subjecting them to the action of heat has been
recognized for ages; and while it is true that there are many foods that
appeal to the appetite in their raw state and still others that can be
eaten either raw or cooked, there are several reasons why it is
desirable to cook food, as will be seen from the following:

1. Cooking makes foods more palatable. This is true of such foods as
meat, cereals, and many vegetables, which would be very unappetizing if
they were eaten raw.

2. Cooking renders foods more digestible. For instance, the hard grains,
such as wheat, and the dried vegetables, such as beans, cannot be
readily digested unless they are softened by cooking. But while cooking
makes such foods more digestible, it renders others more difficult of
digestion, as in the case of eggs, the degree of digestibility depending
somewhat on the cooking method used and the skill of the cook. An egg in
an almost liquid form, or when only slightly cooked, as a soft-boiled
egg, is more easily digested than when it becomes hardened by cooking.
Then, too, a properly prepared hard-cooked egg is more digestible than
an improperly cooked one, although the degree of hardness may be
the same.

3. Cooking gives foods greater variety. The same food may be cooked by
various methods and be given very different tastes and appearances; on
the other hand, it may be combined with a large number of other foods,
so as to increase the variety of the dishes in which it is used. The
large number of recipes found in cook books show the attempts that have
been made to obtain variety in cooked dishes by the combining of
different foods.

4. Cooking sterilizes foods either partly or completely. Many foods
need partial or complete sterilization for safety. They must be
completely sterilized if the germs that produce fermentation or
putrefaction and thereby spoil food would be destroyed. This is done
when fruits and vegetables are canned for keeping. Foods that are
exposed to dust, flies, and improper handling should be thoroughly
cooked in order to destroy any pathogenic germs that might be present.
By such germs are meant disease-bearing germs. They differ from germs
that produce fermentation and putrefaction, or spoiling, and that must
in general be considered as a help, for these play an important part in
the raising of bread and the preparation of various foods, as is pointed
out later.

5. Cooking develops flavor in many foods. In the case of some
vegetables, the flavoring substance is given off in the air by certain
methods of cooking and a better flavor is thereby developed.

* * * * *



26. Food is cooked by the application of heat, which may be either moist
or dry. While it is true that the art of cooking includes the
preparation of material that is served or eaten raw, cooking itself is
impossible without heat; indeed, the part of cooking that requires the
most skill and experience is that in which heat is involved. Explicit
directions for carrying on the various cooking processes depend on the
kind of stove, the cooking utensils, and even the atmospheric
conditions. In truth, the results of some processes depend so much on
the state of the atmosphere that they are not successful on a day on
which it is damp and heavy; also, as is well known, the stove acts
perfectly on some days, whereas on other days it seems to have a
stubborn will of its own. Besides the difficulties mentioned, the heat
itself sometimes presents obstacles in the cooking of foods, to regulate
it in such a way as to keep it uniform being often a hard matter. Thus,
a dish may be spoiled by subjecting it to heat that is too intense, by
cooking it too long, or by not cooking it rapidly enough. All these
points must be learned, and the best way to master them is to put into
constant practice the principles that are involved in cookery.

27. Without doubt, the first step in gaining a mastery of cookery is to
become familiar with the different methods and processes, the ways in
which they are applied, and the reasons for applying them. There are
numerous ways of cooking food, but the principal processes are boiling,
stewing, steaming, dry steaming, braizing, fricasseeing, roasting,
baking, broiling, pan broiling, frying, and sautéing. Which one of these
to use will depend on the food that is to be cooked and the result
desired. If the wrong method is employed, there will be a waste of food
material or the food will be rendered less desirable in flavor or
tenderness. For example, it would be both wasteful and undesirable to
roast a tough old fowl or to boil a tender young broiler.

The various methods of cookery just mentioned naturally divide
themselves into three groups; namely, those involving dry heat, those
requiring moist heat, and those in which hot fat is the cooking medium.


28. Cooking with dry heat includes broiling, pan broiling, roasting, and
baking; but, whichever of these processes is used, the principle is
practically the same. In these processes the food is cooked by being
exposed to the source of heat or by being placed in a closed oven and
subjected to heated air. When dry heat is applied, the food to be cooked
is heated to a much greater temperature than when moist heat is used.

29. BROILING.--The cooking process known as broiling consists in
exposing directly to the source of heat the food that is to be cooked;
that is, in cooking it over or before a clear bed of coals or a gas
flame. The aim in broiling is to retain the juices of food and develop
flavor. As it is a quick method, foods that are not tender, as, for
example, tough meats, should not be broiled, because broiling does not
help to render their fibers more tender. In applying this cooking
process, which is particularly suitable for tender portions of meat and
for young fowl, the food should be exposed to intense heat at first in
order to sear all surfaces quickly and thus retain the juices. At the
beginning of the cooking, the article that is being broiled should be
turned often; then, as soon as the outside is browned, the heat should
be reduced if possible, as with a gas stove, and the article allowed to
cook until done. If the broiling is done over coals, it is necessary to
continue the turning during the entire process. While broiling produces
an especially good flavor in the foods to which it is applied, provided
they are not tough, it is not the most economical way of cooking.

30. PAN BROILING.--Pan broiling is an adaptation of the broiling method.
It consists in cooking food in a sissing-hot pan on top of the stove
without the use of fat. In this process the surfaces of the steak, chop,
or whatever the food may be, are quickly seared, after which the article
is turned frequently and cooked more slowly until done. The object of
pan broiling is the same as that of broiling, and it is resorted to, as
a rule, when the fire is not in the right condition for broiling.

31. ROASTING.--Originally, the term _to roast_ meant to cook before a
fire, because, before the time of stoves, practically all food was
cooked in the fireplace. Food that was to be roasted was placed before
the fire in a device that reflected heat, this device being open on the
side toward the fire and closed on that toward the room. The roast was
suspended in this device, slowly turned, and thus cooked by radiant
heat--that is, heat given off in the form of direct rays--the principle
being the same as that of broiling, but the application different.
Nowadays, the term _roasting_ is almost universally applied to the
action of both hot air and radiant heat. However, much of what is called
roasting is in reality baking. Foods cooked in the oven of an ordinary
coal or gas range are really baked, although they are said to be
roasted, and a covered roasting pan is a misnomer. Food must be exposed
to the air in the process of cooking if it is to be roasted in the
true sense.

It may be well to note that successful roasting or broiling depends more
on the shape of the article to be roasted or broiled than on its weight.
For this reason, thick, compact cuts of meat are usually selected for
roasting and thin cuts for broiling. Good results also depend very much
on the pan selected for the roasting process. One of the great aims in
cooking should be to save or conserve all the food possible; that is, if
by one process less waste in cooking results, it should be chosen rather
than one that will result in loss at the end of the cooking process.

32. BAKING.--By baking is meant cooking in a heated oven at temperatures
ranging from 300 to 500 degrees Fahrenheit. As the term baking is
frequently used in a wrong sense, the actual conditions of the process
should be thoroughly understood. In both broiling and the original
method of roasting, the heat is applied directly; that is, the food is
exposed directly to the source of heat. Actual baking differs from these
processes in that it is done in a closed oven or by means of heated air.
Starchy foods, such as bread, cakes, and pastry, are nearly always
baked, and gradually other foods, such as meats, fish, and vegetables
are being subjected to this method of cooking. In fact, persons who are
skilled in cooking use the oven more and more for things that they
formerly thought had to be cooked in other ways. But the name that is
applied to the process depends somewhat on custom, for while meat that
is cooked in the oven is really baked, it is usually termed roasted
meat. It seems strange, but it is nevertheless true, that ham cooked in
the oven has always been termed baked, while turkey cooked in exactly
the same way is said to be roasted.


