Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 2
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 1 out of 6

Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Keren Vergon,
Steve Schulze and PG Distributed Proofreaders








This volume, which is the second of the Woman's Institute Library of
Cookery, deals with such essentials of diet as the dairy products--milk,
butter, and cheese--the protein food, eggs, and the energy-producing
nutrients, vegetables.

In _Milk, Butter, and Cheese_, Parts 1 and 2, are explained the place
that milk occupies in the diet, its composition, grades, and the dishes
for which it is used; the purchase, care, and use of butter and butter
substitutes; and the characteristics, care, and varieties of both
domestic and imported cheeses, as well as a number of excellent recipes
for cheese dishes. A luncheon menu, in which a cheese dish is
substituted for meat, is of interest in this connection, for it shows
the housewife, early in her studies, not only how to combine dishes to
produce a balanced meal, but also how to make up a menu in which meat is
not needed.

In _Eggs_ are discussed the nutritive value of eggs, the ways in which
to select, preserve, cook, and serve them, and how to utilize left-over
eggs. So many uses have eggs in the diet and so nourishing is this food
that too much attention cannot be paid to its preparation. In this
lesson, also, is given a breakfast menu to afford practice in preparing
several simple dishes usually served in this meal.

In _Vegetables_, Parts 1 and 2, every variety of vegetable is discussed
as to food value, preparation, place in the meal, and proper methods of
serving. With such a fund of knowledge, the housewife will be well
equipped to give pleasing variety to her meals.

In addition to the instruction in these matters, there are a large
number of illustrations, which make clear the important details in every
process employed and in many recipes show certain steps as well as the
finished result. With such detailed information, it is our desire that
as many of the recipes as possible be tried, for it is only through
constant practice that the rules and principles of cookery will become
thoroughly instilled in the mind. Nothing is of more value to the
housewife than such a knowledge of food and its preparation, for, as
every one knows, proper diet is the chief requisite of good health.

To be of the greatest assistance to the woman in the home is the purpose
of these volumes--to relieve her household tasks of much of their
drudgery and to help her come to a realization of the opportunity for
good that is hers. In no better way can she create happiness and
contentment in her home than by preparing appetizing, nutritious meals
and serving them in the most attractive manner.


Milk in the Diet
Composition of Milk
Products Obtained from Milk
Characteristics of Wholesome Milk
Grades of Clean Milk
Preserved Milk
Milk in the Home
Recipes for Milk Dishes and Sauces
Economical Use of Butter
Flavor and Composition of Butter
Purchase and Care of Butter
Cooking With Butter
Serving Butter
Butter Substitutes
Characteristics and Care of Cheese
Imported Cheese
Domestic Cheese
Serving Cheese
Recipes for Cheese Dishes
Luncheon Menu

Description of Eggs and Place in the Diet
Nutritive Value of Eggs
Selection of Eggs
Preservation of Eggs
Cooking of Eggs
Serving of Eggs
Egg Recipes
Use of Left-Over Eggs
Breakfast Menu

Variety in Vegetables
Structure, Composition, and Food Value
Purchase and Care of Vegetables
Classification of Vegetables
Methods of Preparing and Cooking Vegetables
Sauces for Vegetables
Asparagus and Its Preparation
Beans and Their Preparation
Beets and Their Preparation
Brussels Sprouts and Their Preparation
Cabbage and Its Preparation
Carrots and Their Preparation
Cauliflower and Its Preparation
Celery and Its Preparation
Corn and Its Preparation
Cucumbers and Their Preparation
Eggplant and Its Preparation
French Artichokes and Their Preparation
Greens and Their Preparation
Jerusalem Artichokes and Their Preparation
Kohlrabi and Its Preparation
Lentils and Their Preparation
Mushrooms and Their Preparation
Okra and Its Preparation
Onions and Their Preparation
Parsnips and Their Preparation
Peas and Their Preparation
Peppers and Their Preparation
White Potatoes and Their Preparation
Sweet Potatoes and Their Preparation
Radishes and Their Preparation
Salsify and Its Preparation
Squash and Its Preparation
Tomatoes and Their Preparation
Turnips and Their Preparation
Vegetable Combinations
Serving Vegetables

* * * * *


* * * * *



1. As is well understood, milk is the liquid that is secreted by the
mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. The
word milk as it is commonly used, however, refers to _cow's milk,_
because such milk is employed to a greater extent as human food than the
milk from any other animal. Cow's milk in its perfectly fresh raw state
is a yellowish-white, opaque fluid, called _whole milk,_ and, as is well
known, possesses a distinctly sweet taste and characteristic odor. When
such milk is allowed to stand for some time without being disturbed, it
separates into two distinct layers, an upper and a lower one. The upper
layer, which is lighter than the lower one and occupies a smaller space,
consists largely of globules of fat and is called _cream;_ the lower
layer, which is white or bluish-white in color and is composed of water,
solids, and protein, is, when separated from the cream, called
_skim milk._

2. As an article of diet, milk is very important, because its sole
function in nature is to serve as food. It is required by the infant; it
is needed in the diet of all growing children; and it is desirable in
the preparation of dishes for both young and old.

Milk is used to such a great extent because it fills many of the
requirements of an ideal food. It is generally liked, requires little or
no time for preparation, agrees with the majority of persons when used
properly, and contains substances that supply energy and build and
repair tissue. Still, it does not contain these substances in such
proportions as to make it an ideal or exclusive article of diet for
adults, and it must often be modified to suit the needs of infants,
because it is ideal for only the young of the species for which it is
intended. Therefore, while milk is often called a perfect food, in
reality it is perfect for only the calf. When it is desired for the
feeding of a very young child, it must be changed to meet the
requirements before it can be used with good results.

3. So important is milk as an article of food that, outside of the
purely rural districts, producing the milk supply is a business of
considerable importance. This is due to the fact that the purity of milk
must be constantly safeguarded in order that clean, safe milk may be
provided for the countless numbers that depend on it. In fact, milk
undoubtedly bears a closer relation to public health than any other
food. To produce an adequate amount of clean, safe, pure milk is one of
the food problems of the city and country alike. In the city much of the
difficulty is overcome by the ordinances that provide standards of
composition and cleanliness, as well as inspection to insure them; but
such ordinances are rarely provided for in villages and country

When there is no law to prevent it, unclean milk is sometimes used in
the manufacture of butter and cheese, but when this happens, great
injustice, if not positive harm, is done to the consumers of these
articles. Then, too, unless milk is carefully inspected, tubercular milk
is liable to be used in the making of butter, and such a condition will
cause the spreading of tuberculosis as readily as the use of the
contaminated milk itself.

4. With its various products, milk helps to form a very large part of
the dietary in most homes, but while nothing can take the place of this
food and while it is high in food value, there seems to be a general
tendency to think of it as an addition to the bill of fare, rather than
as a possible substitute for more expensive food. For instance, milk is
very often served as a beverage in a meal in which the quantity of meat
or other protein foods is not reduced. From an economical standpoint, as
well as from the point of view of the needs of the body, this is really
extravagant, for milk is itself largely a protein food. The serving of a
glass of milk or of a dish that contains generous quantities of milk
offers the housewife an opportunity to cut down considerably the
allowance of meat and eggs. Because of this fact and because milk and
its products may be used to add nutritive value to a food, to give
variety, and to improve flavor, they deserve considerable study on the
part of the housewife.

5. Since milk may be used in such a variety of ways, it may be easily
included in the dietary for the family. Being liquid in form, it may
always be served without any preparation as a beverage or with other
beverages, cereals, and fruits. It also has numerous other uses, being
employed in the making of sauces for vegetables and meats, in the place
of stock for soups, and as the liquid for bread, cakes, puddings,
custards, and many frozen desserts. Because of its extensive use, every
housewife not only should know how to buy milk and care for it, but
should be familiar with its composition, so that she may determine
whether or not it suits the needs of her family. In addition, she should
know the effect of heat on milk and the various methods of preparation
if she would be able to judge what food combinations can be used
with milk.


6. As milk is usually taken into the body in liquid form, the common
tendency is to regard it as a beverage, rather than as an important
source of nourishing food material. However, a knowledge of its
composition, as well as the fact that milk becomes a solid food in the
stomach and must then be dissolved in the process of digestion, will
serve to show that milk contains solids. That it possesses all the
elements required to sustain life and promote health is proved by the
fact that a child may live for months on milk alone and during this time
increase in weight.

7. The solids contained in milk are proteins, fat, carbohydrate in the
form of sugar, and mineral salts, besides which, of course, water occurs
in large quantities. The sugar and fat of milk serve as fuel; the
mineral salts are chiefly valuable for the growth of bones and teeth and
for their effect on the liquids of the body; and the proteins, like the
fat and sugar, serve as fuel, but they also make and repair the muscular
tissues of the body.

In considering the food substances of milk, it will be well to note also
that they vary according to the breed, feeding, and individual
characteristics of the cow. Jerseys and Guernseys give milk rich in fat
and total solids, and while Holstein cows give a greater quantity of
milk, such milk has a smaller proportion of fat and total solids. As a
rule, though, the composition of milk may be considered as approximately
3.3 per cent. protein, 4 per cent. fat, 5 per cent. carbohydrate, and
.7 per cent. mineral matter, making a total of 13 per cent. This
indicates the quantity of actual food material in milk, the remainder,
or 87 per cent., being water.

8. PROTEIN IN MILK.--Because of the double usefulness of protein--to
serve as fuel and to make and repair muscular tissue--this element is
regarded as an important ingredient of milk. The protein in milk is
called _casein_. The opaque whiteness of milk is largely due to the
presence of this substance. As long as milk remains sweet, the lime
salts it contains hold this casein in solution; but when it sours, the
salts are made soluble and the casein thickens, or coagulates. In
addition to casein, milk contains a small amount of protein in the form
of _albumin_. This substance, upon being heated, coagulates and causes
the formation of the skin that is always found on the top of milk that
has been heated. The skin thus formed contains everything that is found
in milk, because, as it forms, casein is dried with it and sugar and
fat, too, are caught and held there. It is the protein of milk and its
characteristic coagulation that are made use of in the making of cheese.
In cooking, the protein of milk is probably more affected than any of
the other substances, but the degree to which the digestion of milk is
thus affected is not definitely known, this being a much
disputed question.

