Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 1
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 5 out of 6

from wood ashes, and sour milk or molasses. The results obtained were
more or less satisfactory, but never entirely accurate or certain. Later
on, chemists by employing the same idea combined an alkali with an acid
in powder form and produced an accurate and satisfactory leavening agent
in the form of baking powder. The discovery of baking powder, however,
has not displaced the use of other combinations that form chemical
leavening agents, for soda is still combined with sour milk, molasses,
and cream of tartar in the making of various hot breads. Therefore, so
that a proper understanding of the various chemical leavening agents may
be obtained, a discussion of each is here given.

9. SODA AND SOUR MILK.--When soda is used with sour milk for leavening
purposes, the lactic acid in the milk is so acted upon by the soda as to
produce gas. However, these two ingredients--soda and sour milk--do not
make an absolutely accurate leavening agent, because the quantity of
acid in the sour milk varies according to the fermentation that has
taken place. For example, sour milk 48 hours old contains more acid than
sour milk that is kept under the same conditions but is only 24
hours old.

The proportion of these ingredients that is usually effective in batters
and doughs for hot breads is _1 level teaspoonful of soda to 1 pint of
sour milk._ So as to derive the best results in using these chemical
leavening agents, it will be well to observe that if they are mixed
together in a cup the milk will bubble and may, provided the quantity is
sufficient, run over. These bubbles are caused by the gas that is formed
when the acid and soda meet, and when they break gas escapes, with the
result that some of it is lost. Formerly, it was the custom to mix these
leavening substances in this way, and then to add them to the other
ingredients. Now, however, in order that all gas produced may be kept in
the dough mixture, the soda is sifted in with the dry ingredients and
the sour milk is added with the liquid ingredients.

10. A point well worth remembering is that sour milk and soda may be
substituted for sweet milk and baking powder in a recipe that calls for
these ingredients by using _1 teaspoonful of soda to each pint of sour
milk_. This information should prove valuable to the housewife,
especially if she has accumulated a supply of sour milk that should not
be wasted. Occasionally it will be found that baking powder and soda are
required in the same recipe, but this occurs only when an insufficient
amount of soda to produce the desired result is specified.

11. SODA AND MOLASSES.--Although molasses, which is a product of sugar
cane, is sweet, it contains an acid that is formed by the fermentation
that continually occurs in it, an evidence of which is the tiny bubbles
that may be seen in molasses, especially when it is kept in a warm
place. Because of the presence of this acid, molasses may be used with
soda to form a chemical leavening agent, and when they are combined in
hot breads or cake, the chemical action of the two produces carbon
dioxide. However, accurate results cannot always be obtained when these
ingredients are used, for the degree of acidity in molasses is as
uncertain as it is in sour milk. Molasses that is old or has been kept
in a warm place will contain more acid than molasses that has been
manufactured only a short time or that has been kept cool to retard

The proportion of soda to molasses that can usually be relied on for hot
breads and cakes is _1 teaspoonful of soda to 1 cupful of molasses_, or
just twice the quantity of soda that is generally used with sour milk.
To produce the best results, the molasses should be mixed with the
liquid ingredients and the soda sifted in with the dry ones. As molasses
burns very quickly in a hot oven, all breads or cakes containing it as
an ingredient should be baked in an oven of moderate temperature.

12. SODA AND CREAM OF TARTAR.--Some housewives are inclined to use soda
and cream of tartar for leavening purposes; but there is really no
advantage in doing this when baking powder can be obtained, for some
baking powders are a combination of these two ingredients and produce
the same result. In fact, the housewife cannot measure soda and cream of
tartar so accurately as the chemist can combine them in the manufacture
of baking powder. Nevertheless, if their use is preferred, they should
be measured in the proportion of _twice as much cream of tartar as
soda._ As in the case of soda alone, these leavening agents should be
sifted with the dry ingredients. A small quantity of cream of tartar is
used without soda in such mixtures as angel-food cake, in which egg
white alone is used to make the mixture light. The addition of the cream
of tartar has the effect of so solidifying the egg white that it holds
up until the heat of the oven hardens it permanently.

13. BAKING POWDER.--Without doubt, baking powder is the most
satisfactory of the chemical leavening agents. It comes in three
varieties, but they are all similar in composition, for each contains an
alkali in the form of soda and an acid of some kind, as well as a filler
of starch, which serves to prevent the acid and the alkali from acting
upon each other. When moisture is added to baking powder, chemical
action sets in, but it is not very rapid, as is apparent when a cake or
a muffin mixture is allowed to stand before baking. The bubbles of gas
that form in such a mixture can easily be observed if the mixture is
stirred after it has stood for a short time. When both moisture and heat
are applied to baking powder, however, the chemical action that takes
place is more rapid, and this accounts for its usefulness in baking hot
breads and cake.

14. The price of the different kinds of baking powder, which usually
varies from 10 cents to 50 cents a pound, is generally an indication of
the ingredients that they contain. Powders that sell for 40 to 50 cents
a pound usually contain cream of tartar for the acid, the high price of
this substance accounting for the price of the powder. Powders that may
be purchased for 30 to 40 cents a pound generally contain acid phosphate
of lime, and as this substance is cheaper than cream of tartar, a
baking-powder mixture containing it may well be sold for less. The
cheapest grade of powders, or those which sell for 10 to 25 cents a
pound, have for their acid a salt of aluminum called alum. Still other
powders that are sometimes made up to sell for 20 to 30 cents a pound
contain a mixture of phosphate and alum.

15. As baking powders vary in price, so do they vary in their keeping
qualities, their effectiveness, and their tendency toward being
injurious. Most phosphate and alum powders do not keep so well as the
cream-of-tartar powders, and the longer they are kept, the less
effective do they become. The powders that contain phosphate yield more
gas for each teaspoonful used than do the other varieties. Much
controversy has taken place with regard to the different kinds of baking
powder and their effects on the digestive tract, but authorities have
not yet agreed on this matter. However, if foods made with the aid of
baking powders are not used excessively, no concern need be felt as to
their injurious effect. The housewife in her choice of baking powder
should be guided by the price she can afford to pay and the results she
is able to get after she has become well informed as to the effect of
the different varieties. She may easily become familiar with the
composition of baking powder, for a statement of what substances each
kind contains is generally found on the label of every variety. This
information is invaluable to the housewife, as it will assist her
considerably in making a selection.

16. The proportion of baking powder to be used in a batter or a dough is
regulated by the quantity of flour employed and not, as is the case with
soda and molasses or sour milk, by the quantity of liquid, the usual
proportion being _2 level teaspoonfuls to 1 cupful of flour_. Sometimes
this proportion is decreased, 6 or 7 teaspoonfuls being used instead of
8 to each quart of flour in the making of large quantities of some kinds
of baked foods. In adding baking powder to a mixture, as in adding other
dry leavening agents, it should be sifted with flour and the other dry

17. Although baking powder may be purchased at various prices, a good
grade can be made in the home without much effort and usually for less
than that which can be bought ready made. For these reasons, many
housewives prefer to make their own. The following recipe tells how to
make a cream-of-tartar powder that is very satisfactory:


1/2 lb. cream of tartar
1/4 lb. bicarbonate of soda
1/4 lb. corn starch

Weigh all the ingredients accurately. If the cream of tartar and the
bicarbonate of soda are to be purchased from a druggist, it will be
better for him to weigh them than for the housewife, as he uses scales
that weigh accurately. After all the ingredients are weighed, mix them
together thoroughly by sifting them a number of times or by shaking them
well in a can or a jar on which the lid has been tightly closed. The
baking powder thus made should be kept in a can or a jar that may be
rendered air-tight by means of a lid, or cover.