33. The methods of cooking with moist heat, that is, through the medium
of water, are boiling, simmering, steaming, dry steaming, and braizing.
In every one of these processes, the effect of moist heat on food is
entirely different from that of dry heat. However, the method to be
selected depends to a great extent on the amount of water that the food
contains. To some foods much water must be added in the cooking process;
to others, only a little or none at all. If food is not placed directly
in large or small quantities of water, it is cooked by contact with
steam or in a utensil that is heated by being placed in another
containing boiling water, as, for example, a double boiler.

As water is such an important factor in cooking with moist heat,
something concerning its nature and use should be understood. Therefore,
before considering the moist-heat cooking processes in detail, the
function of water in the body and in cooking and also the kinds of water
are discussed.

34. FUNCTION OF WATER IN THE BODY.--Water supplies no energy to the body,
but it plays a very important part in nutrition. In fact, its particular
function in the body is to act as a solvent and a carrier of nutritive
material and waste. In doing this work, it keeps the liquids of the body
properly diluted, increases the flow of the digestive juices, and helps
to carry off waste material. However, its ability to perform these
necessary functions in the right way depends on its quality and
its safety.

35. KINDS OF WATER.--Water is either hard or soft. As it falls from the
clouds, it is pure and soft until it comes in contact with gases and
solids, which are dissolved by it and change its character. It is
definitely known that the last of the water that falls in a shower is
much better than the first, as the first cleanses not only the air, but
the roofs and other things with which it comes in contact. In passing
through certain kinds of soil or over rocks, water dissolves some of the
minerals that are contained there and is thus changed from soft to hard
water. If sewage drains into a well or water supply, the water is liable
to contain bacteria, which will render it unfit and unsafe for drinking
until it is sterilized by boiling. Besides rain water and distilled
water, there is none that is entirely soft; all other waters hold
certain salts in solution to a greater or less degree.

The quality of hardness, which is present in nearly all water, is either
temporary or permanent. Water is temporarily hard when it contains
soluble lime, which is precipitated, that is, separated from it, upon
boiling. Every housewife who uses a teakettle is familiar with this
condition. The lime precipitated day after day clings to the sides of
the vessel in which the water is boiled, and in time they become very
thickly coated. Permanent hardness is caused by other compounds of lime
that are not precipitated by boiling the water. The only way in which to
soften such water is to add to it an alkali, such as borax, washing
soda, or bicarbonate of soda.

36. USES OF WATER IN COOKING.--It is the solvent, or dissolving, power
of water that makes this liquid valuable in cooking, but of the two
kinds, soft water is preferable to hard, because it possesses greater
solvent power. This is due to the fact that hard water has already
dissolved a certain amount of material and will therefore dissolve less
of the food substances and flavors when it is used for cooking purposes
than soft water, which has dissolved nothing. It is known, too, that the
flavor of such beverages as tea and coffee is often greatly impaired by
the use of hard water. Dried beans and peas, cereals, and tough cuts of
meat will not cook tender so readily in hard water as in soft, but the
addition of a small amount of soda during the cooking of these foods
will assist in softening them.

Water is used in cooking chiefly for extracting flavors, as in the
making of coffee, tea, and soups; as a medium for carrying flavors and
foods in such beverages as lemonade and cocoa; for softening both
vegetable and animal fiber; and for cooking starch and dissolving sugar,
salt, gelatine, etc. In accomplishing much of this work, water acts as a
medium for conveying heat.

37. BOILING.--As applied to cooking, boiling means cooking foods in
boiling water. Water boils when its temperature is raised by heat to
what is commonly termed its _boiling point_. This varies with the
atmospheric pressure, but at sea level, under ordinary conditions, it is
always 212 degrees Fahrenheit. When the atmospheric pressure on the
surface of the water is lessened, boiling takes place at a lower
temperature than that mentioned, and in extremely high altitudes the
boiling point is so lowered that to cook certain foods by means of
boiling water is difficult. As the water heats in the process of
boiling, tiny bubbles appear on the bottom of the vessel in which it is
contained and rise to the surface. Then, gradually, the bubbles increase
in size until large ones form, rise rapidly, and break, thus producing
constant agitation of the water.

38. Boiling has various effects on foods. It toughens the albumin in
eggs, toughens the fiber and dissolves the connective tissues in meat,
softens the cellulose in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, and dissolves
other substances in many foods. A good point to bear in mind in
preparing foods by boiling is that slowly boiling water has the same
temperature as rapidly boiling water and is therefore able to do exactly
the same work. Keeping the gas burning full heat or running the fire
hard to keep the water boiling rapidly is therefore unnecessary;
besides, it wastes fuel without doing the work any faster and sometimes
not so well. However, there are several factors that influence the
rapidity with which water may be brought to the boiling point; namely,
the kind of utensil used, the amount of surface exposed, and the
quantity of heat applied. A cover placed on a saucepan or a kettle in
which food is to be boiled retains the heat, and thus causes the
temperature to rise more quickly; besides, a cover so used prevents a
loss of water by condensing the steam as it rises against the cover. As
water boils, some of it constantly passes off in the form of steam, and
for this reason sirups or sauces become thicker the longer they are
cooked. The evaporation takes place all over the surface of the water;
consequently, the greater the surface exposed, the more quickly is the
quantity of water decreased during boiling. Another point to observe in
the boiling process is that foods boiled rapidly in water have a
tendency to lose their shape and are reduced to small pieces if allowed
to boil long enough.

Besides serving to cook foods, boiling also renders water safe, as it
destroys any germs that may be present. This explains why water must
sometimes be boiled to make it safe for drinking. Boiled water, as is
known, loses its good taste. However, as this change is brought about by
the loss of air during boiling, the flavor can be restored and air again
introduced if the water is shaken in a partly filled jar or bottle, or
beaten vigorously for a short time with an egg beater.

39. SIMMERING, OR STEWING.--The cooking process known as simmering, or
stewing, is a modification of boiling. By this method, food is cooked in
water at a temperature below the boiling point, or anywhere from 185 to
200 degrees Fahrenheit. Water at the simmering point always moves
gently--never rapidly as it does in boiling. Less heat and consequently
less fuel are required to cook foods in this way, unless, of course, the
time consumed in cooking the food at a low temperature is much greater
than that consumed in cooking it more rapidly.

Aside from permitting economy in the use of fuel, simmering, or stewing,
cooks deliciously certain foods that could not be selected for the more
rapid methods. For example, tough cuts of meat and old fowl can be made
tender and tasty by long cooking at a low temperature, for this method
tends to soften the fiber and to develop an excellent flavor. Tough
vegetables, too, can be cooked tender by the simmering process without
using so much fuel as would be used if they were boiled, for whatever
method is used they require long cooking. Beets, turnips, and other
winter vegetables should be stewed rather than boiled, as it is somewhat
difficult to cook them tender, especially in the late winter and early
spring. If dry beans and peas are brought to the simmering point and
then allowed to cook, they can be prepared for the table in practically
the same length of time and without so much fuel as if they boiled

40. STEAMING.--As its name implies, steaming is the cooking of food by
the application of steam. In this cooking process, the food is put into
a _steamer_, which is a cooking utensil that consists of a vessel with a
perforated bottom placed over one containing water. As the water boils,
steam rises and cooks the food in the upper, or perforated, vessel.
Steamers are sometimes arranged with a number of perforated vessels, one
on top of the other. Such a steamer permits of the cooking of several
foods at the same time without the need of additional fuel, because a
different food may be placed in each vessel.

Steaming is preferable to boiling in some cases, because by it there is
no loss of mineral salts nor food substances; besides, the flavor is not
so likely to be lost as when food is boiled. Vegetables prepared in this
way prove very palatable, and very often variety is added to the diet by
steaming bread, cake, and pudding mixtures and then, provided a crisp
outside is desired, placing them in a hot oven to dry out the
moist surface.

