Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 4
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 3 out of 6

that requires no turning, may be used.

In such a freezer a container extends down through the center of the can
and is surrounded by an air space. The mixture to be frozen is poured
into this container from the top and the ice-and-salt mixture that does
the freezing is put in from the bottom and takes up the air space.
Covers fasten securely both the top and the bottom. A handle attached to
one side makes the handling of such a freezer an easy matter.

By many, a freezer of this kind is considered a decided advantage over
the usual variety of freezer, for it requires no turning, but there are
certain disadvantages about its use that should be understood before one
is secured. In the first place, the expansion that is produced in the
mixture by the incorporation of air when an ordinary freezer is used
does not occur in a vacuum freezer. Also, the texture of the finished
product is not, as a rule, equal to that of the dessert made in a
freezer turned with a dasher. In addition, it is necessary to crack the
ice somewhat finer for a vacuum freezer and to mix it thoroughly with
the correct proportion of salt required for the particular kind of
mixture frozen.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

69. When a vacuum freezer is to be used, turn it upside down and insert
the ice-and-salt mixture through the opening in the bottom. Then close
it tight, turn it right side up, and with the top open, pour in the
mixture as shown in Fig, 16. Screw the top on tightly in the manner
shown in Fig. 17, just as the bottom is screwed on, and set the freezer
aside. After the mixture has stood for about 15 minutes, open the
freezer from the top and stir the contents down from the sides with a
knife or a spoon, as in Fig. 18. Then replace the cover and allow the
freezing to continue for 10 minutes more. At the end of this time, open
the freezer again, repeat the stirring, refasten the cover, and continue
the freezing for another 5 minutes. The mixture should then be ready
to serve.

* * * * *



70. PHILADELPHIA ICE CREAM.--Perhaps the simplest of frozen desserts to
make is Philadelphia ice cream, but it requires cream in order that its
texture be good. For this reason, it is not so economical as some of
those which are a trifle more complicated to prepare. It consists of
cream sweetened, flavored, and then frozen. This is a particularly
attractive way in which to make ice cream when strawberries, red
raspberries, or peaches are in season, as these fresh fruits may be
crushed and added to the cream, instead of plain flavoring.

The recipe here given for the preparation of Philadelphia ice cream
contains vanilla as the flavoring, but fresh fruit of any desirable kind
may be added, this recipe being used merely as a basis. Usually 1 1/2
cupfuls of crushed fruit is required for a quart of cream. It is
necessary, however, to vary the quantity of sugar with the nature of the
fruit used. For instance, if fresh strawberries are used, more sugar
will be required than if canned ones are used, because sugar has already
been added to these. The best plan is to test the mixture before
freezing it, remembering always that more sugar is required for a frozen
dessert than would be necessary if the mixture were not to be frozen.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. cream
1 Tb. vanilla
1 c. sugar

Scald the cream in a double boiler, add the sugar and the vanilla, and
cool. If desired, add 1 1/2 cupfuls of crushed fruit. If pineapple is
used, it may be grated or shredded instead of being crushed. Place in a
freezer and freeze according to the directions previously given.

71. VANILLA ICE CREAM.--Plain ice cream is usually made from
ingredients that are somewhat cheaper than those used to make
Philadelphia ice cream. It consists usually of a custard foundation, to
which are added flavoring, sometimes fruit, and usually thin cream. The
custard foundation is often made with corn starch and a small amount of
raw egg. The same rules must be observed in the preparation of this
foundation for ice cream as have been learned in the making of custards.
Frequently some starchy material, such as flour or corn starch, is used
for thickening in the preparation of this dessert. Some persons prefer
flour, as they believe that the presence of flour cannot be detected so
easily as that of corn starch; however, a recipe using each is given.
The mixtures used for this ice cream should not be boiled, but cooked in
a double boiler. If desired, fruits, either cooked or raw, or nuts may
be added to the ice cream for variety.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 Tb. flour
1 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
4 c. milk
2 c. thin cream
2 eggs
2 Tb. vanilla

Mix the flour, sugar, and salt with sufficient cold liquid to moisten
well. Add this to the remainder of the milk and the cream heated in a
double boiler. Stir until thickened, and cook for about 20 minutes. Beat
the eggs and add slowly to the mixture, stirring rapidly to prevent
curding. Cook until the egg has thickened, strain, add the vanilla,
cool, and freeze.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. milk
3 Tb. corn starch
1-1/2 c. sugar
2 eggs
1 pt. cream
1 Tb. vanilla

Scald the milk and stir into it the corn starch mixed with half the
sugar. Stir constantly until thickened, and cook for 15 to 20 minutes.
Beat the eggs, add the remaining sugar, mix with a little of the hot
mixture, and stir into the double boiler. Remove from the heat, add the
cream, strain, cool, add the flavoring, and freeze.

72. CHOCOLATE ICE CREAM.--Next to vanilla ice cream, chocolate seems to
be the most desired. Some persons think this variety is difficult to
make, but if the accompanying directions are carefully followed, no
difficulty will be experienced and a delicious dessert will be
the result.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 c. water
4 Tb. flour
3 sq. melted chocolate
2 eggs
5 c. milk
4 tsp. vanilla
2 c. thin cream

Mix the sugar and water and cook until a sirup forms. Add this to the
melted chocolate and cook together until the two are well blended. Add
this mixture to the heated milk and cream, which have been seasoned with
the salt and thickened with the flour. Beat the eggs and add to the hot
mixture, stirring rapidly to prevent curding. Remove from the heat,
cool, add the vanilla, strain, and freeze.

73. MOCHA ICE CREAM.--As the flavor of coffee is usually well liked,
Mocha ice cream, which has coffee for its flavoring, is a dessert that
often finds a place in the meal. It is especially nice to serve in the
hot weather when hot coffee is omitted from the meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. water
1-1/4 c. sugar
1/3 3 c. ground coffee
1/4 tsp. salt
1-1/2 c. milk
1 qt. cream
2 eggs
1 tsp. vanilla

Heat the water and add it to the coffee. Allow this to stand on the back
of the stove for about 1/2 hour, and then strain through cheesecloth.
Heat the milk in a double boiler, and to it add the strained coffee.
Beat the eggs and add the sugar and salt to them. Stir into this a
spoonful of the hot milk and coffee and then add to the mixture in the
double boiler. Cook until the eggs have thickened, stirring constantly
to prevent curding. Remove from the heat, cool, add the cream and
vanilla, strain through a fine sieve, and freeze.

74. CARAMEL ICE CREAM.--No more delicious ice cream can be made than
that flavored with caramel. It is usually very fine in texture and rich
in flavor.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. sugar
1 egg
1/2 c. water
1/4 tsp. salt
2 c. milk
1 qt. thin cream
2 Tb. flour
1 Tb. vanilla

Caramelize 1/2 of the sugar and add the water. Cook to a sirup. Prepare
a custard with the milk, remaining sugar, flour, egg, and salt. Remove
from the heat, add the caramel and the cream, strain, add the vanilla,
cool, and freeze.

75. JUNKET ICE CREAM WITH PEACHES.--An attractive frozen dessert can be
made by freezing junket and serving it with canned peaches and peach
sirup. This may be made into a mold and the mold garnished with the
peaches, or it may be served on individual plates and a half of a peach
put on each plate.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. cream
1 Tb. cold water
1-1/2 qt. milk
1 Tb. vanilla
1-1/2 c. sugar
1 tsp. almond extract
1/4 tsp. salt
Green coloring
2 junket tablets
Canned peaches

Mix the cream and milk, add the sugar and salt, and heat in a double
boiler until lukewarm. Dissolve the junket tablets in the cold water and
add to the lukewarm milk. Add the flavoring and the green coloring,
making the junket a pale green, and stand in a warm place until set.
Turn into a freezer and freeze. If desired, mold and garnish the mold
with the peaches. Add sugar to the peach juice and cook until a thick
sirup is formed. Pour this over the whole and serve. If it is desired
not to mold the ice cream, serve it with a peach on individual serving
plates and pour a spoonful of peach sirup over each portion.

76. FRENCH ICE CREAM.--No more delicious ice cream can be made than that
given in the accompanying recipe and known as French ice cream. It is
especially nice for serving when something very attractive is desired,
as at a dainty luncheon or an afternoon or evening party.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. milk
1 qt. cream
1 c. sugar
1 Tb. vanilla
Yolks of 8 eggs
1 tsp. lemon

Heat the milk and add the sugar and beaten yolks of the eggs. Cook until
the mixture thickens, remove from the fire, add the cream, vanilla, and
lemon. Cool and freeze.


77. Frozen custard makes a very desirable kind of frozen dessert. If
properly made, the result is a delightfully rich dessert of smooth
texture. It may be frozen without turning or in the usual way. A similar
mixture is used in some of the recipes of the more complicated frozen
desserts given later. Fruits and nuts may be used in the preparation of
frozen custard to procure variety. During the season when eggs are
expensive, this dessert is a rather extravagant one, so that from the
standpoint of economy it should be made in the spring and summer.

78. PLAIN FROZEN CUSTARD.--If a frozen dessert that is easily made is
desired, plain frozen custard should be tried. The accompanying recipe
gives directions for custard of this kind.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 qt. milk
1/4 tsp. salt
6 eggs
1 Tb. vanilla
1-1/4 c. sugar
1 tsp. lemon extract

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and
add the sugar and salt to them. Add this to the hot milk, stirring
rapidly until the mixture thickens. Remove from the heat, beat the egg
whites, and fold them into the mixture. Add the vanilla and lemon
extract, cool, and freeze.

