Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 4
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 6 out of 6

Mix the sugar, flour, and butter and add to the mixture. Cook until the
flour thickens, place the mixture in the lower crust, cover with a top
crust, and bake in a hot oven until nicely browned.

48. DRIED-FRUIT PIES.--Dried fruits may be used very successfully for
pies if they are properly prepared. At any time that it is impossible to
obtain fresh fruits and no fruits have been canned for pie making, dried
fruits will prove to be very satisfactory. Dried apples, apricots,
peaches, prunes, and raisins make delicious pies. With the exception of
raisins, for which a special recipe is given, the same directions may be
used for any of the pies made with dried fruits.

Look the fruit over carefully, wash, and put in sufficient warm water to
cover. Soak overnight. Put to cook in the water in which the fruit has
been soaked and simmer slowly until tender. Sweeten to taste. The
filling is then ready for a pie. Fill the lower crust with the stewed
fruit, add about 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, unless a large quantity of
juice is used, when more flour will be necessary, cover with a top
crust, and bake in a hot oven.

49. RAISIN PIE.--Pie in which raisins are used for the filling is one
that may be made at any season of the year and that finds favor with
most persons. In pie of this kind, spices are used to add flavor.


1-1/2 c. raisins
2 c. water
1/2 c. sugar
4 Tb. flour
1/2 tsp. cinnamon
1/4 tsp. cloves
1/4 tsp. salt

Clean the raisins and soak them overnight in the water. Put to cook in
the same water and simmer gently until tender. Mix the sugar, flour,
spices, and salt and add to the raisins. Cook until the mixture is
thick, fill the lower crust of a pie, cover with the top crust, and bake
in a hot oven.


50. Many varieties of pies are made with only one crust, and these
usually prove more attractive than those having two crusts. As a rule,
the filling is a custard or a corn-starch mixture, but often fruits of
various kinds, as well as pumpkin and squash, are used in the making of
pies of this kind. Frequently, meringue is used as a covering for
one-crust pies; or, if an especially delicious dessert is desired, a
thick layer of stiffly beaten and sweetened whipped cream is often added
to the pie just before serving. Again, a partly open pie is sometimes
made, this being done by putting strips or pieces of paste over the
filling before the pie is baked. Individual pies of this kind are
attractive for special occasions and may be made to advantage if small
pie pans are in supply.

The crust for one-crust pies is often placed over the back of the pan
and baked. It is then removed, filled with the desired filling, and
returned to the oven to complete the baking. Whether the lower crust
should not be baked or should be partly or entirely baked before the
filling is put into it depends on the character of the filling and the
degree of temperature required to cook it.

51. MERINGUE FOR ONE-CRUST PIES.--Since meringue is often used as a
garnish for one-crust pies, the housewife should understand its nature
and the proper procedure in its making. When it is correctly made and
properly baked, it is very attractive and improves the appearance of the
dessert, but failure in these respects is likely to result in a tough,
shrunken meringue, which had better be omitted, as it detracts from the
appearance of the pie and is not agreeable to the taste.

If an attractive, appetizing meringue is to be the result, the eggs that
are used must be in good condition and very cold; also, they must be
properly beaten so that there will be no loss of air in manipulating the
whites when they are placed on top of the pie mixture. The baking is
important, too, both the length of time the meringue remains in the oven
and the temperature to which it is subjected having a direct bearing on
the finished meringue.

52. To make meringue, first separate the whites from the yolks and
chill them thoroughly. Beat them with a fork or an egg whip until they
are almost stiff, that is, until they will hold their shape fairly well
but will drop from the fork or whip when it is raised. At this point,
begin to add the sugar, which, if possible, should be either
confectioner's or pulverized, although granulated sugar may be used if
the others cannot be obtained. Add the sugar slowly and continue the
beating until all of it has been incorporated. The meringue is then
ready to place on the filling. It should be remembered that the filling
must be partly or entirely cooked before the meringue is applied, so
that when the pie is returned to the oven nothing but the meringue will
require cooking.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