9. FAT IN MILK.--The other substance in milk that serves as fuel, or to
produce energy, is fat. It occurs in the form of tiny particles, each
surrounded by a thin covering and suspended in the liquid. Such a
mixture, which is called an _emulsion_, is the most easily digested form
in which fat is found. The fat in milk varies more than the other food
substances, it being sometimes as low as 2 per cent, and again as high
as 6 per cent. However, the average of these two, or 4 per cent., is the
usual amount found in most milk.

As has been mentioned, the fat globules of milk rise to the top because
fat is lighter than water, so that when milk has been undisturbed for
some time the top, which is known as _cream_, will be found to contain
most of the fat. Because of the fat it contains, the cream is yellower
in color than the milk underneath. If the cream is beaten, or churned,
these fat particles will adhere in a mass, advantage of this fact being
taken in the making of butter.

10. CARBOHYDRATE IN MILK.--The carbohydrate contained in milk is in the
form of sugar called _lactose_. It is unlike other sugars in that it is
not very sweet and does not disagree with most persons nor upset their
digestion. For this reason, it is often given to children, invalids, and
persons who have digestive disturbances. However, it is like other
carbohydrates in that in solution it ferments. The result of the
fermentation in this case is the production of _lactic acid_, which
makes the milk sour. With the fat, lactose makes up the bulk of the
energy-producing material of milk, and while this is important it is
only secondary when compared to the tissue-building power of the protein
and minerals. Besides being an important part of milk itself, lactose is
a valuable by-product in the manufacture of cheese. After being taken
from _whey_, which is the clear, straw-colored liquid that remains when
the curd, or coagulated portion, is completely removed from the milk,
the lactose is refined and sold in the form of a powder that is used for
various kinds of infant and invalid feeding.

11. MINERAL MATTER IN MILK.--Considerable quantities of mineral salts,
which are chiefly _lime_, _potash_, and _phosphates_, are found in milk.
As has already been pointed out, these are important in the building of
bone and hard tissue in the body, but in addition they help to keep the
fluids of the body in the right condition. Because of the work they do,
these mineral salts are necessary in the building of the bodies of
growing children, and are useful for repair and the regulation of the
body processes in adults. In cheese, butter, and cream, which are the
products of milk, less of the mineral salts are found in proportion to
the quantity than in whole milk, skim milk, and whey.

12. WATER IN MILK.--The percentage of water in milk is much greater than
that of all the other food substances combined, there being more than
six times as much. While this quantity seems very large, it is an
advantage, for milk provides nourishment to persons when they can take
neither solid nor more condensed food. On the other hand, the water is a
disadvantage, for it is responsible for the rapid spoiling of milk. This
fact is clearly shown in the case of condensed milk, where the water is
partly or completely evaporated, for milk of this kind keeps much longer
without spoiling than either whole or skim milk.


13. Although milk is used extensively in its natural liquid form,
considerable use is also made of the numerous products of milk, chief
among which are cream, skim milk, buttermilk, sour milk, whey, butter,
and cheese. In fact, all of these occupy such an important place in the
dietary of the majority of homes that it is well for every housewife to
understand their value. Butter and cheese are discussed in detail later,
so that at this time no attention need be given to them. The other
products, however, are taken up now, with the intention of enabling the
housewife to familiarize herself with their production, nature, and use.

14. CREAM.--As has been pointed out, the particles of fat that rise to
the top of milk when it is allowed to remain undisturbed for some time
form the product known as cream. Cream may be removed from the milk by
skimming it off, or it may be separated from the milk by means of
machinery especially designed for the purpose. The greater the
proportion of fat in milk, the thicker, or "heavier," will be the cream.

Various grades of separated cream are placed on the market, the usual
ones being those which contain 8, 12, 16, 20, and 40 per cent, of fat.
Thin cream, which includes the grades that have only a small percentage
of fat, contains a larger quantity of milk than the others and is not so
desirable for many purposes. Still, it is used to some extent, because
it is cheaper and there are definite uses to which it can be put.
Medium-heavy cream is the kind to select when it is desired for
_whipping_. This is a process that consists in beating the cream rapidly
until a mass of tiny bubbles form and become stiff, very much as the
white of egg does.

15. SKIM MILK.--After a part or all of the cream has been removed from
whole milk, that which remains is called skim milk. While practically
all of the fat is taken out when milk is skimmed, very little protein or
sugar is removed. Therefore, skim milk is still a valuable food, it
being used to a large extent for cheese making, for the manufacture of
certain commercial foods, and for the feeding of animals. The housewife
does not, as a rule, buy skim milk; indeed, in some localities the laws
prevent its sale because it is considered an adulterated food. However,
it is really a wholesome, valuable food that is cheaper than whole milk,
and its use in the home should therefore be encouraged from an
economical standpoint. Here it may be used in the preparation of many
dishes, such as sauces, cakes, biscuits, muffins, griddle cakes, bread,
etc., in which butter or other fats are used, and in custards, puddings,
ices, and numerous other desserts.

16. BUTTERMILK.--The milk that remains in butter making after the butter
fat has been removed from cream by churning is known by the name
buttermilk. Such milk is similar to skim milk in composition, and unless
butter is made of sweet cream, buttermilk is sour. Buttermilk is used
considerably as a beverage, but besides this use there are numerous ways
in which it may be employed in the preparation of foods, as is pointed
out in various recipes. An advantage of buttermilk is that its cost is
less than that of whole milk, so that the housewife will do well to make
use of it in the preparation of those foods in which it produces
satisfactory results.

17. ARTIFICIAL BUTTERMILK.--Several kinds of sour milk that are called
buttermilk are to be had, particularly at soda fountains and
restaurants. While they are similar to buttermilk they are not the same,
because they are produced artificially from whole or skimmed sweet milk.
The usual method employed in the making of these artificial buttermilks,
as they may well be called, consists in adding to sweet milk tablets
containing lactic acid or a certain culture of bacteria that induce
fermentation, very much as yeast does, and then keeping it at about body
temperature for a number of hours in order to allow the milk to thicken
and sour. Such milks exert a beneficial action in the digestive tract,
and their food value, provided they are made from whole milk, is just as
high as that of the original sweet milk. Artificial buttermilks
therefore prove a valuable source of food supply for persons who find
them palatable and who do not care for sweet milk. Their food value may
be increased by adding cream to them.

18. SOUR MILK.--Ordinary milk contains large numbers of bacteria that
produce fermentation. When it is allowed to stand for some time, these
bacteria act upon the sugar, or lactose, contained in the milk and
change it into lactic acid. This acid gives to the milk a sour taste and
at the same time causes the casein of the milk to become a mass known as
_curd_, or _clabber_. This mass continues to grow sour and tough until
all the milk sugar is converted into lactic acid, so that the longer the
milk stands, the more acid it becomes. Sour milk, however, is useful
in the preparation of various dishes, such as hot breads and
griddle cakes.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

19. WHEY.--When the curd is completely removed from milk, as in making
cheese, a clear, light, yellowish liquid known as whey remains. Whey is
composed of water, minerals, and milk sugar or lactic acid, and is the
least valuable part of the milk. The ingenious housewife will never be
at a loss to make use of this product, for, while its food value is
slight, the minerals it contains are important ones. Whey is sometimes
used to furnish the liquid for bread making and, in addition, it may be
used as a beverage for persons who cannot digest food as heavy as
milk itself.

may become familiar with the food values of milk products, there is here
given, in Fig. 1, a graphic table for the comparison of such products.
Each glass is represented as containing approximately 1 pint or 1 pound
of the milk product, and the figures underneath each indicate the number
of calories found in the quantity represented. The triangle at the side
of each indicates the proportion of ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and
water, the percentage composition being given at the side. Housewives as
a rule fully appreciate the food value that is to be found in whole milk
and cream, but such products as skim milk, buttermilk, and whey are
likely to be ignored.


21. So far as the housewife is concerned, the qualities that
characterize wholesome milk are without doubt of great interest. She may
know of what use milk is in the diet and the food substances of which it
is composed, but unless she understands just what constitutes milk of
good quality, as well as the nature of inferior milk, she cannot very
well provide her family with the kind it should have. Therefore, to
assist her in this matter, the characteristics of wholesome milk are
here discussed. Such milk, it will be well to note, must be of the right
composition, must not be adulterated, must be fresh--that is, not older
when delivered than is permitted by law--and must be as clean
as possible.

22. STANDARD OF MILK COMPOSITION.--The housewife usually judges the
quality of milk by the amount of cream that rises to the top when milk
in a bottle is allowed to remain undisturbed for some time. This is
really an excellent test, because milk that contains only a small amount
of cream is of poorer quality than that which contains a larger amount;
in other words, the more cream milk contains, the higher will be its
food value and the greater its energy-producing ability. Then, too, milk
that is rich in cream usually contains proportionately large amounts of
protein and sugar.

While the composition of milk has much to do with the quality of this
food, it varies, as should be noted, in different breeds and even in
individual cows, depending on both the food and the care given to them.
For this reason, milk that is mixed is preferable to the milk of a
single cow, as the mixing of the milk of a number of cows insures a
better average composition.

23. ADULTERATION OF MILK.--The composition of milk, and hence its
quality, is seriously affected by its adulteration. By this is meant the
extraction of any of the food substances from whole milk; the addition
of anything that tends to weaken or lower its quality or strength; the
use of coloring matter to make it appear of greater value than it
actually is; or the use of preservatives to prevent it from souring as
soon as it ordinarily would. It is, of course, illegal to adulterate
milk, yet it is sometimes done. The most convenient and possibly the
most common materials used to adulterate milk are water and skim milk.
The addition of water to milk decreases the quantity of all its food
substances, but the addition of skim milk reduces the quantity of fat
only. The color of the milk is often affected by the use of these
adulterants, but when this happens, yellow coloring is usually added to
restore the original appearance.

Sometimes the milk that a dairyman markets contains more fat than the
law requires; but even such milk cannot legally be skimmed nor diluted
with skim milk. The only thing that may be done to it is to mix it with
milk that is low in butter fat and thus obtain a milk that will average
the legal percentage. For instance, if milk from a dairy averages 5 per
cent, of butter fat, it may be diluted with milk that contains only 3
per cent, of butter fat, because the result of such mixing, which will
be milk averaging 4 per cent, of this food substance, will be the
legal standard.