* * * * *



[Illustration: Fig. 1]

18. The utensils required for the making of hot breads consist of two
kinds: those in which the ingredients are prepared and combined to form
the mixture and those in which the mixture is to be baked. As soon as it
is known just what ones are needed to carry out the recipe for the hot
bread that is to be made, they, together with the necessary ingredients,
such as milk, fat, flour, baking powder, salt, eggs, etc., should be
collected and arranged in the manner shown in Fig. 1, so that they will
be convenient. Usually, much of the success of hot breads depends on the
quickness and dexterity with which the ingredients are put together, and
if the person making them has to interrupt her work every now and then
to get out a utensil, she will find that her results will not be so
satisfactory and that she will use up more energy than the work really
demands. The pans in which the mixture is to be baked need particular
attention, for they should be greased and ready to fill before the
mixing is begun. If they are to be heated, they should be greased and
put into the oven a few minutes before the mixture is ready to be put
into them, so that they may be taken from the oven and filled at once.


19. Fig. 1 serves very well to illustrate the utensils required for
preparing hot-bread mixtures. These consist of a bowl _a_ of the proper
size for mixing; a smaller bowl _b_ for beating eggs, provided eggs are
to be used; two standard half-pint measuring cups _c_, one for dry
ingredients and the other for wet ingredients; a tablespoon _d_, a case
knife _e_, and a teaspoon _f_ for measuring and mixing; an egg beater
_g_ and a flour sifter. Of course, if an egg whip is preferred, it may
take the place of the egg beater, but for some hot-bread mixtures use
will be found for both of these utensils.


[Illustration: Fig. 2]

20. The kind of utensil required for the baking of hot-bread mixtures
depends entirely on the nature of the mixture and the recipe that is to
be prepared. For popovers, popover cups similar to those shown in Fig. 2
or gem irons are necessary. Muffins require muffin pans like those
illustrated at _h_, Fig. 1; Boston brown breads need cans that have
tight-fitting lids; soft ginger bread, nut loaf, and corn cake are baked
in loaf pans; baking-powder or beaten biscuits are placed in shallow
pans or on oiled sheets; griddle cakes must be baked on griddles; and
waffles require waffle irons. None of these utensils are likely to
present any difficulty in their use except griddles and waffle irons, so
in order that these may be thoroughly understood and good results
thereby obtained, explanations of them are here given.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

21. GRIDDLES.--A style of griddle in common use is illustrated in Fig.
3, and while it is circular and has a projecting handle, griddles of
different shapes and fitted with different handles are to be had. Such
utensils are made of numerous materials, but the most satisfactory ones
are constructed of steel, iron, soapstone, and aluminum. Steel and iron
griddles must be greased before cakes are baked on them so as to prevent
the cakes from sticking; for this reason they are less convenient than
soapstone and aluminum griddles, which do not require any grease.

The size of griddle to use is governed by the number of persons that are
to be served. One that is unusually large, however, should be avoided if
a gas stove is used for cooking, as it is difficult to heat a large
griddle evenly on such a stove, and even a small one must be shifted
frequently so that some spots will not be hotter than others. In this
respect, a griddle made of aluminum has the advantage over the other
kinds, for this material conducts the heat evenly over its
entire surface.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

Before a new steel or iron griddle is used, it must be tempered so as to
prevent the food that is to be baked on it from sticking. If it is not
tempered, much time will be consumed before its surface will be in the
right condition to permit baking to proceed without difficulty, and
this, of course, will result in wasting considerable food material.
Tempering may be done by covering the griddle with a quantity of fat,
placing it over a flame or in a very hot oven, and then allowing it to
heat thoroughly to such a temperature that the fat will burn onto the
surface. This same precaution should be observed with new waffle irons
and frying pans made of steel or iron if the best results from such
utensils are desired.

22. WAFFLE IRONS.--A waffle iron, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, consists of
two corrugated griddles fastened together with a hinge in such a way
that the surfaces nearly touch when the handles are brought together as
in Fig. 4 (_a_). These griddles are so suspended in a frame that they may
be turned completely over in order to allow each side to be exposed to
the heat. The waffle iron illustrated in Fig. 4, shown closed in view
(_a_) and open in (_b_), is intended for a coal range. In order to use it,
a stove lid is removed from one of the openings and the waffle iron is set
in the opening, which allows the griddle part to be turned. The waffle
iron shown in Fig. 5 is intended for a gas range. As will be noticed,
the griddle part rests on a base that is deep enough to permit it to be
turned. In using a waffle iron of either kind, it should be heated while
the waffle mixture is being prepared; then it should be thoroughly
greased on both sides. No excess fat, however, should be used, as it
will run out when the griddle is turned over.

* * * * *



23. BATTERS AND DOUGHS.--The mixtures from which hot breads are produced
are of different consistencies, and familiarity with them is necessary
if good results in the making of such breads are desired. This
difference in the consistencies is due to the proportion of flour and
liquid used, a small proportion of flour producing a _batter_ and a
large proportion, a _dough_. It will be well to note, however, that some
kinds of flour thicken a mixture much more readily than do others.
Experience in the handling of flour teaches how to vary the other
ingredients of a recipe in order to make them correspond to the
difference in flour, but the person who lacks a knowledge of cookery, or
has had very little experience in the handling of foods, must know the
general proportions that are correct under most circumstances. The names
of the mixtures that the ingredients produce are _thin batter_, _thick
batter_, _soft dough_, and _stiff dough_.

24. A THIN BATTER is one in which the general proportion of liquid and
flour is _1 measure of flour_ to _1 measure of liquid_. Such a batter,
when poured, immediately seeks its own level and has the consistency of
thin cream. The most common examples of thin batters are popovers and
griddle cakes.

A THICK BATTER, which is known as a _drop_, or _muffin_, _batter_, is
one that is made of _2 measures of flour_ and _1 measure of liquid_. A
batter of this kind may be poured, but it will not immediately seek its
own level. Muffins, gems, puddings, and cakes are made of thick batters.

A SOFT DOUGH is one whose proportions are _3 measures of flour_ and _1
measure of liquid_. A dough of this kind will stand up alone--that is,
without support at the sides--and has more of the properties of a solid
than of a liquid. Baking-powder biscuits, tea rolls, and certain kinds
of cake are made of this form of dough.

A STIFF DOUGH is made of _4 measures of flour_ and _1 measure of
liquid_. Such a dough will not cling to the mixing bowl, can be handled
with the hands, and will not stick when rolled out on a board. Pie
crust, hard cookies, and beaten biscuit are made of such dough.

proportions just mentioned remain the same in the majority of cases,
they vary somewhat when ingredients other than liquid and flour are
added. Shortening and eggs in particular change the quantity of liquid
required, less liquid being necessary when these ingredients are used.
To get the best results from a new recipe, it is always advisable upon
reading the recipe to notice the proportions that are given and then to
try to judge whether they bear a close enough resemblance to the general
proportions to make a successful dish. For instance, if a griddle-cake
recipe calls for 3 cupfuls of flour and 1 cupful of liquid, the cook who
understands what the general proportions for such a batter ought to be
would know immediately that the recipe calls for too much flour.
Likewise, she would know that a recipe for baking-powder biscuits that
calls for 2 cupfuls of flour and 1 cupful of liquid would make a dough
that would be too soft to handle. Besides enabling a woman to judge a
recipe, a knowledge of the correct proportions for things of this kind
makes it possible for her to combine the ingredients for a certain
recipe without resorting to a cook book, or, in other words, to
originate a recipe. Because of the importance of such an understanding,
attention should always be given to details that will assist in
obtaining a thorough knowledge of this matter.


ingredients that are to be used in the batters and doughs of hot breads
is begun, all that are needed for the recipe selected should be
collected and properly measured. Always sift the flour that is to be
used for this purpose. This is a rule that never varies with regard to
flour to be used for any dough mixture or as a thickening agent. Then,
to prevent the flour from packing too solidly, measure it by dipping it
into the cup with a spoon. To obtain the proper amount, heap the cup and
then level it with the edge of a knife. Measure with a spoon whatever
dry leavening agent is called for, and be sure that it does not contain
any lumps. If salt, sugar, and spices are to be used, measure them
carefully. Mix the leavening agent, the salt, the sugar, and the other
dry ingredients with the flour by sifting them together once or twice.
Measure the butter or other fat by packing it in the spoon and then
leveling it with a knife. Be particular in measuring the liquid, using
neither more nor less than is called for. Regarding this ingredient, it
should always be remembered that when a cupful is required, a half-pint
cup full to the brim is meant and that any fraction of a cupful should
be measured with the same exactness.