41. DRY STEAMING.--Cooking foods in a vessel that is suspended in
another one containing boiling water constitutes the cooking method
known as dry steaming. The double boiler is a cooking utensil devised
especially for carrying on this process. The food placed in the
suspended, or inner, vessel does not reach the boiling point, but is
cooked by the transfer of heat from the water in the outside, or lower,
vessel. A decided advantage of this method is that no watching is
required except to see that the water in the lower vessel does not boil
away completely, for as long as there is water between the food and the
fire, the food will neither boil nor burn.

Because of the nature of certain foods, cooking them by this process is
especially desirable. The flavor and consistency of cereals and foods
containing starch are greatly improved by long cooking in this way.
Likewise, custards and mixtures containing eggs can be conveniently
cooked in a double boiler, because they do not require a high
temperature; in fact, their texture is spoiled if they are cooked at the
boiling point. To heat milk directly over the flame without scorching it
is a difficult matter, and, on the other hand, boiled milk is hard to
digest. Because of these facts, food containing milk should not be
boiled, but should be cooked at a lower temperature in a double boiler.

42. BRAIZING.--Cooking meat in an oven in a closed pan with a small
quantity of water constitutes braizing. This cooking process might be
called a combination of stewing and baking, but when it is properly
carried out, the meat is placed on a rack so as to be raised above the
water, in which may be placed sliced vegetables. In this process the
meat actually cooks in the flavored steam that surrounds it in the hot
pan. The so-called double roasting pans are in fact braizing pans when
they are properly used. A pot roast is the result of a modification of
the braizing method.


43. Of the three mediums of conveying heat to food, namely, hot air, hot
water, and hot fat, that of hot fat renders food the least digestible.
Much of this difficulty, however, can be overcome if an effort is made
to secure as little absorption of the fat as possible. If the
ingredients of the food are properly mixed before applying the fat and
if the fat is at the right temperature, good results can be obtained by
the various methods of cooking with hot fat, which are frying, sautéing,
and fricasseeing.

44. FRYING.--By frying is meant the cooking of food in deep fat at a
temperature of 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Any kind of fat that will
not impart flavor to the food may be used for frying, but the vegetable
oils, such as cottonseed oils, combinations of coconut and cottonseed
oils, and nut oils, are preferable to lards and other animal fats,
because they do not burn so easily. Foods cooked in deep fat will not
absorb the fat nor become greasy if they are properly prepared, quickly
fried, and well drained on paper that will absorb any extra fat.

45. SAUTÉING.--Browning food first on one side and then on the other in
a small quantity of fat is termed sautéing. In this cooking process, the
fat is placed in a shallow pan, and when it is sufficiently hot, the
food is put into it. Foods that are to be sautéd are usually sliced thin
or cut into small pieces, and they are turned frequently during the
process of cooking. All foods prepared in this way are difficult to
digest, because they become more or less hard and soaked with fat. Chops
and thin cuts of meat, which are intended to be pan-broiled, are really
sautéd if they are allowed to cook in the fat that fries out of them.

46. FRICASSEEING.--A combination of sautéing and stewing results in the
cooking process known as fricasseeing. This process is used in preparing
such foods as chicken, veal, or game, but it is more frequently employed
for cooking fowl, which, in cookery, is the term used to distinguish the
old of domestic fowls from chickens or pullets. In fricasseeing, the
meat to be cooked is cut into pieces and sautéd either before or after
stewing; then it is served with a white or a brown sauce. Ordinarily,
the meat should be browned first, unless it is very tough, in order to
retain the juices and improve the flavor. However, very old fowl or
tough meat should be stewed first and then browned.

* * * * *



47. Inasmuch as heat is so important a factor in the cooking of foods,
it is absolutely necessary that the person who is to prepare them be
thoroughly familiar with the ways in which this heat is produced. The
production of heat for cooking involves the use of fuels and stoves in
which to burn them, as well as electricity, which serves the purpose of
a fuel, and apparatus for using electricity. In order, therefore, that
the best results may be obtained in cookery, these subjects are here
taken up in detail.

48. Probably the first fuel to be used in the production of heat for
cooking was wood, but later such fuels as peat, coal, charcoal, coke,
and kerosene came into use. Of these fuels, coal, gas, and kerosene are
used to the greatest extent in the United States. Wood, of course, is
used considerably for kindling fires, and it serves as fuel in
localities where it is abundant or less difficult to procure than other
fuels. However, it is fast becoming too scarce and too expensive to
burn. If it must be burned for cooking purposes, those who use it should
remember that dry, hard wood gives off heat at a more even rate than
soft wood, which is usually selected for kindling. Electricity is coming
into favor for supplying heat for cooking, but only when it can be sold
as cheaply as gas will its use in the home become general.

49. The selection of a stove to be used for cooking depends on the fuel
that is to be used, and the fuel, in turn, depends on the locality in
which a person lives. However, as the fuel that is the most convenient
and easily obtained is usually the cheapest, it is the one to be
selected, for the cost of the cooked dish may be greatly increased by
the use of fuel that is too expensive. In cooking, every fuel should be
made to do its maximum amount of work, because waste of fuel also adds
materially to the cost of cooking and, besides, it often causes great
inconvenience. For example, cooking on a red-hot stove with a fire that,
instead of being held in the oven and the lids, overheats the kitchen
and burns out the stove not only wastes fuel and material, but also
taxes the temper of the person who is doing the work. From what has just
been said, it will readily be seen that a knowledge of fuels and
apparatus for producing heat will assist materially in the economical
production of food, provided, of course, it is applied to the best


50. VARIETIES OF COAL.--Possibly the most common fuel used for cooking
is coal. This fuel comes in two varieties, namely, _anthracite_, or
_hard coal_, and _bituminous_, or _soft coal_. Their relative cost
depends on the locality, the kind of stove, and an intelligent use of
both stove and fuel. Hard coal costs much more in some places than soft
coal, but it burns more slowly and evenly and gives off very little
smoke. Soft coal heats more rapidly than hard coal, but it produces
considerable smoke and makes a fire that does not last so long. Unless a
stove is especially constructed for soft coal, it should not be used for
this purpose, because the burning of soft coal will wear it out in a
short time. The best plan is to use each variety of coal in a stove
especially constructed for it, but if a housewife finds that she must at
times do otherwise, she should realize that a different method of
management and care of the stove is demanded.

51. SIZES OF COAL.--As the effect of coal on the stove must be taken
into consideration in the buying of fuel, so the different sizes of hard
coal must be known before the right kind can be selected. The sizes
known as _stove_ and _egg coal_, which range from about 1-3/8 to 2-3/4
inches in diameter, are intended for a furnace and should not be used in
the kitchen stove for cooking purposes. Some persons who know how to
use the size of coal known as _pea_, which is about 1/2 to 3/4 inch in
diameter, like that kind, whereas others prefer the size called
_chestnut_, which is about 3/4 inch to 1-3/8 inches in diameter. In
reality, a mixture of these two, if properly used, makes the best and
most easily regulated kitchen coal fire.

52. QUALITY OF COAL.--In addition to knowing the names, prices, and uses
of the different kinds of coal, the housewife should be able to
distinguish poor coal from good coal. In fact, proper care should be
exercised in all purchasing, for the person who understands the quality
of the thing to be purchased will be more likely to get full value for
the money paid than the one who does not. About coal, it should be
understood that good hard coal has a glossy black color and a bright
surface, whereas poor coal contains slaty pieces. The quality of coal
can also be determined from the ash that remains after it is burned.
Large chunks or great quantities of ash indicate a poor quality of coal,
and fine, powdery ash a good quality. Of course, even if the coal is of
the right kind, poor results are often brought about by the bad
management of a fire, whether in a furnace or a stove. Large
manufacturing companies, whose business depends considerably on the
proper kind of fuel, buy coal by the heat units--that is, according to
the quantity of heat it will give off--and at some future time this plan
may have to be followed in the private home, unless some other fuel is
provided in the meantime.