53. The manner in which meringue is placed on pie has much to do with
the appearance of the pie. If it is spread on the filling in an even
layer, the pie will invariably look stiff and unattractive. By far the
better way is to drop it by spoonfuls roughly over the top of the
filling, or first to spread a thin layer over the top in order to cover
the entire surface and then to drop the remainder of the meringue over
this by spoonfuls. Or, it may be forced through a pastry tube into
rosettes or frills of any preferred design. The advantage of applying it
unevenly rather than in a thin layer is that the rough surface will
brown where the spots are high and the depressions will be a lighter
brown or white. When the pie has been covered with meringue, set it in a
moderate oven and let it bake for 12 to 15 minutes, or until it is
properly browned, when it will appear as in Fig. 13. By no means allow
the meringue to remain in the oven longer than this, for as soon as the
baking is completed, it will immediately begin to shrink and toughen.


2 egg whites
2 Tb. pulverized or granulated sugar
Vanilla or lemon juice

Beat the egg whites according to the directions given, add the sugar
slowly, and continue the beating. Then add the flavoring. Cover the
filling, place in a moderate oven, and bake for 12 to 15 minutes.

54. BUTTERSCOTCH PIE.--A sweet dessert that is usually a favorite may be
had by making butterscotch pie. The necessary ingredients for this kind
of pie are few and simple. When served with whipped cream in place of
meringue, it makes a very rich and delicious dessert.


1 c. brown sugar
1/3 c. corn starch
1/8 tsp. salt
1 c. water, boiling
1-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Mix the sugar, corn starch, and salt, and add the boiling water to them.
Cook until the mixture has thickened and in the meantime heat the milk.
Stir in the butter, add the milk, and cook the entire mixture in a
double boiler for 15 minutes. Add the vanilla. Pour into the baked pie
crust, cover with meringue, and bake in a moderate oven, or cook without
the meringue, then cool and cover with whipped cream before serving.

55. CHOCOLATE PIE.--Chocolate corn-starch pudding or chocolate blanc
mange thickened with any starchy material and poured into a baked crust
makes chocolate pie. This may be made as strong with chocolate as
desired, but care should be taken not to make it too stiff or it will
be pasty.


2-1/2 c. milk
1 c. sugar
2/3 c. flour
1/8 tsp. salt
1-1/2 sq. bitter chocolate
1 egg
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Heat the milk to scalding in a double boiler. Mix the sugar, flour, and
salt and add to the milk. Cook over the flame until the flour has
thickened. Return to the double boiler and cook for 10 or 15 minutes
longer. Melt the chocolate over hot water and add to the mixture. Beat
the egg and add slowly to the mixture, remove from the fire, and add the
vanilla. Pour into a baked pie crust, cover with meringue, if desired,
and bake in a moderate oven for 10 to 15 minutes. If the meringue is
omitted, cool and cover with whipped cream just before serving.

56. COCONUT PIE.--The flavor of coconut added to an already delicious
corn-starch custard makes a pie that never fails to tempt the appetite
of every one. The crust for a pie of this kind should always be baked in
a deep pan.


2 c. milk
1 c. coconut
2/3 c. sugar
1/3 c. corn starch
1/8 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. vanilla

Put the milk in a double boiler and steep the coconut in it until the
milk is hot. Mix the sugar, corn starch, and salt, add to the milk, and
cook directly over the flame until the mixture has thickened. Return to
the double boiler and cook for 10 or 15 minutes longer. Remove from the
heat, add the vanilla, and pour into a baked pie crust. Cover with
meringue, if desired.

57. CRANBERRY PIE.--Persons who are fond of cranberries are always
pleased when cranberry pie is served. As these berries are somewhat tart
in flavor, more sugar than is generally used for pie is needed. Before
the berries are put on to cook, they should be cleaned according to the
directions given in _Fruit and Fruit Desserts_.


1 qt. cranberries
1-1/2 c. water
2 c. sugar

Cook the cranberries and water in a closed vessel until the skins have
cracked and then add the sugar. Cook for a few minutes longer to allow
the sugar to dissolve. Pour into an unbaked pie crust and cover with
half-inch strips of paste placed over the top to form a lattice effect.
Place in a moderate oven and bake until the crust is nicely browned.

