Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 2
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 5 out of 6

1/2 c. bread crumbs
1/2 c. finely chopped boiled ham

Melt the fat in a frying pan, add the onion, salt, and pepper, and heat
together for several minutes. Add the rice, bread crumbs, and ham, and
moisten with milk until the mixture is of the right consistency. Use to
fill the peppers.

(Sufficient for Six Peppers)

2 Tb. butter
1 onion, chopped
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
2 c. stale bread crumbs
2 Tb. chopped parsley
1 tsp. celery salt

Melt the butter in a frying pan, add the chopped onion, salt, and
pepper, and heat together. To this add the bread crumbs, chopped
parsley, and celery salt, and moisten with enough milk to make the
stuffing of the right consistency. Use to stuff peppers.



70. WHITE POTATOES, popularly called _Irish potatoes_ because they are a
staple food in Ireland, belong to the class of tuber vegetables. They
form such an extensive part of the diets of the majority of people that
they are generally considered the most important vegetable used by
civilized man. They are usually roundish or oblong in shape and have a
whitish interior and a darker colored skin.

71. FOOD VALUE OF POTATOES.--In food value, Irish potatoes are
comparatively high, being in this respect about two and one-half times
as great as an equal weight of cabbage, but not quite twice as great as
the various root vegetables, such as carrots, parsnips, etc. The largest
amount of this food value occurs as carbohydrate in the form of starch,
there being almost no fat and very little protein in potatoes. The
starch granules of potatoes are larger than the starch granules of any
of the cereals, the class of foods highest in this food substance, and
it is the proper cooking of this starch that makes potatoes dry and
mealy. Potatoes also contain a large amount of mineral salts, much of
which lies directly under the skin. Therefore, the most economical way
in which to prepare potatoes is to cook them with the skins on, for then
all of the mineral salts are retained and none of the material
is wasted.

72. SELECTION OF POTATOES.--The new potato crop begins to come into the
market during the summer, when potatoes are especially appetizing.
However, as potatoes can be easily stored and kept very well for a
considerable time, they form a large part of the winter food supply. If
there is sufficient storage space, it is a wise plan to buy a large
enough supply of potatoes in the fall to last for several months and
then to store them for the winter. However, when this is done, care
should be taken in the selection.

In the first place, the outside skin should be smooth and not scaly.
Then, if possible, potatoes of medium size should be selected, rather
than small ones or large ones. The small ones are not so satisfactory,
because of the greater proportion of waste in peeling, while the very
large ones are apt to have a hollow space in the center. To judge the
quality of potatoes, a few of those to be purchased should be secured
and cooked before a large number of them are bought. The soil and
climatic conditions affect the quality of potatoes to such an extent
that a particular kind of potato which may have been excellent last year
may be entirely different in quality this year. A housewife cannot,
therefore, be guided entirely by her previous knowledge of a certain
kind of potato.

73. CARE OF POTATOES.--Potatoes bought in quantity should be kept in a
cool place and should be excluded from the light. Such care will usually
prevent them from discoloring and sprouting. In case they should sprout,
the sprouts should be removed at once, for the potatoes will deteriorate
rapidly with such a growth. If the potatoes freeze, they may be thawed
by putting them in cold water. Such potatoes, which are characterized by
a peculiar sweetish taste, should be used as soon as possible after
being thawed.

74. PREPARATION OF POTATOES.--As has already been explained, the most
economical way in which to cook potatoes is with the skins on. However,
when it is desired to remove the skins, they should be taken off as
thinly as possible. New potatoes may be scraped, but completely matured
potatoes that have been out of the ground for some time do not scrape
easily and so should be pared thinly.

Potatoes lend themselves to various methods of cookery, and this is
well, for although this is a food of which most persons do not tire
easily, variety in the preparation of a vegetable so commonly used as
the Irish potato is very much to be desired. When cooked in the skins,
potatoes may be boiled, baked, or steamed. When the skins are removed,
potatoes may be cooked in these ways, as well as fried, sautéd,
scalloped, creamed, etc.

75. BOILED POTATOES.--Without doubt, potatoes are cooked more often by
boiling than by any other method, for besides being eaten in this way a
great deal, they must first be boiled for many of the more elaborate
methods of preparation. If the skins are removed before boiling, the
water in which the potatoes are cooked contains a quantity of starch and
a great deal of soluble mineral matter that are lost from the potatoes.
Use should therefore be made of this liquid, it being very satisfactory
for soups, sauces, and the liquid required in bread making.

When potatoes are to be boiled, select the desired number of
medium-sized potatoes, and wash them in cold water. If desired, remove
the peelings with a sharp paring knife, but if the potatoes are to be
cooked with the skins on, scrub them thoroughly with a vegetable brush
in order to remove all dirt. Put to cook in a sufficient amount of
boiling salted water to cover well, and cook until the potatoes are
tender enough to be easily pierced with a fork. Usually the kettle in
which potatoes are cooked is covered, but if desired they may be cooked
in an uncovered vessel. When done, drain the water from the potatoes and
serve at once or use for some of the other methods of preparation.

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

76. MASHED POTATOES.--If mashed potatoes are prepared properly, they are
much relished by the majority of persons. However, to be most
satisfactory, they should be cooked long enough not to be lumpy and
then, after being mashed and softened with milk, they should be beaten
until they are light and creamy.

Peel the desired number of potatoes and boil them according to the
directions given in Art. 75. When they are tender, remove them from the
fire and drain off the water. Mash the potatoes with a wooden or a wire
potato masher, being careful to reduce all the particles to a pulpy mass
in order to prevent lumps. However, the preferable way to mash them is
to force them through a ricer, when they will appear as shown in Fig.
15, for then, if they are thoroughly cooked, there will be no danger of
lumps. When they are sufficiently mashed, season with additional salt, a
dash of pepper, and a small piece of butter, and add hot milk until they
are thinned to a mushy consistency, but not too soft to stand up well
when dropped from a spoon. Then beat the potatoes vigorously with a
large spoon until they become light and fluffy. Serve at once.

77. BAKED POTATOES.--A very nutritious vegetable dish results when
potatoes are baked. For this method of cooking potatoes, those of medium
size are better than large ones; also, if the potatoes are uniform in
size, all of them will bake in the same length of time. It is well to
choose for baking, potatoes that are smooth and unblemished, in order
that they may be prepared without cutting the skins. As the starchy
particles of the potato are cooked by the heated water inside the
potato, the cooking cannot be done so successfully when the skin is cut
or marred, for then the water will evaporate.