79. FROZEN CUSTARD WITH NUTS.--Plain frozen custard can be greatly
improved by the addition of nuts. The nuts used may be blanched almonds
roasted in the oven until they are brown, hickory nuts, English walnuts,
pecans, black walnuts, or a mixture of any of these. They should not be
put through a grinder, but should be put into a chopping bowl and
chopped fine with a chopping knife. Prepare the mixture and freeze to a
mush, then open the freezer, add a cupful of chopped nuts, close the
freezer, and complete the freezing.

80. FROZEN CUSTARD WITH RAISINS.--Frozen custard is also delicious when
maple sirup is used in its preparation and raisins are added before the
freezing is complete.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. sultana raisins
1-1/2 c. maple sirup
1 qt. milk
1 pt. thin cream
6 eggs
1 Tb. vanilla

Steam the raisins until they are soft. Heat the milk in a double
boiler. Beat the eggs, add the maple sirup, and add this to the milk.
Cook until the mixture has thickened, remove from the heat, and stir in
the cream and vanilla. Cool and freeze to a mush; then add the raisins
and continue freezing until stiff. Serve.

81. TUTTI-FRUTTI FROZEN CUSTARD.--A very rich dessert can be made by
adding chopped nuts and several kinds of fruit to custard and then
freezing it to make tutti-frutti custard. Such a dessert is high in food
value and is suitable for a meal in which other rich food is not served.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. milk
6 egg yolks
1 c. sugar
1/8 tsp. salt
1 Tb. vanilla
1/4 c. chopped citron
2 Tb. maraschino juice
1/4 c. chopped maraschino cherries
1/2 c. chopped nuts
1/4 c. chopped candied pineapple
1/2 c. shredded coconut

Heat the milk in a double boiler. Beat the egg yolks and add the sugar
and salt. Add this to the hot milk and stir until the custard has
thickened. Cool, add the vanilla, chopped citron, maraschino juice,
cherries, nuts, pineapple, and coconut. Place in a freezer and freeze
until stiff. Pack and let stand until time to serve.


82. Ices are simple mixtures of fruit juice and sugar diluted with water
and then frozen. They are expected to be somewhat sour, and, as a rule,
lemon juice is relied on to assist in obtaining this flavor. In
addition, lemon juice also helps to bring out the flavor of the fruit
used as the basis of the ice.

As a rule, a very smooth texture is not desired in this dessert;
consequently, ice is frozen quite rapidly and, as will be noted in Table
I, with a high proportion of salt. Unless the fruit used in an ice is
expensive, this is probably the cheapest frozen dessert that can be
made, for it seldom contains any other ingredients than those mentioned.
It is usually clear, but occasionally the fruit pulp is used in addition
to the fruit juice. When this is done, the mixture should not be frozen
too hard, as the fruit is apt to become icy. Fresh, canned, or preserved
fruit may be used. The sugar used for ices is usually cooked with the
water to form a sirup. Otherwise, the sugar often fails to dissolve and
remains granular, preventing the ice from being as sweet as it should be
for the amount of sugar used.

83. LEMON ICE.--The ice most frequently made is that flavored with
lemon. It is very refreshing when served plain, but it can be improved
by the addition of fruit. A very delightful way in which to serve it is
to place a large spoonful in a sherbet glass, pour over this a spoonful
or two of the sirup from maraschino cherries, and then garnish with
diced bananas.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 c. water
2-1/2 c. sugar
3/4 c. lemon juice

Mix the water and sugar, bring to a boil, and cool. Add the lemon juice,
turn into a freezer, and freeze. Serve in any desired way.

84. ORANGE ICE.--Persons fond of oranges generally welcome orange ice as
a dessert. As orange ice is somewhat bland in flavor, it is improved by
the addition of a little lemon juice.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. sugar
4 c. water
2 c. orange juice
1/2 c. lemon juice

Cook the sugar and water until a thin sirup is formed, add the lemon and
orange juice, and freeze.

85. FRUIT ICE.--No more refreshing dessert for warm weather can be made
than fruit ice. Orange and lemon juice are used as the foundation, and
grated pineapple and crushed strawberries are added for flavoring.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. sugar
2 c. water
3 oranges
3 lemons
1 c. grated pineapple
1 c. crushed strawberries

Cook the sugar and water until a thin sirup is formed, and then cool.
Add the juice of the oranges and lemons, the grated pineapple, fresh if
possible, and the crushed strawberries. Freeze and serve.

86. FROZEN SPICED PUNCH.--Something entirely different in the way of a
frozen dessert can be made by making frozen spiced punch according to
the accompanying directions. A dessert of this kind is a fitting
conclusion to a meal that is somewhat hearty and varied in its nature.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 cloves
2-in. stick cinnamon
1 qt. water
2 c. sugar
1/2 c. pineapple juice
1/2 c. orange juice
1/2 c. lemon juice
4 drops wintergreen oil

Put the cloves and cinnamon into the water, place over the fire, bring
to the boiling point, and then add the sugar. Cook together for a few
minutes, remove from the fire, and cool. Add the pineapple, orange, and
lemon juice, strain, add the wintergreen oil, and freeze.

87. MINT PUNCH.--When meals containing rich meats and other rich foods
are served, it will be found that mint punch adds just what is needed to
balance them. It is an easy dessert to make, as will be seen from the
accompanying recipe.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. sugar
1 qt. water
3 lemons
1 bunch fresh mint
4 drops peppermint oil
Green coloring

Cook the sugar and water until a thin sirup is formed. Cool and add the
juice of the lemons. Wash and chop the leaves of the mint into small
pieces, and add these to the liquid. Add the peppermint oil and
sufficient coloring to make it a pale green. Freeze. The fresh mint
leaves may be omitted if desired.


88. FRAPPÉS, in composition, are very similar to ices, consisting
usually of crushed fruit or fruit juice, water, and sugar. They are
granular when frozen, and, as they are never frozen as hard as ice cream
and ices, they are of a mushy consistency. They are more often used for
serving with a heavy course in a dinner or between two courses than as a
dessert. The freezing of frappés is accomplished rapidly, for, as will
be observed from Table I, the proportion of ice and salt used is 1 to 1.
This, together with the fact that the mixture contains a large
proportion of water, accounts for the granular nature of frappés. Any
desirable fruit may be used in the preparation of this dessert. If it is
a rather bland fruit, such as peaches, raspberries, etc., lemon juice
should be added in order to give a sour taste and the mixture will need
to be sweetened accordingly.

89. CRANBERRY FRAPPÉ.--To the dinner course of a meal in which chicken,
turkey, duck, or other fowl is served, cranberry frappé is often added.
It may be used in place of the cranberry jelly and will be found to be a
delightful change.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. cranberries
3 c. water
2 c. sugar
2 lemons

Put the cranberries to cook with the water. When all the berries have
become soft, force them through a colander, add the sugar, and put over
the fire to cook until the sugar is completely dissolved. Remove from
the fire and cool, add the juice of the lemons, and freeze.

90. CIDER FRAPPÉ.--A delightful addition to a Thanksgiving dinner is
cider frappé. It should be served with the dinner course rather than as
a dessert.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/4 c. water
1/2 c. sugar
1 qt. cider
2 lemons

Place the water and sugar over the fire and cook until the sugar is
dissolved. Cool and then add the sirup to the cider and the juice of the
lemons. Freeze.

91. CHERRY FRAPPÉ.--No more attractive frappé can be served than that
flavored with cherries and colored with a pink coloring. It is very
refreshing and adds much to the meal in which it is served.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. sugar
1 c. water
2 lemons
1 c. cherries, chopped
1-1/2 c. juice from canned sour cherries
Pink coloring

Add the sugar to the water and cook until the sugar is dissolved. Cool,
add the juice of the lemons, the chopped cherries, cherry juice, and
sufficient pink coloring to make the mixture a pale pink. Freeze.


92. SHERBETS, according to definition, are flavored water ices, but as
they are now commonly understood, they have come to have a different
meaning. Desserts now regarded as sherbets are ices to which are added
egg whites, gelatine, milk, or any combination of these things. The
addition of such ingredients improves the texture very much, for
sherbets are less likely to be granular than ices.

Sherbets may be made from fruits or fruit juices of any kind, and these
may be either canned or fresh. Some mixtures of fruits are more
agreeable than others, and an effort should be made to combine the
fruits that make the best mixtures. When a bland fruit is used as the
basis for a sherbet, a more acid one should be added to improve
the flavor.

93. MILK SHERBET.--The accompanying recipe for milk sherbet may be made
as here given, or any desired kind of crushed fruit and fruit juice may
be added to it to give a distinctive fruit flavor. The quantity of lemon
used may be decreased slightly, especially if the fruit added is sour.
If a large amount of unsweetened fruit is added, it may be necessary to
increase the quantity of sugar. This point should be looked after
carefully before freezing.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. sugar
1 qt. milk
3 lemons

Mix the sugar, milk, and juice of the lemons. Stir until the sugar is
dissolved. The milk, of course, will curd, but when it is frozen the
curd will have disappeared entirely. Place in a freezer and freeze
until firm.

94. RASPBERRY SHERBET.--If a delightful dessert is desired, raspberry
sherbet should be made. Fresh raspberries are preferred in a dessert of
this kind, but canned raspberries may be used if it is made out of the
raspberry season.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. milk
2 c. crushed red raspberries
1 lemon
2 c. sugar

Mix the milk, raspberries, juice of the lemon, and sugar. Stir until the
sugar is dissolved. Freeze.