58. CREAM PIE.--The plain corn-starch custard mixture used for cream pie
may be flavored as desired. The combination of lemon and vanilla is
suggested here to give something a little unusual. If the pie is to be
eaten at once upon being made, a layer of sliced bananas or other fresh
fruit may be placed on the crust and the custard poured over it after
being cooked sufficiently not to affect the fruit. In such an event,
the meringue must be baked very quickly, or whipped cream may be used in
place of it. This pie may be made with one egg if desired.


2-1/2 c. milk
1 c. sugar
1/2 c. flour
1/8 tsp. salt
2 eggs
1/2 tsp. vanilla
1/2 tsp. lemon extract

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Mix the sugar, flour, and salt and
stir into the hot milk. Cook over the fire until the flour has
thickened. Place in a double boiler and cook for 10 or 15 minutes
longer. Beat the yolks of the eggs and add them to the mixture. Remove
from the heat, add the flavoring, and pour into the baked crust of a
pie. Make meringue of the whites of the eggs, cover the mixture, place
in a moderate oven, and bake for 10 to 15 minutes.

59. CUSTARD PIE.--Custard pie is made with the usual proportion of milk
and eggs necessary for thickening. A dash of nutmeg is considered to
improve the flavor and it also makes the surface of the pie a little
more attractive.


3 eggs
3 c. milk
3/4 c. sugar
1/8 tsp. salt
1 tsp. vanilla

Beat the eggs slightly and add the milk, sugar, salt, and vanilla.
Partly bake the crust for the custard, but remove it from the oven
before it has begun to get crisp. Pour in the custard, place in a
moderate oven, and bake until a knife will come out clean when inserted.
The custard should by no means be overbaked, as the result will be the
same curding that occurs in an ordinary baked custard.

60. DATE CREAM PIE.--Using dates for pie is a rather unusual means of
adding them to the diet, but it is a very good one and produces an
excellent dessert. If desired, more of the date purée may be added to
the mixture that is given in the recipe. The result will be a filling
that has more of the date flavor.


1-1/2 c. stoned dates
1/2 c. water
2 eggs
2 c. milk
1/4 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. cinnamon

Steam the dates in the water in a double boiler until they are soft.
Rub through a sieve. Beat the eggs slightly and add them with the milk
to the dates. Add the sugar, salt, and cinnamon. Pour into a partly
baked pie crust, place in a moderate oven, and continue the baking as
for custard pie.

61. LEMON PIE NO. 1.--A plain lemon pie that is comparatively
inexpensive may be made by following the directions given here. More
eggs, of course, will make a better pie and they may be added if
desired. Grating the rind of the lemon adds flavor to the filling, but
too much will give a bitter taste. Lemon juice should never be cooked
with the corn starch, as the filling will gradually become thinner and
the starch will lose its value as a thickening agent.


2 c. water
1 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/3 c. corn starch
2 eggs
1/4 c. lemon juice
Grated rind of 1 lemon

Bring the water to the boiling point. Mix the sugar, salt, and corn
starch and add to the water. Cook directly over the flame until the
mixture is thickened and then place in a double boiler. Separate the
eggs, beat the yolks, and to them add the lemon juice and the grated
rind of the lemon. Beat all well and add to the corn-starch mixture.
Remove from the fire and pour into the baked crust of a pie. Make
meringue of the egg whites and place on top of the filling. Brown in the
oven, cool, and serve.

62. LEMON PIE NO. 2.--The accompanying recipe is similar to lemon pie
No. 1, except that it contains some butter and in quantity is a larger
recipe. If more than one pie is desired at a time, it is easy to
multiply the quantities given.


1-1/2 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
2/3 c. corn starch
3 c. water
2 eggs
Grated rind of 1 lemon
1/2 c. lemon juice
2 Tb. butter

Mix the sugar, salt, and corn starch and add to the boiling water. Cook
directly over the flame until the mixture becomes thick. Then place in a
double boiler. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and add to them the
grated rind of lemon and the lemon juice. Stir all into the corn-starch
mixture. Add the butter, and when it has melted remove from the heat.
Pour the mixture into the baked crust of a pie. Make meringue of the egg
whites, cover the filling with the meringue, and bake in a moderate oven
until a delicate brown.