Prepare the potatoes by scrubbing them thoroughly; then place them on a
shallow pan and set them in the oven or place them directly on the oven
grate. The temperature of the oven is important in baking potatoes. If
it is too hot, the skins of the potatoes will become charred, and if it
is not hot enough, too long a time will be required for the baking. The
temperature found to produce the best results is about 400 degrees
Fahrenheit, or the same as that for the baking of bread. Turn the
potatoes once or twice during the baking, so that they will bake evenly.
Allow them to bake until it is possible to pierce them to the center
with a fork or they are soft enough to dent easily when pinched with the
tips of the fingers. The latter is the preferable test, for when the
potato is pierced, so much of the moisture is lost that it is not likely
to be of the best quality when served. Upon removing from the oven,
serve at once. Baked potatoes become soggy upon standing. If desired,
they may be rolled to soften the contents of the shell and then cut open
on one side, and pepper, salt, and paprika put into the potato.

The length of time required for baking potatoes is usually 10 to 15
minutes longer than is necessary to cook potatoes of the same size in
water. However, the time for baking may be decreased by boiling the
potatoes for about 5 minutes before they are put in the oven. In such an
event, the boiling and the baking should be accomplished in about
35 minutes.

78. STUFFED POTATOES.--An attractive way in which to serve baked
potatoes is shown in Fig. 16. After the potatoes are thoroughly baked,
the contents are removed, treated as mashed potatoes, and then stuffed
into the shells and set in the oven to brown for a few minutes. When
something different in the way of potatoes is desired, stuffed potatoes
should be tried.

Bake the desired number of potatoes until tender. Remove from the oven,
cut through the skin of each from end to end with a sharp knife, and
scrape out the contents of the shell. Mash the pulp according to the
directions given in Art. 76. Then fill the shells with the mashed
potatoes, allowing the surface to stand up roughly, as shown, instead of
smoothing it down. Dot each with butter, sprinkle a little paprika over
the tops, and replace in the oven. Bake until the surface is nicely
browned and then serve at once.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

79. BROWNED POTATOES.--While not so easy to digest as boiled or baked
potatoes, browned potatoes offer an opportunity for a change from the
usual ways of preparing this vegetable. They may be prepared on the
stove or in the oven, but when browned in the oven the surface is more
likely to be tough.

Boil the desired number of potatoes, and when they are sufficiently
tender, drain off the water. If they are to be sautéd on the stove, melt
a small amount of fat in a frying pan, and place the cooked potatoes in
it. Sauté until brown on one side, then turn and brown on the other.
Season with additional salt, if necessary, and serve.

In case it is desired to brown them in the oven, put the boiled potatoes
in a shallow pan and brush them over with butter. Set them in a hot
oven, allow them to brown on one side, then turn and brown them on the
other. Season with salt, if necessary, and serve at once upon removing
from the oven. 80. RAW SAUTÉD POTATOES.--If a potato dish suitable for
supper or luncheon is desired, raw potatoes may be sliced thin, as at
_a_, Fig. 17, and then sautéd. For this purpose, small potatoes that are
not suitable for other methods of preparation may be used.

Peel the potatoes and slice them into thin slices. Melt a small amount
of fat in a frying pan, place the potatoes in the hot fat, and cover the
pan. Allow them to steam in this way for 10 to 15 minutes and then
remove the cover. Brown on one side; then turn and brown on the other.
Season with salt and pepper.

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

81. HASH-BROWNED POTATOES.--A very good way in which to use up boiled
potatoes is to hash-brown them in the oven.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 medium-sized cooked potatoes
1-1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
3 Tb. milk
1/4 tsp. pepper

Slice or chop the cold potatoes, place in a buttered pan, add the salt
and pepper, melt the butter, and pour it over them. Place in a hot oven
until nicely browned. Stir, add the milk, and brown again. Stir again,
brown the third time, and serve.

82. POTATO PATTIES.--Mashed potatoes, whether left over or boiled and
mashed especially for the purpose, may be made up into patties and then
sautéd until brown on both sides.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. mashed potato
1 egg
Fine bread crumbs

To the mashed potatoes that have been well seasoned, add the egg and
mix thoroughly. Shape into flat, round patties and roll in the bread
crumbs. Melt fat in a frying pan, place the patties in it, sauté on one
side until brown, and then turn and brown on the other side. Serve hot.

83. FRENCH FRIED POTATOES.--Many families are deprived of French fried
potatoes because the majority of housewives think they are difficult to
prepare. This, however, is not the case, for when the procedure is
understood nothing is easier.

Peel the required number of potatoes and cut them into the desired
shape. Great variety exists in the method of cutting potatoes for this
purpose. However, the form that is usually thought of when French fried
potatoes are mentioned is the one obtained by cutting the potatoes into
pieces like the sections of an orange and then cutting these sections
lengthwise into smaller pieces, like those shown at _b_, Fig. 17. Pieces
like those shown at _c_, called _shoestring potatoes_, are also popular.
As soon as cut, in no matter what shape, drop the pieces into cold
water, but when ready to fry, remove them from the water and dry on a
clean dry towel. Place in a wire basket and lower the basket into a pan
of hot fat. Fry until the potatoes are nicely browned, remove from the
fat, drain, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Serve at once.

84. POTATOES AU GRATIN.--Something a little unusual in the way of a
potato dish is produced when potatoes are combined with cheese, bread
crumbs, and a cream sauce to make potatoes au gratin. In addition to
supplying flavor, these ingredients increase the food value of the
potatoes so that a highly nutritious dish is the result.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. diced cooked potatoes
1/2 c. grated cheese
1/2 c. bread crumbs
1-1/2 c. thin white sauce

Grease a baking dish, place 1/2 of the potatoes in the bottom of the
dish, and sprinkle over them 1/2 of the crumbs and then 1/2 of the
cheese. Put the remainder of the potatoes in the dish, sprinkle with the
rest of the cheese, pour the hot white sauce over all, and place the
remaining crumbs on top. Set the dish in a hot oven and bake until well
heated through and brown on top.

85. LYONNAISE POTATOES.--When sautéd potatoes are flavored with onion
and parsley, they are known as Lyonnaise potatoes. As they are very
appetizing, potatoes prepared in this way are relished by most persons.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter or ham or bacon fat
1/2 tsp. salt
1 medium-sized onion, chopped
Dash of pepper
2 Tb. parsley
3 c. diced cooked potatoes

Melt the fat in a frying pan, and add the onion, parsley, salt, and
pepper. When the fat is hot, add the potatoes, which should be diced,
like those shown at _d_, Fig. 17, and allow them to sauté until slightly
brown. Stir frequently to avoid burning. Serve hot.

86. SCALLOPED POTATOES.--Many vegetables may be scalloped, but potatoes
seem to lend themselves to this form of preparation to good advantage.
Potatoes prepared in this way are suitable for luncheon, supper, or a
home dinner.