Mixed with poor coal are certain unburnable materials that melt and
stick together as it burns and form what are known as _clinkers_.
Clinkers are very troublesome because they often adhere to the stove
grate or the lining of the firebox. They generally form during the
burning of an extremely hot fire, but the usual temperature of a kitchen
fire does not produce clinkers unless the coal is of a very poor
quality. Mixing oyster shells with coal of this kind often helps to
prevent their formation.

53. COKE.--Another fuel that is sometimes used for cooking is coke.
Formerly, coke was a by-product in the manufacture of illuminating gas,
but now it is manufactured from coal for use as a fuel. Because of the
nature of its composition, coke produces a very hot fire and is
therefore favorable for rapid cooking, such as broiling. However, it is
used more extensively in hotels and institutions than in kitchens where
cooking is done on a small scale.


54. VALUE OF GAS AS FUEL.--As a fuel for cooking purposes, gas, both
_artificial_ and _natural_, is very effective, and in localities where
the piping of gas into homes is possible it is used extensively. Of the
two kinds, artificial gas produces the least heat; also, it is the most
expensive, usually costing two or three times as much as natural gas.
Both are very cheap, however, considering their convenience as a kitchen
fuel. Heat from gas is obtained by merely turning it on and igniting it,
as with a lighted match. Its consumption can be stopped at once by
closing off the supply, or it can be regulated as desired and in this
way made to give the exact amount of heat required for the method of
cookery adopted. Neither smoke nor soot is produced in burning gas if
the burners of the gas stove are adjusted to admit the right amount of
air, and no ashes nor refuse remain to be disposed of after gas has been
burned. Because gas is so easily handled, good results can be obtained
by those who have had very little experience in using it, and with study
and practice results become uniform and gas proves to be an
economical fuel.

55. MEASUREMENT OF GAS.--Gas is measured by the cubic foot, and a
definite price is charged for each 1,000 cubic feet. To determine the
quantity used, it is passed through what is called a meter, which
measures as the gas burns. It is important that each housewife be able
to read the amount registered by the meter, so that she can compare her
gas bill with the meter reading and thus determine whether the charges
are correct. If only the usual amount of gas has been consumed and the
bill does not seem to be correct or is much larger than it has been
previously, the matter should be reported to the proper authorities, for
the meter may be out of order and in need of repair.

[Illustration: Fig. 1 Gas Meter Dials]

56. READING A GAS METER.--To register the quantity of gas that is
consumed, a gas meter, as is shown in Fig. 1, is provided with three
large dials, each of which has ten spaces over which the hand, or
indicator, passes to indicate the amount of gas consumed, and with one
small dial, around which the hand makes one revolution every time 2
cubic feet of gas is consumed. This small dial serves to tell whether
gas is leaking when the stoves and lights are not turned on. Above each
large dial is an arrow that points out the direction in which to read,
the two outside ones reading toward the right and the center one toward
the left; also, above each dial is lettered the quantity of gas that
each dial registers, that at the right registering 1,000 cubic feet,
that in the center 10,000 cubic feet, and that at the left 100,000 cubic
feet. To read the dials, begin at the left, or the 100,000 dial, and
read toward the right. In each instance, read the number over which the
hand has passed last. For instance, when, as in Fig. 1, the hand lies
between 5 and 6 on the left dial, 5 is read; on the center dial, when
the hand lies between 5 and 6, 5 is read also; and on the right dial,
when the hand lies between 2 and 3, the 2, which is really 200, is read.

57. To compute the quantity of gas used, the dials are read from left to
right and the three readings are added. Then, in order to determine the
quantity burned since the previous reading, the amount registered at
that time, which is always stated on the gas bill, must be subtracted
from the new reading.

To illustrate the manner in which the cost of gas consumed may be
determined, assume that gas costs 90 cents per 1,000 cubic feet, that
the previous reading of the gas meter, say on May 15, was 52,600 cubic
feet, and that on June 15 the meter registered as shown in Fig. 1. As
was just explained, the left dial of the meter reads 5, the center dial
5, and the right dial 200. Therefore, put these figures down so that
they follow one another, as 5-5-200. This means then that the reading on
June 15 is 55,200 cubic feet. With this amount ascertained, subtract
from it the previous reading, or 52,600 cubic feet, which will give
2,600 cubic feet, or the quantity of gas burned from May 15 to June 15.
Since gas costs 90 cents per 1,000 cubic feet, the cost of the amount
burned, or 2,600 cubic feet, may be estimated by dividing 2,600 cubic
feet by 1,000 and multiplying the result by 90; thus 2,600 ÷ 1,000 =
2.6, and 2.6 x .90 = 2.34

58. PREPAYMENT METERS.--In many places, gas concerns install what are
called prepayment meters; that is, meters in which the money is
deposited before the gas is burned. Such meters register the
consumption of the gas in the same way as the meters just mentioned, but
they contain a receptacle for money. A coin, generally a quarter, is
dropped into a slot leading to this receptacle, and the amount of gas
sold for this sum is then permitted to pass through as it is needed.
When this amount of gas has been burned, another coin must be inserted
in the meter before more gas will be liberated.


59. In communities where gas is not available, kerosene, which is
produced by the refinement of petroleum, is used extensively as a fuel
for cooking, especially in hot weather when the use of a coal or a wood
stove adds materially to the discomfort of the person who does the
cooking. Kerosene is burned in stoves especially designed for its use,
and while it is a cheap fuel it is not always the same in quality. It
contains water at all times, but sometimes the proportion of water is
greater than at others. The greater the amount of water, the less fuel
will be contained in each gallon of kerosene. The quality of kerosene
can be determined by checking up the length of time the stove will burn
on a specified quantity of each new purchase of it.

Another product of the refinement of petroleum is _gasoline_. However,
it is not used so extensively for fuel as kerosene, because it is more
dangerous and more expensive.


60. The use of electricity for supplying heat for cooking is very
popular in some homes, especially those which are properly wired,
because of its convenience and cleanliness and the fact that the heat it
produces can be applied direct. The first electrical cooking apparatus
was introduced at the time of the World's Fair in Chicago, in 1892, and
since that time rapid advancement has been made in the production of
suitable apparatus for cooking electrically. Electricity would
undoubtedly be in more general use today if it were possible to store it
in the same way as artificial gas, but as yet no such method has been
devised and its cost is therefore greater. Electricity is generated in
large power plants, and as it is consumed in the home for lighting and
cooking it passes through a meter, which indicates the quantity used in
much the same manner as a gas meter. It will be well, therefore, to
understand the way in which an electric meter is read, so that the bills
for electricity can be checked.

61. READING AN ELECTRIC METER.--An electric meter, which is similar in
appearance to a gas meter, consists of three or four dials, which are
placed side by side or in the shape of an arc. In the usual type, which
is shown in Fig. 2 and which consists of four dials placed side by side,
each one of the dials contains ten spaces and a hand, or indicator, that
passes over numbers ranging from to 9 to show the amount of
electricity used.

[Illustration: Fig 2.]