95. PEAR SHERBET.--Pear juice is, of course, rather bland in flavor,
but it makes a very appetizing sherbet if it is combined with
lemon juice.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. pear juice
Juice of 3 lemons
2 c. water
1 c. sugar
1 Tb. gelatine
1 egg white

Mix the fruit juices and water and add the sugar. Soak the gelatine in a
little cold water and add sufficient boiling water to dissolve it. Pour
this into the mixture. Freeze until of a mushy consistency. Add the
beaten egg white and continue to freeze until stiff.

96. STRAWBERRY SHERBET.--As nearly every one is fond of strawberries, a
sherbet in which this fruit is used will always be appreciated. Fresh
strawberries are required in the accompanying recipe, and so this
dessert must be made during strawberry season.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. fresh crushed strawberries
1 lemon
2 c. sugar
1 qt. milk
2 egg whites

Crush the strawberries, add them with the juice of the lemon and sugar
to the milk. Stir until the sugar is dissolved. Freeze to a mush, add
the beaten egg whites, and continue to freeze until the sherbet
is solid.

97. GRAPE SHERBET.--Sherbet in which grape juice is used for flavoring
makes a change from the usual kind of frozen desserts. A little lemon
juice is used with the grape juice to make it more tart.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. grape juice
2 c. water
2 c. milk
1 Tb. gelatine
2 c. sugar
1 lemon

Mix the grape juice, water, and milk. Soak the gelatine in a little cold
water and add sufficient boiling water to dissolve. Pour this into the
liquid and add the sugar and the juice of the lemon. Stir until the
sugar is dissolved. Place in a freezer and freeze.


98. Nature of Mousses, Parfaits, and Biscuits. Mousses, parfaits, and
biscuits differ from other frozen desserts in that they are frozen in
molds rather than in a freezer. Mousses and parfaits are similar in
nature, and still there is a slight distinction between them. Mousses
nearly always contain gelatine and are frequently made without eggs,
while parfaits are composed largely of sirup, eggs, and cream. Biscuits
are usually made of a mixture similar to mousses and parfaits, but are
molded in individual molds.

Since the desserts are frozen without being turned, they must be of a
heavy, smooth texture, so that they will not be granular when they are
frozen, as would be the case if a fine mixture were packed in a mold and
frozen without turning. In many of them, whipped cream and beaten eggs
are folded in to give lightness. In the ordinary manner of freezing,
this lightness would be lost, but it is retained in this method because
the mixture is undisturbed during the freezing process. Considerable
time is required to freeze these heavy mixtures; in fact, if a mousse
contains too large a proportion of gelatine, there is difficulty in
freezing it at all.

99. MOLDING: MOUSSES, PARFAITS, AND BISCUITS.--The molding of mousses,
parfaits, and biscuits, while different from the freezing of other
frozen desserts, is not a difficult matter. They are usually put in a
mold of some kind and the mold is then covered with a mixture of ice and
salt. After the mixture is prepared, crack the ice as previously
explained, and mix it with salt in the proportion of 2 to 1. As a rule,
a very large dish pan or other utensil that will hold a sufficient
quantity of ice to cover the mold well is used for freezing the packed
mold. Set the mold in the pan of ice and salt until it is thoroughly
cooled, and then fill it with the mixture to be frozen. Often, to
improve the appearance, the mold is first lined with a frappé or an ice
and then filled with the heavier mixture. Such an arrangement provides
an opportunity for a color scheme and at the same time facilitates the
removal of the dessert from the mold.

With the mold filled in the desired way, wrap several layers of oiled
paper in a band around the edge and press the cover down tightly to
prevent the entrance of any salt water. Then pack the closed mold in the
pan of ice and salt, being careful to have it completely covered. It
may be necessary to pour off the water and repack with ice and salt once
during the freezing. Care should be taken not to freeze the mixture too
long, for, at best, it is hard to remove these desserts from the mold
and this difficulty is increased if they are frozen too hard.

100. CARAMEL MOUSSE.--A melon mold makes a very attractive dessert when
used for the molding of caramel mousse. After being turned out of the
mold on a platter and garnished with peaches, this dessert will appear
as in Fig. 19. In addition to being attractive, caramel mousse is so
delicious that it appeals to practically every one.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3/4 c. sugar
1/2 c. water
1 c. evaporated milk
2 tsp. gelatine
1/4 c. water
1 egg white
2 tsp. vanilla
1/4 tsp. salt

Make 1/2 cupful of the sugar and the 1/2 cupful of water into caramel.
Place the can of evaporated milk into a pan of warm water, allow it to
come to a boil over the flame, and then cool the can in the
refrigerator. Soften the gelatine with the 1/4 cupful of water and then
dissolve in the caramel while it is boiling hot. Pour the cold milk into
a bowl, add the egg white, and beat together vigorously. When the
gelatine and caramel have become cool and have started to set, gradually
add the mixture to the milk and egg white, beating constantly. If it is
desired to hasten the thickening process, set the bowl in which the
mixture is being made into a pan of ice. Add the rest of the sugar, the
vanilla, and the salt, and continue beating until the whole begins to
thicken. Place in a mold and freeze in a pan of ice and salt. When
frozen, turn from the mold onto a platter and garnish with canned
peaches in the manner shown. Over each serving, pour some of the peach
juice, which has been boiled down into a thick sirup.

101. CHOCOLATE MOUSSE.--If persons to be served are fond of chocolate
desserts, chocolate mousse should be prepared. This may be packed in a
mold of any desired kind.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 sq. unsweetened chocolate
1-1/4 c. sugar
1 c. water
2 tsp. granulated gelatine
3 c. thin cream
1 tsp. vanilla
1 c. whipping cream

Melt the chocolate in a double boiler. Add the sugar and half of the
water. Cook over the flame until the mixture is thick and smooth. Soften
the gelatine in 1/4 cupful of water, bring the remaining 1/4 cupful of
water to the boiling point, and dissolve the gelatine in it. Add this to
the cooked chocolate and sugar, heat the thin cream in a double boiler,
and mix the two. Add the vanilla, strain, and cool in a pan of ice
water. When the mixture begins to thicken, whip the heavy cream and fold
it in. Mold, pack in ice and salt, and freeze.

102. BANANA-AND-APRICOT MOUSSE.--Mousses are sometimes made of fruits,
but when this is done, the proper combination should be secured. Bananas
and apricots combine very well. An excellent dessert will therefore
result if the directions given in the accompanying recipe are
carefully followed.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. banana purée
1 c. apricot purée
Juice of 1 lemon
1 c. water
1 c. sugar
2 tsp. gelatine
1 pt. heavy cream

Force ripe bananas through a sieve to make the banana purée. Soak and
stew dried apricots and force these through a sieve to make apricot
purée. Mix the two and add the lemon juice. Add 1/2 cupful of the water
to the sugar and cook until a thick sirup is formed. Add this to the
fruit purée. Soften the gelatine in 1/4 cupful of cold water, heat the
remaining 1/4 cupful to the boiling point, and dissolve the gelatine.
Add the gelatine to the fruit mixture and place in a pan of ice water to
cool. Whip the cream until it is stiff and fold this into the fruit
mixture when it begins to thicken. Mold, pack in ice, and freeze.

103. MAPLE PARFAIT.--Maple sirup may be combined with eggs and whipped
cream to make maple parfait. As may be judged from the ingredients used,
this is a very rich dessert; therefore, it should not be used in a meal
in which the other dishes are hearty. Maple parfait makes an excellent
dish to serve with cake that is not very rich as refreshments for
a party.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 eggs
1 c. maple sirup
1 pt. heavy cream

Beat the eggs. Cook the maple sirup for a few minutes only and pour this
slowly over them. Stir constantly to prevent the curding of the eggs.
Place in a double boiler and cook until the mixture thickens. Cool in a
pan of ice water. Whip the cream until it is stiff and fold this into
the mixture. Mold, pack in ice and salt, and freeze.

104. CAFÉ PARFAIT.--Coffee used to flavor parfait makes a dessert that
appeals to many. When hot coffee is not included in the meal on a warm
day, this beverage need not be omitted altogether, for it may be used to
flavor the dessert.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/4 c. ground coffee
1 c. milk
1 c. sugar
3 c. thin cream
3 eggs
1 c. heavy cream

Scald the coffee and milk together for about 20 minutes, strain, and add
the sugar and thin cream. Stir until the sugar dissolves. Beat the eggs
and add them to the warm mixture. Cook together until the eggs have
thickened and then cool. Whip the heavy cream, fold this into the
custard, and freeze. Serve with sweetened whipped cream.

105. STRAWBERRY ANGEL PARFAIT.--As the name implies, strawberry angel
parfait is a very dainty dessert. Nothing more delightful can be made
during the season when fresh strawberries can be obtained. It is
suitable for serving at the conclusion of a meal, but it is especially
satisfactory for a party or other social affair.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. sugar
1 c. boiling water
Whites of 2 eggs
1 pt. whipping cream
1 c. crushed strawberries
2 tsp. vanilla

Boil the sugar and water until the sirup threads. Beat the egg whites
and pour the hot sirup over them, beating rapidly. Cool. Whip the cream
and fold it in, add the crushed strawberries and vanilla, and freeze
in a mold.