Wash and peel the desired number of potatoes and slice them thin. Place
a layer in the bottom of a well-greased baking dish, sprinkle lightly
with flour, salt, and pepper, and dot with butter. Add another layer of
potatoes, sprinkle again with flour, salt, and pepper, and dot with
butter. Continue in this way until the dish is filled. Pour a sufficient
quantity of milk over the whole to cover well. Place a cover over the
dish, set in a hot oven, and bake for about 1/2 hour. Then remove the
cover and allow the potatoes to continue baking until they can be easily
pierced with a fork and the surface is slightly brown. Serve hot from
the baking dish.

87. CREAMED POTATOES.--A very good way in which to utilize left-over
boiled potatoes is to dice them and then serve them with a cream sauce.
If no cooked potatoes are on hand and creamed potatoes are desired,
potatoes may, of course, be boiled especially for this purpose. When
this is done, it is well to cook the potatoes in the skins, for they
remain intact better and have a better flavor.

Cut up potatoes that are to be creamed into half-inch dice, like those
shown at _d_, Fig. 17. Make a thin white sauce, pour it over the
potatoes until they are well moistened, and allow the potatoes to simmer
in this sauce for a few minutes. If desired, chopped parsley may be
added to the sauce to improve the flavor. Serve hot.

88. POTATO BALLS.--If a potato dish is desired for a meal that is to be
dainty in every respect, potato balls should be tried. These are small
balls of uniform size, like those shown at _e_, Fig. 17, cut from raw
potatoes by means of a French cutter, as shown in Fig. 18, cooked until
tender, and then dressed with a cream sauce or in any other way. As will
be observed, much of the potato remains after all the balls that can be
cut from it are obtained. This should not be wasted, but should be
boiled and then mashed or prepared in any other desirable way.

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

Wash and peel the potatoes that are to be used, and then from each
potato cut with a French cutter all the balls possible. When a
sufficient number have been obtained, boil them until tender in boiling
salted water and then drain. Make a thin cream sauce, add the potatoes
to this, and heat together thoroughly. Serve hot.

89. POTATO CROQUETTES.--Left-over mashed potatoes can be utilized in no
better way than to make croquettes. Of course, if potato croquettes are
desired and no potatoes are on hand, it will be necessary to cook
potatoes and mash them especially for this purpose. Croquettes made
according to the accompanying recipe will be found a delightful addition
to the menu. They are often served plain, but are much improved by a
medium white sauce or a gravy.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. mashed potatoes
2 Tb. chopped parsley
1 Tb. onion juice
1 tsp. celery salt
2 eggs
Dry bread crumbs

To the mashed potatoes, add the parsley, onion juice, and celery salt
and mix thoroughly. Beat the eggs slightly, reserve a small amount to be
diluted with water or milk for dipping the croquettes, and add the rest
to the potatoes. Shape the mixture into oblong croquettes of uniform
size and shape. Roll each in the crumbs, then in the diluted egg, and
again in the crumbs. Fry in deep hot fat until an even brown in color.
Remove from the fat, drain, and serve. 90. POTATO PUFF.--Mashed potato
combined with egg, seasoned well, and baked in the oven makes a very
appetizing dish known as potato puff. This is suitable for any meal at
which potatoes would be served.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. mashed potato
1/2 tsp. celery salt
1 egg

To the mashed potato, add the celery salt. Separate the egg, beat the
yolk, and mix it with the potato. Beat the white stiff and fold it into
the potato last. Pile into a buttered baking dish, set in a hot oven,
and bake until the potato is thoroughly heated through and the surface
is brown. Serve at once.


91. SWEET POTATOES are used for practically the same purposes as white
potatoes, and while these vegetables resemble each other in many
respects they are not related botanically, sweet potatoes being root
rather than tuber vegetables. Sweet potatoes are of a tropical nature
and have been cultivated for hundreds of years in the West Indies and
Central America. They form a staple article of diet in the southern part
of the United States, where, on account of the warm climate, they are
raised abundantly. They are not raised in the North; still they are
consumed there in large quantities. After maturing, sweet potatoes are
collected and dried in kilns before shipping. While this makes it
possible for them to keep longer than if they were not dried, they do
not keep so well as white potatoes and therefore cannot be stored in
such large numbers. If they are to be kept for a considerable period of
time, they should be wrapped separately in paper and stored in a cool,
dry place.

92. Sweet potatoes vary considerably in size, shape, and quality. Some
are short and blunt at the tips, others are long and cylindrical, either
crooked or straight, while others are medium in size and spindle-shaped.
Some varieties, which are known as _yams_, cook moist and sugary, while
others, which are simply called sweet potatoes, cook dry and mealy. The
kind to select depends entirely on the individual taste, for in
composition and food value all the varieties are similar. In
composition, sweet potatoes resemble white ones, except that a part of
their carbohydrate is in the form of sugar, which gives them their
characteristic sweet taste, but in food value they are almost twice as
great as white potatoes.

93. The preparation of sweet potatoes is similar to that of white
potatoes, for they may be boiled, steamed, baked, mashed, creamed,
fried, etc. In fact, they may be used at any time to take the place of
white potatoes in the diet. A few recipes are here given for this
vegetable, but any of those given under White Potatoes may also be used
by merely substituting sweet potatoes for the white potatoes specified.

94. BOILED SWEET POTATOES.--It is a very simple procedure to boil sweet
potatoes. When they are to be prepared in this way, select potatoes of
uniform size and either remove their skins or cook them with the skins
on. If they are not peeled, scrub them perfectly clean. Put them to cook
in boiling salted water and allow them to boil until they may be easily
pierced with a fork. Drain the water from them, peel if cooked with
their skins on, and serve hot with butter or gravy.

95. BAKED SWEET POTATOES.--Persons who are fond of sweet potatoes prefer
them baked to any other method of preparation. Select medium-sized
potatoes for this purpose, scrub thoroughly, and put in a hot oven to
bake. Bake until they are soft enough to dent when pinched between the
fingers. Remove from the oven and serve at once.

96. GLAZED SWEET POTATOES.--To increase the sweet taste characteristic
of sweet potatoes and favored by many persons, a sweet sirup is
sometimes added. When this is done, the potatoes are first boiled and
then cut in half lengthwise and sautéd. Sweet potatoes so prepared
afford a pleasing variety in the diet.