24. To prevent milk from souring, dishonest milk dealers often put into
it such preservatives as soda, borax, and formaldehyde. There is no
definite way of telling whether or not one of these has been used,
except by a chemical analysis. However, if milk does not sour within a
reasonable time when no precautions have been taken to keep it sweet, it
should be looked on with suspicion, for it undoubtedly contains a

25. FRESHNESS OF MILK.--To be most satisfactory for all purposes, milk
should be absolutely fresh. However, it is almost impossible to obtain
milk in this condition, because it is generally sold at a distance from
the source of supply. Milk that is sold in small towns and cities is
usually 12 and often 18 to 21 hours old when it is delivered; whereas,
in large cities, where the demand is so great that milk must be shipped
from great distances, it is often 24 to 36 or even 48 hours old when it
reaches the consumer. In order that milk may remain sweet long enough to
permit it to be delivered at places so far removed from the source of
supply, it must be handled and cared for in the cleanest possible way by
the dealers. Likewise, if the housewife desires to get the best results
from it, she must follow the same plan, cooling it immediately on
delivery and keeping it cool until it is consumed. The freshness of milk
can be determined only by the length of time it will remain sweet when
proper care is given to it.

26. CLEANLINESS OF MILK.--Milk may be of the right composition, free
from all adulteration, and as fresh as it is possible to obtain it, but
unless it is clean, it is an injurious food. Milk is rendered unclean or
impure by dirt. In reality, there are two kinds of dirt that may be
present in milk, and it is important to know just what these are and
what effect they have on milk.

27. The less harmful of the two kinds of dirt is the visible dirt that
gets into the milk from the cow, the stable, the milker, the milking
utensils, and similar sources when these are not scrupulously clean. If
milk containing such dirt is allowed to stand long enough in pans or
bottles for the heavier particles to settle, it will be found as
sediment in the bottom of the receptacle. To say the least, the presence
of such dirt is always disagreeable and frequently produces
foreign flavors.

Straining the milk through clean absorbent cotton will reveal the
presence of such dirt and another kind of dirt that does not show
through the opaque fluid. This second kind of dirt is generally found in
milk when the first kind is present in any quantity. It is more liable
to be harmful than the other, because it enters the milk from the water
used in cleaning the receptacles or from some contaminated source.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

28. Whenever dirt is present in milk, bacteria are sure to be there; and
the greater the quantity of dirt the greater will be the number of
bacteria. Should the housewife desire to compare the cleanliness of
several lots of milk, she may filter a like quantity from each lot, say
a quart or a pint, through small disks of absorbent cotton. If, after
the milk has passed through the cotton disk, very little dirt remains on
it, as in Fig. 2 (_a_), the milk may be considered as comparatively
clean; if the cotton disk appears as in (_b_), the milk may be said to
be only slightly dirty; if it appears as in (_c_), the milk is dirty;
and if it appears as in (_d_), the milk is very dirty. Milk that leaves
a stain like that in (_d_) contains more bacteria than milk that leaves
a stain like that in (_c_), and so on through all the lots of milk.
Filtering milk in this manner, however, does not indicate whether the
bacteria are disease producing. Such information can be secured only by
microscopic examination, and only then by persons who have a knowledge
of such matters.

29. Since, as has been pointed out, bacteria cling to all dirt, the
dirt that milk contains is one of the causes of souring and putrefaction
of milk, and may be a cause of disease. Indeed, it is definitely known
that dirty milk sours much more quickly than does clean milk. Actual
tests in which clean milk was put in a cool place have proved that it
will keep for weeks, whereas dirty milk will sour in a day or two,
especially in warm weather. This information should point out clearly to
the housewife that it is not merely heat that changes milk or causes it
to sour. She should understand in addition, that bacteria grow and
multiply very rapidly when conditions for their growth are provided.
These conditions are moisture, warmth, and the right kind of food, and
as all of these are found in milk, this product is really ideal for
bacterial development. The only way in which to protect milk is to make
sure that no bacteria enter it, or, if they do, to make it impossible
for them to grow. This may be done by keeping the milk so cold that they
cannot thrive, or by destroying them in various ways, which are taken
up later.

30. In former times, there was not much danger of wide-spread disease
from the milk supply, for it was cared for almost entirely by those who
kept a few cows and distributed milk to a small number of customers. In
fact, it has been only within the past 50 years that large quantities of
milk are handled by separate dairies and shipped great distances from
the source of supply and that the distribution of milk has become a
great industry. When so much milk is handled in one place, it is more or
less unsafe unless the dairy is kept extremely clean and is conducted in
the most sanitary manner. Experience has shown that too much attention
cannot be given to the care of milk, for the lives of great numbers of
children have been sacrificed through the carelessness of dairymen and
persons selling and distributing milk, as well as through the negligence
of those who handle the milk after it has entered the home. To overcome
much of this carelessness, both the Federal Government and the various
states of this country have set standards for safe milk production, and
in order to make their laws effective have established inspection
service. Independently of these state and national laws, many of the
cities, particularly the large ones, have made their own standards,
which, as a rule, are very rigid. One of the usual requirements is to
compel each person who wishes to sell milk in the city to buy a license,
so that the city authorities may keep in touch with those handling milk
and so that conditions may be investigated at any time. In view of the
care required of dealers in handling milk, the housewife owes it to
herself and the members of her family to keep the milk in the home in
the best possible manner.


31. Ever since milk has come to be a commercial product, authorities
have been devising ways in which it may be brought to the consumer in a
condition that will permit it to be used without causing ill results.
Their efforts have been rewarded to such an extent that nowadays
consumers have little to fear from the milk they purchase, provided they
get it from dealers who live up to the laws. Chief among the different
grades of clean milk is _certified milk,_ and next in order comes
_pasteurized milk,_ followed by _sterilized milk_.

32. CERTIFIED MILK.--The grade of clean milk sold under the name of
certified milk is simply natural, raw milk that is produced and marketed
under conditions that permit it to be guaranteed as pure, wholesome, and
of definite composition. Such milk is necessarily higher in price than
milk that is less wholesome and sanitary, because of the extra cost to
the dairyman in meeting the requirements that make it possible for him
to produce clean milk under sanitary conditions. These requirements
pertain to the health and cleanliness of those who handle the milk, to
the health, housing condition, and care of the herd and the dairy cows,
and to the handling and care of milk in the dairy and during
transportation and delivery. They are usually established and enforced
by an inspection commission appointed by the city, county, or state in
which the milk is produced.

33. If a little careful thought is given to the milk situation, it will
be admitted that such precautions are necessary if clean milk is to be
the result. Such milk cannot be produced if the surroundings are dirty,
because dust and flies, which are two sources of contamination, are
practically always present in such places. A stable with poor
ventilation, without screens to keep out flies, and with floors that
will not permit of cleaning, but cause filth and refuse to accumulate,
is sure to contaminate milk that is handled in it. In addition, cows
that are not well fed, comfortably housed, or carefully groomed cannot
be expected to give milk of as good quality as cows that are properly
cared for. Likewise, if the persons who do the milking are not clean,
the milk is subject to contamination from this source.

34. All such unfavorable conditions can be remedied, and must be in the
production of certified milk; but the good accomplished in this
direction will be lost if the milk is carelessly handled after milking.
Therefore, in producing certified milk, only the cleanest water
available is allowed to be used in the dairy. Impure water is a common
source of the contamination of milk in such places. On some farms, the
water supply comes from a well that is too near the barn or that is too
shallow to avoid being made impure by the germs that filter into it from
the barnyard or a cesspool. If vessels in which milk is placed are
washed in such water, it is necessary to sterilize them by boiling or
steaming before milk is put into them, in order to kill the germs that
come from the water. If such a precaution as this is not observed, the
germs will multiply rapidly in the milk and, provided they are
disease-producing, will make the milk extremely dangerous.

Besides observing the precautions mentioned, it is necessary that all
utensils used in a dairy, such as pails for milking, strainers,
containers, etc., be kept scrupulously clean. Likewise, they must be
sterilized by boiling each time they are used, for, while disease germs
may be absent, those which cause the milk to sour are always present and
must be destroyed. Finally, to prevent any germs that enter milk from
multiplying, even when it is properly cared for, the milk has to be
cooled to a temperature of 45 degrees Fahrenheit or lower immediately
after milking and then bottled in sterilized bottles, sealed, and packed
in ice, within 20 minutes after milking.

35. It is by giving attention to all such matters that certified milk is
possible. Such milk, as will be understood from what has been said, is
neither a cooked milk nor a dirty milk that is processed, but a natural,
raw milk that is clean at all stages of its production and marketing.
Because of this fact, it is the best and cleanest milk to be had and may
be used without hesitation, not only by grown persons in good health,
but for infants and invalids.

The sanitary condition of certified milk and the consequent length of
time it will remain sweet was demonstrated conclusively as far back as
1900 at the Paris Exposition. At this time, two model dairies in the
United States--one located at the University of Illinois and the other
at Briarcliff Manor, Westchester County, New York--delivered to their
booths at the Exposition milk that was bottled under the most sanitary
conditions at their dairies. During its transit across the ocean the
milk was kept at a temperature of 40 to 42 degrees Fahrenheit, and on
its arrival, 2 weeks after leaving the dairies, it was found to be in a
perfectly sweet condition. Similar experiments made at later dates, such
as shipping certified milk from the East to California, serve to bear
out the test made in 1900, and prove what can be done with milk so
produced as to be as free as possible from bacteria or the conditions
that permit their growth.

36. PASTEURIZED MILK.--While certified milk is undoubtedly the safest
kind of milk to use and is constantly growing in favor, much of the milk
received in the home is pasteurized. By pasteurized milk is meant milk
that has been heated to a temperature of 140 to 155 degrees Fahrenheit,
kept at this temperature for 15 to 20 minutes, and then cooled rapidly.
The result of such a treatment is that any disease-producing germs that
are present in the milk, as well as those which are likely to cause
intestinal disturbances, are destroyed, and that the milk is rendered
safe as food for a time. Pasteurizing does not materially change the
taste of milk, nor does it seriously affect the digestive properties of
this food. It is true, of course, that pasteurized milk is not so good
as clean raw milk. Still it is better to use such milk than to run the
risk of using milk that might be contaminated with the germs of
tuberculosis, typhoid fever, scarlet fever, diphtheria, or any other of
the numerous diseases that have been known to be carried to whole
families and communities through the milk supply.