27. COMBINING THE INGREDIENTS.--The manner in which a batter or a dough
is mixed is very important, for much of the success of the finished
product depends on the order in which the various steps are
accomplished. Two general methods of combining the ingredients for such
mixtures have been devised and either of them may be followed, because
they produce equally good results.

In one of these methods, the fat is worked into the dry ingredients and
the liquid then added. As eggs are usually considered a liquid
ingredient, they are beaten and added to the rest of the liquid before
it is mixed with the dry ingredients. However, if eggs are to be used
for leavening, only the yolks are added with the liquid ingredients, the
whites being beaten separately and folded in last.

The other method is used only when the mixtures are to contain a small
quantity of fat. In this method, all the liquid ingredients, including
the eggs, are first mixed together. Then the dry ingredients are
combined and sifted into the liquid. The fat is melted last and beaten
into the dough mixture. If the mixture to be handled is a stiff one, the
fat should be put in cold, for adding melted fat makes the dough soft
and sticky and therefore difficult to handle.


28. REGULATING THE OVEN.--When the ingredients have been properly
combined, the mixture is ready to be baked. With the exception of
waffles and griddle cakes, the baking of which is explained in
connection with the recipes, all hot breads are baked in the oven;
therefore, while the mixture is being prepared, the oven should be
properly regulated in order that the temperature will be just right when
it is time to start the baking. Particular thought should be given to
this matter, for if no attention is paid to the oven until the mixture
is ready to be baked, it will be necessary to allow the mixture to stand
until the heat of the oven can be regulated or to put it into the oven
and run the risk of spoiling the food. To prevent either of these
conditions and to insure success, the fuel, no matter what kind is used,
should be lighted before mixing is begun, so that the oven may be
heating while the mixture is being prepared, unless, as is sometimes the
case, there are steps in the preparation of the mixture that consume
considerable time. For instance, looking over raisins and cleaning them
or cracking nuts and picking the meats out of the shells should be done
before the rest of the ingredients are prepared or the oven is

29. CORRECT OVEN TEMPERATURES.--Quick breads that are to be baked in the
form of loaves require an oven temperature of from 350 to 400 degrees
Fahrenheit. Muffins, biscuits, and the smaller varieties of these breads
need a higher temperature, 425 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit being best. As
they are not so large, the heat has less dough through which to
penetrate, and consequently the baking can be accomplished more quickly.

and testing its temperature present very little difficulty to the
housewife of experience, but they are not always easy problems for the
woman who is learning to cook. However, if the untrained and
inexperienced cook will observe her oven closely and determine the
results of certain temperatures, she will soon find herself becoming
more successful in this matter. To assist the housewife in this matter,
as well as to help in the saving of much loss in fuel and in underdone
or overdone food, many stoves are equipped with an oven thermometer, an
indicator, or a thermostat. The thermometer is more likely to be
reliable than the indicator, as it has a column of mercury like that of
any other thermometer and is graduated; also, a certain kind may be
secured that can be used with any sort of oven. The indicator is in the
form of a dial with a hand attached to a metal spring. This spring
contracts and expands with the changes in the temperature of the oven
and thus causes the hand to point out the temperature. The thermostat is
a device that automatically regulates the heat of the oven. On a stove
equipped with a thermostat, it is simply necessary to set the device at
the temperature desired. When this temperature is reached, the device
keeps it stationary.

31. If neither an indicator nor a thermometer is available, the heat of
the oven may be determined in other ways. Some housewives test the oven
with the hand, and while such a test is more or less dependent on
experience, those who use it find it very satisfactory. If the hand can
be held in the oven while 15 is counted slowly, the temperature is that
of a moderate oven and will be right for the baking of loaves. An oven
that is of the proper temperature for muffins or rolls will permit the
hand to be held in it while only 10 is counted slowly. Those who do not
test with the hand find that placing a piece of white paper in the oven
is an accurate way of determining its temperature. Such paper will turn
a delicate brown in 5 minutes in a moderate oven, and a deeper brown in
4 minutes in a hot oven.

_Essentials of Cookery_, Part 1, the top of the oven is hotter than the
bottom. This truth and the fact that in an oven, as in any other space,
air expands and rises on becoming heated, are points that have much to
do with the baking of quick breads, for these are mixtures that rise
after being placed in the oven. So that they may rise properly, they
should be placed on the bottom first; then, as they become heated, they
will have a tendency to rise as the air does. If the food is placed near
the top first, the heated air will be likely to press it down and retard
its rising. As soon as the rising is completed and the food has baked
sufficiently on the bottom, it should be moved up so that it will brown
on the top.

33. TESTING THE BAKED MIXTURE.--Recipes for baked dishes usually state
the length of time required to bake them, but such directions cannot
always be depended on, because the temperature of the oven varies at
different times. The best way in which to judge whether the food has
baked the necessary length of time is to apply to it one of the reliable
tests that have been devised for this purpose.

Probably the most satisfactory test is to insert a toothpick as deep as
possible into the center of the loaf. The center, rather than some other
part of the loaf, is the place where the testing should be done, because
the heat penetrates a mixture from the outside and the center is
therefore the last part to bake. If the toothpick comes out without
particles of dough adhering, the mixture is sufficiently baked in that
place and consequently throughout the loaf. In case the dough sticks to
the toothpick, the baking is not completed and will have to be
continued. Since this is a test that is frequently used, a supply of
toothpicks, preferably round ones, should be kept in a handy place near
the stove.

Another fairly accurate means of testing baked mixtures that do not form
a very hard crust consists in making a dent in the center with the
finger. If the dent remains, the baking must be continued, but if it
springs back into place, the baking is completed.


34. Hot breads, in contrast with yeast breads, are intended to be eaten
hot, and, to be most satisfactory, should be served as soon as possible
after they are baked. They usually take the place of bread in the meal
for which they are served, but there are various ways of using them
whereby variety is given to them and to the meal. A favorite combination
with many persons is hot biscuits or muffins served with honey. If honey
is not available, jam, preserves, or sirup may be substituted to
advantage. A mixture made like baking-powder biscuits and baked or
steamed is especially good when served with chicken or meat stew poured
over it. The same mixture sweetened and made a trifle richer may be
served with fruit and cream for short cake. For afternoon tea, tiny
muffins and biscuits about the size of a 50-cent piece are very
attractive. Then, too, if they are split and buttered, they may be
served with salad for a light luncheon.

Hot breads baked in the form of a loaf require some attention as far as
preparing them for the table is concerned. Gingerbread and corn cake are
better if they are broken rather than cut while hot. In case they are
preferred cut, a sharp knife should be employed, and, to obtain slices
that have a good appearance, the knife should be heated and the cutting
done before it cools. Usually, gingerbread is served plain, but the
addition of icing improves it considerably and provides a simple cake
that can be used for dessert.

* * * * *



35. POPOVERS.--A delightful change from the puffs, muffins, and biscuits
that are usually served for breakfast or luncheon is afforded by means
of popovers, one of which is illustrated in Fig. 6. Popovers are not
difficult to make. For them is required a thin batter in equal
proportions of liquid and flour. In giving the method for mixing
popovers, some of the older cook books recommend beating for 5 minutes
just before they are baked, because the lightness was formerly supposed
to be due to the air that is incorporated by this beating. It is
possible, however, to make very light popovers with only enough beating
to mix the ingredients thoroughly, and it is now known that the rising
is due to the expansion of water into steam in the mixture. This
knowledge is useful in that it saves time and energy.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. flour
1/4 tsp. salt
1 c. milk
1 egg

Mix the flour, salt, and milk in a bowl, and then drop in the unbeaten
egg. Beat all with a rotary egg beater until the mixture is perfectly
smooth and free from lumps. Grease and warm gem irons or popover cups.
Then fill them about two-thirds full of the popover batter. Bake in a
moderate oven for about 45 minutes or until the popovers can be lifted
from the cups and do not shrink when removed from the oven.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

36. POPOVERS WITH FRUIT.--Popovers made according to the preceding
recipe are particularly good if fruit is added to them. To add the
fruit, cut a slit in the side of the popovers as soon as they are
removed from the oven and insert a few spoonfuls of apple sauce,
marmalade, preserves, jelly, or canned fruit. These may be served either
warm or cold as a breakfast dish, or they may be sprinkled with powdered
sugar and served with cream for a dessert or a luncheon dish.