The numbers on the dials represent _kilowatt-hours_, a term meaning the
energy resulting from the activity of 1 kilowatt for 1 hour, or 1 watt,
which is the practical unit of electrical power, for 1,000 hours. Since
1,000 hours equal 1 kilowatt, 1,000 watt-hours equal 1 kilowatt-hour. It
will be observed from the accompanying illustration that the dial on the
extreme right has the figures reading in a clockwise direction, that is,
from right to left, the second one in a counter-clockwise direction, or
from left to right, the third one in a clockwise direction, and the
fourth one in a counter-clockwise direction; also that above each dial
is indicated in figures the number of kilowatt-hours that one complete
revolution of the hand of that dial registers.

To read the meter, begin at the right-hand dial and continue to the left
until all the dials are read and set the numbers down just as they are
read; that is, from right to left. In case the indicator does not point
directly to a number, but is somewhere between two numbers, read the
number that it is leaving. For example, in Fig. 2, the indicator in the
right-hand dial points to figure 4; therefore, this number should be put
down first. In the second dial, the hand lies between and 1, and as it
is leaving 0, this number should be read and placed to the left of the
first one read, which gives 04. The hand on the third dial points
exactly to 6; so 6 should be read for this dial and placed directly
before the numbers read for the first and second dials, thus, 604. On
the fourth and last dial, the indicator is between 4 and 5; therefore 4,
which is the number it is leaving should be read and used as the first
figure in the entire reading, which is 4,604.

After the reading of the electric meter has been ascertained, it is a
simple matter to determine the electricity consumed since the last
reading and the amount of the bill. For instance, assume that a meter
registers the number of kilowatt-hours shown in Fig. 2, or 4,604, and
that at the previous reading it registered 4,559. Merely subtract the
previous reading from the last one, which will give 45, or the number of
kilowatt-hours from which the bill for electricity is computed. If
electricity costs 3 cents a kilowatt-hour, which is the price charged in
some localities, the bill should come to 45 X .03 or $1.35.


62. Before stoves for cooking came into use in the home, food was cooked
in open fireplaces. Even when wood was the only fuel known, a stove for
burning it, called the Franklin stove, was invented by Benjamin
Franklin, but not until coal came into use as fuel were iron stoves
made. For a long time stoves were used mainly for heating purposes, as
many housewives preferred to cook at the open fireplace. However, this
method of cooking has practically disappeared and a stove of some kind
is in use for cooking in every home.

63. For each fuel in common use there are many specially constructed
stoves, each having some advantageous feature; yet all stoves
constructed for the same fuel are practically the same in principle. In
order that fuel will burn and produce heat, it must have air, because
fuel, whether it is wood, coal, or gas, is composed largely of _carbon_
and air largely of _oxygen_, and it is the rapid union of these two
chemical elements that produces heat. Therefore, in order that each
stove may work properly, some way in which to furnish air for the fire
in the firebox must be provided. For this reason, every stove for
cooking contains passageways for air and is connected with a chimney,
which contains a flue, or passage, that leads to the outer air. When the
air in a stove becomes heated, it rises, and as it ascends cold air
rushes through the passageways of the stove to take its place. It is the
flue, however, that permits of the necessary draft and carries off
unburned gases. At times it is necessary to regulate the amount of air
that enters, and in order that this may be done each stove is provided
with _dampers_. These devices are located in the air passages and they
are so designed as to close off the air or allow the desired amount to
enter. By means of these dampers it is possible also to force the heat
around the stove oven, against the top of the stove, or up the chimney
flue. A knowledge of the ways in which to manipulate these dampers is
absolutely necessary if correct results are to be obtained from a stove.
The flue, however, should receive due consideration. If a stove is to
give its best service, the flue, in addition to being well constructed,
should be free from obstructions and kept in good condition. Indeed, the
stove is often blamed for doing unsatisfactory work when the fault is
really with the flue.

64. Probably one of the most important things considered in the
construction of stoves is the economizing of fuel, for ever since the
days of the fireplace there has been more or less of a tendency to save
fuel for cooking, and as the various kinds grow scarcer, and
consequently more expensive, the economical use of fuel becomes a
necessity. While most stoves for cooking purposes are so constructed as
to save fuel, many of them do not, especially if the method of caring
for them is not understood. Any housewife, however, can economize in the
use of fuel if she will learn how the stove she has must be operated;
and this can be done by following closely the directions that come with
the stove when it is purchased. Such directions are the best to follow,
because they have been worked out by the manufacturer, who understands
the right way in which his product should be operated.


65. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION.--In Fig. 3 is illustrated the general
construction of the type of coal stove used for cooking. The principal
parts of such a stove, which is commonly referred to as a _cook stove_,
or range, are the firebox _a_; the grate _b_; the ash pit _c_, which
usually contains an ash-pan _d_; the oven _e_; the dampers _f_, _g_,
_h_, and _i_; the flue opening _j_ and flue _k_; openings in the top and
suitable lids, not shown, for kettles and pans; and the air space
extending from the firebox around three sides of the oven, as shown by
the arrows. To prevent the stove from wearing out rapidly, the firebox,
in which the fuel is burned, is lined with a material, such as fireclay,
that will withstand great heat. The fire in the firebox is supported by
the grate, which is in the form of metal teeth or bars, so as to permit
air to pass through the fuel from underneath. The grate is usually so
constructed that when the fire is raked it permits burnt coal or ashes
to fall into the ash-pan, by means of which they can be readily removed
from the stove. The oven, which lies directly back of the firebox and is
really an enclosed chamber in which food may be cooked, receives its
heat from the hot air that passes around it. The dampers are devices
that control the flow of air in and out of the stove. Those shown at _f_
and _g_ serve to admit fresh air into the stove or to keep it out, and
those shown at _h_ and _i_ serve to keep heated air in the stove or to
permit it to pass out through the flue.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

66. Building a Coal Fire.--To build a coal fire is a simple matter. So
that the draft will be right for rapid combustion, it is first necessary
to close the dampers _f_ and _h _and to open the bottom damper _g_ and
the chimney damper _i_. With these dampers arranged, place crushed paper
or shavings on the grate; then on top of the paper or shavings place
kindling, and on top of the kindling put a small quantity of coal. Be
careful to place the fuel on the grate loosely enough to permit currents
of air to pass through it, because it will not burn readily if it is
closely packed. Light the fire by inserting a flame from below. When
this is done, the flame will rise and ignite the kindling, and this, in
turn, will cause the coal to take fire. When the fire is burning well,
close the dampers _g_ and _i_ so that the fuel will not burn too rapidly
and the heat will surround the oven instead of passing up the chimney;
also, before too much of the first supply of coal is burned out, add a
new supply, but be sure that the coal is sufficiently ignited before the
new supply is added so as not to smother the fire. If only a thin layer
is added each time, this danger will be removed. Experience has proved
that the best results are secured if the fire is built only 4 inches
high. When hot coals come near the top of the stove, the lids are
likely to warp and crack from the heat and the cooking will not be done
any more effectively. Another thing to avoid in connection with a fire
is the accumulation of ashes. The ash-pan should be kept as nearly empty
as possible, for a full ash-pan will check the draft and cause the grate
in the firebox to burn out.

67. ADJUSTING THE DAMPERS.--To get the best results from a cook stove,
and at the same time overcome the wasting of fuel, the ways in which to
adjust the dampers should be fully known. If it is desired to heat the
oven for baking, close dampers _f_ and _i_ and open dampers _g_ and _h_.
With the dampers so arranged, the heated air above the fire is forced
around the oven and up the flue, as is clearly shown by the arrows in
Fig. 3. A study of this diagram will readily show that the lower
left-hand corner of the oven is its coolest part, since the heated air
does not reach this place directly, and that the top center is the
hottest part, because the hottest air passes directly over this portion
of the oven and the heated air in the oven rises to it.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

If it is desired to heat the surface of the stove, so that cooking may
be done on top of it, close dampers _f_, _h_, and _i_ and open damper
_g_. With the dampers so arranged, the heated air does not pass around
the oven, but is confined in the space above it and the firebox, as
shown in Fig. 4. While the damper _i_ in the flue is closed in order to
confine the heated air as much as possible to the space under the top of
the stove, it contains openings that allow just enough air to pass up
the flue to maintain the draft necessary for combustion. When the
dampers are arranged as mentioned, the hottest place on the surface of
the stove is between the firebox and the stovepipe, and the coolest
place is behind the damper _h_.