37. Although pasteurizing is done on a large scale in dairies, there is
no reason why the housewife cannot pasteurize the milk she buys,
provided it is raw milk and she feels that it is not safe to use. If
pasteurizing is to be done frequently and large quantities of milk are
to be treated, it would be advisable to purchase the convenient
apparatus that is to be had. However, if only a small quantity of milk
is to be pasteurized at a time, a simple improvised outfit will prove
satisfactory, because milk pasteurized in the home may be heated in the
bottles in which it is received. Such an outfit consists of a dairy
thermometer, a deep vessel, and a perforated pie tin or a wire rack of
suitable size.

38. To pasteurize milk in the home, proceed in the manner illustrated
in Fig. 3. Place the rack or invert the perforated pie tin in the bottom
of the vessel, and on it place the bottles of milk from which the caps
have not been removed. Make a hole through the cap of one bottle, and
insert the thermometer into the milk through this hole. Then fill the
vessel with cold water to within an inch or so of the top of the
bottles, taking care not to put in so much water as to make the bottles
float. Place the vessel over the fire, heat it until the thermometer in
the bottle registers a few degrees over 150 degrees Fahrenheit, and keep
the milk at this temperature for 15 to 20 minutes. At the end of this
time, the milk will be sufficiently pasteurized and may be removed from
the fire. As soon as it is taken from the water, cool it as rapidly as
possible by running cold water into the vessel slowly or by placing the
bottles in several changes of water, taking care not to place the hot
bottles in very cold water at first, as this may cause them to crack.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

When the milk has been cooled by some rapid method, keep it cool until
it is used. This precaution is necessary because of the nature of
pasteurized milk. The temperature at which milk is pasteurized is
sufficient to kill all fully developed bacteria, but those which exist
in an undeveloped state, or in the form of spores, develop very rapidly
after pasteurization unless the milk is kept cold and clean. If these
bacteria were allowed to develop, the purpose of pasteurization would be
lost, and the milk would become as dangerous as it was originally. The
advantage of cooling milk rapidly will be fully appreciated upon
referring to Fig. 4, which illustrates the development of a single germ
in milk that is cooled rapidly and in milk that is cooled slowly.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

39. STERILIZED MILK.--By sterilized milk is meant milk in which all
germs are destroyed by sterilization. Such milk is not sold by dealers,
but the process of sterilization is resorted to in the home when
pasteurization is not sufficient to render milk safe. This process,
which is the only positive means of destroying all germs, consists in
bringing the milk to the boiling point, or 212 degrees Fahrenheit,
allowing it to boil for three quarters of an hour, and then cooling it
rapidly. One who undertakes to treat milk in this way should remember
that it is difficult to boil milk, because the solids in the milk adhere
to the bottom and sides of the vessel and soon burn. However, this
difficulty can be overcome by sterilizing the milk in the bottles in
which it is bought.

40. To sterilize milk, place the sealed bottles on a wire rack or a
perforated pie tin in a deep vessel, as for the pasteurizing of milk,
and pour cold water into the vessel until it nearly covers the bottles.
Then raise the temperature of the water quickly to the boiling point,
and after it has begun to bubble, allow it to boil for three quarters of
an hour. At the end of this time, cool the milk rapidly and then keep it
cool until it is used.

41. Although milk thus treated becomes safe, sterilization changes its
flavor and digestibility. If milk of this kind must be used, some raw
food should be given with it. A diet composed entirely of cooked food is
not so ideal as one in which some raw food is included, because raw
foods contain substances that are essential to health. The change that
takes place in the composition of milk that has been sterilized can be
easily observed. Such milk on becoming sour does not coagulate as does
pasteurized or raw milk, owing to the fact that the lime salts in the
milk are so changed by the high temperature as to prevent the thickening
process from taking place. Then, too, sterilized milk is not likely to
become sour even after considerable time. Still, such milk is not safe
to use except when it is fresh, for instead of fermenting in the usual
way it putrefies and is liable to cause such a dangerous sickness as
ptomaine poisoning.

42. MODIFIED MILK.--For infants who cannot be fed their normal diet,
cow's milk must be used as a substitute, but in order to make it a more
nearly ideal food for them it must usually be modified, or changed, by
adding other materials. When it is so treated, it is known as modified
milk. The materials used to modify milk are sterile water, lime water,
barley water, cream, skim milk, milk sugar, or some other easily
digested carbohydrate, one of these or a combination of them always
being employed. The proportion of these ingredients to use varies with
the age of the child that is to be fed and must be constantly changed to
meet the child's requirements. In the production of modified milk, a
physician's prescription and directions should always be followed
closely. Only the best quality of milk should be used, and, in addition,
the greatest care should be taken to have all the bottles, utensils, and
materials used as clean and sterile as it is possible to make them. If
such conditions cannot be met, it is advisable to pasteurize the
modified-milk mixture after the materials have been put together.


43. Besides milk that is commonly sold by dairymen and milk dealers, it
is possible to buy in the market many grades of so-called PRESERVED
MILK. Such milk is produced by driving off all or part of the water
contained in milk, and it is sold as _condensed, evaporated,_ and
_powdered milk_. Usually, it is put up in tin cans, and while it is not
used so extensively as regular milk, many firms are engaged in its

44. CONDENSED AND EVAPORATED MILK.--As has just been mentioned,
condensed and evaporated milk is produced by the complete or partial
evaporation of the water contained in milk. Such milk can be shipped
long distances or kept for long periods of time, because it does not
contain sufficient moisture to permit the growth of bacteria. In
evaporating milk to produce these preserved milks, each gallon is
diminished in quantity to about two and one quarter pints, the original
87 per cent. of water being reduced to about 25 per cent. Therefore, in
order to use such milk, sufficient water must be added to restore it to
its original composition. Sometimes comparatively large amounts of cane
sugar are added to such milks, which, besides sweetening them, assist in
their preservation. If cane sugar is not used, the milks are usually
made sterile in order to prevent them from spoiling.

45. POWDERED MILK.--The form of preserved milk known as powdered milk
is the result of completely evaporating the water in milk. Such milk has
the appearance of a dry powdered substance. It does not spoil easily and
is so greatly reduced in quantity that it can be conveniently stored.
Because of these characteristics, this product, for which skim milk is
generally used, is extensively manufactured. It is used chiefly by
bakers and confectioners, and, as in the case of evaporated or condensed
milk, the water that has been evaporated in the powdering process must
be supplied when the milk is used.


46. In order that a definite idea may be formed of the sanitary and
bacteriological standards that are set by milk commissions, there are
here given, in Table I, the regulations governing the grades and
designation of milk and cream that may be sold in the city of New York.
As will be observed from a study of this table, only definite grades of
milk and cream can be sold in that city; likewise, it must conform to
certain standards of purity and the producer must handle it in such a
way that it may be delivered to the consumer in as clean and fresh a
condition as possible.

Without doubt, a grading similar to this one will become general
throughout the United States eventually, for this is the only way by
which the housewife may know with certainty whether or not the milk she
purchases is of the right composition and is safe, fresh, and sanitary
in every respect. The different qualities of milk and cream as shown by
this grading are, of course, sold at different prices, those which
require the greatest care and expense in handling selling for the
highest price.



47. After the housewife has become familiar with the points that she
should know concerning milk, she will be much better equipped to
purchase milk of the right kind for her home. However, there are still
some points for her to observe when she is purchasing milk if she would
supply her family with the best quality of this food.

48. In the first place, she should buy milk from a reliable dealer who
will not object to questioning, and, if possible, she should make an
investigation of the dairy that supplies the milk that she uses. If she
cannot investigate the dairy personally, she should at least endeavor to
obtain information from those who are prepared to give it. If she learns
that the conditions in the dairy that is supplying her with milk are not
what they should be, she should try to obtain milk from some other
source. Of course, she should remember that milk of the best and
cleanest quality is the highest in price, because of the increased cost
of production; but it is usually advisable to pay the higher price,
especially if children are to be fed, because cheap milk is liable to be
unsafe, at least for any purpose that will require it to be served
without cooking. Should the income not allow the best quality of milk to
be used for all purposes, a cheaper grade can be used for cooking, but
it is always economical to purchase the best quality when this food is
to be used as a beverage.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

49. In the next place, the housewife should purchase milk from a dealer
who delivers cold milk, because, as has been mentioned, bacteria
multiply rapidly in warm milk. She should also try to obtain milk put up
in bottles, for such milk has advantages over milk dipped from a can in
that it does not have the same chance to become dirty and it affords a
greater opportunity to secure accurate measurement. The kind of caps
used on milk bottles should also be observed. Caps that have to be pried
out with a knife or a similar utensil are not nearly so satisfactory as
those shown in Fig. 5 (_a_), which have small tabs _a_ that permit the
cap to be lifted out. In addition to the caps, which serve to keep dirt
out of the milk and permit it to be delivered without being spilled,
some dealers use covers like that shown in (_b_). Such covers are held
in place by a wire and serve further to protect the milk from

If milk purchased in bottles is clean, there should be no sediment in
the bottom of the bottle after it has been allowed to stand for some
time. Also, if it is fresh, it will not sour quickly after it is
delivered, so that in case it is properly cared for and sours quickly,
it may be known to be stale milk. However, if it does not sour in the
normal length of time, it should be looked on with suspicion, for, as
has been pointed out, such milk may have added to it a preservative to
prevent souring. The housewife may expect milk that is delivered cold
and is guaranteed to be sanitary and fresh to remain sweet at least 24
hours, provided, of course, it is placed in the refrigerator immediately
upon delivery and kept there until used.

* * * * *


The following classifications apply to milk and cream. The regulations
regarding bacterial content and time of delivery shall not apply to
sour cream.

Grades of Milk or Cream Sold in the City of New York:

GRADE A Milk or cream (Raw)

Definition: Grade A milk or cream (raw) is milk or cream produced and
handled in accordance with the minimum requirements, rules and
regulations as herein set forth.

Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: 1. Only such cows shall be
admitted to the herd as have not reacted to a diagnostic injection of
tuberculin and are in good physical condition. 2. All cows shall be
tested with tuberculin and all reacting animals shall be excluded
from the herd.

Bacterial Contents: Grade A milk shall not contain more than 60,000
bacteria per cubic centimeter, and cream more than 300,000 bacteria per
cubic centimeter when delivered to the consumer or at any time prior to
such delivery.

Necessary Scores: Equip. 25, Meth. 50, Total 75

Time of Delivery: Shall be delivered within 36 hours after production.

Bottling: Unless otherwise specified in the permit, this milk or cream
shall be delivered to consumers only in bottles.

Labeling: Outer caps of bottles shall be white and shall contain the
words Grade A, Raw, in black letters in large type, and shall state the
name and address of the dealer.