63. ORANGE PIE.--An orange pie is similar to a lemon pie, except that
orange juice, together with grated orange rind, is used to give flavor
and a little lemon juice is added for acidity. Pie of this kind makes a
pleasing change from the desserts usually served.


2 c. water
1/2 c. corn starch
1 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
2 eggs
Grated rind of 1 orange
1/2 c. orange juice
2 Tb. lemon juice

Bring the water to the boiling point. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and
salt and add to the water. Cook directly over the flame until the corn
starch has thickened. Place in a double boiler. Separate the eggs, beat
the yolks, and to them add the grated rind of the orange and the orange
and lemon juice. Beat well and add to the corn-starch mixture. Remove
from the heat and pour into a baked crust of a pie. Make meringue of the
egg whites, cover the filling, and bake until a delicate brown in a
moderate oven.

64. PINEAPPLE PIE.--Nothing more delicious in the way of a one-crust pie
can be made than pineapple pie. It is similar to lemon pie, but differs
in that a certain amount of the fruit is used in the filling. Therefore,
unless the fruit is cut very fine, the pie will be difficult to cut.


1-1/2 c. water
1/2 c. corn starch
1 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1 egg
1/2 c. pineapple juice
2 Tb. lemon juice
1 c. shredded or finely chopped pineapple

Bring the water to the boiling point. Mix the corn starch, sugar, and
salt and add to the boiling water. Cook directly over the flame until
the mixture has thickened. Separate the egg, beat the yolk, and add to
the pineapple and lemon juice. Stir this into the corn-starch mixture,
remove from the heat, and add the pineapple. Fill a baked crust of a
pie, make meringue of the egg white, cover the filling, and bake in a
moderate oven until delicately browned.

65. PUMPKIN PIE NO. 1.--There are very few persons with whom pumpkin pie
is not a favorite. While it is especially popular in the autumn, it may
be made at any time of the year. Sometimes pumpkin is dried or canned in
the household or commercially for this purpose. Then, too, pumpkins may
be kept all winter if they are stored in a cool, dry place and are not
bruised when put away.


1-1/2 c. pumpkin
1 c. milk
1 egg
1/2 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. ginger
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/4 tsp. cloves
1 Tb. corn starch

The preparation of the pumpkin is the first step in the making of
pumpkin pie. First chop the pumpkin into 3- or 4-inch pieces, remove the
seeds, and peel off the skin. Cut the peeled pulp into cubes about 1
inch square and cook with just enough water to start the cooking or
steam until the pumpkin is soft. When it has become soft, mash
thoroughly or force through a sieve, and then cook again, stirring
frequently to prevent the pumpkin from burning. Cook until as much water
as possible has been evaporated and the mass of pumpkin seems quite dry.
With the pumpkin prepared, mix the milk with it and add the beaten egg.
Stir in the sugar, salt, spices, and corn starch. Fill partly baked pie
crust with this mixture and bake in a moderate oven until the filling is
cooked thoroughly and the crust is baked.

66. PUMPKIN PIE NO. 2.--Pumpkin pie is in reality a form of custard to
which spice is added, but much of the original flavor of the pumpkin is
lost if too much spice is used. The finished product should not be dark
in color, but a golden brown. This dessert becomes much more delicious
by adding a layer of whipped cream to it just before serving.


2 c. pumpkin
1-1/2 c. milk
3 eggs
1/2 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. cloves
1/2 tsp. nutmeg

Prepare the pumpkin as directed in Art. 65 and add the milk to it. Beat
the eggs and add to them the sugar, salt, and spices. Stir this into the
mixture. Fill partly baked pie crust and bake in a moderate oven until
the mixture is set and the crust is baked. Serve plain or spread a layer
of whipped cream over the pie when it has cooled.

67. SQUASH PIE.--Pie that is similar to pumpkin pie may be made by
using winter squash instead of pumpkin. It is somewhat finer in texture
than pumpkin, and most persons consider it to be superior in flavor.
When squash is desired for pies, it should be prepared in the same way
as pumpkin.