68. BANKING A COAL FIRE.--To economize in the use of fuel, as well as to
save the labor involved in building a new fire, it is advisable to keep
a fire burning low from one meal to another and from one day to the
next. As the nature of hard coal is such that it will hold fire for a
long time, this can be done by what is called _banking_ the fire. To
achieve this, after the fire has served to cook a meal, shake the ashes
out of the grate so that the glowing coals are left. Then put fresh coal
on this bed of coals, and, with the dampers arranged as for building a
new fire, allow the coal to burn well for a short time. Finally, cover
the fire with a layer of fine coal and adjust the dampers properly; that
is, close dampers _g_ and _h_ and open dampers _f_ and _i_. If the
banking is carefully done the fire should last 8 or 10 hours without
further attention. Care should be taken, however, to use sufficient coal
in banking the fire, so that when it is to be used again the coal will
not be completely burned, but enough burning coals will remain to ignite
a fresh supply. When the fire is to be used again, rake it slightly, put
a thin layer of coal over the top, and arrange the dampers as for
starting a fire. As soon as this layer of coal has begun to burn, add
more until the fire is in good condition.


69. GAS RANGES.--A gas stove for cooking, or _gas range_, as it is
frequently called, consists of an oven, a broiler, and several burners
over which are plates to hold pans, pots, and kettles in which food is
to be cooked. As is true of a coal range, a gas range also requires a
flue to carry off the products of unburned gas. Gas stoves, or ranges,
are of many makes, but in principle all of them are practically the
same; in fact, the chief difference lies in the location or arrangement
of the oven, broiler, and burners. In Fig. 5 is illustrated a simple
type of gas range. The oven _a_ of this stove is located above the top
of the stove, instead of below it, as in some stoves. An oven so located
is of advantage in that it saves stooping or bending over. The door of
this oven contains a glass, which makes it possible to observe the food
baking inside without opening the door and thereby losing heat. The
broiler _b_, which may also be used as a toaster, is located directly
beneath the oven, and to the right are the burners _c_ for cooking. The
gas for these parts is contained in the pipe _d_, which is connected to
a pipe joined to the gas main in the street. To get heat for cooking it
is simply necessary to turn on the stop-cocks and light the gas. The
four burners are controlled by the stop-cocks _e_, and the oven and the
broiler by the stop-cock _f_. The stove is also equipped with a
simmering burner for the slow methods of cooking on top of the stove,
gas to this burner being controlled by the stop-cock _g_. To catch
anything that may be spilled in cooking, there is a removable metal or
enamel sheet _h_. Such a sheet is a great advantage, as it aids
considerably in keeping the stove clean.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

70. Some gas stoves are provided with a _pilot_, which is a tiny flame
of gas that is controlled by a button on the gas pipe to which the
stop-cocks are attached. The pilot is kept lighted, and when it is
desired to light a burner, pressing the button causes the flame to shoot
near enough to each burner to ignite the gas. However, whether the
burners are lighted in this way or by applying a lighted match, they
should never be lighted until heat is required; likewise, in order to
save gas, they should be turned off as soon as the cooking is completed.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

To produce the best results, the flame given off by gas should be blue.
A flame that is yellow and a burner that makes a noise when lighted,
indicate that the gas flame has caught in the pipe, and to remedy this
the gas must be turned out and relighted. When the gas flame coming from
a new burner is yellow, it may be taken for granted that not enough air
is being admitted to make the proper mixture. To permit of the proper
mixture, each gas pipe extending from the stop-cock and terminating in
the burner is provided with what is called a _mixer_. This device, as
shown in Fig. 6, consists of several slots that may be opened or closed
by turning part _a_, thus making it a simple matter to admit the right
amount of air to produce the desired blue flame. If burners that have
been in use for some time give off a yellow flame, it is probable that
the trouble is caused by a deposit of soot or burned material. Such
burners should be removed, boiled in a solution of washing soda or lye
until the holes in the top are thoroughly cleaned, and then replaced and
adjusted. As long as the flame remains yellow, the gas is not giving off
as much heat as it should produce and is liable to smoke cooking
utensils black. Therefore, to get the best results the burners should be
thoroughly cleaned every now and then in the manner mentioned. Likewise,
the pan beneath the burners, which may be removed, should be cleaned
very frequently, and the entire stove should be wiped each time it is
used, for the better such a stove is taken care of, the better will it
continue to do its work.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

71. FIRELESS-COOKING GAS STOVES.--A style of gas stove that meets with
favor in many homes is the so-called fireless-cooking gas stove, one
style of which is shown in Fig. 7. Such a stove has the combined
advantages of a fireless cooker, which is explained later, and a gas
stove, for it permits of quick cooking with direct heat, as well as slow
cooking with heat that is retained in an insulated chamber, that is, one
that is sufficiently covered to prevent heat from escaping. In
construction, this type of stove is similar to any other gas stove,
except that its oven is insulated and it is provided with one or more
compartments for fireless cooking, as at _a_ and _b_. Each of these
compartments is so arranged that it may be moved up and down on an
upright rod, near the base of which, resting on a solid plate _c_, is a
gas burner _d_, over which the insulated hood of the compartment fits.
When it is desired to cook food in one of these compartments, the hood
is raised, as at _b_, and the gas burner is lighted. The food in the
cooker is allowed to cook over the lighted burner until sufficient heat
has been retained or the process has been carried sufficiently far to
permit the cooking to continue without fire. Then the insulated hood is
lowered until the compartment is in the position of the one shown at
_a_. It is not necessary to turn off the gas, as this is done
automatically when the hood is lowered.


[Illustration: Fig. 8]

72. As has been mentioned, kerosene is used considerably as a fuel in
localities where gas cannot be obtained. Kerosene stoves are not unlike
gas stoves, but, as a rule, instead of having built-in ovens, they are
provided with portable ovens, which are heated by placing them on top of
the stove, over the burners. Such stoves are of two types, those in
which cotton wicks are used, as in oil lamps, and those which are
wickless, the former being generally considered more convenient and
satisfactory than the latter. In Fig. 8 is shown a three-burner kerosene
stove of the first type mentioned. Oil for the burners, or lamps, _a_ is
stored in the container _b_, which may be of glass or metal, and it is
supplied to the reservoir of each burner by the pipe _c_. Each burner is
provided with a door _d_, which is opened when it is desired to light
the wick. The flame of each burner is controlled by the screw _e_, which
serves to raise or lower the wick, and the heat passes up to the opening
_f_ in the top of the stove through the cylindrical pipe above the
burner. The arrangement of a wickless kerosene stove is much the same as
the one just described, but it is so constructed that the oil, which is
also stored in a tank at the side, flows into what is called a burner
bowl and burns from this bowl up through a perforated chimney, the
quantity of oil used being regulated by a valve attached to each bowl.

