Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 4
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 2 out of 6

they will be fresh when they are served. To accomplish this, they may be
wrapped first in oiled paper and then in a damp towel, or if oiled
paper is not in supply, the towel alone will answer the purpose,
provided it is not made too damp and a dry towel is wrapped on
the outside.

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108. Often it is desired to serve bread and butter with a certain dish
and yet something more is wanted than just two pieces of bread spread
with butter and put together. While bread-and-butter sandwiches are
probably the simplest kind that can be made, variety can be obtained in
them if the housewife will exercise a little ingenuity. Fig. 25 shows
what can be done in the way of bread-and-butter sandwiches with very
little effort, for the two plates on the left contain sandwiches made
merely of bread and butter.

[Illustration: Fig. 25]

109. ROUND SANDWICHES.--The round sandwiches on the rear left plate in
Fig. 25 can be made of brown bread or of white bread, or both varieties
may be served in the event that some one does not care for brown bread.
To make these, cut slices of bread from a loaf and, by means of a round
cutter, cut them round in shape. Out of the top slice of each sandwich,
cut a round hole with a small round cutter or a thimble. After spreading
both slices with butter and placing them together, cut a thick slice
from a stuffed olive and insert this in the hole in the top slice.

110. RIBBON SANDWICHES.--The sandwiches on the plate in front in Fig.
25 are known as ribbon sandwiches. To make these, cut white bread and
graham bread in very thin slices, butter them, and then alternate a
slice of white with a slice of graham until there are three or four
layers. Place the pile under a weight until the butter becomes hard and
then cut down in thin slices. The attractive sandwiches here shown will
be the result.

111. CHECKERBOARD SANDWICHES.--Another way of serving bread and butter
is in the form of checkerboard sandwiches. These are no more difficult
to make than the ribbon sandwiches, but the slices of the bread must be
cut evenly and all must be of the same thickness. In addition, the bread
should be firm and close-grained and the butter should be put on thickly
enough to make the slices of bread stick together. Cut three slices each
of graham bread and white bread 1/2 inch in thickness. Spread one side
of each slice thickly with butter. Place a slice of graham between two
slices of white bread and a slice of white between two slices of graham.
Trim these piles evenly and cut them into 1/2-inch slices. Butter these
slices and put them together so that brown bread will alternate with
white and white with brown. Place the slices under a weight in a cool
place until the butter becomes perfectly hard. Then cut them into thin
slices for serving and they will be found to resemble a checkerboard.


112. Certain vegetables may be used with bread and butter to make very
appetizing sandwiches. The vegetables most often used for this purpose
are lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, celery, and onions. Generally, when
vegetables are to be used for sandwich filling, the sandwiches should be
made immediately before they are to be served, as they are apt to become
moist if they are allowed to stand very long. An exception to this is
celery sandwiches, which are made in the form of rolls and which must
stand piled close together for some time in order for the butter to
become hard enough to stick them together.

113. LETTUCE SANDWICHES.--Cut white bread into slices about 1/4 inch
thick and spread these thinly with butter. Place a leaf or two of tender
lettuce between each two slices and spread with thick salad dressing.
Put the slices of bread together, trim off the edges of the lettuce and
the crusts if desired, and serve.

114. TOMATO SANDWICHES.--Slice bread about 1/4 inch thick and spread the
slices with butter. Peel firm red tomatoes and cut them into thin
slices. Cover one slice of bread with a slice of tomato, spread this
with thick salad dressing, and, if desired, place a lettuce leaf over
this. Cover with a second slice of bread, trim the edges, and serve.

115. CUCUMBER SANDWICHES.--Peel and slice into thin slices a
medium-sized cucumber that does not contain large seeds. Place the
slices in very cold water to make them crisp. Slice bread about 1/4 inch
thick and spread the slices with butter. Place thin slices of cucumber
on one piece, spread with thick salad dressing, and put a lettuce leaf
on top of this, if desired. Cover with the second slice of bread, trim
the edges, and serve.

[Illustration: Fig. 26]

116. ROLLED CELERY SANDWICHES.--Cut 1/4-inch slices from a comparatively
fresh loaf of bread. Trim the crusts and spread with butter. Cut the
stems of tender celery into pieces that are as long as the bread is
wide. Place the celery on one edge of the bread, fill the center of the
stem with salad dressing, and roll the celery into the bread like a
jelly roll. Place a moist napkin in the bottom of a bread pan and stack
the rolls in rows, with the loose edge down, so that they will stay
rolled. When all have been placed in the pan, fold the edges of the
napkin across the top and allow them to stand for a few hours before
serving. This cannot be done with bread that is dry. If the sandwiches
are to be served at once, the edges will have to be tied or fastened
with toothpicks.

In case it is desired not to use celery in rolled sandwiches, a filling
of cream cheese or jam may be added after the bread is buttered and each
piece then rolled in the manner explained. An idea of how attractive
rolled sandwiches are may be obtained from Fig. 26. When served in a
decorated sandwich basket, as shown, these sandwiches give a very dainty
touch to a luncheon or a tea.

117. ONION-AND-PEPPER SANDWICHES.--Cut bread into slices about 1/4 inch
thick and spread these with butter. Slice Spanish or Bermuda onions into
thin slices and cut a green pepper into thin rings. Place a slice of the
onion on one piece of buttered bread and on top of this put two or three
rings of green pepper. If desired, spread with salad dressing, or merely
season the onion with salt and pepper. Place the second slice of bread
on top, trim the edges, and serve.


118. Sandwiches that have fruit for their filling appeal to many
persons. For the most part, dried fruits are used for this purpose and
they usually require cooking. Another type of fruit sandwich is that
which has jelly or marmalade for its filling. As fruit sandwiches are
sweet and not very hearty, they are much served for afternoon tea or to
provide variety when another kind of sandwich is being served.

119. DATE SANDWICHES.--To any one who desires a sweet sandwich, the date
sandwich in the accompanying recipe will be found to be very agreeable.
Not all sandwich fillings seem to be satisfactory with other bread than
white, but the filling here given can be utilized with white, graham, or
whole-wheat bread.


3/4 c. dates
1/4 c. nut meats
1/2 lemon

Wash the dates and remove the seeds. Steam them over hot water or in a
double boiler until they are soft, and then mash them thoroughly.
Squeeze the juice from the lemon, grate the yellow part of the rind and
mix with the juice, and add both to the steamed dates. Then add the nut
meats chopped very fine.

To make the sandwiches, cut thin slices of bread and spread one slice
with butter and the corresponding slice with the date filling. Place the
two together, trim the crusts if desired, and serve.

120. FRUIT SANDWICHES.--The three fruits mentioned in the accompanying
recipe may be used in equal proportions as here given, only two of them
may be utilized, or the proportions may be changed to suit the supply
on hand. This sandwich may be made with white bread, brown bread, graham
bread, or whole-wheat bread.


1/2 c. dates
1/2 c. raisins
1/2 c. figs
1 orange

Wash the dates, figs, and raisins, and remove the stones from the dates.
Steam all together until they are soft, mash thoroughly, and add the
juice and the grated rind of the orange.

Cut thin slices of bread, spread one slice with butter, and spread the
opposite slice with this filling. Place the two together, trim the edges
if desired, and serve.

121. APRICOT SANDWICHES.--To people who are fond of apricots, sandwiches
containing apricot filling are very delicious. If jelly or marmalade is
plentiful, it may be used in place of the apricots to make the sandwich.


1/2 c. dried apricots
1/4 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 c. sugar
1 Tb. lemon juice

Wash and soak the apricots, and when they are thoroughly softened cook
them until tender in just enough water to keep them from burning. Put
them through a sieve or a colander and add the sugar, cinnamon, and
lemon juice to the pulp. Place over the fire and cook until the mixture
becomes thick, stirring constantly to keep it from scorching. Set
aside to cool.

Cut bread into thin slices, butter one slice, and spread the other of
each pair of slices with the apricot filling. Put each two slices
together and trim the edges if desired. Serve.

122. JELLY AND MARMALADE SANDWICHES.--Jelly and marmalade always make
acceptable filling for sandwiches, and as these foods are usually in
supply sandwiches containing them require less trouble to prepare than
do most sandwiches. Then, too, if two kinds of sandwiches are to be
served for a tea or a little lunch, sandwiches of this kind are very
nice for the second one. They are made in the usual way, but if the
jelly or marmalade is very thin, it is an excellent plan to spread each
slice of bread used for the sandwich thinly with butter so that the
filling will not soak into the bread.

Slices of Boston brown bread steamed in small round cans, such as
baking-powder cans, and a filling of jelly or marmalade make dainty
little sandwiches for afternoon tea.


123. When sandwiches of a substantial nature are desired, those in which
high-protein foods are used as fillings will be found very acceptable.
Here considerable variety may be had, for there are a number of these
foods that make excellent fillings. Some sandwiches of this kind are
suitable for serving with salads while others, such as those containing
meat or chicken, are very satisfactory for picnics or light lunches.

124. JELLY-AND-CREAM-CHEESE SANDWICHES.--A sandwich that is very dainty
as well as unusually good is made by using both jelly and cream cheese
for filling. Sandwiches of this kind are shown on the plate to the right
in Fig. 25. If a red jelly, such as currant jelly, is used, the
appearance of the sandwich will be better than if a light jelly or a
very dark jelly is used.

Cut the bread very thin and match three slices for the sandwich instead
of two. Spread the first piece thinly with butter and spread the
opposite side of the second piece with jelly. Place this on the buttered
bread and spread the other side with cream cheese. Spread another piece
with butter and place this on top of the cream cheese. Trim the edges if
desired, and cut into narrow strips. Serve.

125. RYE-BREAD-AND-CHEESE SANDWICHES.--Rye bread and cheese make a
favored combination with many persons. Swiss cheese is an excellent kind
to serve with rye bread, but the American-made Cheddar cheese does very
nicely if the other cannot be procured.