Clean and peel the desired number of potatoes and boil them as already
explained. Cut them in half lengthwise, so that each piece has a flat
side. Melt fat in a frying pan, add the halves of sweet potato, and fry
until slightly brown. Then turn and fry on the reverse side. About 10 or
15 minutes before removing from the pan, pour a small quantity of
molasses or a mixture of sugar and water over the potatoes, and allow
them to cook in this sirup until they are well covered with the sweet
substance. Remove from the pan and serve at once. 97. MASHED SWEET
POTATOES.--Used alone without further preparation, mashed sweet potatoes
make a very palatable dish. However, as in the case of mashed white
potatoes, numerous appetizing dishes, such as croquettes, patties, etc.,
can be made of mashed sweet potatoes, whether left from a previous meal
or cooked for this purpose. In the preparation of all such dishes, the
recipes given under White Potatoes may be followed.

Peel the desired number of potatoes and cook them in boiling salted
water until they may be readily pierced with a fork. Drain, force
through a sieve or a ricer, and season with salt, pepper, and a small
amount of butter. Thin the mixture with sufficient hot milk to make it
of a stiff, mush-like consistency. Then beat vigorously until the potato
is light and creamy. Serve hot.


98. RADISHES are a root vegetable used almost exclusively as a relish or
to lend flavor to a vegetable-salad mixture. They are easily and
successfully grown and are plentiful and cheap, except when they are out
of season and must be raised in hothouses. Numerous varieties of
radishes differing from one another in size, shape, and color are
raised. The red ones are generally preferred, because they lend color to
a dish or a meal, but the white and brown varieties are just as
desirable so far as flavor is concerned.

99. Radishes contain very little food value, being about equal to celery
and cucumbers in this respect. They do not supply anything valuable to a
meal except mineral salts. Although some persons consider radishes
difficult to digest, they contain almost nothing that has to be
digested, for they are composed largely of cellulose, which does not
digest, and water. Radishes disagree with some persons because, like
onions and cabbage, they contain a strong volatile oil that gives them
their flavor.

100. Since radishes are always eaten raw, they require very little in
the way of preparation. The principal thing is to see that they are
perfectly clean and as crisp as possible. To make them crisp, allow them
to stand in cold water for some time before using them. Then remove the
tops and the roots and scrub thoroughly with a vegetable brush. The
small red radishes can be made very attractive by cutting the skin in
sections to resemble the petals of a rose. When prepared in this way, a
small portion of the green top is allowed to remain.


101. SALSIFY is a root vegetable resembling in food value such other
root vegetables as carrots and parsnips. Because it has a flavor similar
to that of oysters, especially when it is used for soup, it has received
the name of _vegetable oyster_. It consists of long slender roots that
are covered with tiny roots. It is somewhat difficult to clean and
prepare, but as it may be stored through the entire winter and is
particularly desirable for the making of soup, it is a valuable

102. In preparing salsify for cooking, scrape the roots rather than peel
them. Then put them in a solution of cold salt water made by using 1
teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water and keep them there until
ready to cook them. This precaution will, to a certain extent, prevent
the discoloration that always takes place in salsify as soon as the skin
is removed. When thus prepared, salsify lends itself to the same forms
of preparation as do the other root vegetables.

103. BUTTERED SALSIFY.--The simplest way in which to cook salsify is to
cut it in thin slices, boil it until tender, and then serve it
with butter.

Wash and scrape the desired quantity of salsify and slice in thin
slices. Put to cook in boiling salted water, and cook until it can be
easily pierced with a fork. Drain off the water, season with pepper and,
if necessary, additional salt, and add 1 tablespoonful of butter for
each four persons to be served. Allow the butter to melt and serve the
salsify hot.

104. CREAMED VEGETABLE OYSTERS.--If creamed vegetables are favored,
vegetable oysters served with a cream sauce will be very much relished.
Clean and scrape the salsify and cut it into 1/4-inch slices. Put to
cook in boiling salted water, cook until tender, and then drain. Make a
medium white sauce and pour this over the cooked vegetable. Heat
together and serve. 105. SCALLOPED VEGETABLE OYSTERS.--A very
appetizing scalloped dish can be made of salsify by following the
directions given in the accompanying recipe.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. cooked vegetable oysters
1 c. bread crumbs
Salt and pepper
1-1/2 c. thin white sauce

Cook the vegetable oysters as explained in Art. 103. Sprinkle a layer of
crumbs in the bottom of a well-greased baking dish, place a layer of the
cooked vegetable oysters on top of this, and season with salt and
pepper. Place a second layer of crumbs and the remainder of the
vegetable oysters in the dish, and sprinkle again with salt and pepper.
Pour the white sauce over this, and put the remainder of the crumbs on
top. Place in a hot oven and bake until well heated through and the top
is brown. Serve from the baking dish.



106. SUMMER SQUASH is a fruit vegetable belonging to the same class as
eggplant, peppers, etc. and occurring in many varieties. The different
kinds of this vegetable vary greatly in size, shape, and color, but all
of them may be prepared in practically the same way and used for the
same purposes. They get their name from the fact that they are grown and
used during the summer season; in fact, they must be used at this time,
for they do not permit of storage.

Summer squash contains a great deal of water, and for this reason its
food value is very low, being about equal to that of lettuce, celery,
etc. Because of the large percentage of water in its composition, as
little water as possible should be added in its cooking, or the result
will be a vegetable so watery as to be unattractive and unpalatable.
Another precaution that should be taken in its preparation is to remove
the seeds and the skins. Many housewives think it unnecessary to do
this, for both the skins and the seeds can be eaten after cooking; but
most persons prefer to have them removed, as the dish appears more
appetizing. _Vegetable marrow_ is a type of summer squash and may be
prepared for the table by any of the recipes for summer squash.

107. STEWED SUMMER SQUASH.--The usual way in which to cook summer squash
is to stew it. If properly cooked and well seasoned, stewed squash makes
a very tasty dish.

Wash and peel the desired number of summer squashes, remove the seeds,
and cut into small pieces. Put over the flame in just enough water to
start the cooking and add sufficient salt to season well. Cook until
tender enough to be pierced with a fork and most of the water is boiled
away, being careful not to scorch. Remove from the fire, season with
pepper, and add 1 tablespoonful of butter for each four persons to be
served. Mash until the squash is as fine as desired and serve at once.

108. SAUTÉD SUMMER SQUASH.--For variety, summer squash is sometimes
sliced, coated with egg and crumbs, and then sautéd until well browned.

To prepare it in this way, wash and peel the squash and cut it into
slices about 1/4 inch thick. Roll first in beaten egg diluted with milk
or water and then in fine crumbs. Sauté in a small amount of fat in a
frying pan until well browned, and then turn and brown on the other
side. Serve hot.


109. WINTER SQUASH is the kind of squash that may be removed from the
vine in the fall and stored for winter use. Although both summer and
winter squashes are closely related, they differ considerably in
appearance, flavor, texture, and composition. The different varieties of
winter squash are usually larger than summer squashes and have a very
hard outside covering; also, they contain less water and more
carbohydrate and, consequently, have a higher food value. Winter
squashes are usually taken from the vines in the fall before the frost
sets in, and before they are placed in storage they are allowed to lie
in the sunshine for a few days until the skin hardens and becomes
flinty. If the outside covering is unmarred when the squashes are
stored, they will remain in good condition almost the entire winter
season, provided the storage place is cool and dry.