2 c. squash
1 c. milk
1 egg
1/2 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. nutmeg

Mix the squash and milk and add the beaten egg, sugar, salt, and spices.
Fill an unbaked pie crust, place in a moderate oven, and bake until the
mixture is set and the crust is brown.

68. STRAWBERRY PIE.--The season for strawberries being short, it is
usually desired to use them in as many ways as possible. Strawberry pie
is offered as one of the more unusual ways. Made into individual pies or
tarts and served with whipped cream, this furnishes a very
attractive dessert.


1 qt. strawberries
1-1/2 c. sugar
3 Tb. flour

Spread the strawberries on a single unbaked crust of a pie. Mix the
sugar and flour and sprinkle over the berries. Put half-inch strips of
paste across the top in the form of a lattice. Place in the oven and
bake until the crust is brown, the strawberries are well cooked, and the
juice is thick.

69. SWEET-POTATO PIE.--The amount of milk needed for making sweet-potato
pie varies according to the dryness of the potatoes. Before they can be
used for pie, the sweet potatoes must be cooked until they are tender
and then mashed. The quantities given in the accompanying recipe will
make enough filling for two pies.


3 c. sweet potato
3/4 c. sugar
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. nutmeg
1/2 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. ginger
2 eggs
2 c. milk

To the sweet potatoes add the dry ingredients and the unbeaten eggs, and
then beat the mixture thoroughly. Pour in the milk and stir well. Turn
into a partly baked pie crust, place in a moderate oven, and bake until
the filling is set.

70. OPEN PEACH PIE.--Pare sufficient peaches to cover a single-crust
pie. Cut them into halves, remove the seeds, and place in a single layer
over an unbaked pie crust. Cover with 1 cupful of sugar to which have
been added 3 tablespoonfuls of flour. Dot well with butter, add 1/4
cupful of water, and place in the oven. Bake until the crust is brown
and the peaches are well cooked. Apples used in the same way make a
delicious dessert.


71. PROCEDURE IN MAKING PUFF PASTE.--The making of puff paste differs
somewhat from the making of plain pastry. If puff paste is to be
successful, it must be made carefully and with close attention to every
detail. Even then the first attempt may not prove to be entirely
successful, for often considerable experience is required before one
becomes expert in the making of this delicate pastry.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

The best time to make puff paste is in the cold weather, as the butter,
which is the fat used, can be handled more easily and rolled into the
paste with greater success if it, as well as the other ingredients, are
cold. If puff paste is desired in weather that is not cold, the mixture
will have to be placed on ice at various intervals, for it positively
must be kept as cold as possible. However, it is always preferable to
make puff paste without the assistance of ice. Further essentials in the
making of successful puff paste are a light touch and as little handling
as possible. Heavy pressure with the rolling pin and rolling in the
wrong direction are mistakes that result in an inferior product. The
desirable light, tender qualities of puff paste can be obtained only by
giving attention to these details.

72. Before beginning the mixing of puff paste, wash the bowl, spoon,
and hands first in hot water to insure perfect cleanliness and then in
cold water to make them as cold as possible. Measure the ingredients
very carefully, or, better, weigh them if possible.

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

Put the butter in a mass in the bowl and, as shown in Fig. 14, wash out
the salt by running cold water over the piece and working it with a
wooden spoon or a butter paddle. When it becomes hard and waxy and may
be handled with the hands, take it from the bowl and remove the water by
patting it vigorously, first on one side and then on the other. Finally,
form it into a flat, oblong piece and set it into the refrigerator
to harden.

73. With the butter ready, break off a tablespoonful or two and mix it
with all of the flour except 2 tablespoonfuls, which must be retained
for flouring the board, in the same way as for plain pastry. Then add
the water, and, when a mass is formed, remove it to a well-floured board
and knead it as shown in Fig. 15. When the mixture has become somewhat
elastic, cover it with a towel, as shown in Fig. 16, and allow it to
remain covered for 3 to 5 minutes.