106. CANTON PARFAIT.--Preserved Canton ginger is used for the flavoring
of Canton parfait. The sirup that comes with the ginger is also used in
the preparation of this dessert. Canton parfait is somewhat of a
departure from the ordinary dessert, but is favored by many persons.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. sugar
1/2 c. water
4 eggs
2 c. thin cream
1/2 c. preserved Canton ginger
1/4 c. sirup from ginger
1 tsp. vanilla
2 Tb. lemon juice
1 c. whipping cream

Cook the sugar and water together until they form a thin sirup. Beat the
eggs, pour the hot sirup over them, and add the thin cream. Cook in a
double boiler until the eggs have thickened. Cool, add the ginger
chopped into small pieces, the ginger sirup, vanilla, and lemon juice.
Fold into this the heavy cream whipped until it is stiff. Freeze in
a mold.

107. BISCUIT TORTONI.--Something entirely different in the nature of a
frozen dessert can be had by preparing biscuit tortoni. This is frozen
in a mold as are parfaits and mousses, but instead of the entire mold
being served, it is packed in paper cases, and one of these served to
each person. Macaroons are used to flavor this dessert, and a layer of
the crumbs is sprinkled over the top of each serving.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. sugar
1/2 c. boiling water
3 eggs
1 pt. thin cream
1 c. heavy cream
1 c. macaroon crumbs
1 tsp. vanilla

Cook the sugar and water until it threads. Beat the eggs and add the
sirup to the beaten eggs. Then add the thin cream, return to the fire,
and cook until the mixture thickens. Set aside to cool. Beat the heavy
cream until it is stiff, and fold this into the custard. Make macaroon
crumbs by drying macaroons and beating them until they are quite fine.
Add 1 cupful of these crumbs and the vanilla to the parfait mixture,
place in a mold and freeze. When frozen, remove from the mold, pack in
paper cases, cover with a layer of macaroon crumbs, and serve.


108. After desserts have been frozen in the various ways that have been
explained, they are often molded and then allowed to stand in ice and
salt until they are well set. In this way, many attractive desserts can
be made and numerous color schemes carried out. Some of the molds that
are used for this purpose are shown in Fig. 20. The one in the center is
known as a _melon mold_, and it is the one used in the preparation of
the caramel mousse shown in Fig. 19. It may also be used for the molding
of desserts that are already frozen. The mold to the left is known as a
_brick mold_, and is much used for Neapolitan ice cream, while the
small one to the right is an individual mold used for individual
serving. Both the top and the bottom of the brick mold are in the form
of covers that are removable. Directions for the molding of several
desserts of this kind are here given and other frozen mixtures may be
molded in a similar way.

[Illustration: FIG. 20]

[Illustration: FIG. 21]

109. NEAPOLITAN ICE CREAM.--A combination of an ice and two kinds of ice
cream, usually of different colors, makes what is known as Neapolitan
ice cream. Various ways of combining these are in practice; for
instance, chocolate ice cream and strawberry ice cream may be combined
with lemon ice, or strawberry and vanilla ice cream and orange ice may
be used together. The ice creams and ices must, of course, be thoroughly
frozen before they are packed in the mold.

Prepare the mold by placing a piece of oiled paper over the bottom cover
and setting the mold in this. Then put a layer of ice cream of one color
into the mold, as shown in Fig. 21, pack on top of this the second color
of ice cream, and put the ice on top, or pack the ice between the two
kinds of ice cream. Pack each layer tight and push the frozen mixtures
well into the corners so that there will be no holes. Cover the top well
with another piece of oiled paper, as shown in Fig. 22, place the cover
on, and pack the mold into ice and salt, using a proportion of 2 to 1.
Allow this to stand until it is well set. To serve, remove from the
mold, cut slices from the brick, and place on plates, preferably those
covered with paper doilies.

[Illustration: FIG. 22]

110. BOMBE GLACÉ.--A combination of an ice and a mousse or parfait
mixture makes a delightful dessert known as Bombe glacé. Contrasting
colors should be used if possible in order to make a beautiful dessert.
This is usually made in a melon-shaped mold, but it may be made in a
round mold, such as a tin can, if the can is perfectly water-tight.

Line the mold with an ice and fill the center with a mousse or a
parfait. Place in a mixture of ice and salt and freeze. When it has
become solid, turn out the entire mold on a suitable dish and serve it
at the table.


111. Frozen desserts offer an opportunity for variety in serving,
because they occur in so many different forms. The method of serving
depends, of course, on the nature of the frozen dessert, but any one of
them that may be served from a large plate or dish is always attractive.
This may be done, as has been explained, if the frozen mixtures are
molded either as a single kind or as a combination of two or more kinds.

112. To remove a molded dessert from the mold before serving, first
clean the mold thoroughly of ice and salt and wipe it dry with a cloth.
Then remove the cover and allow it to stand for a few minutes in a warm
place. This treatment will cause the outside of the frozen mixture to
melt slightly and permit it to slip easily from the mold. A warm cloth
or warm water is sometimes used to melt the surface, and it accomplishes
the work more quickly; but when the mold is so treated it is likely not
to look so well. As soon as the surface is a trifle soft, turn the mold
out on a dish and serve it immediately.

113. Receptacles of numerous kinds are in use for individual servings of
frozen desserts. Slices of ice cream cut from a brick mold and
individual molds are usually served on a small plate about the size of a
bread-and-butter plate. It may be placed directly on the plate, or a
paper doily of the proper size may be put on the plate and the frozen
dessert set on this. Sherbet glasses are much used for individual
portions and are very attractive for this purpose, especially when they
have long stems. Paper cases, such as those shown in Fig. 23, also make
excellent receptacles for individual servings. They may be plain or
fancy and are generally used to carry out a color scheme or a decorative
idea. Meringues having the bottom removed and the center scooped out are
sometimes used as cases in which to serve ice cream. These are made of
egg white and sugar and baked in the oven. They are not difficult to
prepare, as the recipes for them in _Cakes, Cookies, and Puddings_, Part
2, explain, and they are often garnished with whipped cream. All such
receptacles are placed on a small plate either with or without a paper
doily of the right size.

[Illustration: FIG. 23]

[Illustration: FIG. 24]

114. It is a little more difficult to serve desserts frozen in a freezer
than those which an molded. However, there are numerous ways of
garnishing and serving such desserts to add to their attractiveness.
Candied fruits, such as cherries and pineapple, candied violet, mint,
and rose leaves, maraschino and crème-de-menthe cherries, fresh
strawberries, preserved cherries, strawberries, and other fruits, sliced
peaches or bananas, whipped cream, toasted coconut, chopped nuts of
different kinds, and various kinds of fruit sirups may all be used to
advantage with these desserts. Fig. 24 shows ice cream served in a
stemmed sherbet glass with grape juice and garnished with whipped cream
and a maraschino cherry. Then, too, a chocolate sirup made by cooking
sugar, water, and chocolate or sugar, milk, and chocolate may be served
hot or cold over ice cream and similar desserts. Another excellent dip
is made of any kind of fruit juice thickened with sugar. The marshmallow
whip explained in Art. 54 may be made in any desirable color and then
used alone or with a dip as a garnish for ice cream.

* * * * *



(1) Discuss briefly the value of desserts with meals.

(2) What points should be considered in the selection of desserts?

(3) What is the value of an attractive appearance in a dessert?

(4) (_a_) How do the general rules of cookery apply in the preparation
of desserts? (_b_) Give an example.

(5) Of what value to desserts is: (_a_) a bland sauce? (_b_) a highly
seasoned sauce?

(6) (_a_) Mention the proportion of eggs and milk for a custard. (_b_)
Describe the method of making and baking plain custard.

(7) (_a_) Give a common test for determining when baked custard is done.
(_b_) Give the test for soft custard.

(8) (_a_) How should pearl tapioca be prepared for cooking? (_b_) What
should be its appearance when it has been cooked?

(9) How is gelatine prepared when it is to be used for desserts?

(10) Give the theory for the freezing of desserts.

(11) Give the proportion of ice to salt for: (_a_) ice cream; (_b_)
sherbets; (_c_) ices; (_d_) frappés; (_e_) frozen punch; (_f_) frozen
desserts that are packed and not turned to freeze.

(12) Describe the procedure in getting a mixture ready to freeze.

(13) To what is the increase in quantity during the freezing of a
mixture due?

(14) How does the rate of speed in turning the dasher affect the
freezing of a dessert?

(15) How can you determine when the mixture in a freezer is sufficiently

(16) What should be done in making a frozen dessert when the freezing
has been completed?

(17) State the advantages and disadvantages of a vacuum freezer.

(18) What are: (_a_) ices? (_b_) sherbets?

(19) How is a mold of ice cream packed?

(20) Describe an original way of serving ice cream.


* * * * *


1. CAKE is a mixture of flour, eggs, sugar, butter, and liquid that is
baked in the oven in a variety of forms and distinguished by a tender
texture and a sweet flavor. Closely allied to cake mixtures proper are
many others, including cookies, small cakes, puddings, etc. While these
differ from cakes in some respects, they are similar in use,
ingredients, or methods of preparation. Because of this similarity, a
number of these related mixtures are taken up in connection with cakes.

2. Foods of this class, which are usually served as dessert, are for the
most part considered as luxuries and, of course, are not used so
extensively in the diet as other classes of foods. However, sweet food
is required to a certain extent in each person's diet, and it may be
obtained in this agreeable form without overbalancing the food account
if a little economy is practiced elsewhere. Thus, a small quantity of
cake or pudding that is light, not too rich, and properly made may be
served without injury to most persons as a dessert or as an
accompaniment to a dessert. For children, the less rich and sweet
mixtures, such as cookies, are preferable to rich cake and very sweet
confections and may be fed to them occasionally.