Cut rye bread into slices about 1/4 inch thick. Spread them very thinly
with butter, and between each two slices place a thin slice of the
cheese. Serve mustard with sandwiches of this kind for any one who may
desire it.

126. CHEESE SANDWICHES.--Cheese combined with pimiento, sweet pickles,
olives, and nuts makes a filling that has an excellent flavor.
Sandwiches containing this filling will be found to be very good for
picnics or lunches. Their food value, which, of course, is high, depends
somewhat on the amount of filling used.


1/4 lb. cheese
1/4 c. English walnut meats
1 pimiento
1/2 doz. olives, cut from stones
2 sweet pickles

Put the cheese through a grinder unless it is soft enough to mash. Chop
the pimiento, pickles, nuts, and olives quite fine and add the cheese.
Work together with a spoon. Cut bread into thin slices, spread one piece
with butter, the other one with the cheese filling, place the two
together, trim if desired, and serve.

127. CHEESE-AND-NUT SANDWICHES.--Cream cheese is used in the
accompanying recipe, but other cheese may be substituted for it if
desired. Sandwiches containing this filling are high in both protein and
fat, and may be served very nicely with a vegetable salad.


1 pkg. cream cheese
1/3 c. English walnut meats
4 Tb. salad dressing

Mash the cheese with a spoon and add the salad dressing. Just before
making the sandwiches, add the nut meats, which have been chopped very
fine. If this mixture is put together and allowed to stand for any
length of time before serving, the filling will grow dark.

Cut bread thinly, butter one slice, place filling on the opposite slice,
put together, trim if desired, and serve.

128. PEANUT-BUTTER SANDWICHES.--Peanut butter alone makes a rather dry
sandwich, as it has a peculiar consistency that makes it difficult to
swallow without moistening. This condition can be overcome by adding a
little salad dressing to the peanut butter.

Place a few tablespoonfuls of peanut butter in a bowl and pour a
sufficient amount of salad dressing into it to moisten it enough to
spread. Season with salt. Cut slices of bread thin, spread one piece
with butter, the opposite piece with peanut butter, place together, trim
if desired, and serve.

129. HARD-COOKED-EGG SANDWICHES.--An excellent sandwich filling can be
made by seasoning hard-cooked eggs and combining them with vinegar. To
make this filling, cook the desired number of eggs until they are hard.
Remove them from the shells and put them through a sieve. Season well
with salt and pepper and then add sufficient vinegar to make them of a
good consistency to spread. Cut bread thin, spread one piece with
butter, and the opposite piece with the egg mixture. Put them together,
trim the edges if desired, and serve.

130. MEAT SANDWICHES.--Cold cooked meat may be used in sandwiches in
the usual way by putting thin slices between buttered bread, or it may
be put through the grinder or chopped finely and then mixed with salad
dressing until thin enough to spread. With the meat may also be chopped
pickles, olives, a small amount of onion, green pepper, pimiento, or
anything desired for flavoring. Left-over roast meat that will not slice
very well and trimmings from ham may be utilized in this way.

When a filling of chopped meat is to be used, slice bread thin, spread
one slice with butter and the opposite slice with the meat filling. Put
together, trim if desired, and serve.

131. CHICKEN SANDWICHES.--Cold chicken sliced thinly, put between pieces
of crisp toast, and spread with salad dressing, makes a sandwich that is
most delicious and offers a pleasant change from the usual plain-bread
sandwich. Cut bread 1/4 inch thick and toast it a delicate brown on both
sides. Spread thinly with butter when it comes from the toaster. Between
each two pieces place thin slices of chicken. Spread the chicken with a
small amount of salad dressing, place a lettuce leaf on top of this, and
cover with a second piece of toast. Serve.

132. CHICKEN-SALAD SANDWICHES.--When there is on hand only a small
amount of chicken that is perhaps not in the right condition for
slicing, it is a good plan to make a salad of it and use this for
sandwich filling. If necessary, a little veal or pork may be used with
the chicken.


1 c. cold meat
1 hard-cooked egg
1/2 c. chopped celery
Salad dressing
1 small onion

Chop all the ingredients very fine, mix together, and season well with
salt and pepper. Add sufficient salad dressing to moisten well. Cut
bread thin and spread a slice with butter and another slice with the
sandwich mixture. Place a lettuce leaf over this, put the two pieces of
bread together, trim and serve.


133. All the sandwiches thus far discussed are served cold, but various
hot sandwiches can also be made. As these generally have meat or a
high-protein food for their filling, they may be used as the main dish
in the meal in which they are served. Sandwiches of this kind are
excellent for a light luncheon or for supper.

134. HOT-MEAT SANDWICHES.--If both meat and gravy remain from a roast, a
very excellent luncheon dish may be made by slicing the meat thin,
placing it on slices of bread, and pouring the gravy, which has been
heated, over both the bread and meat. There may be a second layer of
bread on top of the meat if desired.

135. HOT FRIED-EGG SANDWICHES.--A very good way in which to serve eggs
is to sauté them and then make sandwiches of them. Spread slices of
bread thinly with butter. Break the desired number of eggs into a frying
pan with melted butter or other fat, season with salt and pepper, and
fry on one side. Then turn and fry on the other side until the yolk
becomes quite hard. Place an egg on one slice of the buttered bread,
place a second slice over this, and serve while hot.

136. HAM-AND-EGG SANDWICHES.--The combination of ham and eggs is always
a good one, but it becomes especially palatable when used in a sandwich,
as here explained. Slice boiled ham into thin slices and sauté in hot
fat for a few minutes. Then break into a bowl as many eggs as will be
required, beat slightly, and pour over the slices of ham in the frying
pan. When the mass has cooked well on one side, turn and cook on the
opposite side. There should not be sufficient egg to make this very
thick. Season well with salt and pepper and when the mixture is
thoroughly cooked, cut it into pieces of a size to fit the bread used
for the sandwiches. Cut the bread, butter it slightly, place a piece of
the ham-and-egg mixture between each two slices of bread, and serve hot.
If desired, toast may be used in place of bread and a more delicious
sandwich will be the result.

137. CLUB SANDWICHES.--Nothing in the way of sandwiches is more
delicious than club sandwiches if they are properly made. They involve a
little more work than most sandwiches, but no difficulty will be
experienced in making them if the directions here given are carefully
followed. The ingredients necessary for sandwiches of this kind are
bread, lettuce, salad dressing, bacon, and chicken. The quantity of each
required will depend on whether a two- or a three-layer sandwich is made
and the number of sandwiches to be served.

Cut the bread into slices about 1/4 inch thick and cut each slice
diagonally across to form two triangular pieces. Trim the crust and
toast the bread on a toaster until it is a light brown on both sides and
then butter slightly if desired. Slice chicken into thin slices. Broil
strips of bacon until they are crisp. On a slice of toast, place a
lettuce leaf and then a layer of sliced chicken, and spread over this a
small quantity of salad dressing, preferably mayonnaise. On top of this,
place strips of the broiled bacon and then a second slice of toast. If
desired, repeat the first layer and place on top of it a third slice of
toast. This should be served while the bacon is still hot. Thin slices
of tomato may also be used in each layer of this sandwich if desired.

138. CHEESE DREAMS.--With persons who are fond of melted cheese, a
favorite kind of sandwich is that known as cheese dreams. These make a
good dish for a Sunday evening supper or for an evening lunch.

Cut bread about 1/4 inch thick. Cut slices of cheese about half as
thick, and between each two slices of bread place a slice of the cheese.
Place these on a broiler, broil first on one side and then on the other
until the cheese is thoroughly melted, or sauté the sandwiches in a
frying pan with melted butter, first on one side and then on the other.
Serve while hot.


139. If sandwiches that are entirely different and at the same time
attractive are desired for an afternoon tea or to serve with a salad,
open sandwiches will undoubtedly find favor. Fig. 27 illustrates several
varieties of such sandwiches and shows how artistically they can be
made. These are merely submitted as suggestions, but with a little
ingenuity, the housewife may work out in designs any ideas she may have.
To make such sandwiches attractive, fancy cutters of various shapes will
be found helpful. As here shown, round, diamond-shaped, crescent-shaped,
triangular, and star-shaped cutters have been used.

140. The most suitable materials for open sandwiches include cream
cheese, jam, stuffed olives, chopped parsley, hard-cooked eggs with the
yolks or whites forced through a ricer, pimiento cut into attractive
shapes, and any other material that will add either flavor or color.
Either white or brown bread may be used. After cutting the bread in the
preferred shapes, spread first with butter, if desired, and then with
cream cheese, jam, or jelly. With this done, decorate the sandwiches in
any desired way. Slices of stuffed olives are placed in the center of
several here shown and strips or small pieces of pimiento are used for
much of the decoration. On those that have jam or jelly for their
foundation, cream cheese put through a pastry tube forms the decoration.

[Illustration: FIG. 27, Plate of decorative open-faced sandwiches.]

141. If an accompaniment for a salad is desired and time will not permit
the making of open sandwiches, small crisp crackers, decorated with
cream cheese, as shown in Fig. 28, will be a very good substitute. These
are excellent with a vegetable or a fruit salad; also, when served after
the dessert they make a good final course to a meal.

[Illustration: FIG. 28, Plate of crackers decorated with cream cheese.]

To prepare them, add cream to cream cheese until it is thin enough to be
forced through a pastry bag. Using the rosette tube in the bag, make a
single rosette in the center of each wafer. Dust with paprika and serve.

142. CANAPES.--Although differing somewhat from the open sandwiches that
have been described, canapes are usually placed under this head.
_Canapes_ are small pieces of bread toasted or sautéd in butter and then
spread with some highly seasoned material, such as caviar, anchovy
paste, well-seasoned smoked or canned salmon, or a vegetable mixture.
They are served either hot or cold as an appetizer or as a first course
for lunch or dinner.