Pasteurization: None.

Milk or cream (Pasteurized)

Definition: Grade A milk or cream (pasteurized) is milk or cream handled
and sold by dealers holding permits therefor from the Board of Health,
and produced and handled in accordance with the requirements, rules, and
regulations as herein set forth.

Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: No tuberculin test required, but
cows must be healthy as disclosed by physical examination made annually.

Bacterial Contents: Grade A milk (pasteurized) shall not contain more
than 30,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter and cream (pasteurized) more
then 150,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter when delivered to the
consumer or at any time after pasteurization and prior to such delivery.
No milk supply averaging more than 200,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter
shall be pasteurized for sale under this designation.

Necessary Scores: Equip. 25, Meth. 43, Total 68.

Time of Delivery: Shall be delivered within 36 hours after

Bottling: Unless otherwise specified in the permit, this milk or cream
shall be delivered to the consumer only in bottles.

Labeling: Outer cap of bottles shall be white and contain the word Grade
A in black letters in large type, date and hours between which
pasteurization was completed; place where pasteurization was performed;
name of the person, firm, or corporation offering for sale, selling, or
delivering same.

Pasteurization: Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized
as has been subjected to a temperature averaging 145 degrees Fahrenheit
for not less than 30 minutes.

Grade B Milk or cream (Pasteurized)

Definition: Grade B milk or cream (pasteurized) is milk or cream
produced and handled in accordance with the minimal requirements, rules,
and regulations herein set forth and which has been pasteurized in
accordance with the requirements and rules and regulations of the
Department of Health for pasteurization.

Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: No tuberculin test required, but
cows must be healthy as disclosed by physical examination made annually.

Bacterial Contents: No milk under this grade shall contain more than
100,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter and no claim shall contain more
than 500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter when delivered to the
consumer or at anytime after pasteurization and prior to such delivery.
No milk supply averaging more than 1,500,000 bacteria per cubic
centimeter shall be pasteurized in this city for sale under this
designation. No milk supply averaging more than 300,000 bacteria per
cubic centimeter shall be pasteurized outside of the city for sale under
this designation.

Necessary Scores: Equip. 20, Meth. 35, Total 55

Time of Delivery: Milk shall be delivered within 36 hours and cream
within 48 hours after pasteurization.

Bottling: May be delivered in cans or bottles.

Labeling: Outer caps of bottles containing milk and tags affixed to cans
containing milk or cream shall be white and marked Grade B in bright
green letters in large type, date pasteurization was completed, place
where pasteurization was performed, name of the person, firm, or
corporation offering for sale, selling, or delivering same. Bottles
containing cream shall be labeled with caps marked Grade B in bright
green letters, in large type and shall give the place and date of
bottling and shall give the name of person, firm, or corporation
offering for sale, selling, or delivering same.

Pasteurization: Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized
as has been subjected to a temperature averaging 145 degrees Fahrenheit
for not less than 30 minutes.

Grade C Milk or cream (Pasteurized) (For cooking and manufacturing
purposes only.)

Definition: Grade C milk or cream is milk or cream not conforming to the
requirements of any of the subdivisions of Grade A or Grade B and which
has been pasteurized according to the requirements and rules and
regulations of the Board of Health or boiled for at least two
(2) minutes.

Tuberculin Test And Physical Condition: No tuberculin test required, but
cows must be healthy as disclosed by physical examination made annually.

Bacterial Contents: No milk of this grade shall contain more than
300,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter and no cream of this grade show
contain more than 1,500,000 bacteria per cubic centimeter after

Necessary Scores: Score 40

Time of Delivery: Shall be delivered within 48 hours after

Bottling: May be delivered in the cans only.

Labeling: Tags affixed to cans shall be white and shall be marked in red
with the words, Grade C in large type and "for cooking" in plainly
visible type, and cans and shall have properly sealed metal collars,
painted red on necks.

Pasteurization: Only such milk or cream shall be regarded as pasteurized
as has been subjected to a temperature averaging 145 degrees Fahrenheit
for not less than 30 minutes.

NOTE.--Sour milk, buttermilk, sour cream, kumyss, matzoon, zoolac, and
similar products shall not be made from any milk of a less grade than
that designated for Grade B and shall be pasteurized before being put
through the process of souring. Sour cream shall not contained a less
percentage of fats than that designated for cream.

No other words than those designated herein shall appear on the label of
any container containing milk or cream or milk or cream products except
the word certified when authorized under the State law.

* * * * *


50. NECESSITY FOR CARE IN THE HOME.--If milk of good quality is bought,
and, as has been suggested, this should be done whenever it is possible,
the next thing to do is to care for it in such a way that it may be fed
to the family in the same condition as it was when delivered. It is, of
course, of prime importance that the dairyman deliver clean fresh milk,
but this is not sufficient; the milk must remain in this condition until
it is used, and this can occur only when the housewife knows how to care
for it properly after it enters the home. It is possible to make safe
milk unsafe and unsafe milk positively dangerous unless the housewife
understands how to care for milk and puts into practice what she knows
concerning this matter. Indeed, some of the blame laid to the careless
handling of milk by dairymen really belongs to housewives, for very
often they do not take care of milk in the right way after delivery. As
too much attention cannot be given to this matter, explicit directions
are here outlined, with the idea of assisting the housewife in this
matter as much as possible.

51. KEEPING MILK CLEAN IN THE HOME.--Immediately upon delivery, the
bottle containing the milk should be placed in the coolest place
available, never being allowed to stand on the porch in the sun or where
such animals as cats or dogs may come in contact with it. When the milk
is to be used, the paper cap should be carefully wiped before it is
removed from the bottle, so that any dirt that may be on top will not
fall into the milk. If not all the milk is used and the bottle must be
returned to the cool place where it is kept, it should be covered by
means of an inverted drinking glass or, as shown in Fig. 6, by a glass
or porcelain cover. Such covers, or _sanitary milk_ _caps_, as they are
called, are very convenient for this purpose and may be purchased at a
slight cost.

52. Another precaution that should be taken is never to mix stale milk
with fresh milk, because the entire quantity will become sour in the
same length of time as the stale milk would. Also, milk that has been
poured into a pitcher or any other open vessel and allowed to stand
exposed to the air for some time should never be put back into the
bottle with the remaining milk. Such milk is sure to be contaminated
with the germs that are always present in the dust constantly
circulating in the air. It is sometimes necessary to keep milk in a
vessel other than the bottle in which it is delivered. In such an event,
the vessel that is used should be washed thoroughly, boiled in clean
water, and cooled before the milk is poured into it.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

53. Particular care should be taken of the empty milk bottles. They
should never be used for anything except milk. Before they are returned
to the dairyman to be used again, they should first be rinsed with cold
water, then washed thoroughly with hot, soapy water, and finally rinsed
with hot water. If there is illness in the home, the washed bottles
should be put into a pan of cool water, allowed to come to a boil, and
permitted to boil for a few minutes. Such attention will free the
bottles from any contamination they might have received. The dairyman,
of course, gives the bottles further attention before he uses them
again, but the housewife should do her part by making sure that they are
thoroughly cleansed before they are collected by him.

54. KEEPING MILK COOL IN THE HOME.--As has been pointed out, milk
should, upon being received, be kept in the coolest place available,
which, in the majority of homes at the present time, is the
refrigerator. In making use of the refrigerator for this purpose, the
housewife should put into practice what she learned in _Essentials of
Cookery_, Part 2, concerning the proper placing of food in the
refrigerator, remembering that milk should be placed where it will
remain the coolest and where it is least likely to absorb odors. She
should also bear in mind that the temperature inside of a refrigerator
varies with that of the surrounding air. It is because of this fact that
milk often sours when the temperature is high, as in summer, for
instance, even though it is kept in the refrigerator.

55. In case a refrigerator is not available, it will be necessary to
resort to other means of keeping milk cool. A cool cellar or basement is
an excellent substitute, but if milk is kept in either of these places,
it must be tightly covered. Then, too, the spring house with its stream
of running water is fully as good as a refrigerator And is used
extensively in farming districts. But even though a housewife has none
of these at her disposal, she need not be deprived of fresh milk, for
there are still other ways of keeping milk cool and consequently fresh.
A very simple way in which to keep milk cool is to weight down the
bottles in a vessel that is deeper than they are and then pour cold
water into the vessel until it reaches the top of the bottles, replacing
the water occasionally as it becomes warm. A still better way, however,
so far as convenience and results are concerned, is that illustrated in
Fig. 7. As shown, wrap the bottle in a clean towel or piece of cotton
cloth so that one corner of it is left loose at the top. Then place this
end in a pan of cold water that stands higher than the bottle. Such an
arrangement will keep the cloth wet constantly and by the evaporation of
the water from it will cause the milk to remain cool.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]


56. POINTS TO BE OBSERVED IN COOKING MILK.--Because of the nature of
milk and its constituents, the cooking of this liquid is a little more
difficult than would appear at first thought. In fact, heating milk to a
temperature greater than 155 degrees Fahrenheit causes several changes
to occur in it, one of which, the coagulation of the albumin, has
already been mentioned. As the albumin hardens into the layer that
forms on the top of boiled milk, a certain amount of fat, sugar, and
casein becomes entangled in it, and if the coagulated skin is rejected,
these food substances, in addition to the albumin, are lost. Another
change that results from boiling is in the fat globules that remain, for
these separate and exist no longer in the form of cream.

57. When milk that is not perfectly fresh is cooked with other materials
or soups, sauces, and puddings it sometimes curdles. To prevent
curdling, the milk should be heated as rapidly as possible before it is
used with the other ingredients. While the separate heating of the milk
involves a little more work, time may be gained by heating the milk
while the remaining ingredients are being prepared. The curdling of
comparatively fresh milk is often caused by the addition of salt,
especially if the salt is added when the milk is hot. However, if a
pinch of bicarbonate of soda is added to the milk before it is heated,
it will not be likely to curdle even though it is not absolutely fresh.
When tomato is to be used in soup that contains milk or cream, curdling
can be prevented if the milk or the cream to be used is thickened with
flour or corn starch or a little soda is added to the tomato before the
two are mixed. The mixing is accomplished by pouring the _tomato into
the milk_ instead of the milk into the tomato. When acid fruit juices
are to be added to milk or cream and the mixture then frozen, curdling
can be prevented by thoroughly chilling the milk or cream in the freezer
can before combining it with the juices.