[Illustration: FIG 16]

Then roll it into an oblong piece, and, as in Fig. 17, place the butter
on one end of it. Bring the opposite end down over the butter and press
the edges together with the tips of the fingers, as shown in Fig. 18.
Then, with the rolling pin, make several dents in the dough mixture and
the butter, as shown in Fig. 19, and begin to roll, being careful to
roll in one direction and not to allow the butter to come through the
paste. If it should come through, it will have to be treated until it
becomes perfectly cold and hard again before the making can go on.

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

The quickest and most satisfactory way in which to accomplish this is to
wrap it in a piece of linen, set it on a plate in a pan of crushed ice,
and place another pan of crushed ice over the top of it. In case this is
done once, it will have to be done each time the paste is rolled.

Continue to roll until a rectangular piece is formed, always being
careful to move the rolling pin in the same direction and never to roll
backwards and forwards. With a long, narrow piece of dough formed, fold
about one-third under and one-third over, as shown in Fig. 20, turn the
open end toward you, and roll lightly and carefully in one direction
until another long, narrow piece of dough is formed. Fold this in the
same way, turn it half way around, and roll again. Continue in this
manner until the piece has been rolled about six times and, during the
entire process, try, if possible, to keep the butter from coming
through. As may be readily understood, this can be accomplished only
with light, careful handling.

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

As soon as the rolling has been completed in the manner described, cut
the puff paste into the desired shapes and place them on the ice for
about 1/2 hour or until they are thoroughly chilled. They are then ready
to be baked. If time is too limited to keep the paste on ice for 1/2
hour, chill it as long as possible before baking.

74. BAKING PUFF PASTE.--A very hot oven is required for successful puff
paste. In fact, the colder the pastry and the hotter the oven, the
better will be the chances for light pastry. The air incorporated
between the layers of the paste by the folding and rolling expands in
the heat of the oven, causing the paste to rise and producing the
characteristic lightness.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

For instance, if the pieces of paste are about 1/4 inch thick before
baking, they should be 2 inches thick when baked. Set the pan containing
the pieces on the floor of the oven in order to give the paste every
opportunity to rise. If it seems to rise unevenly, turn it around so
that it will get the same heat on all sides. Should there be any danger
of the paste burning on the bottom, put pieces of heavy paper or
asbestos under the pan and should it appear to burn on top, put pieces
of paper directly over the paste on the rack above. Bake until light and
nicely browned and then remove from the oven.

75. RECIPE FOR PUFF PASTE.--Either bread or pastry flour may be used in
the preparation of puff paste, but if pastry flour is used a
tablespoonful or two more will be required.

[Illustration: FIG. 20]

The amount of cold water needed varies with the absorbing power of the
flour. However, only enough should be used to make it possible to knead
the mass of dough that forms so that it may become elastic. Kneading
develops the gluten in the flour and helps to hold in the fat thus
making the paste easier to handle.


2 c. flour
1 c. butter
Cold water

Put the flour into a mixing bowl and chop a tablespoonful of the butter
into it. Add cold water until a mass that may be removed to a baking
board is formed. Then proceed in the manner explained for the making of
puff paste.

76. USES OF PUFF PASTE.--Puff paste is seldom used in the making of
single- or double-crust pies; instead, it is usually employed for
daintier desserts commonly known as _French pastry_. However, there are
really innumerable uses to which it may be put in addition to those for
which ordinary pastry can be used. In fact, after the art of making this
kind of pastry is mastered, it will prove to be invaluable for serving
on special occasions.

77. With puff paste may be made tarts of any kind or shape. Particularly
attractive tarts can be made by covering small tins in the manner shown
in Fig. 12 and then, after the shapes have been baked, filling each one
with half of a peach or half of an apricot and juice that has boiled
thick and piling sweetened whipped cream over it.

Puff paste made into the same shapes as those just mentioned for tarts
may have placed in it a layer of cake, on top of which may be spread a
layer of jam; and, to add a dainty touch, either whipped cream or
chopped nuts may be put over the jam. The cake used for such a dessert
should preferably be simple butter cake or sponge cake, such as might be
baked in a loaf.