To make canapes, toast or sauté slices of bread and cut them into any
shape desired. Cover each piece with a thin layer of the material to be
used and then decorate in any of the ways shown in Fig. 27 or in any
other manner. Sometimes a thin layer of tomato is used, but often just a
border of some material of contrasting color, such as the yolk of egg
forced through a ricer, finely chopped parsley, a thin strip of
pimiento, etc., is placed around the edge.

* * * * *



(1) Discuss the importance of salads and their value in the diet.

(2) In planning meals to include salads, what rules should be observed
in order to make the meals balance properly?

(3) Of what value to the salads are the accompaniments often served with

(4) What ingredients used in salads make them satisfactory as
high-protein salads?

(5) How is fat usually supplied in making salads?

(6) What salad ingredients are of the most value for supplying mineral

(7) To what extent are vegetables and fruits combined in making salads?

(8) Of what value are salads in the use of leftovers?

(9) (a) What is meant by garnishing salads? (b) How may coarse lettuce
be used to advantage for garnish?

(10) (a) Describe the best quality of olive oil. (b) What other kinds of
oils may be used as salad oils?

(11) (a) What ingredients beside oil are included in the making of the
various kinds of salad dressings? (b) What is the value of each?

(12) Describe the ideal condition of ingredients used for salads.

(13) How may salad ingredients be freshened if they have become wilted?

(14) Describe the cleaning of lettuce for salad.

(15) (a) When may a salad serve as a dessert? (b) In making a salad that
contains nuts, when should they be added?

(16) (a) Tell how and why marinating is done. (b) What kind of salads
should always be marinated?

(17) At what time during a meal is the salad served when it is used as a
separate course?

(18) (a) Give several points that must be observed if mayonnaise
dressing is to be successfully made. (b) What utensil is best for the
cooking of boiled salad dressing? Tell why.

(19) (a) Describe the bread that may be used to best advantage for
sandwiches. (b) Into what shapes may sandwiches be cut so that there
will be no waste of bread?

(20) (a) How should butter be prepared for spreading sandwiches? (b) How
may sandwiches be kept moist when they are prepared some time before
they are to be served?


Give a recipe for an original salad in which at least one ingredient is
a left-over.


* * * * *



1. A dessert always consists of sweet food of some kind, and in the
usual meal it is served as the last course. Sometimes, especially in
more elaborate meals, another course, such as cheese and coffee, may
follow, but ordinarily the dessert is the last food that is served.

The eating of something sweet after the heavy course of a meal has
undoubtedly become a habit with almost every person. At any rate, a
dinner in which a dessert is not included generally leaves one
unsatisfied and gives the feeling that the meal has not been properly
completed. Some housewives, however, make the mistake of serving a heavy
dessert after a large meal, with the result that those served leave the
table feeling they have had too much to eat. If this occurs, the same
combination of food should be avoided another time and a simple dessert
used to follow a dinner that is already sufficiently heavy.

2. There is nothing fixed about the dessert course of a meal. It may be
very simple or it may be as complicated and elaborate as desired. To
make an elaborate dessert usually requires a good deal of time, and
unless time and care can be devoted to such a dessert it should not be
attempted. However, whether a dessert is simple or elaborate, it should
always be made sufficiently attractive to appeal to an appetite that is
already almost satisfied. Besides providing a chance to end a meal in an
attractive and appetizing way, it offers a splendid opportunity to carry
out a color scheme that may be adopted for a meal. Of course, this is
seldom done, except for a party or a company meal, for a color scheme
has no particular value other than to appeal to the esthetic sense.

3. The cost of desserts is also a matter that may be varied. For
instance, it may be low, as in plain rice pudding, which contains merely
rice and milk, or it may be high, as in such concoctions as mousse or
parfait, which may contain cream, eggs, gelatine, and fruit. It is
possible then, with correct planning, to make the price of the dessert
equalize the cost of the meal. For example, if the previous courses have
contained expensive foods, the dessert should be an economical one,
whereas an expensive one is permissible either when an elaborate meal is
desired or when the cheapness of the food served before the dessert
warrants greater expense in the final dish.

4. The fact that desserts are often a means of economically utilizing
left-over foods should not be overlooked. A famous cooking expert is
responsible for the statement that any edible left-over may be utilized
in the making of soup, salad, or dessert. This is an important truth to
keep in mind, for, with the exception of a knowledge of the correct
purchase and cooking of foods, nothing makes so much for economy in
cookery as the economical use of leftovers.

5. Desserts are really of two kinds: those which are heavy, such as hot
puddings and pastry, and those which are light or of a less substantial
nature, such as gelatine, custards, ices, etc. In general, light
desserts are either frozen or allowed to cool before they are used and
consequently may be made some time before the serving of the meal. It is
with desserts of this kind that this Section deals, the heavier desserts
being discussed elsewhere.


6. Attention should be paid to the composition and food value of
desserts in order that the meals in which they are served may be
properly balanced. For instance, when a housewife understands the value
of the ingredients used in the preparation of a dessert, she will be
able to determine the kind of dessert necessary to supply what is
lacking in the meal. Of course, if she first decides on a particular
dessert that she wants to serve, it will be necessary for her to plan
the other dishes accordingly. This, however, is not the logical way in
which to plan meals. It is much more reasonable to have the dessert
supply anything that the meal may lack in the way of food constituents.

In considering the food value of desserts, it should be remembered that
they are just as valuable as the ingredients they contain. The
ingredients in which this class of foods is highest are carbohydrate in
the form of starch or sugar or both, protein, especially when eggs in
any quantity are used, and fat.

7. CARBOHYDRATE IN DESSERTS.--As a rule, the carbohydrate in desserts is
obtained from two sources. It is furnished by the sugar, honey, or other
sweetening that is added to the mixture, or it is in the form of starch
added to thicken, as in the case of corn starch, or material actually
used as the basis of the dessert itself, such as rice, tapioca, bread,
etc. These ingredients are, of course, easily digested if they are
properly cooked. On the whole, desserts can therefore be regarded as
high-carbohydrate foods.

8. PROTEIN IN DESSERTS.--Protein is usually supplied in desserts by
means of eggs and milk. Custard made almost exclusively of these two
foods is sufficiently high in protein to be taken into account in the
planning of the main dish for the meal. Because of the presence of this
food substance in many desserts, proper cooking is a matter to which
attention must be given, for it makes for digestibility as well as
consistency. Cream added to desserts also supplies a little protein. If
wheat flour is used, it adds a small amount of protein in the form of
gluten. Most of the starchy preparations, such as tapioca, rice, corn
starch, etc., however, are almost entirely devoid of protein material.
Gelatine desserts are sometimes thought to be high-protein foods, but,
as is explained elsewhere, gelatine is not regarded as true protein. If
such desserts are to contain protein, it must come from some
other source.

9. FAT IN DESSERTS.--Fat is usually added to desserts in the form of
cream. Sometimes, a little butter is used in the making of a dessert,
but for the most part the chief source of fat in desserts is the plain
or whipped cream that is added to them or served with them.


10. ATTRACTIVENESS OF DESSERTS.--Attractiveness, as has been mentioned,
is essential in a dessert if it is to appeal to an appetite that may be
nearly satisfied by the time the dessert course is reached. To render
dessert attractive, it should be carefully made and artistically
garnished and served. It may be made to appeal through a sense of
beautiful proportion, an attractive color combination, or an attractive
or artistic preparation. Because sweets are liked by most persons, it is
seldom difficult to prepare attractive desserts. Indeed, the housewife
who fails in this respect may be said to be unsuccessful in the easiest
part of cookery.

11. ECONOMICAL USE OF INGREDIENTS.--The ingredients required for dessert
making are usually expensive ones, although there are some marked
exceptions to this rule. In view of this fact, the housewife should
strive to use economically the various ingredients she purchases. For
instance, the first strawberries, which, because of their scarcity, are
much more expensive than the later ones, may be made to go much further
if they are used in shortcake than if they are served as plain fruit. In
making a fruit gelatine, apples and bananas, while they may not be so
attractive as canned pineapple and maraschino cherries, are much cheaper
and may be used for a considerable portion of the fruit that is put into
the gelatine. Then, too, it is well to remember that cream goes much
further with desserts when it is whipped than when it is served plain.

12. APPLYING COOKERY RULES TO DESSERTS.--If the best results in dessert
making are to be obtained, the rules that govern the cooking of various
ingredients in other dishes should be observed. For instance, eggs
should not be cooked at a higher temperature in making desserts than
when they are being poached. Then, again, starchy materials that are
used to thicken desserts or that form a basis for these dishes must be
thoroughly cooked in order to be agreeable and digestible. Therefore, to
put both starchy materials and eggs into a dessert at the same time and
give them the same amount of cooking at the same temperature, is, as the
woman who understands cookery knows, not only a very poor plan, but a
possible means of ruining good material. Another waste of good material
results when a custard is so prepared that it is half water or when a
rice or a bread pudding floats in liquid that was never intended to be
served with it. Again, nothing is less tasty than a corn-starch pudding
or a blanc mange in which the starch has not been thoroughly cooked or a
tapioca pudding in which the centers of the tapioca are hard and
uncooked. Such mistakes as these, however, can be avoided if the
housewife will apply to desserts the principles she has learned in other
parts of cookery, for knowledge coupled with care in preparation is the
keynote of successful dessert making.

The cookery methods usually applied in the preparation of desserts are
boiling, steaming, dry steaming, and baking. As these methods are
explained in _Essentials of Cookery_, Part 1, and are used constantly in
the preparation of the majority of dishes served in a meal, they should
by this time be so well understood that practically no difficulty will
be experienced in applying them to desserts.