58. As has already been learned, great care must be taken in the heating
of milk, because the solids that it contains adhere quickly to the
bottom of the pan and cause the milk to scorch. For this reason, milk
should never be heated directly over the flame unless the intention is
to boil it, and even if it must be boiled every precaution should be
taken to prevent it from burning. It should be remembered, too, that a
very small scorched area will be sufficient to make a quantity of milk
taste burned. The utensil in which milk can be heated in the most
satisfactory way is the double boiler, for the milk does not come in
direct contact with the heat in this utensil. If a double boiler is not
available, good results can be obtained by setting one pan into another
that contains water.

59. Milk is often used in place of water for cooking cereals, beverages,
puddings, soups, etc. This is good practice and should be followed
whenever possible, for when milk is added it serves to increase the
nutritive value of the food. It should be observed, however, that more
time is required to cook grains or cereals in milk than to cook them in
water, because milk contains more solid matter than water and is not
absorbed so quickly. Another frequent use of milk is in breads and
biscuits, where, as is explained in _Bread_ and _Hot Breads_, it
produces a browner and more tender crust than water.

60. VARIETY OF WAYS TO USE MILK IN COOKING.--Because of the numerous
purposes for which milk is required in the preparation of foods, the
smallest amount of it, whether sweet or sour, can be utilized in
cooking; therefore, no milk need ever be wasted. A few of the uses to
which this food is oftenest put are mentioned briefly in order that the
housewife may be familiar enough with them to call them to mind whenever
she desires to carry out a recipe that calls for milk or when she has
occasion to utilize milk that she has on hand.

Milk thickened slightly with flour and flavored with such material as
corn, asparagus, celery, tomatoes, beans, peas, or fish makes a
delicious soup. In bisques, or thickened soups, and in chowders, the
liquid used need not be milk, but these are made very appetizing if milk
is used for part or all of the liquid. Then, too, sauces or gravies made
with milk, thickened with flour, and made rich with butter or other fat
lend themselves to a variety of uses. Dice of vegetables, meat, fish, or
game added to a sauce of this kind and served in pastry cases or over
toast provide dishes that are delightful additions to any meal. Milk is
also used as the basis for custards, blanc manges, ices, sherbets, ice
creams, and tapioca, rice, and bread puddings in which eggs, starchy
materials, and flavorings are added and the mixture then baked, steamed,
boiled, or frozen, as the desired result may require. As is well known,
milk is practically indispensable in the making of cakes, cookies, quick
breads, and in fact nearly all dough mixtures. Even if it has soured, it
can be used with soda to take the place of cream of tartar in mixtures
that are to be made light, the lactic acid in the sour milk acting with
the soda as leavening. Left-over milk in comparatively large quantities
may also be used in the home for the making of cheese, although this
product of milk is usually produced commercially.



61. From the discussion given up to this point, it will be noted that
milk is used in a large variety of ways and in the making of numerous
dishes. However, most of the dishes in which this liquid occurs involve
other important materials, so that the recipes for them are usually
listed under some other ingredient or division of cookery. For instance,
milk is used in the making of ice cream, but as the ice creams are
included among cold desserts, recipes for them would naturally come in
the Section pertaining to this subject. Milk is also an important
ingredient in puddings, but the recipes for such dishes are given in the
Section in which puddings and their sauces are discussed.

Because of this fact, there are only a few recipes that have milk as
their basis, and this accounts for the small number of recipes here
given. Chief among the recipes that involve principally milk are those
for junket and white sauce, and while the number of these is small and
the use of the dishes not so general as some kinds of food, just as much
attention should be given to them as if they occurred in greater numbers
and were used more commonly. Junket is very easily made and should
therefore cause the housewife no concern; likewise, little difficulty
will be experienced if the directions here given for white sauces are
followed explicitly.


62. Plain Junket.--In the stomachs of all animals that use milk as food
is found a digestive ferment known as _rennin_. This is taken from the
stomachs of calves, made up commercially, and sold in the form of
tablets called _junket_. When these tablets are used properly with milk,
they coagulate the milk and make an excellent dessert that resembles
custard and that is very easy to digest. Because of its nature and
qualities, this kind of dessert is used largely for invalids and
children. The following recipe gives the proportion and directions for
making this dessert in its simplest form.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 junket tablet
1 Tb. cold water
1 qt. milk
4 Tb. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. vanilla or other flavoring

Dissolve the junket tablet in the cold water. Warm the milk very slowly
to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, testing the temperature to make sure that it
is right. If a thermometer is not on hand, this can be done by dropping
a drop on the back of the hand. When neither heat nor cold can be felt
from this drop of milk, it may be known to be very near the body
temperature, the temperature at which rennin is active. If temperature
is found to be too high, the milk must be cooled before the tablet is
added. When the desired temperature has been reached, add the sugar, the
alt, the junket dissolved in the water, and the flavoring. Then pour all
into individual molds and keep it where it will remain warm for about 10
minutes, at the end of which it should be firm like a custard and may be
cooled. Keep the junket cool until it is to be served, when it may be
turned out of the mold or served in it. As junket will turn to whey if
it is broken with a spoon to any extent, serving it in the mold is the
better plan.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

63. Junket With. Fruit.--The addition of fruit to junket, as in the dish
illustrated in Fig. 8, makes an attractive dessert for both sick and
well people. If the fruit used is permissible in the diet of an invalid,
its combination with junket adds variety to the diet. In the making of
this dessert, all juice should be carefully drained from the fruit
before the junket is poured over it. Canned or fresh fruits may be used
with equally good results.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 junket tablet
1 Tb. cold water
1 qt. milk
1/4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
8 halves of canned peaches or
1 c. of berries or small fruit

Make a junket as directed in the preceding recipe. Drain all juice from
the fruit and place a half peach or a spoonful of fruit in the bottom of
each of the eight molds and pour the junket over it to fill the mold.
Let it solidify and serve cold.

64. CHOCOLATE JUNKET.--Chocolate added to plain junket not only varies
the junket dessert, but also adds food value, since chocolate contains a
large quantity of fat that is easily digested by most persons. Where the
flavor of chocolate is found agreeable, such junket may be served in
place of the plain junket.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. milk
2 sq. chocolate
6 Tb. sugar
3/4 c. water
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. vanilla
1 junket tablet

Heat the milk to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, testing in the manner explained
in Art. 62. Melt the chocolate in a saucepan, add to it the sugar and 1
cupful of water, and cook until smooth; then cool and add to the warm
milk, putting in the salt, vanilla, and junket tablet dissolved in
cupful of the water. Turn the junket into a dish or into molds and let
stand in a warm place until set; then chill and serve. In preparing this
recipe, it will be well to note that if sweet chocolate is used less
sugar than is specified may be employed.

65. CARAMEL JUNKET.--In the making of caramel junket, browned, or
caramelized, sugar and water take the place of part of the milk, and
while a certain amount of the sugar is reduced in the browning, the
caramel is still very high in food value and adds nutritive material to
the dessert. There is nothing about caramel junket to prevent its being
given to any one able to take plain junket, and if it is made correctly
it has a very delightful flavor.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. milk
1/2 c. sugar
1/2 c. boiling water
1/4 tsp. salt
1 tsp. vanilla
1 junket tablet
Whipped cream
1/4 c. chopped nuts

Heat the milk to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Caramelize the sugar by melting
it in a saucepan directly over the flame until it is a light-brown
color; then stir in the boiling water and cook until the caramel and the
water become a sirup, after which cool and add to the milk Add the
salt, the vanilla, and the junket tablet dissolved in a tablespoonful of
cold water Pour the mixture into a dish, let it stand in a warm place
until it sets; then chill, cover with sweetened whipped cream, sprinkle
with chopped nuts, and serve.


66. Three white sauces are commonly used for different purposes, and in
each one of them milk is the basis. These sauces differ from one another
in thickness, and include _thin white sauce_, which is used for cream
toast and soups; _medium white sauce_, which is used for dressing
vegetables and is flavored in various ways to accompany meats, patties,
or croquettes; and _thick white sauce_, which is used to mix with the
materials used for croquettes in order to hold them together. To insure
the best results, the proportion of flour and liquid should be learned
for each kind, and to avoid the formation of lumps the proper method of
mixing should be carefully followed out. A white sauce properly made is
perfectly smooth, and since only little care is needed to produce such a
result it is inexcusable to serve a lumpy sauce. Also, nothing is more
disagreeable than thick, pasty sauce, but this can be avoided by
employing the right proportion of flour and milk. The ingredients and
their proportions for the various kinds of white sauce are as follows:


1 c. milk
1 Tb. butter
1 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt


1 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. salt


1 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1/4 c. (4 Tb.) flour
1/2 tsp. salt

It will be easy to remember the proportions for these three sauces if it
is observed that each one doubles the previous one in the quantity of
flour used, the thin one having 1 tablespoonful to 1 cupful of milk, the
medium one 2 tablespoonfuls to 1 cupful of milk, and the thick one 4
tablespoonfuls to 1 cupful of milk. To produce these sauces the
ingredients may be combined in three different ways, each of which has
its advantages. These methods, which are here given, should be carefully
observed, for they apply not only to the making of this particular
sauce, but to the combining of fat, starch, and liquid in any sauce.

_Method 1_.--Heat the milk, being careful that it does not scorch. Brown
the butter slightly in a saucepan, add the flour and salt, and stir the
mixture until it is perfectly smooth and has a deep cream color. Then
add the hot milk gradually, stirring to prevent the formation of lumps.
Cook 5 minutes, stirring constantly to prevent the sauce from scorching.
Sauce made according to this method does not require long cooking
because the flour added to the hot fat cooks quickly. In fact, it is a
very desirable method, for the browned butter and the flour lend flavor
to the sauce. Many otherwise unattractive or rather tasteless foods can
be made much more appetizing by the addition of white sauce made in
this way.

_Method 2_.--Put the milk on to heat. While this is heating, stir the
butter, flour, and salt together until they are soft and well mixed;
then add the hot milk to them slowly, stirring constantly. Place over
the heat and finish cooking, or cook in a double boiler. Sauce made by
this method requires longer cooking than the preceding one and it has
less flavor.

_Method 3_.--Heat the milk, reserving a small portion. Stir the flour
smooth with the cold milk and add it to the hot milk, stirring rapidly.
Add the butter and the salt, and continue to stir if cooked over the
heat; if cooked in a double boiler, stir only until the mixture is
completely thickened and then continue to cook for 10 or 15 minutes.
When butter is added to the mixture in this way, it is likely to float
on top, especially if too much is used. A better sauce may be made
according to this method by using thin cream for the liquid and omitting
the butter.