Puff paste in the form of tubes and shells may be used for serving foods
daintily. Thus, a hollow tube may be made by rolling the paste very
thin, cutting it into rectangular pieces, placing each piece over a
round stick about 1-1/2 inches in diameter, and then baking. After the
baked tube is slipped off the stick, it may be filled with sweetened and
flavored whipped cream, to which may be added chopped nuts, chopped
fruit, or jam. Small baked shells of puff paste answer very well as
timbale cases, which may be filled with creamed mushrooms, creamed
sweetbreads, or other delicate creamed food. If shells are not desired,
small triangular or round pieces may be cut and baked and creamed food
served over them as it would be served over toast.

An attractive dessert may be prepared by baking several rectangular
pieces of puff paste in the oven and then arranging them in two or three
layers with custard between. Simple sugar icings into which some butter
is beaten may also be utilized to advantage in making French pastry of
this kind.

Puff paste may also be used as the covering for small individual pies.


78. To be most palatable, pastry should be served as soon as possible
after it is baked. When it is allowed to stand for any length of time,
the lower crust becomes soaked with moisture from the filling used, and
in this state the pie is not only unpalatable, but to a certain extent
indigestible. Consequently, whenever it is possible, only enough for one
meal should be baked at a time.

After a pie is taken from the oven, it should not be removed from the
pan in which it is baked until it is served. In fact, pie with a tender
crust cannot be handled easily and so should be cut while it is still in
the pan. Often it is best to serve a pie warm. When this is to be done,
it can be served immediately upon being taken from the oven, or if it
has been baked for some time and is cold, it may be set in the oven and
reheated before serving. Such treatment will freshen any pie that has
become more or less stale and, as is well known, pie is much more
palatable when it is warm and fresh than when it is cold or stale. In
case pies must be kept before being served, they should be stored in a
place that is both cold and dry. A refrigerator is too damp and for this
reason should not be used; but any other cool place that is sufficiently
dry will be satisfactory.

79. Several ways of serving pie are in practice. This dessert may be
baked in attractive dishes especially designed for this purpose and then
served from them at the table, or it may be baked in an ordinary pie pan
and then placed on a plate larger than the pan for serving. Pie of the
usual size is generally divided into five or six pieces, a sharp knife
being used to cut it. If possible, a pie knife, which is narrow at the
end of the blade and gradually grows broader until the handle is
reached, where it is very broad, should be provided for the serving of
this dessert, for it helps very much in handling the triangular pieces
that are cut from a large pie. The plates on which pie is served should
be at least as large as salad plates. Very often, instead of serving it
from the pan at the table, it is put on plates in the kitchen and passed
at the table. Pie is always eaten with a fork, one that is smaller than
a dinner fork being used.

80. With most pies containing fruit filling, a small piece of cheese,
preferably highly flavored cheese, may be served. This makes a very good
accompaniment so far as flavor is concerned, but is omitted in some
meals because it may supply too much food value or too much protein.
However, if the fact that a high-protein food is to be served at the end
of the meal is taken into account when the remainder of the meal is
planned, there need be no hesitancy in serving cheese with pie. Of
course, when cheese is to be included in the meal in this way, the
portions of the protein foods served with the main course should
be smaller.

81. A very attractive as well as appetizing way in which to serve pie is
known as _pie à la mode_. This method of serving, which is often
resorted to when something extra is desired, consists in placing a
spoonful or two of ice cream of any flavor on each serving of apple or
other fruit pie. Pie served in this way is high in food value and is a
general favorite with persons who are fond of both ice cream and pie.

* * * * *



(1) (_a_) What is pastry? (_b_) What is the principal use of pastry?

(2) How should the use of pastry with meals be governed?

(3) What may be said of the flour used for pastry?

(4) Discuss the shortenings that may be used for pastry.

(5) Give the proportions of fat and flour that may be used for pastry.

(6) What may be said of the handling of pastry in its preparation for

(7) Describe a method of mixing fat and flour for pastry.

(8) How is the liquid added to the fat and flour for pastry?

(9) Describe the rolling of pie crust.

(10) How is a pan covered with paste for pies?