* * * * *



13. SAUCES.--Many cold desserts may be served without any
accompaniments, but very often they are much improved by the addition of
a sauce of some kind. For instance, when a custard or a blanc mange is
very thick and heavy, it can be made more agreeable to the taste if it
is served with a sauce of some description. Several recipes for sauces
that may be used with any cold dessert in need of an accompaniment are
here given, so that the housewife will not be at a loss when she desires
to serve a sauce with a dessert she has made.

14. The sauce to use depends on the dessert that it is to accompany. The
custard sauce here given could be used, for example, with plain
corn-starch mixtures that do not contain eggs or with other desserts of
this nature. It is also very satisfactory with chocolate or rather
highly flavored desserts. On the other hand, the chocolate sauce may be
served with custard mixtures or desserts that require additional flavor.
The fruit sauce, in which may be utilized any left-over juice from
canned or stewed fruit, may be served with any dessert with which it
seems to blend well.


1 c. milk
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 Tb. corn starch
Few grains of salt
1 egg
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Heat the milk in a double boiler, reserving enough to moisten the corn
starch. Mix the sugar, corn starch, and salt, and moisten with the cold
milk. Add this to the hot milk. Stir until thick and cook for about 15
minutes. Beat the egg, add this to the mixture, and continue cooking
until the egg has thickened. Add the vanilla, cool, and serve.


1 sq. chocolate
1 c. milk
4 Tb. sugar
Few grains of salt
3/4 Tb. corn starch
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Melt the chocolate over the fire, add half the milk, and cook together
for a minute or two. Add the sugar and salt to the corn starch, and
moisten with the remainder of the milk. Pour this into the chocolate and
milk and cook until thickened. Place in a double boiler and cook for 10
or 15 minutes. Add the vanilla and serve.


1 Tb. corn starch
Few grains of salt
1 c. fruit juice

Moisten the corn starch, sugar, and salt with the fruit juice, and cook
together until the corn starch has thickened the mixture. Place in a
double boiler and cook for 10 or 15 minutes. The amount of sugar must be
gauged by the kind of fruit juice used. If it is very sour, a greater
quantity of sugar will be needed. Cool and serve.


1-1/2 c. brown sugar
2/3 c. corn sirup
4 Tb. butter
3/4 c. cream

Boil sugar, sirup, and butter until the mixture reaches 230 degrees F.
or until it will form a very soft ball when tested in cold water. Remove
from the fire and allow it to cool a little; then beat the cream
into it.


1 c. sugar
1/2 c. water
1 sq. chocolate
1 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Mix together the sugar, water, and melted chocolate. Boil the mixture
for 5 minutes. Cool it slightly, then add the butter and vanilla.

15. WHIPPED CREAM.--Whipped cream is frequently served with cold
desserts in place of a sauce or as a garnish. If cream is too thin to
whip, it will have to be served plain, but it is an economy to whip it,
for whipped cream goes much further. To make whipping possible, the
cream must have a comparatively high percentage of fat. The higher the
percentage of fat, however, the more expensive will be the cream.

16. One of the requirements of successfully whipped cream, especially in
summer, is that it be as cold as possible. Warm cream does not whip
nearly so readily as cold. If it is necessary to whip cream in warm
weather or in a warm place, the bowl containing the cream may be packed
in a larger one containing ice and salt and allowed to stand for some
time before the whipping is begun.

17. A bowl-shaped utensil with a round bottom is the best to use for
whipping cream. Either an egg whip or a rotary beater may be used to do
the beating, which should be done rapidly. If the cream does not show
signs of whipping within a reasonable time, the result is likely to be
the formation of little globules of butter. Cream that whips properly
will become stiff and light in a short time. After cream has been
whipped till stiff, it should be sweetened slightly with sugar and
flavored with vanilla or any other desirable flavoring.

* * * * *



18. Many of the desserts that are served cold come under the head of
custards. These are dishes high in protein and consist of two varieties:
those thickened entirely by eggs and known as _true custards_ and those
in which a starchy material is used for part of the thickening. They may
be cooked by steaming, dry steaming, or baking.

19. In true custards there must be a sufficient number of eggs to
thicken the desired amount of milk, for nothing else produces
thickening. To these two ingredients may be added sweetening in the form
of sugar, sirup, honey, etc. and flavoring of any desirable kind. The
plain custard thus produced makes an excellent dessert and one that is
easily digested. In fact, it can be digested with such ease that it is
used perhaps more frequently in the diets of children and invalids than
any other single dessert. For instance, when it is necessary that eggs
and milk be taken in the diet, they usually become monotonous after a
time, but a little variety may be added to the diet by serving them in
the form of custard. While this is an expensive dessert when eggs are
high in price, its value is such that it should be prepared frequently
for children in spite of its cost.

20. Although custards are considered to decrease in quality as fewer
eggs are used and starch in some form is added for thickening, many
excellent custard desserts are made in this way. Then, too, plain
custard is often utilized in the making of desserts, such as tapioca,
rice, and bread puddings. In such an event, fewer eggs are used and the
starchy material is depended on for a certain amount of the thickening.
Because the starchy foods used are generally cheaper than eggs, custard
desserts that rely partly on starch for their thickening are more
economical than those thickened entirely by eggs. They are also
different in composition and texture, being lower in protein because of
a smaller proportion of eggs and higher in carbohydrate because of
additional starch; nevertheless, they are delicious desserts and find
much favor.

21. For its thickness, or solidity, a custard depends largely on the
thickening property of the protein material in the eggs. Here, again, as
in the preparation of other foods, only a certain proportion of milk and
eggs will thicken, or solidify, upon being cooked. In general, the
correct proportion for a plain custard is _1 egg to 1 cupful of milk_.
So important is this proportion that it should be memorized. Before the
eggs are added to the milk, they are, of course, beaten, but their
beating is a matter of little consequence, for they are used merely to
supply thickening and give richness and not to produce lightness.
Therefore, they need only be mixed well and beaten slightly, as any
increase in the amount of the beating adds nothing.

The sweetening and flavoring used in custards should be in sufficient
quantity to suit the tastes of those who are to eat the dessert.
However, the usual proportion of sugar is _1 tablespoonful to 1 egg and
1 cupful of milk_. A tiny pinch of salt added to a mixture of this kind
always improves its flavor and should never be omitted.

Because of the various ways of making custards, they differ somewhat
when they are done. They may be thin enough to pour or they may be set
and so thick that they can be cut. The consistency of the finished
product depends, of course, on the proportion of the ingredients used
and the method of cookery adopted.


22. BAKED CUSTARD.--Practically no skill is required in the preparation
of baked custard, but care must be taken during the baking in order that
the right temperature be applied for the proper length of time. Custard
of this kind is quickly made and finds favor with most persons. It may
be baked in individual baking dishes and then served in these or it may
be cooked in a large baking dish and served either before or after it is
placed on the table. Individual baking dishes are perhaps more
satisfactory, for, as there is a smaller amount of material, the heat
can penetrate more quickly and evenly to the center. Whatever kind of
dish is used, however, should be placed in a pan of warm water, so that
the custard will bake evenly. The water in the pan should not boil, as
this tends to make the custard whey, or separate.

[Illustration: FIG. 1, Testing doneness of custard with knife.]

23. Several tests can be applied to custard to determine whether it is
sufficiently baked. As the heat penetrates to the center last, this part
is the last to cook and it is therefore the place where the testing
should be done. One test consists in touching the center with the tip of
the finger to find out whether it is firm or not. A more common test,
however, is shown in Fig. 1. To perform this test, the blade of a silver
knife is inserted in the center, as illustrated. If the blade comes out
clean, it may be known that the custard is sufficiently baked, but if
the mixture sticks to the knife, the custard requires more baking.
Before the knife blade is inserted, however, the skin that covers the
custard must be broken; if this is not done, the skin is sure to cling
to the knife.

24. The chief requirement of a successful custard is that its texture be
right, and the temperature at which the baking is done is largely
responsible for this point. Too high a temperature or too long cooking
will cause the custard to curdle and leave the edges full of holes. A
smoother texture may be obtained if egg yolks alone instead of the yolks
and whites are used to thicken the custard. The proportions given in the
accompanying recipe make a custard of very good texture, but if a
greater proportion of eggs is used, the result will be a firmer,
harder custard.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 eggs
2 Tb. sugar
Pinch of salt
2 c. milk
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Beat the eggs slightly, add the sugar and salt, and continue beating
while adding the milk. Add the vanilla. Pour into a buttered baking dish
or individual baking dishes, place in a moderately hot oven in a pan of
warm water, and bake until the custard is set, testing with the finger
or a silver knife. Remove from the heat, cool at once, and serve cold.

25. CARAMEL CUSTARD.--Caramel is nothing more nor less than browned
sugar, but if the process of caramelizing the sugar is performed
carefully, the result will be a delicious flavoring material that may be
used for desserts of any kind or for making sauces to serve with
desserts. When the sugar is browned to make caramel, a certain amount of
sweetness is lost, so that more sugar must be used than would ordinarily
be needed to sweeten the same amount of custard.

To make the caramel required in the accompanying recipe, place 1/2
cupful of sugar in a small saucepan over the fire. Allow the sugar to
melt slowly, stirring it as little as possible. When it has completely
melted and no more of it remains white, add 1/2 cupful of boiling water.
Allow this to cook until a heavy sirup is formed. Care must be taken not
to burn the sugar black, for if this is done, the custard, or whatever
is flavored with the caramel, will have a burnt taste. The color should
be a clear reddish-brown. Maple sirup may be used in the same way as
caramel by cooking it until it becomes thick.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. milk
3 eggs
Pinch of salt
Few drops of vanilla

Heat the milk in a double boiler, add the caramel to the milk, and then
cool the mixture. Beat the eggs and add them to the caramel and milk.
Add the salt and vanilla. Pour the custard into buttered baking dishes,
set in a pan of warm water, and bake in a moderate oven until firm. Cool
and serve.