(1) When milk is used in a meal, what kinds of food may be omitted?

(2) Name the chief uses of milk in the dietary.

(3) Why is it possible for a child to remain in normal condition if
given only milk for a long period of time?

(4) Name the solids contained in milk and tell for what each one is

(5) What causes milk to sour?

(6) What are the characteristics of wholesome milk?

(7) What is meant by the adulteration of milk?

(8) What quality of milk is of the most importance to the health of
those using milk?

(9) (_a_) Why is dirty milk dangerous? (_b_) Pour a quart of the milk
you purchase regularly through a pad of cotton. Note the result and
report the condition of the milk by comparing the cotton with the disks
shown in Fig. 2.

(10) Name some of the ways in which milk is likely to become

(11) What is the safest kind of market milk to buy?

(12) Describe the conditions under which milk of this kind is marketed.

(13) (_a_) What is pasteurized milk? (_b_) What is the purpose of

(14) How may milk be pasteurized in the home?

(15) (_a_) When should milk be sterilized? (_b_) What changes take place
in the sterilization of milk?

(16) What points should be considered in the purchase of milk?

(17) Why is it necessary to give milk considerable care in the home?

(18) Mention the precautions that should be observed in caring for milk.

(19) (_a_) How is milk affected by cooking? (_b_) Describe the best way
to heat milk.

(20) Give the proportions of flour and liquid required in each of the
three varieties of white sauce.

* * * * *


* * * * *


1. BUTTER is the fatty constituent of milk. It is obtained by skimming
or separating the cream from milk and churning it in order to make the
particles of fat adhere to one another. Butter is used largely in the
household as an article of food, for it is one of the most appetizing
and digestible forms of fat.

To supply the demand for butter, it is produced domestically in the home
and on farms and commercially in dairies and large establishments. The
principle of all churns used for butter making is practically the same.
They simply agitate the cream so that the butter-fat globules in it are
brought together in masses of such size as to enable the butter maker to
separate them from the buttermilk. Butter is seasoned, or salted, to
give it a desirable flavor and to improve its keeping qualities; it is
washed, or worked, in order to distribute the salt evenly, to separate
from it as much of the curd and other non-fatty constituents of the
cream as can be conveniently removed, to bring it into a compact, waxy
mass, and to give it texture. The United States authorities have set a
standard for the composition of butter, which allows this product to
contain not more than 16 per cent. of water and requires it to have at
least 82.5 per cent. of butter fat.

2. ECONOMICAL USE OF BUTTER.--In the home, butter is used on the table
and in the cooking of many foods. Hardly any article of food has such
general use as this one; in fact, a meal is usually considered to be
incomplete without it, both as an accompaniment to bread, rolls,
biscuits, or whatever variety of these is used, and as an ingredient in
the cooking of some foods that require fat. But butter is not cheap, so
that the wise and economical use of this food in the home is a point
that should not be overlooked by the housewife. This precaution is very
important, it having been determined that butter, as well as other fats,
is wasted to a great extent; and still it is true that no other material
can be so economically utilized. The very smallest amount of any kind of
fat should be carefully saved, for there are numerous uses to which it
can be put. Even though it is mixed with other food, it can always be
melted out, clarified--that is, freed from foreign substances--and then
used for some purpose in cooking. The chief way in which butter is
wasted is in the unnecessary and improper use of it, points that a
little careful thought will do much to remedy.

3. FLAVOR AND COMPOSITION OF BUTTER.--That the housewife may have an
understanding of the food substances found in butter and also learn how
to determine the quantity of butter needed for her family, she should
become familiar with the composition of this food. The flavor of butter
depends to a great extent on the kind of cream from which it is made,
both sweet and sour cream being used for this purpose. Of these two
kinds, sour cream is the preferable one, because it gives to the butter
a desirable flavor. Still, the unsalted butter that is made from sweet
cream is apparently growing in favor, although it is usually more
expensive than salted butter. The difference in price is due to the fact
that unsalted butter spoils readily.

4. So far as its food substances are concerned, butter is composed
largely of fat, but it also contains water, protein in the form of
casein, and mineral matter. The quantity of water contained in butter
determines to a large extent the weight of butter, since water is
heavier than fat; but as only 16 per cent, of water is allowed, butter
that contains more water than this is considered to be adulterated. As
very little milk is retained in butter, only a small percentage of
protein is found in this food. However, a considerable quantity of
mineral salts are present, and these make it more valuable than most of
the other fats. Because of the nature of its composition--a very high
percentage of fat and a low percentage of protein--butter is distinctly
a fuel food, that is, a heat-producing food. Of course, there are
cheaper fats, some of which are even better heat-producing foods than
butter, but as their flavor is not especially agreeable to some persons,
they are not used so extensively.

In view of the nature of the composition of this food, an ounce of
butter a day is the average allowance for each person when the diet of a
family contains meat and such other fats as lard, olive oil, etc. At the
most, 1/2 pound of butter should be purchased each week for each member
of the family for table use, and fats cheaper than butter should be used
for cooking purposes.

5. PURCHASING BUTTER.--As in the case of milk, in order that the
housewife may judge the quality of the butter she purchases, she will do
well to look into the cleanliness and sanitary condition of the dairy
that produces it. Too much attention cannot be given to this matter, for
if cream becomes contaminated from careless handling, the same
contamination is liable to occur in the butter made from it. Butter that
is produced in dairies that make large quantities of it usually has not
much opportunity to become contaminated before it reaches the consumer,
for it is generally pressed into 1-pound prints, and each one of these
is then wrapped and placed in a paper carton. On the other hand, the
farmer and the dairyman doing a small business do not find it profitable
to install the equipment required to put up butter in this way, so they
usually pack their butter into firkins or crocks or make it into rolls.
When such butter goes to market, it is generally placed in a
refrigerator with more butter of the same sort, some of which is good
and some bad. As butter absorbs any strong odor present in the
refrigerator and is perhaps cut and weighed in a most unsanitary manner,
the good becomes contaminated with the bad. While butter of this kind is
perhaps a few cents cheaper than that which is handled in a more
sanitary way, it is less desirable, and if possible should be avoided by
the housewife. In case butter is obtained from a certain farm, the
conditions on that farm should be looked into for the same reason that
the conditions in a dairy are investigated.

6. To be able to select good butter, the housewife should also be
familiar with its characteristics. In color, butter to be good should be
an even yellow, neither too pale nor too bright, and should contain no
streaks. The light streaks that are sometimes found in butter indicate
insufficient working. As to odor, butter should be pleasing and
appetizing, any foreign or strong, disagreeable odor being extremely
objectionable. Stale butter or that which is improperly kept develops
an acid called _butyric acid_, which gives a disagreeable odor and
flavor to butter and often renders it unfit for use.

7. CARE OF BUTTER.--The precautions that the farmer and dairyman are
called on to observe in the making and handling of butter should be
continued by the housewife after she purchases butter for home use. The
chief point for her to remember is that butter should be kept as cold as
possible, because a low temperature prevents it from spoiling, whereas a
high one causes it to become soft and less appetizing. The most
satisfactory place in which to keep butter is the refrigerator, where it
should be placed in the compartment located directly under the ice and
in which the milk is kept, for here it will not come in contact with
foods that might impart their flavors to it. Should no refrigerator be
available, some other means of keeping butter cold must be resorted to,
such as a cool cellar or basement or a window box.

The way in which butter is bought determines to a certain extent the
method of caring for it. If it is bought in paper cartons, it should be
rewrapped and replaced in the carton each time some is cut off for use.
In case it is bought in bulk, it should never be allowed to remain in
the wooden dish in which it is often sold; rather, it should be put into
a crock or a jar that can be tightly covered.

8. Attention should also be given to butter that is cut from the supply
for the table or for cooking purposes and that is not entirely used.
Such butter should never be returned to the original supply, but should
be kept in a separate receptacle and used for cooking. If it contains
foreign material, it can be clarified by allowing it to stand after it
has melted until this has settled and then dipping or pouring the clear
fat from the top. Butter that has become rancid or has developed a bad
flavor need not be wasted either, for it can be made ready for use in
cooking simply by pouring boiling water over it, allowing it to cool,
and then removing the layer of fat that comes to the top. Such butter,
of course, cannot be used for serving on the table. Still, consideration
on the part of the housewife to just such matters as these will prevent
much of the waste that prevails in the household in the use of
this food.

9. COOKING WITH BUTTER.--While some housewives make it a practice to use
butter in cooking of all kinds, there are uses in which other fats are
preferable; or, in case butter is desired, there are certain points to
be observed in its use. For instance, butter is rendered less digestible
by cooking it at a high temperature, as in frying or sautéing; also, it
cannot be used to any extent for the frying of foods, as it burns very
readily. If it is used for sautéing, the dish is made much more
expensive than is necessary, so that in most cases a cheaper fat should
be employed for this purpose. In addition, a point to remember is that
this fat should not be used to grease the pans in which cakes and hot
breads are baked unless it is first melted, because the milk contained
in the butter burns easily; after it is melted, only the top fat should
be used. When butter is desired for very rich cakes and for pastry, it
is usually washed in cold water to remove the milk. To neutralize the
sour milk contained in butter that is used for baking purposes, a little
soda is sometimes employed.

Further economy can be exercised in the use of butter if a little
thought is given to the matter. For instance, when butter is melted and
poured over meat or fish that has been broiled or over vegetables that
have been cooked in a plain way, much of it usually remains in the dish
and is wasted. Such butter can be utilized again. Since butter undergoes
a change when it is cooked, it should be mixed with cooked foods to
flavor them, rather than be subjected to the temperature necessary
for cooking.

When butter is used for spreading sandwiches, it usually will be found
advisable to soften the butter by creaming it with a spoon, but it
should never be melted for this purpose.

10. SERVING BUTTER.--When butter is used for the table, some
consideration must be given to the serving of it. Probably the most
usual way of serving butter is to place a slice of it on a plate and
then pass the plate with a knife to each person at the table. The
advantage of this method is that each person can take the amount desired
and thus prevent waste. However, a still more desirable way of serving
butter that is to be passed is to cut it into small cubes or squares or
to shape it into small balls and then serve it with a fork or a butter
knife. To prevent the pieces or balls of butter from melting in warm
weather, cracked ice may be placed on the butter dish with them. Butter
cut into cubes or squares may also be served on an individual butter
dish or an individual bread-and-butter plate placed at each person's
place before the meal is served. Whichever plan is adopted, any
fragments of butter that remain on the plates after a meal should be
gathered up and used for cooking purposes.