37. NUT PUFFS.--An example of a thin batter not in equal proportions of
liquid and flour is afforded by nut puffs. In hot breads of this kind,
aeration is used as the leavening agent. In order to assist with the
incorporation of air, the egg yolk is well beaten before it is added;
but the greater part of the lightness that is produced is due to the egg
white, which is beaten and folded in last. The addition of nuts to a
batter of this kind considerably increases its food value.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. flour
2 Tb. sugar
1 tsp. salt
1 c. milk
1 egg
1 Tb. fat
1/4 c. chopped nuts

Sift the flour, sugar, and salt together, and add the milk and beaten
egg yolk. Melt the fat and add it and the chopped nuts. Beat the egg
white stiff and fold it into the mixture carefully. Fill hot,
well-greased gem irons level full of the batter, and bake in a hot oven
about 20 minutes.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

38. WHOLE-WHEAT PUFFS.--Puffs in which use is made of whole-wheat flour
instead of white flour are also an example of a thin batter that is made
light by aeration. If desired, graham flour may be substituted for the
whole-wheat flour, but if it is a coarser bread will be the result. This
coarseness, however, does not refer to the texture of the bread, but is
due to the quantity of bran in graham flour. Whole-wheat puffs, as shown
in Fig. 7, are attractive, and besides they possess the valuable food
substances contained in whole-wheat flour, eggs, and milk.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. whole-wheat flour
2 Tb. sugar
1 tsp. salt
1 c. milk
1 egg
1 Tb. fat

Sift the flour, sugar, and salt together and add the milk and the egg
yolk, which should be well beaten. Melt the fat and stir it into the
batter. Beat the egg white stiff, and fold it in carefully. Heat
well-greased gem irons, fill them level full with the mixture, and bake
in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.


39. PROCEDURE IN BAKING GRIDDLE CAKES.--During the preparation of the
batter for griddle cakes, have the griddle heating, so that it will be
sufficiently hot when the cakes are ready to be baked. Each time, before
the baking is begun, grease the griddle, provided it is the kind that
requires greasing, by rubbing over it a rind of salt pork or a small
cloth pad that has been dipped into a dish of grease. In greasing the
griddle, see that there is no excess of grease, as this burns and
produces smoke.

When the griddle has become hot enough for the batter to sizzle when it
is put on, the baking may be started. Pour the batter on the griddle
from the tip of a large spoon, so that the cakes will form as nearly
round as possible. When the top surface is full of bubbles, turn the
cakes with a spatula or a pancake turner, and allow them to brown on the
other side. By the time the cakes are sufficiently browned on both
sides, they should be cooked through and ready to serve. If they brown
before they have had time to cook through, the griddle is too hot and
should be cooled by moving it to a cooler part of the stove or by
reducing the heat. A very important point to remember in the baking of
griddle cakes is that they should not be turned twice, as this has a
tendency to make them heavy.

40. GRIDDLE CAKES.--As is generally known, griddle cakes are thin
batters that are made light with a chemical leavening agent. Eggs are
often used in such batters, but it is possible to make very excellent
griddle cakes without the use of any eggs. It should also be remembered
that the use of too much egg is more certain to make the cakes tough and
less palatable than if none is used. The kind of flour used for griddle
cakes has much to do with the consistency of the batter used for them.
If, when the first cakes are placed upon the griddle, the batter seems
to be either too thick or too thin, liquid or flour may be added to
dilute or thicken the batter until it is of the right consistency. For
instance, if bread flour is used, more liquid may be needed, and if
pastry flour is used, more flour may be required.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
1/4 c. sugar
1 egg
2-1/4 c. milk
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar. Beat the
egg, add to it the milk, and pour this liquid slowly into the dry
ingredients. Beat the mixture thoroughly and then add the melted
fat. Bake the cakes on a hot griddle as soon as possible after the
batter is mixed.

41. SOUR-MILK GRIDDLE CAKES.--Very delicious griddle cakes may be made
by using sour milk and soda for the liquid and leavening instead of
sweet milk and baking powder. Besides being particularly appetising,
such cakes serve to use up left-over milk that may have soured. There is
very little difference between the ingredients for this recipe and one
calling for sweet milk, except that sour milk, which is a trifle
thicker in consistency than sweet milk, requires less flour to thicken
the mixture.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. sugar
1 tsp. soda
2 c. sour milk (not thick)
1 egg

Mix and sift the flour, salt, sugar, and soda. Add to these the sour
milk and the egg well beaten. If the milk is thick, the quantity
should be increased accordingly. Beat the mixture thoroughly and
bake at once on a hot griddle.

42. CORN GRIDDLE CAKES.--The addition of corn meal to a griddle-cake
mixture adds variety and food value and produces an agreeable flavor.
Where corn meal is cheap, it is an economical ingredient to use in
griddle cakes and other hot breads.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 c. corn meal
1-1/2 c. boiling water
2 c. milk
2 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 c. sugar
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Add the corn meal to the boiling water, boil 5 minutes, and turn into a
bowl. Then add the milk. Next, mix and sift the flour, baking powder,
salt, and sugar, and stir them into the first mixture. Beat the egg and
add to the whole. Finally, stir in the melted fat. Bake on a
hot griddle.

43. RICE GRIDDLE CAKES.--If a change in the ordinary griddle cakes that
are used for breakfast is desired, rice griddle cakes should be tried.
Besides lending variety, the addition of rice to a griddle-cake mixture
helps to use up any left-over rice that may have been cooked for another
purpose. Steamed or boiled rice used for this purpose should be broken
up with a fork before it is mixed in the batter, so that the grains of
rice will not stick together in chunks.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
1/4 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 c. cold cooked rice
1 egg
1-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Work the rice
into the dry ingredients. Add the egg, well beaten, the milk, and the
melted fat. Bake on a hot griddle.

44. BUCKWHEAT CAKES.--Buckwheat flour is used for griddle cakes more
than for any other purpose. When used in this way it has a very typical
flavor that most people find very agreeable. Many prepared buckwheat
flours, to which have been added the quantity of leavening agent
necessary to raise the mixture, are on the market for the convenience of
those who do not desire to prepare the mixture at home. As a rule, these
contain a combination of buckwheat and wheat flour. To make cakes from
these flours, add the required amount of liquid, either milk or water,
and a little sugar, if necessary, and then proceed to bake them on a
griddle. While there is no objection to the use of such flours if they
are found agreeable, it is more expensive to use them than to make up
the buckwheat mixture at home. A recipe for buckwheat cakes that proves
very satisfactory is the following:

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. scalded milk
1/2 c. fine bread crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 yeast cake
3/4 c. lukewarm water
1-1/2 c. buckwheat flour
1/2 c. white flour
1 Tb. molasses
1/4 tsp. soda

Pour the scalded milk over the bread crumbs and add the salt. Dissolve
the yeast cake in 1/2 cupful of the lukewarm water and add this to the
bread crumbs and milk. Stir in the buckwheat and the white flour, and
let the mixture rise overnight. In the morning, stir it well and add the
molasses, the soda, and 1/4 cupful of lukewarm water. Bake on a
hot griddle.

If cakes are to be baked the next day, retain 1/2 cupful of the batter,
to which may be added flour, milk, salt, and molasses. By doing this
each day, a starter may be had for a long period of time. If a strong
buckwheat flavor is desired, use all buckwheat flour, but if only a
slight buckwheat flavor is desired, make the proportion of wheat flour
greater and that of the buckwheat smaller.