26. SOFT CUSTARD.--The custard given in the accompanying recipe is
commonly known as _boiled custard_, but this is in no sense a correct
name, for the custard at no time reaches the boiling point. The common
method of preparation is dry steaming, for which the double boiler is an
essential utensil. If one is not in supply, however, a saucepan placed
in a larger pan of water will serve the purpose. The custard should be
stirred continuously during its cooking. Then it will not set nor
thicken as does baked custard, even though the proportion of eggs and
milk may be higher.

[Illustration: FIG. 2, Testing doneness of soft custard with spoon.]

The test for soft custard, which is exactly opposite from that for baked
custard, is shown in Fig. 2. As soon as the custard mixture lightly
coats a spoon it is done. Then it should be removed from the fire and
the inner part of the double boiler removed from the outer part to avoid
the application of any more heat. If too much heat has been applied or
the custard has been cooked too long, the result will be a curdled mass.
As soon as this is observed, the custard should be removed from the hot
water, placed at once into a pan of cold water, and beaten vigorously
with a rotary egg beater. To improve it further, it may be poured
through a fine wire sieve or strainer. Unless the curding has gone too
far or the egg has been cooked a great deal too long, this treatment
will produce a very decided improvement in the custard and possibly
bring it to a normal condition.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
3 eggs
1/4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. vanilla
1/4 tsp. lemon extract

Heat the milk in the inner pan of a double boiler. Separate the eggs.
Beat the yolks slightly, and to them add the sugar and salt. Dilute with
a little of the hot milk. Blend well together and pour into the hot
milk. Stir constantly until the mixture coats a spoon, and then remove
from the fire. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff but not dry, and
fold them into the mixture. Flavor with the vanilla and lemon extract,
cool, and serve.

To obtain variety in soft custards, chocolate, caramel, maple, and other
flavors may be used in their preparation in the same way as for
baked custards.

27. FRENCH CREAM.--A custard dessert that is easily made and that most
persons are fond of is French cream. As will be noted in the
accompanying recipe, only one egg is used and corn starch is supplied
for the remainder of the thickening. It is always necessary to salt
mixtures containing starch, as any starchy food has a raw taste when it
is prepared without salt.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
1 Tb. corn starch
1/4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1 egg
1/4 tsp. vanilla
1/4 tsp. lemon extract

Heat the milk in a double boiler, reserving a sufficient amount to
moisten the corn starch. Mix the corn starch with the sugar and salt,
moisten with the cold milk, and add to the milk in the double boiler
when it has heated. Stir until the mixture has thickened very slightly.
Cook in the double boiler for 20 or 30 minutes. Beat the egg, add a
small amount of the hot mixture to the beaten egg, and then pour this
into the thickened milk, stirring rapidly to keep the egg from curding.
Cook for a minute or two, remove from the fire, add the flavoring, cool,
and serve.

28. FLOATING ISLAND.--The dessert known as Floating Island does not
differ very much from soft custard. It is slightly thicker and contains
whipped cream, which is used for the island. If whipped cream cannot be
obtained, however, the white of egg may be substituted for it. In such
an event, the white of the egg included in the recipe may be retained
when the custard is made and used on top by sweetening it with sugar or
perhaps by beating into it a small amount of pink jelly.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
1-1/2 Tb. corn starch
1/4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1 egg
1/2 tsp. vanilla
Whipped cream

Heat the milk in a double boiler, retaining enough to moisten the corn
starch. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and salt, and moisten with the cold
milk. Add this to the heated milk in the double boiler, stir until the
mixture has thickened, and then cook for 20 to 30 minutes. Beat the egg,
add to it a spoonful of the hot mixture, and then pour this into the
double boiler, stirring to prevent the curding of the egg. Cook for a
minute or two, or until the egg has had time to thicken, remove from the
heat, and add the vanilla. When cold, serve in individual dishes or
glasses with a spoonful of whipped cream on top of each portion.

29. CORN-STARCH CUSTARD.--A dessert that is a little heavier than either
French cream or Floating Island but not heavy enough to be molded is the
corn-starch custard given in the accompanying recipe. If desired, it may
be served with sauce, plain cream, or whipped cream, or it may be eaten
without any of these.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
2 Tb. corn starch
1/4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1 egg
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Heat the milk in a double boiler, reserving enough to moisten the corn
starch. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and salt, and moisten with the cold
milk. Add this to the hot milk, and stir until the mixture has
thickened. Cook for 20 or 30 minutes. Beat the egg, add a spoonful of
the hot mixture to the egg, pour this into the double boiler, and cook
for a minute or two, or until the egg has thickened. Remove from the
fire, add the vanilla, cool, and serve.

30. COCONUT-CORN-STARCH CUSTARD.--The flavor of coconut in custard is
agreeable, but the toughness of this ingredient with a soft custard is
not always acceptable. In the preparation of the custard given in the
accompanying recipe, the idea is to obtain the flavor without the use of
the coconut in the custard.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
2 Tb. corn starch
1/2 c. coconut
1/4 c. sugar
1/8 tsp. salt
1 egg

Heat the milk in a double boiler, retaining enough of it to moisten the
corn starch. Put the coconut into the milk while it is hot, and allow it
to remain for 5 or 10 minutes after the milk has become heated. Then
strain through a ricer or a strainer to remove all the liquid possible,
and return the milk to the double boiler. Mix the sugar and salt with
the corn starch and moisten with the cold milk. Add this to the hot milk
and cook for 20 or 30 minutes after it has thickened. Beat the egg and
add a little of the hot material to it; then pour it into the double
boiler and cook for a minute or two, or until the egg has thickened.
Flavor with a few drops of vanilla, remove from the fire, cool,
and serve.

31. SNOW PUDDING.--An excellent custard dessert called snow pudding can
be made by following the directions here given. This pudding is
especially attractive when served with chocolate sauce, as the sauce
makes an agreeable contrast in color as well as in flavor. Other sauces,
however, may be used with this dessert if desired. The yolks of the eggs
may be made into a custard sauce and served with it, or a fruit sauce
may be used.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 pt. milk
2 Tb. corn starch
1/4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
2 egg whites
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Heat the milk in a double boiler, reserving a sufficient amount to
moisten the corn starch. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and salt and
moisten with the cold milk. Add this to the hot milk and stir
continuously until the corn starch thickens the milk. Cook for 20 to 30
minutes and remove from the fire. Beat the egg whites until they are
stiff and fold them into this mixture. Add the vanilla, pour into a
serving dish or individual dishes, cool, and serve with chocolate or any
desired sauce.

32. PLAIN BLANC MANGE.--A blanc mange is usually a mixture thickened to
such an extent with starchy material that it may be turned out of a mold
or cut into cubes. The plain blanc mange given here requires a
well-flavored sauce to relieve its bland taste.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 c. milk
1/4 c. corn starch
1/4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Heat the milk in a double boiler, reserving enough to moisten the corn
starch. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and salt and moisten with the cold
milk. Pour into the hot milk and stir until the corn starch has
thickened. Allow this to cook for 30 to 35 minutes, beat to keep smooth,
and then remove from the fire and add the vanilla. Moisten cups or molds
with cold water and fill with the blanc mange. Cool, turn out of the
molds, and serve with any desired sauce.

[Illustration: FIG. 3, Chocolate Blanc Mange.]

33. CHOCOLATE BLANC MANGE.--Chocolate added to blanc mange gives it an
excellent flavor. If a sauce is desired with this blanc mange, custard
sauce is the best one to use. An attractive way in which to serve
chocolate blanc mange is shown in Fig. 3. The entire recipe is made into
one mold, which, when cold, is turned out on a dish, surrounded with
slices of banana, and garnished with whipped cream.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1/3 c. sugar
1/4 c. cocoa
1/4 tsp. salt
2 c. milk
1/4 c. corn starch
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Mix the sugar, cocoa, and salt and moisten with some of the milk. Place
over the fire in the inner pan of a double boiler and allow it to come
to a boil. Moisten the corn starch with some of the milk and add the
rest to the cocoa mixture in the double boiler. Heat together in the
boiler and stir the corn starch into this. Continue stirring until the
corn starch has thickened the mixture, and then cook for 30 to 35
minutes. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla, pour into a mold
moistened with cold water, cool, and serve with sweetened cream, custard
sauce, or as shown in Fig. 3.

34. RICE CUSTARD.--A very good way in which to use left-over rice is to
make a rice custard of it. If no cooked rice is on hand and rice is to
be cooked for some other dish, it is not a bad plan to increase the
amount slightly and use what remains for rice custard. The best method
of preparing rice for this dessert it to steam it, but boiled or
Japanese rice may also be used.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 eggs
1/2 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. hot milk
1/4 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. grated nutmeg
2 c. steamed rice

Beat the eggs and to them add the sugar, hot milk, salt, and nutmeg.
Pour this mixture over the rice. Place in a buttered baking dish, set
the dish in a pan of warm water, and bake in a moderate oven until the
custard is set. This will probably require about 45 minutes. Cool
and serve.

35. POOR MAN'S PUDDING.--If a very economical dessert is desired, poor
man's pudding should be tried. However, this requires considerable fuel
and some care in its preparation, for it needs long, slow cooking in
order to make it a good pudding, but when it is properly made it is a
very delicious dessert. If a coal stove is used, it is a good plan to
make such a dessert as this on a day when the stove is heated for
ironing or for some other purpose that requires the use of fuel covering
a long period of time.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. rice
2/3 c. sugar
1 tsp. salt
Lemon rind
2 qt. milk
1/2 c. raisins

Wash the rice in the usual way and place it in a baking dish. Add the
sugar, salt, a grating of nutmeg, and a few thin slices of lemon rind.
Pour in the milk, place in a slow oven, and bake for several hours. Stir
frequently to prevent the top surface from browning, and if there is any
possibility of this occurring, cover the baking dish with a cover. One
hour before the pudding has finished baking, clean the raisins and add
them. When done, remove from the oven, cool, and serve. When the pudding
is served, the grains of rice should be whole and the liquid should be
of a creamy consistency. If the pudding is too dry when cool, add a
little more milk and return to the oven for a few minutes.