[Illustration: FIG 1]

11. Butter that comes in pound prints lends itself readily to the
cutting of small cubes or squares for serving. Such butter may be cut by
drawing a string through the print or by using a knife whose cutting
edge is covered with paper, a small piece of the oiled paper such as
that in which the butter is wrapped answering very well for
this purpose.

If butter balls are desired for serving, they may be rolled with butter
paddles in the manner shown in Fig. 1. To make butter balls, put wads of
the butter to be used into ice water so as to make them hard. Then place
each wad between the paddles, as shown, and give the paddles a circular
motion. After a little practice, it will be a simple matter to make
butter balls that will add to the attractiveness of any meal. Paddles
made especially for this purpose can be purchased in all stores that
sell kitchen utensils.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

12. Sometimes, for practical purposes, it is desired to know the
quantity of butter that is served to each person. In the case of print
butter, this is a simple matter to determine. As shown in Fig. 2, first
mark the pound print in the center in order to divide it in half; after
cutting it into two pieces, cut each half into two, and finally each
fourth into two. With the pound print cut into eight pieces, divide and
cut each eighth into four pieces. As there will be thirty-two small
pieces, each one will represent one thirty-second of a pound, or
1/2 ounce.


13. In about the year 1870, through a desire to procure a cheaper
article than butter for the poorer classes of France, came the
manufacture of the first substitute for butter. Since that time the use
of butter substitutes has gradually increased, until at the present time
millions of pounds are consumed every year. A certain amount of
prejudice against their use exists, but much of this is unnecessary for
they are less likely to be contaminated with harmful bacteria than the
poorer qualities of butter. Then, too, they do not spoil so readily, and
for this reason they can be handled with greater convenience
than butter.

14. OLEOMARGARINE.--The best substitute for butter and the one most
largely used is called oleomargarine, which in the United States alone
constitutes about two and 1/2 per cent. of all the fat used as butter.
This fat is called by various other names, such as _margarine,_ and
_butterine_, but oleomargarine is the name by which the United States
authorities recognize the product. It is made by churning fats other
than butter fat with milk or cream until a butterlike consistency is
obtained. Originally, pure beef fat was employed for this purpose, and
while beef fat is used to a great extent at present, lard, cottonseed
oil, coconut oil, and peanut oil are also used. Whatever fats are
selected are churned with milk, cream, and, for the finest grades, a
considerable percentage of the very best pure butter. After they are
churned, the oleomargarine is worked, salted, and packed in the same
manner as butter.

15. The manufacture and sale of butter substitutes are controlled by
laws that, while they do not specify the kind of fat to be used, state
that all mixtures of butter with other fats must be sold as
oleomargarine. They also require that a tax of 10 cents a pound be paid
on all artificially colored oleomargarine; therefore, while coloring
matter is used in some cases, this product is usually sold without
coloring. In such an event, coloring matter is given with each pound of
oleomargarine that is sold. Before using the oleomargarine, this
coloring matter is simply worked into the fat until it is
evenly colored.

16. RENOVATED BUTTER.--Another substitute that is sometimes used to take
the place of the best grades of butter is renovated, or process,
butter. This is obtained by purifying butter that is dirty and rancid
and that contains all sorts of foreign material and then rechurning it
with fresh cream or milk. The purifying process consists in melting the
butter, removing the scum from the top, as well as the buttermilk,
brine, and foreign materials that settle, and then blowing air through
the fat to remove any odors that it might contain. Butter that is thus
purified is replaced on the market, but in some states the authorities
have seen fit to restrict its sale. While such restrictions are without
doubt justifiable, it is possible to buy butter that is more
objectionable than renovated, or process, butter, but that has no
restriction on it.

17. METHOD OF TESTING BUTTER SUBSTITUTES.--Very often oleomargarine and
process butter bear such a close resemblance to genuine butter that it
is almost impossible to detect the difference. However, there is a
simple test by which these substitutes can always be distinguished from
butter, and this should be applied whenever there is any doubt about the
matter. To make this test, place the fat in a tablespoon or a small dish
and heat it directly over the flame until it boils, stirring it
occasionally to assist in the melting. If it is oleomargarine or process
butter, it will sputter noisily and take on a curdled appearance;
whereas, if it is butter, it will melt and even boil without sputtering
although it foams to a certain extent.

* * * * *



18. ORIGIN, PRODUCTION, AND USE OF CHEESE.--Cheese is a product that is
manufactured from the solids of milk, and it provides a valuable food.
The making of cheese was known in ancient times, it having probably
originated through a desire to utilize an oversupply of milk. When
cheese was first made, the fact that bacteria were present was not
known, nor were the reasons for the spoiling of milk understood; but it
was learned that milk can be kept if most of its water is removed. This
discovery was very important, for it led to various methods of making
cheese and proved that cheese making was a satisfactory and convenient
means of storing nourishment in a form that was not bulky and that would
keep for long periods of time. From a very small beginning, the
different methods of making cheese became popular, until at the present
time more than three hundred varieties are made and their manufacture
forms one of the large industries of the world.

In the United States, nearly all the cheese used up to about 50 years
ago was made on farms, and to a great extent by housewives, but about
that time a factory for the making of this product was started in the
state of New York, and it proved a profitable enterprise. From this
beginning, the business of making cheese commercially in this country
has grown until now cheese is almost entirely a factory-made product, in
the manufacture of which the states of New York and Wisconsin lead.

19. In either the commercial or the home production of cheese, skim milk
with all or part of the cream removed is used for some varieties, while
whole milk is used for others, the composition depending largely on the
kind of milk that is employed. Rennet is added to the milk to coagulate
it, and then the curd, from which nearly all the water is removed, is
allowed to ripen. To produce characteristic odors, flavors, and
consistency, various coloring and flavoring materials, as well as
bacteria, are added to the curd. The action of these bacteria is really
the chief factor in the making of cheese and they are therefore not only
desirable but necessary. Non-desirable bacteria, however, result in the
formation of bad odors, flavors, and gases in the finished product and
these must be carefully guarded against by cheese makers.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

20. Cheese offers a valuable source of nutriment for the body, because
its food value ranks high. As is shown in Fig. 3, the food value in 1
pound of cheese is equivalent to that in 2 pounds of beef, that in 24
eggs, or that in 4 pounds of fish. The use of cheese, however, is not
nearly so great as its food value warrants, the amount used in the
United States per capita being only about 3-1/2 pounds annually. This is
a condition that should be overcome, for there is a large variety of
ways in which cheese can be used to advantage in the diet. When eaten
raw, it is very appetizing, and when used with soups, sauces, and foods
that have a bland taste, it lends additional flavor and makes an
especially attractive dish. In addition, the fact that it is an
economical food and can be conveniently kept and stored should recommend
its frequent use.

21. COMPOSITION OF CHEESE.--Since cheese is a product of milk, it is
somewhat similar to milk in composition, but the change that occurs in
the formation of cheese causes some differences. Nearly all the water
present in milk is removed during the manufacture of cheese, so that
this product becomes a concentrated food made up of all the nourishment
that milk contains except small amounts of albumin, milk sugar, and
mineral matter. These, because they are in solution in the water, are
lost when the whey is separated from the curd. The food substances that
occur in the largest amounts are fat and protein in the form of casein,
which is the tissue-building material of milk. Cheese made from milk
that contains some cream has in it a greater amount of fat than that
made from completely skimmed milk. Besides these two chief food
substances, cheese contains a small amount of milk sugar, mineral
matter, and water.

22. On account of the large quantity of protein found in cheese, this
food can readily take the place of meat in the diet; in fact, it has
some decided advantages over meat. As has been pointed out, cheese
yields more than twice as much food value as an equal weight of beef.
Then, too, the buying and care of cheese are much simpler matters than
the buying and care of meat. As it does not require the low temperature
that meat requires and does not spoil so readily, it can be bought in
considerable quantity and used as desired without danger of spoiling and
loss. In addition, the use of cheese as food does not require so much
skill in preparation as meat does, nor is there loss of flavor and
nutriment in its preparation, as is often the case with meat.

23. QUALITY OF CHEESE.--Every variety of cheese has its own standard and
quality, some being hard and dry, others moist, and still others very
soft. The difference in quality is due to the way in which the curd is
coagulated, the amount of pressure that is put on it, and the ripening
of the cheese. The holes that often occur in cheese and give it a porous
appearance are formed by gas, which is the product of the growth of
bacteria. A large number of very small holes in cheese indicate that
the milk used to make it was not clean and contained many kinds of
bacteria. This condition could be overcome by the use of absolutely
clean milk; indeed, milk of this kind is as necessary for the production
of good cheese as it is for the making of good butter. Certain cheeses,
such as Limburger and Roquefort, have a typical odor and flavor, the
odor being due to bacteria and the flavor to mold. These are carefully
grown and introduced into the cheese during its manufacture.

24. CARE OF CHEESE.--The very strong odor and flavor that characterize
cheese make it necessary that care be given to cheese in the home in
order to prevent it from coming in contact with other foods and
transmitting its odor and flavor to them. The best place to keep cheese,
particularly the soft varieties, is in the refrigerator, where it should
be placed in a closed receptacle and kept as far as possible from foods
that are easily tainted. It is well to avoid a damp place for the
keeping of cheese, as mold frequently develops on the outside when too
much moisture is present; but in case mold does appear it can be removed
by cutting a thin slice from the side on which it has grown. On the
other hand, cheese that is kept in a dry place becomes hard and dry
unless it is wrapped in oiled paper or a damp cloth. However, such
cheese need not be thrown away, for there are numerous uses,
particularly in cooking, to which it can be put.

* * * * *



25. The cheese used in the United States may be included under two
leading classes, namely, _foreign cheese_ and _domestic cheese_. Since
the foreign cheeses are imported, they are more expensive than the
cheeses made here, and should not be bought if cheese is to be used as
an economical article of food. They are valuable chiefly for their
flavor and are generally bought for this reason. The domestic cheeses
can be used in larger quantities, for, besides being less expensive,
they are usually of a milder type and are more easily digested. To
enable the housewife to become familiar with the principal varieties of
each of these classes, a discussion of them, including their names,


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