73. The burners of kerosene stoves are lighted by applying a match, just
as the burners of a gas stove are lighted. In some stoves, especially
those of the wickless type, the burners are so constructed that the
flame can rise to only a certain height. This is a good feature, as it
prevents the flame from gradually creeping up and smoking, a common
occurrence in an oil stove. The kerosene-stove flame that gives the most
heat, consumes the least fuel, and produces the least soot and odor is
blue in color. A yellow flame, which is given off in some stoves,
produces more or less soot and consequently makes it harder to keep the
stove clean. Glass containers are better than metal containers, because
the water that is always present in small quantities in kerosene is apt
to rust the metal container and cause it to leak. To prevent the
accumulation of dirt, as well as the disagreeable odor usually present
when an oil stove is used, the burners should be removed frequently and
boiled in a solution of washing soda; also, if a wick is used, the
charred portion should be rubbed from it, but not cut, as cutting is
liable to make it give off an uneven flame.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]


74. ELECTRIC STOVES. Electric stoves for cooking have been perfected to
such an extent that they are a great convenience, and in places where
the cost of electricity does not greatly exceed that of gas they are
used considerably. In appearance, electric stoves are very similar to
gas stoves, as is shown in Fig. 9, which illustrates an electric stove
of the usual type. The oven _a_ is located at one side and contains a
broiler pan _b_. On top of this stove are openings for cooking, into
which fit lids _c_ that have the appearance of ordinary stove lids, but
are in reality electrical heating units, called hotplates. Heat for
cooking is supplied by a current of electricity that passes through the
hotplates, as well as through similar devices in the oven, the stove
being connected to the supply of electricity at the connection-box _d_,
which is here shown with the cover removed. The heat of the different
hotplates and the oven is controlled by several switches _e_ at the
front of the stove. Each of these switches provides three degrees of
heat--high, medium, and low--and just the amount of heat required for
cooking can be supplied by turning the switch to the right point. Below
the switches are several fuse plugs _f_ that contain the fuses, which
are devices used in electrical apparatus to avoid injury to it in case
the current of electricity becomes too great.

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

It is not absolutely necessary to have flue connections for an electric
stove, as such a stove does not require a draft and gives off no
products of combustion to be carried away. In fact, one of the favorable
points about an electric stove is that it produces no dirt and causes no
inconvenience. When the cooking is done, the electricity can be turned
off, after which the stove quickly cools. When electricity is used for
cooking, cooking utensils, methods, and recipes can be applied in the
same ways as when other means of producing heat are employed.

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

75. SMALL ELECTRIC UTENSILS.--In addition to electric stoves, there are
a number of smaller electrical cooking utensils that can be attached to
an electric-light socket or a wall socket. Among these are percolators,
toasters, hotplates, or grills, chafing dishes, egg poachers, and
similar devices. An idea of such utensils for cooking may be formed by
referring to Fig. 10, which shows an electric toaster, and Fig. 11,
which shows a hotplate, or grill. The toaster is arranged so that bread
to be toasted may be placed on each side, as well as on top, of an
upright part that gives off heat when the current of electricity is
turned on. The grill is so constructed that a pan for cooking may be
placed under and on top of the part that gives off heat.

* * * * *



(1) Give in its full sense the meaning of the term cookery.

(2) How may the housewife control the cost of her foods?

(3) (_a_) Explain the difference between waste and refuse. (_b_) To what is
leakage in the household due?

(4) What three important matters enter into the problem of purchasing

(5) (_a_) Name the five substances that are found in food, (_b_) Of what
value is a knowledge of these food substances?

(6) (_a_) What is the function of protein in the body? (_b_) Mention the
principal sources of protein, (_c_) Explain the effect of heat on foods
that contain protein.

(7) (_a_) With what do carbohydrates supply the body? (_b_) Mention the two
forms of carbohydrates and also some of the foods in which each may
be found.

(8) What is a calorie?

(9) Give five reasons for cooking food.

(10) Mention the twelve principal processes employed in the cooking of

(11) Describe one method of cooking with: (_a_) dry heat; (_b_) moist heat;
(_c_) hot fat.

(12) (_a_) At what temperature does water boil? (_b_) How is hard water
affected by boiling? (_c_) Explain the uses of water in cooking.

(13) (_a_) What generally controls the kind of stove to be used for
cooking? (_b_) Explain how it is possible to keep down the cost of cooking
in using fuel.

(14) Mention the best way in which to become familiar with the operation
of a stove.

(15) (_a_) Of what value is gas as a fuel? (_b_) What kind of gas flame is
best for cooking?

(16) Suppose that a gas meter registers 72,500 cubic feet on March 1,
and that on April 1 the hand of the left dial is between 7 and 8, that
of the middle dial is between 5 and 6, and that of the right dial is at
5. At 90 cents a 1,000 cubic feet, what is the cost of the gas consumed?

(17) (_a_) How is heat produced in a stove? (_b_) What is the purpose of
the dampers of a stove?

(18) (_a_) How should the dampers of a coal range be adjusted so as to
heat the oven for baking? (_b_) How should they be adjusted for cooking on
top of the stove?

(19) (_a_) What is the purpose of a mixer on a gas stove? (_b_) How may a
gas stove be kept in good condition?

(20) How may the burners of a kerosene stove be kept clean?

* * * * *


* * * * *




1. While success in cooking, as has been pointed out, depends to a
considerable extent on the selection of materials and the proper cooking
methods, as well as on an understanding of the stove and fuel employed,
the importance of the utensils that are to be used must not be
overlooked. As is well known, each cooking utensil is fitted to its
particular use; in fact, the wrong kind of pan, dish, or other utensil
will not bring about the same result as the right one. This does not
mean, however, that the housewife must possess a large supply of every
kind of utensil, for, really, the expert cook is known by the small
number of utensils she uses. Of course, the proper handling of utensils,
as well as the right selection of them, will come with experience, but
before she starts to cook the beginner should endeavor to plan
definitely what must be provided. She should likewise remember that the
use of an unnecessary number of utensils not only will increase the
labor involved in preparing a dish, but will affect considerably the
amount of work required to clear them away and wash them after the
cooking is done.

2. The materials of which cooking utensils are made, as well as their
shape and size, have also a great bearing on the success with which
cooking may be done. As no one material is suitable for all utensils,
they are made of various materials, such as wood, tin, glass, enamel,
aluminum, sheet iron, and earthenware. In the purchase of a utensil,
therefore, it is well to have in mind the use to which the utensil will
be put, and then to select one that is made of durable material, that
can be easily cleaned, and that will not affect the food that is cooked
in it. Likewise, the shape of the utensil should receive consideration,
for much depends on it. To be satisfactory, a utensil should be without
seams or curved edges, because it is difficult to remove particles of
food that collect in such places. A vessel that is hard to wash should
be avoided, and one that will tip easily is not desirable, either.

The size of utensils must be determined by the number of persons for
whom food is to be cooked, for the amount of food to be prepared
indicates whether a large or a small utensil should be selected. On the
other hand, the length of time required for foods to cook depends to a
large extent on the size and shape of the utensil. When food is to be
cooked a long time, a deep vessel with a comparatively small surface
exposed for evaporation should be chosen; but for quick cooking, use
should be made of a shallow utensil that will allow a great deal of
surface to be exposed, as the evaporation will be accomplished
more rapidly.

In furnishing a kitchen, it is well to begin with a few essential
utensils of the best quality that can be obtained, and then, as needed,
to add other well-selected utensils to the equipment.


3. ALUMINUM.--Because of the properties of aluminum, this metal is used
extensively for cooking utensils. It is more costly than most of the
materials employed for this purpose, but while the first cost of
aluminum pans and kettles may seem large, the extra expense is justified
by the durability of the utensils. They last much longer than utensils
made of many other materials, for when aluminum is hammered and rolled
it becomes extremely hard. Some aluminum utensils are very thin, and
since they melt and dent very easily they are suitable for only light,
careful handling. Although heavier aluminum utensils are more expensive
than the lighter ones on account of the metal required and the
manufacturing process involved, they are harder and more durable. Cast
aluminum is used for large vessels, such as those required in
institutions where large quantities of food are cooked and where pots
and kettles are subjected to extremely hard wear, but this is the most
expensive kind, for in order to make the aluminum hard enough for
casting some harder metal must be mixed with it. One of the
disadvantages of aluminum is that it is not always easy to clean, but
this is overbalanced by the fact that foods do not burn so readily in
aluminum utensils as in other kinds, since the heat is evenly
distributed by this metal.