3. Because of the almost unlimited variation in the proportion of
ingredients, considerable variety exists in desserts of this kind. Cakes
range from those made with only eggs for leavening to those containing
very few eggs and having the standard proportion of other leavening
agents. For instance, there is sponge cake; which contains no shortening
and no leavening except eggs, in contrast with butter cake, which has
much shortening or little, as the case may be, and requires
proportionate quantities of flour and leavening other than eggs. Then
there are soft, rich cookies containing shortening and sugar and the
harder, less rich ones containing a greater proportion of flour.

4. In addition to cakes and puddings proper, there are many mixtures
that can scarcely be classed as cakes at all. A few of them, such as
meringues, are so sweet and delicate that they could be considered as
confections, but they are discussed in connection with cakes because
they take the place of cake in the meal. The peculiar pastes used for
the making of cream puffs and éclairs are not in reality cakes, nor are
they real pastry, but because they are served as desserts and belong
somewhere in this class, they are included here. Doughnuts and crullers
are perhaps more often thought of as quick breads than as cakes.
However, the mixtures used for them are sweet. They differ from the
mixtures for cakes only in being less rich, but by the peculiar method
of their preparation in deep fat these foods become richer than the
majority of cakes. Then there are a few varieties of cakes made with
yeast which are related to cake in some respects and can well be taken
up in this connection.

5. The proportions of liquid to flour for the various kinds of cake
mixtures do not differ materially from those of the batters and doughs
given in _Hot Breads_. Still, the increased amount of sugar, eggs, and
shortening must always be considered, for these ingredients make
considerable variation in the general proportions. All that is said in
_Hot Breads_ concerning leavening agents and the proportions in which
they are used applies with equal force to the making of cakes.

6. To be able to make foods of this nature well is one of the triumphs
of the modern housewife. But this accomplishment is not beyond the
limitations of any woman who masters the principles of cookery and
diligently applies them to this part of the subject. In addition to
making desserts that are merely palatable, she can, with a little
practice, learn to decorate these foods, particularly cakes, both
attractively and artistically. When she is equipped with such knowledge,
she will be able to present her family with many varieties of this
pleasing dessert.

* * * * *




7. QUALITY OF INGREDIENTS.--The materials used in the making of cakes
should be of as good quality as possible, and when put into the cake
they should be in the best condition. In this phase of cookery, as in
all others, better results are obtained when good materials are used.
Besides possessing this general characteristic, certain of the
ingredients require special attention.

8. FAT FOR CAKES.--The fat used for cakes must necessarily be of an
agreeable flavor, and for this reason butter is the kind in general use.
There are, of course, other fats that may be used to advantage either as
part or all of the fat required. However, when another fat is to take
the place of butter, one that is practically flavorless should be
chosen. Oleomargarine of various kinds, Crisco, and even some of the
liquid fats are very satisfactory, especially in the making of cookies.

9. SWEETENING FOR CAKES.--Numerous varieties of sugar may be employed in
the making of cakes. Probably granulated sugar is used more frequently
than any other, but brown sugar, soft sugar, and confectioner's sugar
all have a place in cake making. Any of these may be used in the
preparation of icing as well as for an ingredient of the cake itself.

10. LEAVENING FOR CAKES.--An important source of leavening in cakes is
eggs. For cakes to be most satisfactory, the eggs employed should be
strictly fresh. During the season when they are scarce and consequently
high in price, recipes that require only a few eggs should be prepared.

Baking powder, which is also an important leavening in cakes, should be
of an approved brand that can be relied on to do the work expected of
it. Soda and cream of tartar are sometimes used together, and, again,
soda is used alone with molasses or sour milk. For every 3 eggs in a
cake mixture, 1 teaspoonful of the baking powder called for in the
recipe may be omitted. Altitude affects the amount of baking powder
required in cakes. The quantity given in the recipes is correct for
altitudes varying from sea level to 1/2 mile high, but it should be
reduced one-fifth at an elevation of 1 mile, and three-tenths at an
elevation of 7,000 feet.

11. LIQUID FOR CAKES.--Milk, as a rule, is the liquid used in cake
making. It may be skim milk or whole milk, it may consist of part water
and part milk, or it may be entirely water, depending on the kind of
cake. When a large number of eggs are used in a cake, very little liquid
is employed. Sometimes the liquid consists of molasses and sour milk
used together, separately, or with some other liquid.

12. FLOUR FOR CAKES.--The flour used in the preparation of cakes may be
bread, pastry, or blend flour, depending on the kind of cake desired.
While a blend, or an all-purpose, flour makes a satisfactory cake,
pastry flour, which is milled from soft winter wheat, or better still,
cake flour, is more nearly ideal as the excess gluten is removed, and it
is much finer milled; hence it produces a lighter, finer, more delicate
cake. Wheat flour is the kind that is generally used, but other flours,
such as white corn meal, rice flour, and potato flour, though producing
a drying effect, are sometimes combined with wheat. A tablespoonful of
corn starch sifted with the bread or hard wheat flour is an improvement
over straight bread flour, but as it has a drying effect, it is not to
be recommended.


13. In addition to the ingredients that have just been mentioned, there
are numerous other ingredients that are often used in cakes. Some of
them are used for the purpose of adding flavor and variety to otherwise
plain cakes, while many of them are used entirely for the purpose of
flavoring. These ingredients, like the necessary ones, should be of
excellent quality. It is essential that their use and value be
understood, for by means of them pleasing variety may often be secured
with just a plain-cake recipe. For instance, a plain cake as a
foundation may be varied by using with it raisins, nuts, spices,
coconut, preserved fruits of various kinds, or flavoring of some sort.
To be able to use these ingredients properly, it is well for the
housewife to be familiar with their nature and the treatment that must
be given to them before they can be used.

14. CURRANTS AND RAISINS.--As has already been learned, currants and
raisins are varieties of dried grapes. Currants do not contain seeds,
but raisins come in both seeded and seedless varieties, and either of
these are satisfactory for cake making. Currants are often dry and hard,
and as they are usually very dirty they require considerable cleaning to
prevent them from being gritty when the cake is eaten. Because of these
facts, currants are not very satisfactory and consequently are usually
replaced by raisins, which may be used, either chopped or whole, for any
of the purposes currants are used. If small raisins are desired,
sultanas, which are a small, light-colored, and mild-flavored variety,
are the best to purchase. These two fruits increase the food value of
the mixtures to which they are added. Raisins, being extremely high in
carbohydrate, are especially valuable as an ingredient.

Before currants and raisins are used in cake mixtures, they should be
thoroughly cleaned. To clean them, place them in a colander, and then
turn a stream of cold water over them and rub them between the fingers
until all dirt or other foreign material is removed. When clean, allow
them to dry as thoroughly as possible before using them.

15. MISCELLANEOUS FRUITS.--Fruits other than currants and raisins are
often used in the preparation of cakes and puddings. These, which may be
dried, canned, or preserved, include dates, figs, citron, apricots,
prunes, cherries, plums, pears, peaches, and pineapple. Candied orange
and lemon peel are generally used in the preparation of fruit cake. All
of these fruits add food value and flavor.

A certain amount of preparation must be given to fruits before they can
be used in cakes. All of them except the canned fruits must be
thoroughly washed, and some of them, such as dates, must have the stones
removed. Those which are very hard, as, for instance, figs and citron,
may be steamed to make them soft. The steaming may be done by placing
the fruit in a colander over a vessel of boiling water and covering the
colander to retain the steam. When treated in this manner, these fruits
will cut more easily and will be softer and more moist in the
finished cake.

16. NUTS.--In the making of cakes, nuts of almost any variety may be
utilized. Not only do they add a large amount of food value in the form
of fat, but they increase the richness of the cake and provide a very
delightful flavor. The nut meats are generally too large in size to be
used whole, and so they must be made smaller before they are added to
the mixture. They may be put through a chopper, but usually it is
preferable to chop them with a chopping knife in a bowl or cut them into
pieces with a paring knife.

It should be remembered, however, that the use of nuts in a cake adds
greatly to the cost, for, with the exception of peanuts, they are rather
expensive, particularly when they are bought shelled. As can readily be
understood, both the nuts themselves and the labor involved in removing
the shells must be paid for. The cost, of course, may be reduced by
buying the nuts in the shells and shelling them at home.

17. COCONUT.--The flesh of the coconut when shredded is much used in the
preparation of cakes, being put in the cake mixture or used in
connection with icing between the layers and over the top layer. Coconut
may be purchased already shredded in boxes or cans, or it may be
obtained in the shells and then shredded at home. That which is prepared
commercially either is dried, when it will be found to be somewhat hard,
or is mixed with the milk of the coconut or with glycerine, which keeps
it soft. Much more satisfactory coconut can be secured by procuring a
coconut, cracking open the shell, removing the flesh, and then grating
or grinding it. Coconut of this kind will be found to be very delicious
and will make excellent cake. In case coconut becomes dry and hard
before it is used, it can be softened by steaming it in the manner in
which dried fruits are steamed.

18. CHOCOLATE AND COCOA.--Materials that are much used for flavoring
cake mixtures and icings are chocolate and cocoa. Chocolate is sold in
pound and half-pound cakes in both the bitter and the sweetened form,
while cocoa is sold in packages or bottles in powder form. The bitter
chocolate gives the greatest amount of food value and flavor and is
therefore used the most. Cocoa is neither so strong in flavor nor so
high in food value as chocolate, but it can be substituted for chocolate
when this is not in supply.