36. TAPIOCA CREAM.--In the dessert here given, as well as in several
that follow, tapioca is used as the thickening material. TAPIOCA is
practically a true starch and is taken from the roots of the cassava
plant, which grows in tropical and subtropical regions. In the process
of its manufacture, most of the starch cells are ruptured. It may be
purchased in two forms: one that is large in size and called _pearl
tapioca_ and the other, very small and known as _minute tapioca_. Pearl
tapioca does not require as long cooking if it is first soaked in cold
water for a number of hours. Minute tapioca cooks in much less time than
pearl tapioca.

Tapioca cream is a soft custard that should be thin enough to pour when
it is cold. It may be served with whipped cream if desired or may merely
be poured into dessert dishes or sherbet glasses and served plain. A
spoonful of pink jelly on top of each serving makes a very
attractive garnish.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/3 c. tapioca
1 pt. milk
1/2 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
2 eggs
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Soak the tapioca in cold water for 4 or 5 hours before making the
dessert, and then drain off all the water. Heat the milk in a double
boiler, stir the tapioca into the hot milk, and cook until it is thick
and transparent, being sure that none of the centers are uncooked. Add
the sugar and salt. Separate the whites and yolks of the eggs. Beat the
yolks, mix a small amount of the hot tapioca with them, and stir into
the tapioca in the double boiler. Stir until the eggs have thickened and
then remove from the fire. Beat the whites until they are stiff and
fold, with the vanilla, into the tapioca. Cool and serve.

37. TAPIOCA CUSTARD.--If something different in the way of a tapioca
dessert is desired, tapioca custard will no doubt be very acceptable.
This dessert has the consistency of a baked custard containing tapioca,
and in preparation and proportion that is really what it is.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 c. tapioca
2 c. milk
2 eggs
2/3 c. sugar
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Soak the tapioca for 4 or 5 hours and drain off the water. Cook the
tapioca and the milk in a double boiler until it is transparent and
remove from the fire. Beat the eggs and to them add the sugar, salt, and
vanilla, and stir this into the tapioca. Turn into a buttered baking
dish and bake until the custard mixture is set. Cool and serve.

38. MINUTE-TAPIOCA CUSTARD.--Minute tapioca does not require soaking nor
as long cooking as pearl tapioca, for the pieces of tapioca being much
smaller may be more quickly penetrated by both heat and moisture. Then,
too, a smaller proportion of it is required to thicken the same
amount of milk.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. milk
2 Tb. minute tapioca
1 egg
1/4 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt

Heat the milk in a double boiler, add the tapioca, and cook for 15 or 20
minutes. Beat the egg, add to it the sugar and salt, and pour the hot
tapioca gradually into this. Flavor with vanilla, turn into a buttered
baking dish, place in the oven in a pan of water, and bake for 20 to 30
minutes. Cool and serve.

39. APPLE TAPIOCA.--The combination of fruit and tapioca is agreeable to
most persons. Peaches and apples, either fresh or canned, are used
oftenest for this purpose. For the apple tapioca here given, the apples
should be somewhat sour, as there will then be more character to the
dessert. Canned or fresh peaches or canned pineapple may be used in
exactly the same way as apples. If canned fruit is used, not so much
sugar nor baking in the oven will be necessary.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3/4 c. pearl tapioca or 1/2 c. minute tapioca
2 c. boiling water
1/2 tsp. salt
6 apples
1/2 c. brown sugar
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 Tb. butter

If pearl tapioca is used, soak it for 4 or 5 hours and then drain off
all the water. Minute tapioca will need no soaking. Add the tapioca to
the boiling water and salt. Cook in a double boiler until the tapioca is
entirely transparent. Pare and core the apples, place them in a buttered
baking dish, fill each cavity with sugar and cinnamon, and place a piece
of butter on top. Pour the hot tapioca over these, place in a hot oven,
and bake until the apples are soft. Serve either hot or cold with sugar
and cream.

40. CARAMEL TAPIOCA.--Persons who care for caramel as a flavoring will
find caramel tapioca a delicious dessert. The caramel for it should be
made according to the directions given in Art. 25.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. pearl tapioca
5 c. water
2 c. sugar
1/2 c. boiling water
1 lemon

Put the tapioca to soak overnight in the water. When ready to prepare,
place in a baking dish with the water used to soak the tapioca and set
in a very slow oven. Caramelize half the sugar and add to it the 1/2
cupful of boiling water. Pour this with the remaining cup of sugar over
the tapioca and continue to cook in the oven until the tapioca is
perfectly clear and the liquid has evaporated sufficiently to make a
dessert of the proper consistency to serve. Upon removing from the oven,
squeeze the juice of the lemon over the tapioca and stir slowly so that
this may penetrate throughout the dessert. Cool and serve with
whipped cream.

41. FARINA CUSTARD.--A means of using left-over breakfast cereals is
given in the accompanying recipe. Farina is the cereal used, but vitos,
cream of wheat, etc. may be used in the same way. Cereal may be cooked
especially for the purpose if there is none on hand and the dessert is
desired. In this event, it should be cooked in the usual way and may be
used either warm or cold.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. cooked farina
1-1/2 c. milk
1 egg
1/3 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. lemon
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Mix the farina with the milk. Beat the egg and to it add the sugar and
salt. Add this to the farina and milk, stir in the flavoring, and pour
in a buttered baking dish. Bake until the mixture is set. This will
require about 45 minutes in a moderate oven.

* * * * *



42. GELATINE DESSERTS are those in which gelatine forms the basis.
GELATINE is an odorless, tasteless substance extracted from the bones
and various tissues of animals. It is used in a variety of forms, such
as glue and isinglass, but is also purified and prepared commercially
for use in desserts. When it is to be used as a thickening agent in
dessert making, it is ground and sold in this form, or it is mixed with
sugar, flavoring, and acid, when all that is necessary to make it an
appetizing dessert is that it be dissolved in hot water. In both of
these forms, it is sold under different trade names. The gelatine itself
does not provide any appreciable food value, but it is a means of
conveying various foods, such as eggs, milk, sugar, and many kinds of
fruit and fruit juices, all of which are more or less valuable for their
constituents. In addition, it produces desserts that are appetizing and
that may be garnished and served in many attractive ways.

43. To be most satisfactory, gelatine desserts should usually be made
just heavy enough with gelatine to retain the desired shape. The heavier
they become, the more rubbery they are in consistency and the less
dainty and agreeable. Their consistency can be regulated by the
proportion of liquid to gelatine that is used.

The general method of preparation followed when plain gelatine is used
in desserts consists in first soaking the gelatine in sufficient cold
water to moisten it, then dissolving it in hot liquid as near the
boiling point as possible, and finally cooling it in order to allow it
to solidify. As cold is absolutely essential for the mixture to
solidify, it is often difficult to prepare a gelatine dessert in the
summer time. Therefore, when a dessert of this kind is desired in the
warm weather, it should always be begun long enough before it is to be
served to allow it to become thoroughly solid. As it is usually
difficult to tell how much time this requires on a warm day, even with a
refrigerator or other cold place, it is much safer to overestimate the
time required than to underestimate it.

44. Boiling does not, as was formerly thought, destroy the power of
coagulation in gelatine for at least some time. Therefore, when
necessary, it may be boiled for 10 or 15 minutes without causing any
change. One fruit that will prevent gelatine from solidifying, however,
is raw pineapple. This is an important point to remember in connection
with gelatine desserts. If it is desired to use fresh pineapple with
gelatine, it will first be necessary to bring the pineapple to the
boiling point in order to destroy the property that prevents the
gelatine from solidifying.

45. The proportion of liquid to gelatine is another factor to be
reckoned with in the successful making of gelatine desserts. This
differs in the various kinds of gelatine, but the proper proportion is
usually stated on the package in which the gelatine comes or on a folder
inside the package. The amount mentioned is usually what is considered
to be ideal for the preparation of gelatine dishes and may generally be
relied on. In hot weather, however, it is advisable to use just a little
less liquid than the directions require.

In using the different brands of unsweetened and unflavored gelatines,
the proportion of liquid to gelatine is usually similar. 1/2 ounce of
this granulated gelatine, which is 1/2 of the amount usually put up in a
package, will solidify 1 quart of liquid. If this proportion is kept in
mind, little difficulty will be experienced in using this form of
gelatine. For convenience in measuring small amounts of the granulated
gelatine, it will be well to remember that 1 ounce of this material
equals 4-1/2 tablespoonfuls. Thus, if a recipe calls for 1/2 ounce of
gelatine, it is simply necessary to measure 2-1/4 tablespoonfuls to get
the required amount to solidify 1 quart of liquid.


46. PLAIN GELATINE.--A very good dessert can be made of fruit juice
solidified by means of gelatine. Any canned fruit juice or any mixture
of juices that will blend well and produce a jelly of agreeable flavor
may be used for this purpose. These are usually brought to the boiling
point before being added, but in case juices that may be injured by
heating are used, they may be added cold and the gelatine dissolved in
boiling water. When this is done, a little additional lemon will be
necessary in order to increase the flavor.

Plain jelly made according to the accompanying recipe may be served in
various attractive ways. One method of serving it is shown in Fig. 4. To
prepare it in this manner, pour the gelatine mixture into stemmed
glasses and allow it to solidify. When partly solid, decorate the top
with wedge-shaped pieces of pineapple and place a cherry in the center,
as illustrated. When entirely solid, place the glass on a small plate
and serve. The fruit may be omitted if desired and whipped cream served
on the gelatine.

[Illustration: FIG. 4, A dish of plain gelatine.]