110. To prepare winter squash for cooking, cut it open, remove the
seeds, and peel off the outside skin. Because of the hardness of the
covering, a cleaver or a hatchet is generally required to open the
squash and cut it into pieces. With this done, scrape out the seeds and,
with a very sharp large knife, peel off the skin. The squash may then be
cooked in any suitable manner.

111. MASHED SQUASH.--If winter squash is desired as a vegetable, it is
very often boiled and then mashed. Squash prepared in this way, with the
exception of the seasoning, is also used for pie that is similar to
pumpkin; in fact, many persons prefer the flavor of squash pie to that
of pumpkin pie.

Cut pieces of peeled winter squash into cubes about 1 inch in size. Put
these to cook in a small amount of boiling water, add enough salt to
season, and cook until tender and quite dry. Season the cooked squash
with pepper, add 1 tablespoonful of butter for each four persons to be
served, and, if desired to increase the sweet taste, add a small amount
of sugar. Mash until smooth and serve hot.

112. BAKED SQUASH.--Winter squash, because of its hard covering, is very
satisfactory when baked in the shell, as shown in Fig. 19. If it is not
desired to cook it in a whole piece, the squash may be cut into pieces
about 3 inches square or into triangular pieces.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

Remove the seeds from the squash, sprinkle each with salt and pepper,
and dot with butter, as shown. Place in a hot oven directly on the grate
or in a shallow pan, and bake until the contents of the shells are
tender. Remove from the oven, and serve from the shells. If desired, the
squash may be scooped from the shells after baking, seasoned at that
time instead of when put in the oven, and then served in a
vegetable dish.


113. TOMATOES are a fruit vegetable that may be either cooked or
prepared raw in many different ways. They are usually red when ripe, and
because of this color they are particularly attractive on the table.
Green or partly ripe tomatoes are also used in the preparation of many
dishes. Tomatoes are composed largely of water, and for this reason
their food value is low, being about the same as that of greens. This
large proportion of water is also responsible for the fact that they do
not keep for a great length of time. Tomatoes, however, have a long
season. They begin to appear in the market early in the spring and they
may be obtained from this time until the frost kills the vines in
the fall.

114. While tomatoes appeal to the majority of persons, they disagree
with some on account of the acid they contain. This acid is similar to
that found in some fruits, and it is present in greater quantity in
cooked tomatoes than in raw ones, the heating of the vegetable
apparently increasing the acidity. This acidity of tomatoes may be
reduced by the addition of soda, and while soda produces a marked change
in the flavor, it is necessary in the preparation of some dishes. For
instance, in the case of cream-of-tomato soup, soda must be added to
reduce the acidity and thus keep the milk or cream used in preparing
this dish from curdling.

115. The skin of tomatoes, whether they are to be eaten raw or cooked,
is usually undesirable. Therefore, in preparing tomatoes for the table,
the skins are generally removed. In order to do this, first dip the
tomatoes into boiling water for several seconds and then immediately
into cold water. This will loosen the skins, which may then be peeled
off very thinly, and very little of the tomato will be wasted.

116. STEWED TOMATOES.--The usual way of preparing tomatoes is to stew
them. Stewed tomatoes may be served plain, but they can be improved very
decidedly by toasting cubes of bread and adding these to the tomatoes
just before serving.

Remove the skins and stem ends from the desired number of tomatoes, and
either cut the tomatoes into pieces or allow them to remain whole. Put
to cook with little or no water, as the tomatoes themselves usually
provide sufficient water. Season with salt, and cook until the tomatoes
are reduced to a mushy consistency. Just before removing from the stove,
add a dash of pepper and a small amount of butter.

117. SCALLOPED TOMATOES.--A very appetizing way in which to cook
tomatoes is to scallop them according to the accompanying recipe.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. crumbs, buttered
2 c. stewed tomatoes
1 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper
1 Tb. butter

Grease a baking dish and place a layer of the crumbs in the bottom.
Place a layer of tomatoes over them, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and
dot with the butter. Add another layer of crumbs and the remainder of
the tomatoes, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and again dot with butter.
Place the remainder of the crumbs on top. Bake in a hot oven until well
heated through and the crumbs on top are brown. Serve hot from the
baking dish.

118. STUFFED TOMATOES.--Tomatoes prove to be very satisfactory when
stuffed with a well-seasoned stuffing and then baked. Medium-sized
tomatoes that are firm and unblemished should be selected for stuffing.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 tomatoes
1-1/2 c. crumbs
2 Tb. butter
1 small onion, chopped
1 tsp. celery salt
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash of pepper

Remove the stem end from each tomato and scoop out the inside so that a
hollow shell remains. Chop the pulp of the tomatoes into small pieces
and add the crumbs, melted butter, onion, celery salt, salt, and pepper.
Mix together thoroughly. If the tomatoes do not furnish enough liquid to
moisten the crumbs, add a little water. Pack the stuffing into the
tomatoes, allowing it to heap up on top, and place the tomatoes side by
side in a shallow pan. Set in a hot oven and bake until the tomato
shells are tender enough to be pierced with a fork and the stuffing is
well heated through. Serve at once.

[Illustration: FIG. 20]

119. STUFFED TOMATOES WITH CHEESE CARROTS.--An attractive way in which
to serve stuffed tomatoes is shown in Fig. 20. The tomatoes are filled
with a tasty stuffing and then baked. Yellow cream cheese is made to
resemble tiny carrots, and these, together with parsley, are used to
garnish the platter in which the tomatoes are placed.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 medium-sized tomatoes
4 Tb. bacon or ham fat
2 Tb. chopped onion
1/2 c. chopped ham
1-1/2 c. stale bread crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
2 Tb. chopped parsley
Yellow cream cheese

Cut the tops from the tomatoes and remove the pulp. Melt the fat in a
frying pan, add the chopped onion, ham, tomato pulp, bread crumbs, salt,
pepper, and parsley. Heat thoroughly and mix well. Fill the tomatoes
with the stuffing, which should be quite moist, put them in a shallow
pan, and bake them until the tomato shell may be easily pierced with a
fork. Mash yellow cream cheese and, if necessary, moisten it slightly
with cream. Shape it into tiny carrots with the fingers, and put a piece
of parsley in one end for leaves. Place the baked tomatoes on a platter
and garnish with the carrots and sprigs of parsley. Serve.