45. PROCEDURE IN BAKING WAFFLES.--The procedure in making waffles is
very similar to that in making griddle cakes. While the waffle mixture
is being prepared, heat the waffle iron. Then grease it thoroughly on
both sides with a rind of salt pork or a cloth pad dipped in fat, being
careful that there is no excess fat, as it will run out when the iron is
turned over. With the iron properly greased and sufficiently hot, place
several spoonfuls of the batter in the center and close the iron. By so
doing, the batter will be pressed out to cover the entire surface. In
pouring the batter, do not cover the entire surface of the iron with
batter nor place any near the outside edge, for it is liable to run out
when the iron is closed. In case this happens, be sure to put in less
batter the next time. Allow the waffle to brown on the side near the
fire and then turn the iron, so as to brown the other side. When the
waffle is sufficiently brown, remove it; then grease the iron and repeat
the process.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

46. WAFFLES.--The form of hot bread known as waffles, which are
illustrated in Fig. 8, offers the housewife an excellent opportunity to
add variety to meals. Practically no one dislikes waffles, and they are
especially appetising when sprinkled with powdered sugar or served with
sirup. They are often served with chicken or other gravy.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. salt
2 eggs
1-2/3 c. milk
2 Tb. melted fat

Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt together. Beat the yolks and
whites of the eggs separately. Add the beaten yolks and the milk to the
dry ingredients and then stir in the melted fat. Beat the egg whites
stiff and fold them into the batter. Bake according to the directions
given in Art. 45.

47. RICE WAFFLES.--Rice waffles offer an excellent means of utilizing
left-over rice. Such waffles are prepared in about the same way as the
waffles just mentioned. In working the cooked rice into the dry
ingredients, use should be made of a light motion that will not crush
the grains, but will separate them from one another. Left-over cereals
other than rice may also be used in this way.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-3/4 c. flour
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. salt
2/3 c. cooked rice
1-1/2 c. milk
1 egg
1 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt, and then work
the rice into the dry ingredients. Add the milk and the well-beaten yolk
of egg. Stir in the melted fat. Beat the egg white stiff, and fold it
into the batter. Bake as previously directed.


[Illustration: Fig. 9]

48. Muffins are examples of thick batters with variations. This form of
hot bread, an illustration of which is shown in Fig. 9, may be baked in
a pan like that shown at _h_, Fig. 1, or in individual tins. Just as
other forms of hot breads assist the housewife in making changes or
additions to meals, so do muffins, as they are usually relished by
nearly every one.

49. PLAIN MUFFINS.--Perhaps the simplest form of muffin is the plain, or
one-egg, muffin, which is illustrated in Fig. 9 and made according to
the accompanying recipe. To a plain-muffin recipe, however, may be added
any kind of fruit, nuts, or other ingredients to give variety of
flavour. Likewise, it may be made richer and sweeter and then steamed or
baked to be served with a sauce for dessert. If it is made still richer
and sweeter, the result is a simple cake mixture. Any given muffin
recipe in which sweet milk is used may be made with sour milk by using
soda instead of baking powder.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour
2 Tb. sugar
1 tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder
1 c. milk
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder, and to these add
the milk and beaten egg. Then stir in the melted fat. Fill well-greased
muffin pans about two-thirds full of the mixture and bake in a hot oven
for about 20 minutes.

50. BLUEBERRY MUFFINS.--Muffins containing blueberries can be made
successfully only in blueberry season, but other fruit, as, for example,
dates, may be used in place of the blueberries. Cranberries are often
used in muffins, but to many persons they are not agreeable because of
the excessive amount of acid they contain.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 Tb. fat
1/3 c. sugar
1 egg
1 c. milk
2-1/4 c. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder
1 c. fresh blueberries

Cream the fat, and add the sugar gradually. Then stir in the beaten egg
and milk. Reserve 1/4 cupful of flour, and mix the remainder with the
salt and the baking powder. Stir the dry ingredients into the first
mixture. Next, mix the 1/4 cupful of flour with the berries and fold
them into the batter. Fill well-greased muffin pans about two-thirds
full of the batter, and bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.

51. DATE MUFFINS.--The recipe given for blueberry muffins may be used
for date muffins by substituting dates for blueberries. To prepare the
dates, wash them in warm water, rinse them in cold water, and then dry
them between towels. Cut them lengthwise along the seed with a sharp
knife, remove the seed, and then cut each date into three or
four pieces.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

52. CORN-MEAL MUFFINS.--To many persons, corn-meal muffins, an
illustration of which is shown in Fig. 10, are more agreeable than plain
white-flour muffins. Corn meal gives to muffins an attractive flavour
and appearance and increases their food value slightly; but perhaps its
chief value lies in the variety that results from its use.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 c. corn meal
1 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
3/4 c. milk
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Add
to these the milk and the well-beaten egg, and stir in the melted fat.
Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full, and bake in a hot oven
for about 20 minutes.

53. GRAHAM MUFFINS.--A pleasing variety in the way of muffins is
produced by using part graham flour, but whole-wheat flour may be
substituted for the graham flour in case it is preferred. Sour milk is
used in the recipe here given, but if there is no sour milk in supply,
sweet milk and baking powder may be used instead, with merely the
correct proportion of soda for the molasses. If the taste of molasses is
undesirable, liquid, which may be either sweet or sour milk, may be
substituted for it. It is an excellent plan to be able to substitute one
thing for another in recipes of this kind, and this may be done if the
materials are used in correct proportion.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/4 c. graham flour
1 c. white flour
3/4 tsp. soda
1 tsp. salt
1 c. sour milk
1/3 c. molasses
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the graham and the white flour, the soda, and the salt. Put
the bran that sifts out back into the mixture. Add the milk, molasses,
and well-beaten egg to the dry ingredients, and then stir in the melted
fat. Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full and bake in a
moderate oven for about 20 minutes.

54. RICE MUFFINS.--Rice may be combined with white flour in the making
of muffins if variety is desired. As rice used for this purpose is added
hot, it may be cooked either purposely for the muffins or for something
else and only part used for the muffins. Cereals other than rice may be
used in exactly the same quantity and in the same way in making muffins.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/4 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
1-1/4 c. milk
1 egg
3/4 c. hot, cooked rice
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt, and to these add
half of the milk and the egg, well beaten. Mix the remaining half of the
milk with the rice and add it to the mixture. Stir in the melted fat
last. Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full, and bake in a hot
oven for about 20 minutes.

55. BRAN MUFFINS.--The particular value of bran muffins lies in the
laxative quality that they introduce into the diet. In addition, they
will be found to be very tasty and superior to many other kinds of
muffins. Bran for such purposes as this may be bought in packages, in
the same way as many cereals.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. white flour
1/2 tsp. soda
1/2 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
2 c. bran
1-1/4 c. milk
1/2 c. molasses
1 egg

Mix and sift the flour, soda, baking powder, and salt. Then add the
bran, the milk, the molasses, and the well-beaten egg. Fill well-greased
muffin pans about two-thirds full, and bake in a moderate oven for about
25 minutes.


56. CORN CAKE.--Corn cakes were among the first breads made of cereal
foods in America, being at first often made of only corn meal, water,
and salt. These cakes of corn meal were prepared and carried on long
journeys made by people when there were no means of rapid
transportation. The cakes did not spoil, were not bulky, and contained a
great deal of nutriment, so they made a convenient kind of food for such
purposes and were called _journey cakes._ From this term came the name
_Johnny cake,_ which is often applied to cake of this kind. The
combining of flour, eggs, shortening, and sugar makes a cake that does
not resemble the original very much, but in many localities such cake is
still called Johnny cake. The proportion of corn meal to flour that is
used determines to a large extent the consistency of the cake; the
greater the quantity of corn meal, the more the cake will crumble and
break into pieces. The addition of white flour makes the particles of
corn meal adhere, so that most persons consider that white flour
improves the consistency.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

3/4 c. yellow corn meal
1-1/4 c. flour
1/4 c. sugar
3/4 tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder
1 c. milk
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder. Add
the milk and well-beaten egg, and then stir in the melted fat. Pour into
a well-greased loaf pan and bake in a hot oven for about 30 minutes.