19. SPICES.--In many kinds of cake, spices are needed to give the
desired flavor. When they are to be used for this purpose, they should
be obtained in the ground form and then mixed with the dry ingredients.
The principal varieties used in cakes are cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and
allspice. Sometimes a combination of all these is added to the mixture,
but very often just a little cinnamon or a mild flavoring of nutmeg is
all that is required. When spices are purchased, the best possible
brands should be selected, because these things are very easily
adulterated with other materials and adulterated spices have not so much
strength as the better kinds.

20. FLAVORING EXTRACTS.--In cake preparation, almost more than in any
other part of cookery, flavoring extracts have a place. They are used in
plain cakes that do not contain any of the other miscellaneous
ingredients, and some of them are also added to many cake mixtures and
icings that contain fruits, nuts, spices, chocolate, etc. Vanilla, which
is an alcoholic extract of the vanilla bean, is probably used more
frequently than any other flavoring. The alcoholic extracts of orange,
lemon, almond, pistachio, and various other flavors are also valuable in
cake making. When any of these flavorings are used in cakes, it should
be remembered that much of their strength is lost through the baking.
Therefore, in order that the cake may be well flavored after it is
baked, a comparatively large quantity of flavoring must be used.


21. Although many varieties of cake can be made, they may all be put
into two general classes: _sponge cake_ and _butter cake_. These classes
may also be regarded as cake made without butter and cake made with
butter, for it is the presence or absence of fat in a cake mixture that
makes the difference in the method of mixing the ingredients and
determines the texture after baking. While there are many true examples
of each of these classes, it must be remembered that there are also
numerous variations of the two which must be placed in either one or the
other of these classes. For instance, a true sponge cake does not
contain baking powder, but some recipes for sponge cake are given in
which baking powder is included. Such recipes must be regarded as
variations of sponge cake, for they are more similar to that than to
butter cake.

The ingredients are not, however, the only source of difference between
these two general classes of cakes. They also differ as to the method
used to combine the ingredients, the correct oven temperature for
baking, and the length of time required for the baking. All these
differences must be thoroughly understood if successful cake making is
to be the result.


22. The different forms of cake require, of course, different utensils,
and these are taken up in connection with the preparation of each class.
However, it is well for the housewife to be familiar at the outset with
the general equipment used in the making of cakes and similar foods.

23. The utensils required for the mixing of the ingredients are somewhat
similar to those used in the preparation of hot breads. An earthen bowl
is preferable for the mixing of the batter. If this kind is not
available, an enamel one rather than an aluminum one should be used.
When cake dough is stirred in an aluminum dish, the sides usually become
darkened and are liable to discolor the mixture.

Spoons for the mixing of the ingredients are also important. Enameled
spoons are not very satisfactory, because the enamel is likely to chip
off the edges. Aluminum spoons may be used. In fact, they have lightness
in weight which recommends their use, but if much stirring is done, a
slight discoloration is apt to occur from the spoon. Wooden spoons or
spatulas are found to be the most satisfactory for this purpose. They
are light in weight, cause no discoloration, and do not chip nor
wear off.

24. Two measuring cups, one for the dry ingredients and one for the wet
materials, should be provided, as they will prove a convenience. A
tablespoon, a teaspoon, and a case knife are also necessary for
measuring. To remove any foreign material from the flour and at the same
time make it light, a flour sifter is required.

25. Certain utensils are required for the beating of the eggs used in
cakes. If they are to be beaten separately before being put into the
mixture, a bowl and a rotary egg beater should be provided. In case the
eggs are to be separated and the whites beaten alone, a flat dish, such
as a platter or a soup plate, and an egg whip are the most satisfactory.

26. The kind of pan required for the baking of cakes depends entirely
on the kind of cake that is to be prepared. Fig. 1 shows the types of
pans for which the housewife will have the most use. The square pan at
the left is suitable for any kind of cake that is to be baked in the
form of a loaf. In front of this is a layer-cake pan with a removable
bottom. This type of layer-cake pan is the most satisfactory, for the
cake may be lifted right out of the pan rim on the cake-pan bottom and
the bottom then easily removed from the cake after it has been placed on
the cooler. Of course, pans without false bottoms may also be used
successfully with a little care. The large flat pan at the right is a
pan for the baking of all kinds of cookies. On this is shown a round pan
having a removable bottom, to the center of which is attached a tube.
Sponge cakes, although they may be baked in loaf-cake pans, are
generally baked in a pan of this kind. Pans for individual cakes range
in size from large muffin pans, like the one shown at the right front,
to pans that produce cakes very small in size.

[Illustration: FIG. 1: cake pans.]

* * * * *



27. In cake making, as in the preparation of other dishes, a systematic
plan must be followed if good results are desired. A housewife cannot
expect to have a successful cake if she has to stop during the mixing to
get some of the ingredients or some of the utensils ready. Before the
mixing is begun, all the utensils and ingredients should be collected
and any of the ingredients that require special preparation should be
prepared. Then, if the recipe is correct, if the ingredients are
measured accurately and combined correctly, and if the baking is done
properly, success in cake making is assured.

28. The first thing to be done, when a cake is to be made, is to read
the recipe to determine just what is required and to find out whether
all the ingredients called for are in supply. With this done, all the
utensils should be placed conveniently on the table and the ingredients
collected and measured. Some authorities advise the weighing of the
ingredients in cake because weight is always regarded as more accurate
than measure. If a recipe calls for weights, it will be found easier to
use them than to try to change them to measure; but when a recipe
requires measures, and does not state weights, it would be unwise to
attempt to use scales for measuring.

29. The measuring of the fat often requires a little attention. For
instance, if only 1/4 cupful of butter or some other fat is required, it
may perhaps be more convenient to measure it with a tablespoon than with
a cup. Otherwise, unless the recipe calls for melted fat, the fat should
be measured by pressing it down tight into the cup until it reaches the
mark indicating the required amount. If the fat is hard and cold, as is
usually the case when it is first taken from the refrigerator or other
cold place, it will be difficult to cream. A good plan is to let the fat
stand until it is 70 degrees Fahrenheit, or ordinary room temperature,
before the mixing is begun.

30. The dry ingredients used in cakes include the sugar, flour, baking
powder, spices, etc. Granulated sugar seldom requires any preparation
except measuring. However, sugar other than granulated, particularly
brown sugar and pulverized sugar, should be rolled with a rolling pin
and then sifted in order to free it from any lumps it might contain.
Flour should be sifted once before measuring and again with the baking
powder, or soda and cream of tartar, and salt in order to mix them.
Other dry ingredients, such as spices and occasionally pulverized sugar,
may also be sifted with the flour and other dry ingredients. If the dry
leavening agent appears to be lumpy when the cover is removed from the
can, it should be worked smooth with a spoon and sifted before it is
measured. A very small mesh wire sieve may be used for this purpose.

31. The liquid should be measured by pouring it into the measuring cup
with the cup stationary and level. The eggs, which are, of course, one
of the liquid ingredients, should be neither broken until just before
they are to be used, nor beaten until the mixture is brought to the
point where the eggs are to be added. If the whites are to be used for
the preparation of icing after the cake is baked, they should be kept in
a cool place until they are beaten.

32. Fruits, nuts, and other miscellaneous ingredients should be prepared
before the mixing of the cake is begun; that is, they should be
cleansed, cut, ground, or chopped, as the case may be, so that it will
not be necessary to stop the mixing of the cake to do any of this work.
If they are to be dredged with flour, this may be done at the time they
are prepared.


33. The pan or pans in which the cake is to be baked should also be
prepared before the mixing is begun. The treatment to be given to the
pans depends to a large extent on the cake that is to be put into them.
Butter cake or any of its variations requires greased pans, whereas
sponge cake should be put in pans that are not greased.

34. BUTTER-CAKE PANS.--The fat used to grease pans of any kind should be
a clean, tasteless fat. Less will be required to cover the surface of
the pan if an oil rather than a solid fat is used. In case butter is
selected for this purpose, it should first be melted and then allowed to
stand until the clear fat that rises to the top can be gathered.
However, fats that are less expensive than butter are perfectly
satisfactory for greasing pans, and so butter should not be used unless
other fats are not available.

35. Muffin pans or individual pans of any kind should first be greased
with a brush or a small piece of clean paper dipped into the fat that is
to be used, and then dusted with flour. The flour should cover the
surface of the pan, but should be shaken out so that no more than just a
film remains over the grease. A brush may also be used for the greasing
of other pans, but it is not recommended, as the fat is apt to become
rancid in the brush, and if it is cleansed as often as is necessary to
keep it in good condition, a great deal of fat, which clings to the
brush, will be wasted. A small piece of paper dipped in fat will be
found much more economical and quite as satisfactory for this work.

36. Loaf-cake pans, that is, pans that make cake in the form of a loaf,
should first be greased and then, as shown in Fig. 2, have the bottom
covered with a piece of oiled paper or light wrapping paper that may be
oiled after being put into the pan. This paper should be the exact width
of the bottom of the pan and should be long enough to cover the bottom
and extend up to the top of each end. The sides of the pan need not be
covered, as it is a simple matter to loosen the cake from them with a
knife. When the cake is turned out of the pan, the paper will stick to
the cake, but it may be easily removed by merely pulling it off.

[Illustration: FIG. 2: loaf pan.]

37. Layer-cake pans, whether they have false bottoms or not, should be
greased and then covered with a light layer of flour, just as is done
with individual pans. If such a pan does not have a false bottom and the
cake seems to stick to it, the best plan is to turn the pan upside down
and place a cold damp towel on it for a few minutes. This will moisten
the surface of the bottom sufficiently to permit the pan to be removed
without difficulty.