120. SAUTÉD TOMATOES.--Half ripened tomatoes are delicious when sautéd.
Cut the desired number of such tomatoes into slices about 1/4 inch
thick, and roll first in beaten egg and then in stale bread crumbs or
cracker crumbs. Sauté in a small amount of fat until they are brown on
one side; then turn and brown on the other side. Remove from the pan and
serve at once.

121. CREAMED TOMATOES.--A rather unusual, but nevertheless very
appetizing, way of preparing tomatoes consists in sautéing them in fat
and then serving them with a cream sauce on freshly toasted bread.

When it is desired to prepare tomatoes in this manner, select
medium-sized ones and cut them into slices 1/2 inch thick. Roll the
slices first in egg and then in stale bread crumbs or cracker crumbs.
Sauté in a generous amount of fat until brown, drain carefully, and
brown on the other side. When done, remove from the pan. Add 2
tablespoonfuls of flour to the fat that remains in the pan, and stir
until the flour becomes light brown. Add 1-1/2 cupfuls of milk and stir
until thick. Place the slices of tomato on freshly toasted bread and
pour the sauce over them.


122. TURNIPS, which are a root vegetable, occur in two varieties,
_white_ and _yellow_. The white ones are commonly known as _turnips_ and
the yellow ones are called _rutabagas_. Although differing in color,
both varieties have much the same flavor and may be prepared in the same
ways. Therefore, whenever a recipe calls for turnips, rutabagas may be
used as well.

123. In food value, turnips are similar to beets, carrots, and parsnips.
They have a strong flavor, which is disliked by many persons and
disagrees with some. However, much of this can be dissipated by cooking
them with the cover of the kettle removed, so that when properly
prepared they furnish a pleasant variety to the winter menu. They have
good storing qualities and can be kept very easily through the winter.
Toward spring it is more difficult to cook them soft, as the cellulose
in them becomes harder and they are likely to develop woody fiber.

124. In preparing turnips for cooking, scrub them until thoroughly clean
and then peel, wasting no more of the vegetable than is necessary. They
may then be cut up as desired for the recipe to be prepared.

125. STEWED TURNIPS.--When turnips are stewed until tender and then
seasoned with salt and pepper and flavored with butter they form a very
palatable dish.

To prepare them in this way, select the desired number, scrub them
until clean, and then peel them. Cut them into dice about 1/2 inch in
size, and put these to cook in boiling salted water, allowing the cover
to remain off the kettle during the cooking. Cook until they may be
easily pierced with a fork and drain the water from them. Season with
additional salt, if necessary, and with pepper, and add 1 tablespoonful
of butter for each four persons to be served. Allow the butter to melt
and serve hot.

126. MASHED TURNIPS.--Turnips, like potatoes, are a very good vegetable
to mash. Prepare the desired number in the manner explained in Art. 125.
Cook in boiling salted water with the kettle cover removed. When tender
enough to be mashed easily, drain the water from them, mash with a
potato masher, and season with additional salt if necessary and with
pepper and butter. Allow the butter to melt and serve hot.

127. CREAMED TURNIPS.--Turnips, both yellow and white, make an excellent
dish when dressed with a cream sauce. Prepare the desired number of
turnips by cleaning and peeling them and cutting them into dice about
1/2 inch in size. Cook until tender in boiling salted water and drain.
Prepare a medium white sauce and pour over the turnips. Serve hot.


128. The recipes given for the various kinds of vegetables pertain in
most cases to merely one vegetable, and this is the way in which this
food is usually prepared. However, there are times when it is an
advantage to combine two or more vegetables. For instance, it is
sometimes desired to give additional variety to the menu or to utilize
small quantities of vegetable that alone would not be sufficient to
serve the family. Then, again, two vegetables are often prepared
together in order to obtain an attractive color combination. In view of
these facts, several recipes for the most usual combinations of
vegetables are here given, so that the housewife may not be at a loss
when she wishes to combine two or more vegetables. It must not be
thought that these are the only combinations that can be prepared, for
often vegetables can be combined to suit the housewife's taste
and needs.

129. CARROTS AND PEAS.--If an attractive combination, as well as an
appetizing dish, is desired, carrots and peas should be prepared
together and served with butter or a vegetable or a cream sauce. This
combination may be served plain, but if there are any mashed potatoes on
hand and an attractive dish is desired, it may be served in potato
rosettes, as shown in Fig. 21.

Clean and scrape the desired number of young, tender carrots, and cut
them into dice about the size of the peas that are to be used. Shell an
equal quantity of green peas. Put the two vegetables together in boiling
salted water and cook until tender. If there is any possibility that the
carrots will not cook in as short a period of time as the peas, cook
them for some time before adding the peas. When tender, pour off the
water, add additional salt, if necessary, and pepper, and dress with
butter or, if preferred, with a vegetable or a white sauce. Heat through
thoroughly and serve.

[Illustration: FIG. 21]

If it is desired to serve the carrots and peas in the rosettes
mentioned, force hot mashed potato through a pastry tube and form the
required number of rosettes on a platter, as shown. In the center of
each rosette put a spoonful or two of the carrots and peas.

In case fresh peas cannot be secured, canned peas may be substituted.
When this is done, the carrots should be cooked until tender and the
peas added just before the sauce is poured over the vegetables.

130. SUCCOTASH.--A combination of fresh shelled beans and sweet corn is
known as succotash. To prepare this dish, shell the beans and put them
to cook in boiling salted water. Cook until they are tender and the
water has boiled down until it is greatly reduced in quantity. Then cut
an equal amount of corn from the cob and add to the beans. Cook for a
few minutes longer or until the water is sufficiently reduced, so that
the combination may be served without pouring any water off. Dress with
butter and season with pepper and, if necessary, additional salt.

During the winter, when green corn and fresh beans cannot be secured,
succotash can be made by using dried or canned corn and dried beans.

131. CORN AND TOMATOES.--A somewhat unusual vegetable combination is
made by cooking tomatoes and green corn together.

Prepare the desired number of tomatoes in the usual way for stewing and
cut an equal amount of sweet corn from the cob. Put the two vegetables
together in a saucepan and cook until the tomatoes are well stewed.
Season with salt, pepper, and sugar, if desired, and add a small piece
of butter. Serve hot.

132. CORN, STRING BEANS, AND TOMATOES.--Those who care for the
combination of corn and tomatoes will find beans a very agreeable
addition to this dish.

Prepare the corn and tomatoes as explained in Art. 131, and to them add
young, tender string beans that have been previously cooked in boiling
salted water. Add the desired seasoning and a small amount of butter.
When thoroughly heated, serve.

133. PEAS AND POTATOES.--As a rule, the first green peas and the first
new potatoes come into the market at about the same time. If a delicious
combination is desired, these two vegetables should be cooked together
and then dressed in any desirable way.