Plain jelly is also attractive when poured into a large mold, allowed to
solidify, and then turned out on a plate. If the mold is moistened with
cold water before the gelatine is poured into it, no difficulty will be
experienced in removing the jelly when it becomes solid. The center of
the mold may be filled with whipped cream before it is put on the table
or the jelly may be served plain and the whipped cream then added to
each serving from another dish.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 oz. or 2-1/4 Tb. unflavored gelatine
1/2 c. cold water
3 c. fruit juice
Juice of 1 lemon

Soak the gelatine in the cold water until it is well moistened. Strain
the fruit juices, heat to boiling point, and pour over the gelatine.
Add the lemon juice and a sufficient amount of sugar to sweeten. Allow
to solidify and serve in any desired manner.

47. ORANGE JELLY.--An excellent dessert is the result when orange juice
is used for flavoring and gelatine for thickening. This jelly may be
poured into molds that have been moistened with cold water, or, as shown
in Fig. 5, it may be poured into orange skins made to resemble baskets
and then garnished with whipped cream.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 oz. or 2-1/4 Tb. unflavored gelatine
1/2 c. cold water
1 c. boiling water
1 c. sugar
1/2 c. lemon juice
1-1/2 c. orange juice

Soak the gelatine in the cold water until it is well moistened, and
dissolve with the boiling water. Add the sugar and the lemon and orange
juice strained. Pour into a large mold or individual molds and set aside
to solidify. Serve in any desired way.

[Illustration: FIG. 5, Orange jelly in orange-skin basket.]

48. COFFEE JELLY.--If fruit juices are difficult to obtain, coffee
jelly, which will be found to be very pleasing, may be used
occasionally. However, it is necessary that whipped cream be served with
coffee jelly in order to make it a really delightful dessert.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. clear, strong coffee
1/2 oz. or 2-1/4 Tb. unflavored gelatine
1/2 c. cold water
1 c. boiling water
Three-quarters c. sugar

Prepare the coffee freshly and make it stronger than that which would
ordinarily be used for the table. Be sure that it contains no grounds.
Soak the gelatine in the cold water, and dissolve in the boiling water.
Add the sugar and coffee. Pour into moistened molds and allow to cool.
Serve with sweetened whipped cream.

49. FRUIT GELATINE.--Almost any combination of fruit juices, as well as
any single fruit juice, may be used with gelatine in the making of fruit
gelatine. The accompanying recipe contains fruits that may be used, but
other fruits than those given may perhaps be found to be even more

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/44 oz. or 1-1/8 Tb. unflavored gelatine
1/4 c. cold water
1/2 c. boiling water
1/2 c. sugar
1/2 c. pineapple juice
1/4 c. orange juice
1/4 c. lemon juice
2 slices pineapple
2 oranges
1 banana
6 English walnuts

Moisten the gelatine in the cold water and dissolve in the boiling
water. Add the sugar and the orange, pineapple, and lemon juice, and
allow this to cool. Dice the pineapple. Prepare the oranges by peeling
them, removing the pulp from the sections, and cutting it into small
pieces. Slice or dice the banana and break each nut into six or eight
pieces. Mix the fruits and nuts, place in a mold that has been moistened
with cold water, and pour the cold jelly over them. Allow this to
solidify, turn from the mold, and serve with whipped cream.

50. LEMON SNOW.--If a light, spongy dessert to serve with a heavy dinner
is desired, lemon snow should be tried. It may be made with other
sour-fruit juice and is particularly agreeable if the color of the fruit
juice used is a pretty one. Fruit coloring may be used in the
preparation of dishes of this sort if desired.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 oz. or 2-1/4 Tb. unflavored gelatine
1/2 c. cold water
1-1/2 c. boiling water
1 c. sugar
1/2 c. lemon juice
Whites of two eggs

Soak the gelatine in the cold water, dissolve it in the boiling water,
and add the sugar. When cold, add the strained lemon juice. When the
gelatine mixture is just beginning to solidify, add the egg whites,
beating with a rotary beater until the mixture begins to hold its shape.
If desired, a fruit of some kind may be placed in a mold that has been
moistened with cold water and the mixture poured over it, or the plain
mixture may be poured into the mold without the fruit. Whipped cream or
custard sauce improves this dessert to a large extent.

51. SPANISH CREAM.--A gelatine dish containing eggs is usually a
delightful dessert, and Spanish cream is no exception to this rule. If
it is properly made, a part of the mold will have the consistency of a
custard, above this will be a layer of jelly, and on top will be a layer
of fluffy material. This dessert is more attractive if a little pink
coloring is used in its preparation.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 Tb. unflavored gelatine
1/4 c. cold water
1 pt. milk
2 eggs
1/4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Soak the gelatine in the cold water. Heat the milk in a double boiler,
add the gelatine, and cook until it is completely dissolved. Separate
the eggs, beat the yolks, and to them add the sugar and salt. Stir into
the mixture in the double boiler, and cook until the eggs have
thickened. Remove from the fire, beat the egg whites until they are
stiff, and fold them into the mixture. Add the vanilla. Pour into a mold
that has been moistened with cold water, cool, and serve. If coloring is
added, it may be put in upon removing the dessert from the stove.

[Illustration: FIG. 6, Strawberry cream fluff with ladyfingers.]

52. STRAWBERRY CREAM PUFF.--One of the most attractive desserts that can
be made of gelatine is strawberry cream fluff. It is especially
delicious in warm weather, but plenty of time must be allowed for it to
solidify. Any desired way of serving it may be followed out, but a
method that is always pleasing is illustrated in Fig. 6. The gelatine
mixture is piled into stemmed glasses and then surrounded by thin pieces
of sponge cake or ladyfingers, as here shown. A few fresh strawberries
or strawberries that have been canned in thick sirup make an attractive
garnish. If a deeper shade of pink is desired than the strawberry juice
gives, pink coloring may be added before the whipped cream is beaten
into the gelatine.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 Tb. unflavored gelatine
1/4 c. cold water
1-1/2 c. strawberry juice
Juice of one lemon
1/4 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. whipped cream

Soak the gelatine in the cold water. Heat the strawberry juice to the
boiling point, and add it to the soaked gelatine. Add the lemon juice
and sugar and place the gelatine where it will cool. When it has started
to solidify, beat into it the whipped cream and continue beating until
the mixture stands up well when dropped from a spoon. Place in a mold
and cool. Serve in any desired way.

53. PINEAPPLE CREAM FLUFF.--If pineapple is preferred to strawberries,
pineapple cream fluff may be made according to the accompanying
directions. Canned pineapple may be utilized nicely in the preparation
of this dessert. If it is in rings, it should be chopped into small
pieces, but grated pineapple needs no further preparation. Fresh
pineapple used for the purpose must be cooked before it can be used in
this dessert.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 Tb. unflavored gelatine
1/4 c. cold water
1-1/2 c. pineapple juice
1/2 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. whipped cream
1 c. grated or chopped pineapple

Soak the gelatine in the cold water. Heat the pineapple juice to the
boiling point and add it to the soaked gelatine. Add the sugar and set
aside to cool. After the gelatine has started to solidify, beat the
whipped cream and the grated pineapple into it. When solidified and
ready to use, turn out on a plate and serve with whipped cream. If
desired, the pineapple may be left out of the dessert and, instead, a
spoonful placed on the top of each serving.

54. MARSHMALLOW WHIP.--Something rather unusual in the way of a gelatine
dessert can be had by making marshmallow whip according to the
accompanying recipe.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 oz. or 2-1/4 Tb. unflavored gelatine
1 pt. water
1 c. sugar
3 egg whites
Pink coloring
Strawberry flavoring
1/2 sq. chocolate

Soak the gelatine in 1/2 cupful of water. Bring 1 cupful of water to the
boiling point, dissolve the gelatine in it, and place in ice water to
cool. Put the sugar to cook with 1/2 cupful of water, and cook until the
sirup will spin a thread or until it will form a firm ball when tried in
cold water. Beat the egg whites, pour the hot sirup gradually over them,
and continue beating. Add the gelatine, which by this time should be
commencing to solidify. Divide the mixture into three equal parts. To
one add a little pink coloring and some strawberry flavoring and pour
into a mold that has been wet with cold water. To one of the remaining
parts, add the chocolate, which has been melted, mixed with a
tablespoonful or two of sugar and 2 tablespoonfuls of water, and cooked
to a smooth paste. Continue beating this until it is stiff, and then
pour it in the mold on top of the strawberry flavored whip. To the
remaining third, add the vanilla, beat until it is stiff, and pour on
top of the chocolate whip. These colors may be arranged in any desirable
way, others may be used, or the whip may be made up simply in one color
or in two. After it has become set and hardened, turn from the mold, and
serve, using whipped cream if desired.

* * * * *



55. NATURE OF FROZEN DESSERTS.--Frozen desserts were formerly confined
almost entirely to warm weather, but they are now used during the entire
year and served on almost any occasion. They are without doubt the
daintiest dessert that can be served and are popular with almost every
one. A very ordinary meal becomes much more attractive when a frozen
dessert is served with it, and a dainty luncheon or an elaborate dinner
seems incomplete without a dessert of this nature. In reality, it is
quite impossible to serve, in either hot or cold weather, any dessert
that is as pleasing as an ice or an ice cream of some kind.

56. In addition to being delicious and finding favor with most persons,
frozen desserts occur in unlimited variety. They include ice creams of
various kinds, frozen custards and punches, sherbets, ices, frappés,
mousses, parfaits, and biscuits. Recipes for several varieties of each
of these kinds are given in this Section, and it will therefore not be a
difficult matter to select a frozen dessert that will be suitable for
any meal in which it may be served. The preparation of frozen desserts,
however, need not be confined to a certain limited number of recipes, as
a recipe may be devised to suit almost any occasion or condition. For
instance, if there are certain fruits or fruit juices in supply that
should be used, an excellent way in which to utilize them is in a frozen
dessert of some kind. After a little experience, the housewife will find
that she can produce excellent results by merely combining the
ingredients she has on hand or those corresponding with the meal in
which the frozen dessert is to be served.