38. SPONGE-CAKE PANS.--The preparation of sponge-cake pans differs from
that for butter-cake pans because of the nature of the cake. No grease
of any sort should be applied to the surface of sponge-cake pans. If
desired, they may be dusted with flour, but even this is not necessary,
as very satisfactory results are obtained by putting the cake mixture
into the bare pan.

* * * * *



39. With the ingredients and utensils gathered and prepared, the mixing
of the cake may be begun at once. The method of mixing depends entirely
on the kind of cake that is being made, sponge cake involving a
different procedure from butter cake. These methods should be thoroughly
mastered, so that there will be no danger of confusing them and so that
the recipe will not need to be referred to constantly during the mixing
of the cake. When an ingredient that is not usually included in the
ordinary butter or sponge cake is found in the recipe, the way in which
this ingredient is added to the mixture should be carefully noted, so
that no mistake will be made.

40. NATURE OF SPONGE CAKE.--A true sponge cake contains nothing besides
eggs, sugar, flour, and flavoring material. The eggs, sugar, and flour
are used in equal amounts, the eggs and sugar being about the same by
weight or measure and the flour half as much by weight. For instance, a
successful sponge cake can be made with a cupful each of eggs, sugar,
and flour. To these ingredients the juice of 1/2 lemon is usually added,
and sometimes the grated rind of the lemon is used also. The simple
variation in sponge-cake mixtures is the addition of liquid, which is
usually water, sometimes cold and sometimes hot. In the true sponge
cake, eggs supply all the leavening, but it is possible to economize in
the number of eggs by using leavening of some other kind, such as soda
and cream of tartar or baking powder. The texture of a sponge cake in
which leavening other than eggs is used is not so good as that of the
true sponge cake, but if this leavening is used discreetly, it is
possible to decrease the number of eggs somewhat without sacrificing too
much in texture. However, it is useless to try to make a good sponge
cake with fewer than three eggs, for the other ingredients--flour,
sugar, leavening, and liquid--are not sufficient to produce a
delicious cake.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

41. COMBINING THE INGREDIENTS.--The ingredients required for a true
sponge cake and the utensils used in making such a cake are shown in
Fig. 3. As will be observed, both the utensils and the materials are so
placed on the table in front of the one who is to make the cake that the
work may be performed with the least amount of effort.

[Illustration: FIG. 4, Using the rotary egg beater.]

If the whole eggs are to be used, break them into the mixing bowl and
beat them with a rotary egg beater, as shown in Fig. 4, until they are
thick and lemon-colored. In case only the whites are to be used, beat
them with an egg whip on a flat dish or in a large bowl until they are
stiff. To the beaten egg, add the sugar a little at a time, as shown in
Fig. 5, beating it into the egg with the rotary beater.

[Illustration: FIG. 5, Beating in the sugar.]

Either granulated or pulverized sugar may be used, but pulverized is the
better of the two, because it is lighter. When the sugar is added at
this time, sift the flour several times, and, as in Fig. 6, add it last,
folding it into the mixture with a wire egg whip. However, if it is
desired to do so, the sugar and flour may be sifted together and added
at the same time, or both the sugar and flour may be sifted separately
and then added to the eggs alternately. Then add the flavoring and, if
liquid is to be used, put it in at this time. In case leavening is
supplied, sift it in with the flour. The mixture is then ready for the
pan. Place the ungreased pan conveniently on the table and then, as
shown in Fig. 7, pour the mixture from the bowl into it. Scrape the
sides of the bowl well, so that there will be no more waste than is

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

42. BAKING SPONGE CAKE.--As soon as the mixture has been poured into the
pan, set it in a moderate oven to bake. The temperature should be about
300 degrees Fahrenheit when the cake is put into the oven, but it may be
gradually increased to 350 or 400 degrees. If the temperature cannot be
determined, the paper test may be applied. This consists in placing a
piece of white paper in the oven. To be right for sponge cake, the heat
should turn this paper a moderate brown in 4 minutes. The time for
baking depends, of course, on the size of the cake, but usually more
time is required than for butter cake.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

In putting the cake into the oven, set it on the lower rack, as here the
mixture will be in a position to come up with the heat of the oven,
which, as is known, has a general tendency to rise. If it is placed on
the top rack where the heated air is necessarily passing down toward the
outside walls because of the circulation that is established, there will
be a certain amount of pressure on top of the cake which will prevent it
from rising. Allow the cake to remain on the lower rack until it has
risen to its fullest extent, and then, if necessary, remove it to the
top rack for browning.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

43. Several tests to determine whether sponge cake is ready to remove
from the oven can be applied. One of these consists in observing the
cake in the pan. After it has risen as much as it will rise, a small
amount of shrinkage will, as shown in Fig. 8, loosen the cake from the
sides of the pan. Another test, which is known as the finger test,
consists in making a depression in the center of the cake. If the cake
is baked sufficiently, it will spring back to fill the depression, but
if it is not done, the depression will remain.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

44. REMOVING SPONGE CAKE FROM PAN.--When sponge cake is taken from the
oven, it requires different treatment from that of butter cake. Instead
of removing it from the pan immediately, turn it upside down on a cooler
to sweat, as shown in Fig. 9. Allow it to remain in this way until it
has shrunken sufficiently from the pan, and then lift off the pan. If
necessary, the cake may become completely cold before the pan is taken
from it. Close adherence to these directions will prevent any trouble
that may arise in removing sponge cake from the pan.


45. PLAIN SPONGE CAKE.--The ideal proportions for a sponge cake are
given in the accompanying recipe and upon these proportions the other
recipes are based.


4 eggs
1 c. sugar
1 c. flour
Juice and rind of 1/2 lemon

Beat the eggs until they are thick and lemon-colored. Add the sugar
gradually and continue to beat. Sift the flour several times and fold
into the mixture. When the ingredients are thoroughly mixed, add the
grated rind and the juice of the lemon, pour into a sponge-cake pan,
and bake.

46. COLD-WATER SPONGE CAKE.--The accompanying recipe is a slight
variation from the true sponge cake, for it contains leavening other
than eggs and a small amount of cold water. No difficulty will be
experienced in making a cake according to this recipe if the directions
are carefully followed.


3 eggs
1-1/2 c. sugar
Rind and juice of 1 lemon
1/2 c. cold water
2 tsp. baking powder
1-1/2 c. flour

Beat the eggs until they are thick and lemon-colored. Add the sugar
gradually and continue beating. Grate the yellow part from the lemon
rind and add it with the juice. Pour in the cold water, continuing to
beat. Sift in the baking powder with the flour and add to the egg
mixture. Pour into a sponge-cake pan and bake.

47. HOT-WATER SPONGE CAKE.--Hot water and leavening in the form of soda
and cream of tartar are used in the accompanying recipe for sponge
cake. The texture is not just the same as that of a plain sponge cake,
but if the recipe is carefully followed an excellent cake will be
the result.


4 eggs
2 c. flour
1-1/2 c. powdered sugar
1/2 tsp. soda
1-1/4 tsp. cream of tartar
1/4 c. hot water
1 tsp. vanilla

Beat the eggs with a rotary beater until they are thick and
lemon-colored. Sift the flour, powdered sugar, soda, and cream of tartar
together several times. Sift these into the eggs and continue beating.
When all of the dry ingredients have been added, pour in the boiling
water, flavor with the vanilla, and pour into a sponge-cake pan
and bake.

48. ORANGE SPONGE CAKE.--Sponge cake is delicious when it is flavored
with orange. No leavening except the eggs is used in the recipe for cake
of this kind. Lemon may be used in place of orange and 1/2 cupful of
finely chopped nuts may be added.


4 eggs
1 c. granulated sugar
3/4 c. flour
2 Tb. orange juice
1/2 tsp. orange extract

Beat the eggs with a rotary beater until they are light and
lemon-colored. Add the granulated sugar gradually. Sift into this the
flour, and continue the beating until all are mixed. Add the orange
juice and extract, pour into a sponge-cake pan, and bake.

49. SUNSHINE CAKE.--Nothing more delicious in the way of cake can be
made than sunshine cake. It is especially nice to serve with a frozen
dessert of some kind, for it is not too rich and it is attractive
in color.


6 eggs
1/3 tsp. cream of tartar
1 c. sugar
3/4 c. flour
1 tsp. lemon juice
1 tsp. vanilla

Separate the eggs. Beat the yolks with a rotary beater until they are
thick and lemon-colored. Beat the egg whites until they are foamy, add
the cream of tartar, and continue beating until they are dry. Fold the
sugar into the egg whites and then fold the yolks into this mixture.
Sift the flour several times and add it. Add the lemon juice and
vanilla, pour into a sponge-cake pan, and bake.

50. ANGEL CAKE NO. 1.--A variety of sponge cake in which only the egg
whites are used is known as angel cake. Some persons hesitate to make
cake of this kind because of the number of eggs it takes, but usually
the yolks that remain can be put to very good use and so the cake is no
more expensive than most others.


1 c. flour
1 c. powdered sugar
10 egg whites
1/2 tsp. cream of tartar
1 tsp. vanilla

Sift the flour and powdered sugar together four or five times in order
to make them very light. Beat the egg whites with a whip until they are
foamy. Add the cream of tartar, and continue beating until they are
stiff enough to heap up in a mound and stay this way. Sift the mixture
of flour and sugar a little at a time into the egg whites and continue
beating until all is added. Flavor with the vanilla, place in a
sponge-cake pan with a tube in the center, and bake in a very
moderate oven.