57. SOUTHERN CORN CAKE.--In the preceding recipe for corn cake, more
flour than corn meal is used, but many persons prefer cake of this kind
made with more corn meal than flour. Southern corn cake, which contains
more corn meal and less white flour, proves very satisfactory to such
persons. Therefore, which of these recipes should be used depends on the
taste of those who are to eat the cake.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

1 c. corn meal
1/2 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
3/4 tsp. salt
1/4 c. sugar
3/4 c. milk
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift together the corn meal, flour, baking powder, salt, and
sugar. Add to them the milk and well-beaten egg, and stir in the melted
fat. Pour into a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for
about 30 minutes.

58. Molasses Corn Cake.--Molasses corn cake, just as its name indicates,
is corn cake containing molasses. To those who find the taste of
molasses agreeable, this recipe will appeal. Others not so fond of
molasses will, without doubt, prefer the plain corn cake. Besides adding
flavour, the molasses in this recipe adds food value to the product.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

1 c. corn meal
3/4 c. flour
3-1/2 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
3/4 c. milk
1/4 c. molasses
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, baking powder, and salt. Add the
milk, molasses, and well-beaten egg and stir in the melted fat. Pour
into a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about
30 minutes.


[Illustration: FIG. 11]

59. Baking-Powder Biscuits.--The ability of the housewife as a cook is
very often judged by the biscuits she makes; but they are really very
simple to make, and if recipes are followed carefully and measurements
are made accurately, only a little experience is required to produce
excellent ones. The principal requirement in making baking-powder
biscuits, which are illustrated in Fig. 11, is that all the ingredients
be kept as cold as possible during the mixing. Tiny, thin biscuits may
be split, buttered, and served with tea, while larger ones may be served
with breakfast or luncheon. In order to utilise left-over biscuits of
this kind, they may be split and toasted or dipped quickly into boiling
water and heated in a quick oven until the surface is dry.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour
1 tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder
2 Tb. fat
3/4 c. milk

Mix and sift the flour, salt, and baking powder. Chop the fat into the
dry ingredients until it is in pieces about the size of small peas. Pour
the milk into the dry ingredients, and mix them just enough to take up
the liquid. Make the mixture as moist as possible, and still have it in
good condition to handle. Then sprinkle flour on a molding board, and
lift the dough from the mixing bowl to the board.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]


[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

Sprinkle flour thinly over the top and pat out the dough until it is
about 1 inch thick. Cut the dough with a biscuit cutter, and place the
biscuits thus cut out on baking sheets or in shallow pans. If a crusty
surface is desired, place the biscuits in the pan so that they are about
an inch apart; but if thick, soft biscuits are preferred, place them so
that the edges touch. Bake 18 to 20 minutes in a hot oven.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

60. EMERGENCY BISCUITS.--As shown in Fig. 12, emergency biscuits
resemble very closely baking-powder biscuits, and so they should,
because the recipe given for baking-powder biscuits may be used for
emergency biscuits by merely adding more milk--just enough to make the
dough a trifle too moist to handle with the hands. When the dough is of
this consistency, drop it by spoonfuls in shallow pans, as in Fig. 13,
or on baking sheets. Then bake the biscuits in a hot oven for 18 to
20 minutes.

61. PINWHEEL BISCUITS.--To create variety, a baking-powder biscuit
mixture may be made into pinwheel biscuits, a kind of hot bread that is
always pleasing to children. Such biscuits, which are illustrated in
Fig. 14, differ from cinnamon rolls only in the leavening agent used,
cinnamon rolls being made with yeast and pinwheel biscuits with
baking powder.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour
1 tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder
2 Tb. fat f
3/4 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1/3 c. sugar
1 Tb. cinnamon
3/4 c. chopped raisins

To make the dough, combine the ingredients in the same way as for
baking-powder biscuits. Roll it on a well-floured board until it is
about 1/4 inch thick and twice as long as it is wide. Spread the surface
with the 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Mix the sugar and cinnamon and
sprinkle them evenly over the buttered surface, and on top of this
sprinkle the chopped raisins. Start with one of the long edges and roll
the dough carefully toward the opposite long edge, as shown in Fig. 15.
Then cut the roll into slices 1 inch thick. Place these slices in a
shallow pan with the cut edges down and the sides touching. Bake in a
hot oven for about 20 minutes.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.]

62. BEATEN BISCUITS.--In Fig. 16 is illustrated a form of hot bread
known as beaten biscuits. Such biscuits are used very extensively in the
South; in fact, they are usually considered typical of the South.
Formerly, all the lightness of beaten biscuits was produced by beating,
but as the mixture is made today it may be run through a food chopper a
few times before it is beaten. If this is done, the labor of beating is
lessened considerably, beating for 15 to 20 minutes being sufficient.
When the beating is finished, the texture of the dough should be fine
and close and the surface should be smooth and flat.

(Sufficient to Serve Twelve)

1 qt. pastry flour
1 tsp. salt
1/3 c. fat
1 c. milk or water

Sift the flour and salt and chop in the fat. Moisten with the milk or
water and form into a mass. Toss this on a floured board, and beat it
with a rolling pin for 30 minutes, folding the dough over every few
seconds. Roll the dough 1/3 inch in thickness, form the biscuits by
cutting them out with a small round cutter, and prick each one several
times with a fork. Place the biscuits on baking sheets or in shallow
pans, and bake them in a moderate oven for 20 to 30 minutes.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.]


[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

63. SOFT GINGERBREAD.--As a hot bread for breakfast, soft gingerbread
like that illustrated in Fig. 17 is very satisfactory, and with or
without icing it may be served as cake with fruit for luncheon. Sweet
milk and baking powder are generally used in gingerbread, but sour milk
may be substituted for sweet milk and soda in the proper proportion may
be used in place of baking powder. If not too much spice is used in a
bread of this kind, it is better for children than rich cake, and, as a
rule, they are very fond of it.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

2 c. flour
2 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. soda
1/4 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
2 tsp. ginger
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 egg
1/2 c. milk
1/2 c. molasses
1/4 c. butter or other fat

Mix the flour, baking powder, soda, sugar, salt, and spices. Beat the
egg, add the milk and molasses to it, and stir these into the first
mixture. Melt the fat and stir it into the batter. Pour the batter into
a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about 35
minutes. If preferred, the mixture may be poured into individual muffin
pans and baked in a moderate oven for about 25 minutes.

64. BOSTON BROWN BREAD.--A hot bread that finds favor with most persons
is Boston brown bread, which is illustrated in Fig. 18.


[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

Such bread, instead of being baked in the oven, is steamed for 3-1/2
hours. It may be made plain, according to the accompanying recipe, or,
to give it variety, raisins or currants may be added to it. Boston brown
bread may be steamed in an ordinary coffee can, such as is shown in Fig.
18, in a large baking-powder can, or in a can that is made especially
for this purpose. A regular steaming can for Boston brown bread is, of
course, very convenient, but the other cans mentioned are very
satisfactory. A point to remember in the making of brown bread is that
the time for steaming should never be decreased. Oversteaming will do no
harm, but understeaming is liable to leave an unbaked place through the
centre of the loaf.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

1 c. white flour
1 c. graham flour
1 c. corn meal
3/4 tsp. soda
2 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
3/4 c. molasses
1-3/4 c. sweet milk

Mix and sift the flour, corn meal, soda, baking powder, and salt. Add
the molasses and milk and mix all thoroughly. Grease a can and a cover
that fits the can tightly. Fill the can two-thirds full of the mixture
and cover it. Place it in a steamer and steam for 3-1/2 hours. Dry in a
moderate oven for a few minutes before serving.