57. The food value of frozen desserts varies with the ingredients used
in their preparation, it being extremely high in some and very low in
others. Therefore, the particular one to select depends somewhat on the
other dishes in the meal. On the whole, they contain very healthful
ingredients, so that, if they are properly made, they may have a place
in the diets of both children and grown ups, sick persons and well ones.
Whether or not certain individuals should eat frozen desserts is
sometimes a troublesome question. There may be conditions under which
desserts of this kind should not be included in the diet, but these need
not give the housewife any particular concern.

58. Frozen desserts may be purchased ready made, but those made in the
home cost less, are usually more delicious, and can be prepared in
greater variety. As they are not difficult to make and are not
necessarily an expensive dessert, the housewife should often include
them in her meals. Therefore, an ice-cream freezer of a size that will
accommodate the requirements of the members of the family is a good
thing to add to the cookery equipment. Ices and ice creams can be made
in a pail that has a cover and a bail, such as a lard pail, but this is
not a very convenient equipment and does not produce such satisfactory
results as those obtained with a good freezer. Some desserts of this
kind may be frozen without the use of a freezer, but, as a rule, they
contain materials that make them rather expensive.

59. THEORY OF FREEZING.--So that the best results may be secured in the
making of frozen desserts, it is well that the theory of freezing be
thoroughly understood. The two things necessary for the freezing of such
desserts are ice and salt. When these are brought together and the ice
melts, a salt solution is formed, since salt has a tendency to combine
with moisture whenever they come in contact with each other. In order to
obtain this result in the freezing of desserts, it is necessary, of
course, that the ice be melted. The warmth required to make this melting
possible comes from the contents of the can inside the ice-cream
freezer. When this warmth is absorbed by the ice, the cold temperature
released by the melting of the ice passes into the ice-cream mixture.
The result is that the ice tends to become liquid and the contents of
the can solid by the exchange of temperatures. To make the mixture of
uniform consistency, it is usually agitated by means of a dasher during
the freezing process. This incorporates air into the mixture and
consequently makes it light and increases its volume.

60. PROPORTION OF ICE TO SALT.--The ingredients used in the mixture have
much to do with the texture of the ice cream when it is frozen. For
instance, a mixture that is thin and composed largely of water will not
have so smooth a consistency when frozen as a heavier mixture in which
cream or eggs or both are present and a smaller proportion of water is
used. Another important factor in the texture of the finished product is
the proportion of ice to salt, for this has much to do with the length
of time required for freezing the mixture. The smaller the proportion of
salt, the slower will be the freezing process, for the melting of the
ice takes place more slowly; but the result of this slow freezing is a
finer, smoother texture. Granular, coarse-grained frozen desserts, such
as some sherbets and frappés, are frozen with a large proportion of
salt, which permits the freezing to take place more quickly.

61. On this rapidity in freezing also depends to a large extent the
increase in quantity that takes place in the frozen mixture. Any one who
has had experience in making ice cream knows that the can of the freezer
cannot be filled before the freezing is begun or it will overflow during
the freezing process. Even if it is only two-thirds or three-fourths
full, it will be entirely full when the freezing is completed. This
increase depends somewhat on the kind of mixture, as has been stated, as
well as on the way in which the crank of the freezer is turned, but it
is more largely determined by the proportion of ice and salt and
consequently by the length of time required for the freezing. As can be
readily understood, the more turning that is done, the greater will be
the quantity of air incorporated into the mixture and naturally the more
increase in volume.

62. TABLE SHOWING DETAILS OF FREEZING.--As an aid to the housewife in
the making of frozen desserts, Table I is presented. In it are given the
names of the various kinds of frozen desserts, together with the usual
texture of each, the proportion of ice and salt required to freeze each,
the way in which it freezes, and the increase in volume that can be
expected in each. In trying out the recipes that follow, it will be well
for the housewife to refer to this table for the particular dessert that
she is making, for then she will be able to carry out the freezing more
successfully and will understand what to expect in the finished product.



Proportion Manner Increase
Kind of Dessert Texture of Ice and of in Volume
Salt Freezing Per Cent

Philadelphia ice cream Fine 3 to 1 Slow 25 to 40
Custard ice cream Fine 3 to 1 Slow 25 to 40
Frozen custard Fine 3 to 1 Slow 25 to 40
Sherbet Slightly granular 2 to 1 Rapid 20 to 30
Ice Slightly granular 2 to 1 Rapid 20 to 30
Frappé Granular 1 to 1 Very rapid 10 to 20
Frozen punch Granular 1 to 1 Very rapid 10 to 20
Mousse Fine 2 to 1 Very slow None
Parfait Fine 2 to 1 Very slow None
Biscuit Fine 2 to 1 Very slow None


63. The preparation of frozen desserts is comparatively simple in
nature, for it usually involves nothing except the cooking of the raw
ingredients and the proper combining of the materials required in the
recipe. Sometimes a custard mixture containing starch is prepared, and
other times a real custard is made. The same rules that apply to the
preparation of these dishes under other conditions should be followed
here. As the housewife is already familiar with these principles, she
will find that there is very little to master about the preparation of
frozen desserts up to the time of freezing. A point that should always
be remembered, however, is that the mixture should be prepared long
enough before the freezing to be entirely cold when it is put into the
freezer, and that, if possible, it should be cooled in a refrigerator.
No trouble will be experienced in preparing enough frozen dessert for
the number that are to be served if it is remembered that 1 quart of
unfrozen mixture will serve six to eight persons when it is frozen.

64. FREEZING THE MIXTURE.--With the preparation of the mixture well
understood, the housewife should turn her attention to the principles
that are involved in its freezing. As has been explained, a can that has
a cover and a bail may sometimes be used, especially if the dessert does
not need turning, but a freezer is necessary for good results in the
preparation of a frozen dessert that requires turning. In the case of
those that need no turning, such as mousses, parfaits, etc., a mold of
some kind or a vacuum freezer is required.

The usual type of freezer consists of a pail, generally wooden, and a
can of smaller size that sets inside of the pail. The space between the
can and the pail is where the ice and salt that freeze the mixture are
packed. The can, which is the container for the mixture, contains a
removable dasher that is turned during the freezing and thus beats air
into the mixture. It is covered with a top that has an opening in the
center through which one end of the dasher extends, and a ring of cogs
surrounding this opening. For the entire freezer there is a top piece
that fastens to both sides of the wooden bucket. It contains a set of
cogs that fit into the cogs on the cover of the can. To one side of this
piece is attached a crank, which, upon being turned, moves both the can
containing the mixture and the dasher inside the can.

65. The first thing to be done in the freezing of any dessert is to get
the ice ready for use. This may be done in numerous ways, but perhaps
the most convenient one is shown in Fig. 7. A bag made of a heavy
material, such as canvas or ticking, and wooden mallet are used for this
purpose. Place the ice in the bag and, as here shown, hold the bag shut
with one hand and pound it with the mallet held in the other. Continue
the pounding until the ice is broken into small pieces, and then empty
it into a dishpan or some other large pan. After the proportion of salt
to ice has been decided upon, mix the salt with the ice in the manner
shown in Fig. 8.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

66. Before the freezer is used, scald the can and the dasher thoroughly
with boiling water as shown in Fig. 9, and then set them aside to cool.
When entirely cold, fit the can into the freezer, and then, as shown in
Fig. 10, pour the mixture into the can. Remember that the mixture should
come to within only one-third or one-fourth of the top of the can. With
the cover placed securely on the can and the top of the freezer
attached, proceed to pack the ice and salt into the freezer. As shown in
Fig. 11, fill the space between the can and the container with these
materials, using a large spoon for this purpose. Work them down around
the can with the small end of a potato masher or similar implement, as
in Fig. 12, packing the freezer as tightly as possible and making sure
that the ice comes higher than the surface of the mixture inside of
the can.

When the packing has been finished, see that the top is securely
attached and that the hole in the side of the freezer is well stopped
up. Then proceed to freeze the cream. Turn the crank slowly, for nothing
is gained by turning the mixture rapidly at the temperature at which it
is put into the freezer. After the temperature has been reduced
considerably, and just as the mixture begins to thicken a trifle, start
turning the crank more rapidly. The air incorporated just at this time
by the turning of the dasher increases the volume considerably, for it
will remain held in the mixture.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

67. PACKING THE MIXTURE.--If the frozen dessert is to be served at once,
turn the crank until it is difficult to turn any longer. However, in
case the dessert is not to be used as soon as it is made, it should be
frozen only moderately hard and then packed and allowed to freeze more.
During this second freezing process, a condition occurs that is known as
_ripening_ and that improves the quality as well as the flavor of the
dessert. After the freezing has been carried on to the desired degree,
unfasten the top of the freezer, wipe the can thoroughly around the top
with a cloth to make sure that all salt and ice are removed, and then
remove the cover. Proceed at once to lift out the dasher and to scrape
it clean with a knife or a spoon, as shown in Fig. 13. Push down the
frozen dessert in the can carefully and tightly with the aid of a spoon.
To prepare it for packing, stretch a piece of waxed paper over the top
of the can, replace the cover, and fit a cork into the hole in the cover
through which the top of the dasher extends, as Fig. 14 shows. With this
done, remove the stopper from the hole in the side of the freezer and,
as Fig. 15 shows, run off the brine that has formed by the melting of
the ice. Then repack the freezer with a mixture of ice and salt in the
proportion of 2 to 1 and set aside until needed.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

68. USING A VACUUM FREEZER.--There are some frozen desserts that do not
necessarily require the incorporation of air by means of a dasher to be
satisfactory. For desserts of this kind, a vacuum freezer, that is, one


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