51. ANGEL CAKE NO. 2.--If a slightly larger cake than the first
angel-cake recipe will make is desired, the accompanying recipe should
be followed. Its texture is practically the same as that of the
other cake.


1-1/4 c. flour
1-3/4 c. powdered sugar
12 egg whites
1 tsp. cream of tartar

Sift the flour and sugar separately four or five times. Beat the egg
whites until they are foamy and add the cream of tartar, continuing to
beat until they are stiff. Add the powdered sugar gradually, continuing
the beating. When all this has been added, sift in the flour, and fold
it in with as light a motion as possible. Pour into a sponge-cake pan
with a tube in the center, and bake in a very moderate oven, raising the
temperature slightly at the end.

52. POTATO-FLOUR SPONGE CAKE.--When a substitute for wheat flour must be
used and the supply of eggs is not large, the family need not be
deprived of excellent cake, for potato sponge cake can be made. This
resembles angel food to a certain extent, as it is white in color and
tender in texture. It is a splendid cake to serve with rich
frozen desserts.


5 egg whites
1-1/2 c. sugar
1/2 c. water
2/3 c. potato flour
1/3 c. wheat flour
1/2 tsp. cream of tartar
1 tsp. lemon extract

Beat the egg whites until stiff. Cook the sugar and water until the
sirup threads. Add this sirup to the egg whites and beat well. Sift the
potato flour, wheat flour, and cream of tartar three times, and then
fold into the mixture. Add the flavoring, turn into a pan, and bake for
about 40 minutes.

53. SPONGE CAKE WITH POTATO FLOUR.--The accompanying recipe for sponge
cake contains honey for part of the sweetening, both the yolks and the
whites of the eggs, and potato flour. When sugar and wheat flour are
scarce, this is a very good cake to make.


1/2 c. honey
1/2 c. granulated sugar
1/2 c. water
5 eggs
Grated rind and juice of 1/2 lemon
1/2 c. potato flour

Boil the honey, sugar, and water to the soft-ball stage. Separate the
eggs, beat the yolks until thick and lemon-colored, and then beat the
sirup into them. Add the grated lemon rind and juice, stir in the potato
flour, and finally fold in the whites of the eggs, beaten very light.
Bake in a tube pan for about 50 minutes.



54. NATURE OF BUTTER CAKE.--The ingredients for a simple butter cake
consist of butter or other fat, sugar, flour, eggs, leavening, and
liquid. The proportion of flour and liquid in cake of this kind is
similar to that of a thick, or muffin, batter, that is, 2 measures of
flour and 1 measure of liquid; but it should be remembered that the
addition of other ingredients, such as butter, sugar, and eggs, alter
this proportion to a certain extent. However, it is possible to make up
a cake recipe from a muffin recipe by using 1/2 as much sugar as flour
and 1/2 as much butter as sugar. With a knowledge of these proportions,
the housewife will be able to judge how near a new recipe comes to
being a reasonable one and what the possibilities of its success are.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

55. COMBINING THE INGREDIENTS.--The method of mixing all cakes that
include butter as an ingredient is similar. It is explained and
illustrated in detail, so that the housewife may become thoroughly
familiar with it and thus be prepared to apply it in the preparation of
any variety of butter cake. In case a recipe contains additional
ingredients, the way in which these are combined should be noted
carefully and then carried out.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

56. In the making of any kind of butter cake, the ingredients and
utensils should be collected and conveniently placed if the best results
are desired. Fig. 10 shows these assembled ready to begin the mixing. As
will be observed, layer-cake pans are included in the equipment, but
these may be replaced by pans of other kinds if it is not desired to
make a layer cake. Before the mixing begins, grease whatever pans are to
be used and then dust them lightly with flour so that they will be
ready when the mixture is prepared.

[Illustration. Fig. 12]

[Illustration. Fig. 13]

57. As the first step in the making of butter cake, cream the butter in
the mixing bowl, as shown in Fig. 11; that is, work it with a wooden
spoon until it is soft and creamy. Then add the sugar from the measuring
cup very slowly, as in Fig. 12, stirring continually so that the mixture
will remain creamy. The eggs are the next ingredient to be added. These
are put in whole and unbeaten, whole and beaten, or they are separated
and the yolks and whites beaten separately. If the whole eggs or the
yolks are to be beaten, break them into a bowl and beat them with a
rotary egg beater as Fig. 13 shows. As has already been learned, the
whites, when added alone, should be beaten with an egg whip. When the
eggs have been added to the mixture, beat it well so as to make it as
light as possible and then stir in the liquid. The mixture will then
appear as in Fig. 14. Next add all the dry ingredients to the flour,
and, as illustrated in Fig. 15, carefully sift all into the mixture. If
desired, the liquid and flour may be added alternately, a little at a
time. With all the ingredients combined, beat the mixture vigorously for
a short time to make sure that everything is thoroughly mixed, and then,
as shown in Fig. 16, pour it into the pans that have been greased and
floured. If a two-layer or a three-layer cake is to be made, it may be
divided evenly to fill two pans or three pans, but if a loaf cake is
desired, all of it should be poured into one pan.

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

58. BAKING THE MIXTURE.--Place the pans containing the cake mixture on
the bottom rack of the oven in order that it may have an opportunity to
rise properly. The form in which the cake is made determines the correct
temperature for the oven. Loaf cake requires more time for baking than
small cakes or layer cake; consequently, the oven should not be so hot
for cake of this kind as for the other types. A temperature of 350 to
400 degrees Fahrenheit is suitable for loaf cake, while small cakes or
layer cake should have a temperature of at least 400 to 450 degrees. Be
careful not to move the cake in the oven until it has risen sufficiently
and has set; otherwise, it may fall when it is moved. If this precaution
is observed and the cake falls, it may be known that the falling is due
to a wrong proportion of ingredients and not to a draft nor the slamming
of the oven door, as many housewives think. A cake that rises in the
center and cracks open contains either an insufficient quantity of
liquid or too much flour. If, upon being baked, a layer is higher on one
side than on the other, it was probably spread unevenly in the pan
before it was put in the oven or the oven rack itself was not level.
This condition may be caused by uneven heat in the oven.

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

59. To determine whether a butter cake is baked sufficiently or not,
several tests may be made. Cake of this kind does not shrink from the
sides of the pan as does sponge cake, but the finger test mentioned may
be applied, just as in the case of sponge cake. If, upon making a
depression in the center of the butter cake, the surface springs back to
fill the depression, it may be known that the cake is done. Another test
consists in inserting a toothpick in the center of the cake. If it comes
out clean, the cake has finished baking, but if some of the mixture
sticks to the toothpick, more baking is required.

60. CARE OF BUTTER CAKE AFTER BAKING.--As soon as a butter cake is
sufficiently baked, take it from the oven and remove it from the pan at
once. See that the cake is loosened from the bottom and sides of the pan
before attempting to turn it out. It can be loosened around the sides by
means of a knife, and usually a slight shaking of the pan up and down or
the inserting of the knife a little under the cake will be sufficient to
loosen it from the bottom. Here the advantage of pans having removable
bottoms is evident. When such pans are used, lift the cake out of the
pan on the removable bottom and, as shown in Fig. 17, run a long thin
knife under the cake until it is entirely loosened from the pan. Then
slip the bottom out from under the cake and allow the cake to cool. A
cake cooler, such as the one here shown, is the most convenient thing to
use for the cooling of cakes. If one of these is not available, clean
towels spread on a flat surface make a very good substitute. Allow the
cake to become entirely cool before attempting to ice it.


61. ONE-EGG CAKE.--One of the most economical cakes that can be made is
the one-egg cake given in the accompanying recipe. However, when only
one egg is used, a comparatively small quantity of cake mixture is the
result. If it is desired to make a layer cake of this mixture, it will
be necessary to double the quantities of the ingredients.


1/4 c. butter
1/2 c. sugar
1 egg
1-1/2 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
1/2 c. milk
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, beat the egg, and add it. Mix
and sift the flour and baking powder. Add the milk and the flour
alternately until all the flour and liquid are added. Add the vanilla.
Bake in a shallow loaf pan, making a single layer. Ice with any
desirable icing.

62. PLAIN LAYER CAKE.--As a layer cake is usually iced over the top and
contains an icing or a filling of some kind between the layers, a
plain-cake mixture, such as that given in the accompanying recipe, is
the most suitable kind.


1/2 c. butter
1-1/4 c. sugar
3 eggs
3 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
1 c. milk
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, beat the eggs well, and add
to the mixture. Sift the flour and baking powder together and add
alternately with the milk, adding milk first. Add the vanilla, pour into
layer-cake pans and bake. Ice with any kind of icing.

63. NUT LAYER CAKE.--A delicious cake can be made by adding nuts to the
cake mixture given in the following recipe. This is baked in layers and
then iced in any desired way.


1/2 c. butter
1-1/2 c. sugar
3 eggs
3 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
1-1/4 c. milk
3/4 c. chopped nuts
1 tsp. vanilla

Cream the butter and add the sugar gradually. Beat the eggs and add
them. Sift the flour and baking powder together, and add the milk and
the dry ingredients alternately. Fold in the chopped nuts, add the
vanilla, pour into layer-cake pans, and bake.

64. CHOCOLATE NUT CAKE.--Another delightful layer cake is the chocolate
nut layer cake given in the accompanying recipe. The layers are put
together with a thick layer of white boiled icing, and the top one is
covered with a covering of the same.


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