65. NUT LOAF.--The use of nuts in a hot bread increases the food value
and imparts a very delicious flavour. It is therefore very attractive to
most persons, but it is not a cheap food on account of the usual high
price of nuts. Thin slices of nut bread spread with butter make very
fine sandwiches, which are especially delicious when served with tea.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

2 c. flour
1/2 c. sugar
4 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
4 Tb. fat
1 egg
1 c. milk
1/2 c. English walnuts

Mix and sift the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt, and then work in
the fat. Add the egg, well beaten, and the milk, and then stir in the
nut meats, which should be chopped. Turn into a well-greased loaf pan,
and bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes.


66. As a general rule, not much consideration need be given to the
utilising of left-over hot breads, for these are not often baked in
large quantities and consequently are usually eaten at the meal for
which they are intended. Still, if any should be left over, they should
never be wasted, for there are various ways in which they may be used.
The small varieties, such as muffins, biscuits, etc, may be freshened so
that they will be almost as good as when first baked by putting them
into a hot oven for a few minutes. If they are quite stale, they should
be dipped quickly into hot water before being placed in the oven. The
moisture on the surface is driven into the interior of the bread by the
intense heat, with the result that the biscuits become moist and appear
as fresh as they did formerly. If it is not desired to freshen them in
this way, biscuits, muffins, and even pieces of corn bread that have
become slightly stale may be made delicious by splitting them and then
toasting them.


67. As in the preceding Sections, there is here submitted a menu that
should be worked out and reported on at the same time that the answers
to the Examination Questions are sent in. This menu is planned to serve
six persons, but, as in the case of the other menus, it may be increased
or decreased to meet requirements. The recipe for macaroni with cheese
and tomatoes may be found in _Cereals,_ and that for baking-powder
biscuit, as well as that for popovers with apple sauce, in this Section.
Recipes for the remainder of the items follow the menu.


Macaroni With Cheese and Tomatoes
Baking-Powder Biscuit
Watercress-and-Celery Salad
Popovers Filled With Apple Sauce



Arrange on each salad plate a bed of watercress, or, if it is impossible
to obtain this, shred lettuce by cutting it in narrow strips across the
leaf and use it instead of the watercress. Dice one or two stems of
celery, depending on the size, and place the diced pieces on top of the
watercress or the lettuce. Pour over each serving about 2 teaspoonfuls
of French dressing made as follows:

1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1/4 tsp. paprika
6 Tb. oil
2 Tb. vinegar

Mix the salt, pepper, and paprika, and beat the oil into them until it
forms an emulsion. Add the vinegar gradually, a few drops at a time, and
continue the beating. Pour the dressing over the salad.


Measure 1 teaspoonful of tea for each cupful that is to be served. Scald
the teapot, put the tea into it, and add the required number of cups of
freshly boiling water. Allow it to steep until the desired strength is
obtained. Serve at once, or pour from the leaves, serving cream and
sugar with it if desired.

* * * * *



(1) (_a_) In what way do hot breads differ from yeast breads? (_b_) What
are the principal ingredients of hot-bread batters and doughs?

(2) (_a_) What is a leavening agent? (_b_) What is the effect of
leavening agents on batters and doughs?

(3) (_a_) How is physical leavening accomplished? (_b_) On what does the
success of breads raised by physical leavening depend?

(4) (_a_) How is chemical leavening brought about? (_b_) What two things
must be supplied to produce the best action of a chemical leavening
agent for making a flour mixture light?

(5) Why are soda and sour milk and soda and molasses not accurate
leavening agents?

(6) In making a batter or a dough, how much soda should be used with:
(_a_) each cupful of sour milk? (_b_) each cupful of molasses?

(7) How should soda and sour milk or soda and molasses be combined with
the other ingredients of a hot-bread mixture?

(8) (_a_) In hot-bread batters and doughs, how much baking powder should
be used to 1 cupful of flour? (_b_) How should baking powder be combined
with the other ingredients?

(9) Mention, in the order they should be carried out, the steps for
making and baking a dough mixture.

(10) Tell what general proportion of liquid and flour is usually used
for: (_a_) a thin batter; (_b_) a thick batter; (_c_) a soft dough;
(_d_) a stiff dough.

(11) Give examples of hot breads made from: (_a_) thin batters; (_b_)
thick batters; (_c_) soft doughs; (_d_) stiff doughs.

(12) What will cause a change in the general proportions of liquid and
flour for a batter or a dough?

(13) Explain briefly the two general methods of combining ingredients
for hot-bread mixtures.

(14) What is the approximate temperature for: (_a_) a moderate oven?
(_b_) a hot oven?

(15) Mention a simple test for: (_a_) a moderate oven; (_b_) a hot

(16) How may hot breads be tested in order to determine whether or not
they are properly baked?

(17) Why are baking-powder biscuits and popovers mixed differently?

(18) (_a_) Why does a loaf of nut bread require longer baking than
muffins? (_b_) Which should be baked in a moderate oven?

(19) Why should gingerbread be baked in a moderate oven?

(20) Make a recipe for muffins, using 2 cupfuls of flour and sour milk
and soda for liquid and leavening.


After trying out the luncheon menu given in the text, send with your
answers to the Examination Questions a report of your success. In making
out your report, simply write the name of the food and describe its
condition by means of the terms specified here.

Macaroni With Cheese and Tomatoes: cooked sufficiently? properly
flavoured? too much salt? not enough salt? too much liquid? too
little liquid?

Baking-Powder Biscuit: tender? tough? light? heavy? good texture? poor
texture? sufficiently baked? underdone? overdone? sufficient salt?

Watercress-and-Celery Salad: appearance attractive? dressing well mixed?
properly seasoned?

Popovers Filled With Apple Sauce: tender? tough? underdone (this is
observed by shrinking or falling after removing the popovers from the
popover cups)? overdone?

Tea: strong? weak? clear? hot? bitter?

* * * * *



Abbreviations of measures,
Absorption and digestion of food,
of food,
Abundance of production of cereals,
Acquiring skill in bread making,
Action of yeast,
Adjusting cook-stove dampers,
Agents, Classes of leavening,
Aids, Yeast,
A la, au, and aux, Meaning of terms,
la creole, Meaning of,
Effect of cooking on,
Aluminum cooking utensils,
Anthracite, or hard, coal,
Apple, Composition of,
Artificial gas,
Ash, or mineral salts,
pan, Coal-stove,
pit, Coal-stove,
Au gratin, Meaning of,
naturel, Meaning of,
Avoirdupois weight,


Bacon, Composition of,
Baked hot breads, Testing,
Bakers' flour,
Baking bread,
Distinction between roasting and,
griddle cakes, Procedure in,
Meaning of,
Oven temperature for bread,
-powder biscuits,
Baking powder, Recipe for,
Purpose of bread,
the hot-bread mixture,
the hot-bread mixture, Utensils for,
Time for bread,
waffles, Procedure in,
Balanced diet, Elements of a,
Banana, Composition of,
Banking a coal fire,
Recipes for,
Use and origin of,
with fruit, Pearl,
Batter, Thick,
Batters and doughs,
Bean, Composition of dry navy,
Composition of fresh shelled,
Composition of green string,
Beaten biscuits,
Beating of food ingredients,
Béchamel, Meaning of,
Beech wheat,
Beef, Composition of dried,
steak, Composition of,
suet, Composition of,
Biscuit glace,
Biscuits, Baking-powder,
rolls, and buns, Recipes for,
Bisque, Meaning of,
Bituminous, or soft, coal,
Blanching foods,
Blend flour,
Blueberry muffins,
Body, Function of water in the,
Boiled coffee,
Boiler, Cooking cereals in double,
Cooking cereals by,
on foods, Effect of,
to sterilize water,
Boston brown bread,
Bouchées, Meaning of,
Boudin, Meaning of,
Bouquet of herbs,
Boxes, Window,
Bran bread,
after baking, Care of,
and cake mixer,
as food, Importance of,
Baking hot,
Boston brown,
Composition of corn,
Composition of rye,
Composition of toasted,
Composition of whole-wheat,
Convenient equipment for making,
Distinction between hot and leavened,
dough, Care of the rising,
dough, Kneading,
dough, Motions used in kneading,
dough, Purpose of kneading,
ingredients, Quick-process, sponge method of combining,
Long-process, sponge method of making,
making, Acquiring skill in,
making, Combining the ingredients in,
making, Convenient equipment for,
making, Ingredients for,
making, Long process of,
making, Long-process, sponge method of,
making, Long-process, straight-dough method of,
-making materials, Proportion of,
making, Necessary equipment for,
-making processes,
making, Quick process of,
making, Quick-process, sponge method of,
making, Quick-process, straight-dough method of,
-making requirements,
making, Utensils for,
Milk and fat in,
mixer, Use of,
mixture, Preparation of hot-,
Object of scoring,
Oven temperature for baking,
Purpose of baking,
Utilizing left-over hot,
Whole-wheat fruit,
with nuts, Graham,
Breads, Correct oven temperature for hot,
Distinction between yeast and hot,
General proportions used in hot,
in the diet, Hot,
Mixtures used for hot,
Principal requirements for hot,
Purpose of utensils for making hot,
Recipes for hot,
Requirements and processes for making hot,
Serving hot,
Varieties of mixtures in hot,
Breakfast food, Composition of cooked oat,
foods, Meaning of,
Brown bread, Boston,
Browned rice,
Browning, or toasting, of cereals,
Composition of,
Description of,
rye, and millet,
Building a coal fire,
Buns, Fruit or nut,
Graham nut,
Nut or fruit,
rolls, and biscuits,
Buns, Sweet,
Butter, Composition of,
Composition of peanut,
Buttered hominy,
Buttermilk, Composition of,