Select small potatoes, scrape them, and put them to cook in boiling
salted water. Shell an equal amount of green peas, and add them to the
potatoes about 20 minutes before the potatoes become tender. Cook until
both vegetables are tender, and then drain the water from them. Dress
with butter, vegetable sauce, cream sauce, or thin cream and serve.

134. TURNIPS AND POTATOES.--Persons who are likely to find the flavor of
turnips disagreeable can usually eat them when they are combined
with potatoes.

Pare an equal number of Irish potatoes and turnips and cut them into
thick slices. Put them to cook in boiling salted water and cook with the
cover off the kettle until both are tender. Drain and dress with butter
or add butter and mash together. Serve hot.

135. NEW ENGLAND BOILED DINNER.--A combination of food that is much
used by the people of the New England States and has become famous
throughout the United States, consists of corned beef, potatoes,
turnips, and cabbage. As may well be imagined, such a combination forms
practically all that is necessary for a home dinner.

Select a good piece of corned beef and put it to cook in boiling water.
About 30 minutes before the beef has finished cooking, add additional
water, if necessary, and into this place an equal quantity of Irish
potatoes, turnips, and cabbage prepared in the required way and cut into
thick slices or chunks. Cook until the vegetables are tender. Then
remove the beef to a platter, surround with vegetables, and serve.


136. The way in which vegetables are served depends largely on the
method of preparation. However, a point that should never be neglected,
so far as cooked vegetables are concerned, no matter what plan of
serving is followed, is to see that they are always served hot. To make
this possible, the dishes in which they are served should be heated
before the vegetables are put into them and should be kept hot until put
on the table. When a vegetable dish has a cover, the cover should be
kept on until the vegetable is served and should be replaced after the
first serving, so as to keep the remainder hot.

137. Because of the possible variety in the preparation of this class of
foods, numerous ways of serving them are in practice. When a vegetable
is baked in a large baking dish, the dish should be placed on the table
and the vegetable served from it either on the plate or in individual
dishes. If individual baking dishes are used, these should be set on
small plates and one put at each person's place. Boiled or creamed
vegetables may be served at the table from a vegetable dish, being put
on the plate or in small dishes, or they may be served in individual
dishes in the kitchen, and a dish placed at the left of each person's
place. When the large dish or the baking dish is placed on the table, it
should be placed where the vegetable may be conveniently served by the
host if it is to be put on the dinner plate or by the hostess in case it
is to be served in individual dishes at the table.

138. In addition to being served in these ways, vegetables also lend
themselves to various attractive methods of serving. For instance, a
vegetable prepared with a sauce is frequently served in patty shells,
timbale cases, or croustades. When this is done, the case in which the
vegetable is served is, as a rule, placed directly on the dinner plate.
Potatoes that have been mashed are often forced through a pastry tube
either to garnish another dish or to make a dish of potatoes more
attractive. For instance, when mashed potatoes are to be served, a solid
foundation of the potato may be arranged in the center of a dish and a
little of the mashed potato then forced through the tube to make a
design over the top. Before being served, the dish should be placed in
the oven and the potato browned on top. A little thought on the part of
the housewife will enable her to work out many other attractive methods
in the serving of this food.



(1) (_a_) How do wild and cultivated greens differ? (_b_) What is the
chief use of greens in the diet?

(2) (_a_) What precaution should be observed in washing greens? (_b_)
Mention the procedure in cooking greens having a strong flavor.

(3) (_a_) If greens, such as endive, appear to be withered, how may they
be freshened? (_b_) Explain the use of lettuce as a garnish. (_c_) What
are the uses of parsley?

(4) (_a_) How are Jerusalem artichokes prepared for the table? (_b_)
What part of kohlrabi is used for food? (_c_) How is kohlrabi generally
prepared for cooking?

(5) (_a_) To what class of vegetables do lentils belong? (_b_) Is the
food value of lentils low or high? Discuss.

(6) (_a_) How may the food value of mushrooms be increased? (_b_) How
should mushrooms be prepared for cooking? (_c_) Mention the ways in
which mushrooms may be cooked.

(7) (_a_) What causes onions, especially raw ones, to disagree with many
persons? (_b_) Mention the two general varieties of onions. (_c_) How
are chives prepared when they are to be used for flavoring soups, etc.?

(8) (_a_) How should onion be added to other foods when it is desired
simply as a flavoring? (_b_) How may onions be peeled so as to keep off
the fumes of their volatile oil?

(9) (_a_) How should parsnips be prepared for cooking? (_b_) Tell how to
prepare browned parsnips.

(10) In what way do green and dried peas differ in food value? Explain

(11) Tell how to cook: (_a_) green peas; (_b_) dried peas.

(12) (_a_) What varieties of peppers are generally used as a vegetable?
(_b_) Of what value are peppers?

(13) (_a_) To what may the high food value of potatoes be attributed?
(_b_) How may the quality of potatoes be judged? (_c_) Mention the most
economical way in which to cook potatoes. (14) Tell how to prepare:
(_a_) mashed potatoes; (_b_) baked potatoes. (_c_) How may the baking of
potatoes be hastened? (_d_) Mention several ways in which to utilize
left-over potatoes.

(15) (_a_) How may sweet potatoes be prepared for the table? (_b_) Tell
how to prepare glazed sweet potatoes.

(16) (_a_) How are radishes usually eaten? (_b_) What may be said of the
food value of radishes?

(17) (_a_) In what way do summer and winter squashes differ? (_b_) Why
should the seeds and skins of summer squash be removed in preparing this
vegetable for the table?

(18) (_a_) Why is salsify called vegetable oyster? (_b_) How is salsify
prepared for cooking?

(19) (_a_) What may be said of the food value of tomatoes? (_b_) How may
the acidity of tomatoes be decreased? (_c_) How may the skins of
tomatoes be removed easily?

(20) (_a_) Point out the difference between turnips and rutabagas. (_b_)
When is it advisable to make combination vegetable dishes? (_c_) Mention
several good combinations.