4. ENAMEL.--Good enamel cooking utensils are desirable for some purposes
and are only moderately expensive. Utensils made of enamel are not so
durable as those made of metal, because excessive heat or a sharp blow
will cause the enamel to chip. Enamel utensils come in various colors,
and all can be kept clean easily, but the gray enamel is considered to
be the best for wear.

5. IRON AND STEEL.--Utensils made of iron and steel are usually
inexpensive, but some, especially those of iron, are heavy. These metals
are used principally for such utensils as frying pans, or skillets,
griddles, waffle irons, and kettles for deep-fat frying. Sheet iron
makes excellent shallow pans for baking cookies and other cakes, very
satisfactory bread pans, and the best kind of pans for omelet and
other frying.

6. EARTHENWARE.--A certain number of fairly durable earthenware utensils
are necessary in a kitchen equipment. Mixing bowls are usually made of
earthenware, as are also casseroles, which are covered dishes used for
the baking of foods that require long cooking, and other baking
utensils. Meat, fowl, and some vegetables, such as dried beans, are
delicious when prepared in a casserole, as very little flavor or food is
lost in such a dish.

7. TIN.--The cheapest metal from which cooking utensils are made is tin,
but it is not generally used for utensils in which food is to be cooked,
because it melts at too low a temperature. Tin is used, however, for
such small articles as measures, cutters, apple corers, sieves,
strainers, and other things of this kind, and it is especially
desirable for them.

8. COPPER.--Before iron was known copper was the principal material for
cooking utensils. The chief point in favor of copper is its durability,
but utensils made of it are not practical for use in the ordinary
kitchen because they are expensive, heavy, and very difficult to
keep clean.

9. GLASS.--Utensils made of heavy glassware are much used for cooking.
Glass utensils are especially desirable for custards and other dishes
that the cook likes to watch while cooking or that are to be served in
the baking dish. Glass cooking utensils possess the advantage of
retaining the heat well.

10. WOOD.--Certain utensils made of wood are required in a cooking
outfit, a molding board of hardwood and a smaller wooden cutting board
being particularly necessary in every kitchen. Bowls in which to chop
foods, rolling pins, and mixing spoons are usually made of hardwood, and
when such wood is used for them they are entirely satisfactory.


11. A LABOR-SAVING DEVICE is any apparatus that will permit a certain
piece of work to be accomplished with less exertion than would be
necessary to do the same thing without it. A sink and a dustpan are
labor-saving devices just as truly as are a bread mixer and a vacuum
cleaner, but because a sink and a dustpan are necessities as well, they
are not usually thought of as true labor-saving devices. The newer
appliances for saving labor are often considered to be quite
unnecessary, and indeed some of them are. It is only when such apparatus
will, with less labor involved and less time consumed in the process,
secure results as good as or better than will another device, and when
the cleaning and care of it do not consume so much time and labor as is
saved by using it, that it may be considered a true labor-saving device.
Each housewife must decide for herself whether the expense of a
so-called labor-saving device is greater than the value of the time and
strength she would use without such a device.

[Illustration: Fig. 1 (_a_) (_b_)]

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

12. COMMON LABOR-SAVING DEVICES. Every housewife does not have occasion
to use all the devices that have been invented to save labor, but a
number of these are in such common use, produce such good results, and
save so much time and effort that they should be found in every kitchen.
Among them is the _rotary egg beater_ shown in Fig. 1 (_a_). This is so
made that one revolution of the wheel to which the crank is attached
does about five times as much work as can be done with a fork or with an
_egg whip_, which is shown in (_b_). Another inexpensive device that is
a real help is the _potato ricer_. This device, one style of which is
shown in Fig. 2, is really a press through which any fruit or vegetable
can be put to make a purée. It is used considerably for mashing
potatoes, as it makes them perfectly smooth and saves considerable time
and labor. Still another useful device is the _meat chopper_, or
_grinder_, which is shown in Fig. 3. Such a device clamped to the edge
of a table takes the place of a chopping bowl and knife, and in addition
to being more sanitary it permits the work to be done in a shorter time
and with less effort. Besides the devices mentioned, there are many
small labor-saving devices, such as the _apple corer_, the _berry
huller_, the _mayonnaise mixer_, etc., the merits of which every busy
housewife will do well to consider.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

13. BREAD AND CAKE MIXERS. Where baking is done for only a small number
of persons, bread and cake mixers are not indispensable, but they save
much labor where baking is done on a large scale. It is comparatively
easy, for instance, to knead dough for three or four loaves of bread,
but the process becomes rather difficult when enough dough for eight to
sixteen loaves must be handled. For large quantities of bread and cake,
mixers, when properly used, are labor-saving. In addition, such devices
are sanitary, and for this reason they are used in many homes where the
bakings are comparatively small.

14. The type of bread mixer in common use is shown in Fig. 4. It
consists of a covered tin pail _a_ that may be fastened to the edge of a
table by the clamp _b_. Inside of the pail is a kneading prong _c_, in
the shape of a gooseneck, that is revolved by turning the handle _d_.
The flour and other materials for the dough are put into the pail, and
they are mixed and kneaded mechanically by turning the handle.

15. A cake mixer, the usual type of which is shown in Fig. 5, is similar
in construction to a bread mixer. Instead of a pail, however, for the
dough ingredients, it has a deep pan _a_, and instead of one kneading
prong it has several prongs, which are attached to two arms _b_, as
shown. These arms are revolved by gear-wheels _c_ that fit in a large
gearwheel _d_ attached to a shaft _e_, which is turned by means of a
handle _f_. The large number of mixing prongs in a cake mixer are
necessary, because cake dough must be thoroughly stirred and beaten,
whereas in bread making the dough must be made to form a compact mass.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

16. DISH-WASHING MACHINES.--Although machines for washing dishes are to
be had, they are most helpful where large numbers of people are served
and, consequently, where great quantities of dishes are to be washed.
Such machines are usually large and therefore take up more space than
the ordinary kitchen can afford. Likewise the care and cleaning of them
require more labor than the washing of dishes for a small family
entails. Large quantities of hot water are needed to operate mechanical
dish washers, and even where they are installed, the glassware, silver,
and cooking utensils must, as a rule, be washed by hand.

17. FIRELESS COOKER.--A device that has proved to be really labor-saving
is the fireless cooker, one type of which is shown in Fig. 6. It
consists of an insulated box _a_ lined with metal and divided into
compartments _b_, with pans _c_ that fit into them. Hotplates, or
stones, as they are sometimes called, are frequently used if the article
to be cooked requires them. These stones, which are shown at _d_, are
supported in the compartments by metal racks _e_, and they are lifted in
and out by means of wire handles _f_.

[Illustration: Fig 6.]

To use a fireless cooker properly, the food must be cooked for a short
time on the stove; then it must be tightly covered and placed in one of
the insulated compartments. If hotplates are to be used they must be
heated in the same manner. The food loses its heat so gradually in the
fireless cooker that the cooking proceeds slowly but effectually. When
the previous heating has been sufficient, the food will be cooked and
still warm when the cooker is opened hours later. Some articles of food
occasionally need reheating during the process. By this method of
cooking there is no loss of flavor or food value, and the food usually
requires no further attention after being placed in the cooker. It also
permits of economy in both fuel and time.


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