Cabbage salad,
-salad dressing,
Café au lait, Meaning of,
noir, Meaning of,
Cake, Coffee,
Molasses corn,
Southern corn,
Cakes, Buckwheat,
Corn griddle,
Procedure in baking griddle,
Rice griddle,
Calorie, or calory, Definition of,
Canapés, Meaning of,
Canard, Meaning of,
Candy, Composition of stick,
Canned fruit, Composition of,
Canning of foods,
Capers, Meaning of,
Capon, Meaning of,
Caramel, Meaning of,
Composition of,
Elements in,
in cereals,
Carbonic-acid, or carbon-dioxide, gas,
Card, Explanation of score,
Care of bread after baking,
of bread in oven,
of cereals,
of flour,
of food,
of food in refrigerator,
of food, Methods of,
of the refrigerator,
of the rising bread dough,
Carolina rice,
Effect of cooking on,
Casserole, Definition of,
Use of,
Celery, Composition of,
Cellars, Storing food in,
Cellulose, Cooking foods containing,
Definition of,
in cereals,
in the diet, Place of,
Cereal flakes,
selection, Factors that govern,
Setting a,
Abundance of production of,
as a food,
Browning, or toasting, of,
by boiling, Cooking,
by dry heat, Cooking,
Carbohydrates in,
Care of,
Cellulose in,
Composition of,
Economic value of,
Fat in,
for the table, Preparation of,
Left-over wheat,
Methods of cooking,
Mineral matter in,
Origin of,
Points to observe in cooking,
Preparation for cooking,
Prepared, or ready-to-eat,
Production of,
Protein in,
Purpose of cooking,
Selection of,
Table showing composition of,
undergo in cooking, Changes,
Uses of,
Water in,
Champignons, Meaning of,
Chartreuse, Meaning of,
Cheese, Composition of cottage,
Composition of cream,
Chemical composition of food,
Chestnut coal,
Composition of,
Chiffonade, Meaning of,
Chillies, Meaning of,
Chives, Meaning of,
Chop, Composition of lamb,
Composition of pork,
Chopper, Meat,
Chops, Pan-broiled,
Chutney, Meaning of,
Cinnamon rolls,
Coal and coke,
Anthracite, or hard,
Bituminous, or soft,
fire, Building a,
fire, Building a,
Quality of,
Coal range,
Sizes of,
-stove dampers,
-stove firebox,
stove for cooking, General construction of,
-stove grate,
stoves and their operation,
Varieties of,
Coconut, Composition of,
Cod, Composition of fresh,
Composition of salt,
and coal,
Collops, Meaning of,
Commercial yeast,
Common labor-saving devices,
Composition and varieties of oats,
of apple,
of bacon,
of banana,
of beef steak,
of beef suet,
of buckwheat,
of butter,
of buttermilk,
of canned fruit,
of carbohydrates,
of celery,
of cereals,
of cereals, Table showing,
of chestnut,
of coconut,
of cooked macaroni,
of cooked oat breakfast food,
of corn,
of corn bread,
of cottage cheese,
of cream,
of cream cheese,
of dried beef,
of dried fig,
of dry navy bean,
of egg white and yolk,
of food, Chemical,
of food materials,
of fresh cod,
of fresh shelled bean,
of fruit jelly,
of grape juice,
of grapes,
of green corn,
of green string bean,
of honey,
of Italian pastes,
of lamb chop,
of lard,
of mackerel,
of maple sugar,
of molasses,
of oats,
of olive oil,
of onion,
of oyster,
of parsnip,
of peanut,
of peanut butter,
of pork chop,
of potato,
of raisins,
of rice,
of rye,
of rye bread,
of salt cod,
of skim milk,
of smoked ham,
of smoked herring,
of stick candy,
of strawberry,
of sugar,
of toasted bread,
of walnut,
of wheat,
of white and yolk of egg,
of whole egg,
of whole milk,
of whole wheat bread,
Compote, Meaning of,
Compressed yeast,
Constituents, Food principles, or,
Conveying heat to food, Methods of,
Cooker, Cooking cereals in fireless,
Cookery, Meaning of,
Terms used in,
time table,
Cooking cereals by boiling,
cereals in double boiler,
cereals in fireless cooker,
cereals, Methods of,
cereals, Points to observe in,
cereals, Preparation for,
cereals, Purpose of,
cereals with dry heat,
food, Reasons for,
foods, Importance of,
foods, Table for,
Getting foods ready for,
Heat for,
Methods of,
Methods of using moist heat for,
of food,
rice, Japanese method of,
rice, Methods of,
Uses of water in,
Cooking utensils, Aluminum,
utensils, Copper,
utensils, Earthenware,
utensils, Enamel,
utensils, Glass,
utensils, Iron and steel,
utensils, Tin,
utensils, Wooden,
with dry heat,
with hot fat,
Copper cooking utensils,
Coquilles, Meaning of,
Corer, Apple,
Corn bread,
bread, Composition of,
cake, Molasses,
-cake recipes,
cake, Southern,
Composition of,
Composition of green,
griddle cakes,
Maize, or Indian,
-meal croquettes,
-meal muffins,
-meal mush,
-meal mush, Left-over,
meal, Recipes for,
Cottage cheese, Composition of,
Cracked wheat,
Cream cheese, Composition of,
Composition of,
of tartar and soda,
of wheat,
of wheat with dates,
Creamed hominy,
Creaming of food ingredients,
Croquettes, Corn-meal,
Croutons, Meaning of,
Cups, Measuring,
Custard, Farina,
Cutting-in of food ingredients,


Dampers, Adjusting cook-stove,
Date muffins,
Dates, Cream of wheat with,
Graham mush with,
Demi-tasse, Meaning of,
Deviled, Meaning of,
Dextrine, Formation of,
Diet, Hot breads in the,
Meaning of,
Dietetics, Definition of,
Digestion and absorption of food,
of food,
Dill, Meaning of,
Dinner rolls,
Dish-washing machines,
Double boiler, Cooking cereals in,
boiler, Use of,
Dough, Kneading bread,
Making bread,
Motions used in kneading bread,
Doughs and batters,
Dressing, Cabbage-salad,
Dried beef, Composition of,
fig, Composition of,
Dry heat, Cooking cereals by,
heat, Cooking with,
Drying of foods,


Earthenware cooking utensils,
Economic value of cereals,
Effect of boiling on foods,
Egg beater, Rotary,
Composition of white and yolk of,
Composition of whole,
Eggs, Scrambled,


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