* * * * *



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value and composition of Brussels sprouts,
value and composition of buttermilk,
value and composition of cabbage,
value and composition of carrots,
value and composition of cauliflower,
value and composition of celery,
value and composition of corn,
value and composition of cream,
value and composition of cucumbers,
value and composition of dandelion greens,
value and composition of dried beans,
value and composition of dried lentils,
value and composition of dried peas,
value and composition of eggplant,
value and composition of endive,
value and composition of French artichokes,
value and composition of green peas,
value and composition of greens,
value and composition of Jerusalem artichokes,
value and composition of kohlrabi,
value and composition of lettuce,
value and composition of lima beans,
value and composition of mushrooms,
value and composition of okra,
value and composition of onions,
value and composition of parsnips,
value and composition of peppers,
value and composition of potatoes,
value and composition of radishes,
value and composition of salsify,
value and composition of shell beans,
value and composition of spinach,
value and composition of string beans,
value and composition of summer squash,
value and composition of sweet potatoes,
value and composition of Swiss chard,
value and composition of tomatoes,
value and composition of turnips,
value and composition of vegetables, Table showing,
value and composition of watercress,
value and composition of whey,
value and composition of winter squash,
value and varieties of greens,
value of potatoes,
value of vegetables, Structure, composition and,
value of whole milk,
values of milk products, Comparison of,
Foods containing milk,
Foreign cheese,
French artichokes,
artichokes, Preparation of,
fried potatoes,
Fresh shell beans, Preparation and cooking of,
Freshness of milk,
Fried eggs,
Fritters, Corn,
Fruit and flower vegetables,
Junket with,


Glazed sweet potatoes,
Gorgonzola cheese,
Grades of clean milk,
Green onions,
peas, English style,
peas with butter,
Greens and their preparation,
Food value of,
General directions for cooking,
Varieties of,
Gruyère cheese,


Hard-cooked eggs,
Hash-browned potatoes,
Holland cheese,
Hollandaise sauce,
sauce, Artichokes with,
Home, Keeping milk clean in the,
Keeping milk cool in the,
-made cheese, American,
Milk in the,
preservation of eggs,
Hot slaw,


Imported cheese,
Individual baking dishes for egg recipes,
Irish potatoes,
Italian cheeses,


Jellied, or soft-cooked, eggs,
Jerusalem artichokes,
artichokes, Composition and food value of,
artichokes, Preparation of,
Judging the quality of eggs in the home,
the quality of eggs in the market,
cottage cheese,
Recipes for,
with fruit,


Kinds of cheese,
Composition and food value,
Preparation of,


Lactic acid,
Left-over eggs,
Lentil puff,
Cooking of,
Preparation of,
Composition and food value of,
Lima-bean loaf,
beans, Composition and food value of,
beans en casserole,
beans in cream,
Limburg cheese,
Limburger cheese,
Lime in milk,
Limewater, Preservation of eggs with,
Loaf, Cheese-and macaroni,
Lima Bean,
Luncheon menu,
Lyonnaise potatoes,


Maître d'hôtel sauce,
Marketing of eggs,
Marrow, Vegetable,
Mashed kohlrabi,
sweet potatoes,
Medium white sauce,
white sauce for vegetables,
Menu, Breakfast,
Methods of cooking applied to vegetables,
Adulteration of,
Albumin in,
and cream, Standard grading of,
caps, Sanitary,
Carbohydrate in,
Care of,
Casein in,
Milk, Characteristics of wholesome,
Cleanliness of,
Composition and food value of skim,
Composition of,
Composition of whole,
composition, Standard of,
dishes and sauces, Recipes for,
Fat in,
Foods containing,
Freshness of,
Grades of clean,
in cooking, Ways of using,
in the diet,
in the home,
in the home, Necessity for care of,
Mineral matter in,
Points to be observed in cooking,
products, Comparison of food value of,
Products obtained from,
Protein in,
Purchase of,
Water in,
Mineral matter in milk,
matter, or ash, in vegetables,
Minerals in eggs,
Modified milk,
Monkey, English,
and chestnuts, Creamed,
and their preparation,
Composition and food value of,
for cooking, Preparing,


Navy beans, Stewed,
Neufchâtel cheese,
New England boiled dinner,
Nutritive value of eggs,


Composition and food value of,
Preparation of,
with tomatoes,
Omelet, Cheese,
Omelets, Variety in,
Onion family, Varieties of the,
Composition and food value of,
for flavoring,
for the table,
Preparation of,
Oyster, Vegetable,
Oysters, Corn,
Creamed vegetable,
Scalloped vegetable,


Parmesan cheese,
Composition and food value of,
Preparation of,
Pasteurized milk,
Patties, Potato,
and carrots,
and potatoes,
and their preparation,
Composition and food value of dried,
Food value and composition of green,
in turnip cups,
Composition and food value of,
Preparation of,
Perishable vegetables,
Pickled beets,
Plain junket,
Poached eggs,
eggs on toast,
Potato balls,
and peas,
and turnips,
au gratin,
Baked sweet,
Boiled sweet,
Care of,
Composition and food value of,
Composition and food value of sweet,
Cooked sautéd,
French fried,
Glazed sweet,
Mashed sweet,
Preparation of,
Raw sautéd,
Selection of,
Powdered eggs,
Preparation and cooking of beets,
and cooking of cabbage,
and cooking of fresh shell beans,
and cooking of string beans,
and cooking of vegetables, General methods of,
of asparagus for cooking,
of beans,
of beets,
of Brussels sprouts,
of cabbage,
of carrots,
of cauliflower,
of celery,
of corn,
of cucumbers,
of eggplant,
of eggs for cooking, Preliminary,
of French artichokes,
of greens,
of kohlrabi,
of Jerusalem artichokes,
Preparation of lentils,
of mushrooms,
of mushrooms for cooking,
of okra,
of onions,
of parsnips,
of peas,
of peppers,
of potatoes,
of radishes,
of salsify,
of squash,
of tomatoes,
of turnips,
Preparing vegetables for cooking,
Preservation of eggs,
of eggs with limewater,
of eggs with water glass,
Preserved milk,
Production, origin, and use of cheese,
Products, Comparison of food value of milk,
obtained from milk,
Protein in eggs,
in milk,
in vegetables,
Puff, Lentil,
Pulp, Corn,
Purchase of milk,
of vegetables,
Purchasing butter,
Purée, Bean,
Purple cabbage,


Quality of cheese,
of eggs,
of eggs in the home, Judging the,
of eggs in the market, Judging the,


Food value and composition of,
Preparation of,
Rarebit, Welsh,
Raw sautéd potatoes,
Recipes, Egg,
for cheese dishes,
for junket,
for milk dishes and sauces,
for white sauce,
Renovated butter,
Root, tuber, and bulb vegetables,
Roquefort cheese,
Rotary, or Dover, egg beater,


Composition and food value of,
Preparation of,
Sapsago cheese,
Sandwiches, Cheese,
Sanitary milk caps,
Sauce, Black-butter,
for creamed string beans,
for vegetables, Medium white,
Maître d'hôtel,
Medium white,
Recipes for white,
Thick white,
Thin white,
Sauces and milk dishes, Recipes for,
for vegetables,
Sauerkraut, Baked,
with spareribs,
Sautéd eggplant,
summer squash,
Savoy cabbage,
Scalloped asparagus,
Brussels sprouts,


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