(11) How may a single crust that is to be baked before it is filled be
kept from blistering?

(12) Describe the making of a top crust and the covering of a pie with

(13) What oven temperature is best for baking pastry? Tell why.

(14) On what does the length of time for baking pastry depend?

(15) Describe briefly the making of puff paste.

(16) What may be done with bits of paste not utilized in making pies?

(17) If more than sufficient paste for use at one time is mixed, what
may be done with that which remains?

(18) How should pastry be cared for after baking?

(19) Describe the serving of pastry.

(20) Why should starchy material used for thickening not be cooked with
acid fruit juice for any length of time if this can be avoided?



Almond macaroons,
Angel cake,
Apple-and-celery salad,
-date-and-orange salad,
-sauce cakes,
Apricot mousse, Banana-and-,
Asparagus salad,


Baked custard,
Baking butter cake,
plain pastry,
puff paste,
small cakes,
sponge cake,
Banana-and-apricot mousse,
-and-peanut salad,
Barley-molasses cookies,
Beet-and-bean salad,
Berry pie,
Biscuit tortoni,
Biscuits, Definition of,
Blanc mange, Chocolate,
mange, Plain,
Boiled icing,
icing, Brown-sugar,
salad dressing,
Bomebe glacé,
Boston cream pie,
Bread-and-butter sandwiches,
-and-cheese sandwiches, Rye-,
for sandwiches,
Bread pudding,
pudding, Chocolate,
Bride's cake,
Brown Betty,
-sugar boiled icing,
Butter cake,
cake after baking, Care of,
cake, Baking,
-cake ingredients, Combining the,
cake, Nature of,
-cake pans,
cakes and their preparation,
cakes, Procedure in making,
icing, Chocolate,
Butterscotch pie,


Cabbage-and-celery salad,
Café parfait,
Cake after baking, Care of butter,
after baking, Care of sponge,
and pudding mixtures in the diet,
Baking butter,
Baking sponge,
Chocolate nut,
Cocoa and chocolate in,
Coconut in,
Cold-water sponge,
Cake, Corn-starch,
Devil's food,
Flavoring extracts in,
from pan, Removing sponge,
Hot-water sponge,
icings and fillings,
icings, Preparation of,
ingredients, Combining butter-,
ingredients, Combining sponge-,
ingredients, Preparation of,
ingredients, Quality of,
Lady Baltimore,
making, Equipment for,
making, Procedure in,
Miscellaneous fruits in,
mixture, Baking the butter-,
mixture, Baking the sponge-,
Nature of butter,
Nature of sponge,
Nut layer,
Nut spice,
Nuts in,
Orange sponge,
pans, Preparation of,
pans, Sponge-,
Plain layer,
Plain sponge,
Potato-flour sponge,
Raisin spice,
Raisins and currants in,
Sour-milk chocolate,
White fruit,
with potato flour, Sponge,

Cakes, Apple-sauce,
Baking small,
Cinnamon cup,
Cocoa cup,
cookies, and puddings,
Cup and drop,
Fat for,
Flour for,
Fruit drop,
General classes of,
Ginger drop,
Ingredients used in,
Cakes, leavening for,
Liquid for,
made with yeast,
Nature of mixture for small,
Oat-flake drop,
Ornamental icing for cup,
Preparation of small,
Procedure in making butter,
Procedure in making sponge,
Sour-milk drop,
Spices in,
Sweetening for,
Varieties of small,
California salad,
Cantaloupe shells, Fruit in,
Canton parfait,
Caramel cake,
filling for éclairs,
ice cream,
Carbohydrate in desserts,
in salads,
Care of butter cake after baking,
of salad greens,
of sandwiches after making,
of sponge cake after baking,
Cauliflower-and-tomato salad,
Celery salad,
salad, Apple-and-,
salad, Grapefruit-and-,
sandwiches, Rolled,
Cellulose in salads,
Checkerboard sandwiches,
Cheese-and-nut sandwiches,
filling for sandwiches,
salad, Green-pepper-and-,
salad, Peach-and-cream-,
salad, Pear-and-,
sandwiches, Jelly-and-cream-,
sandwiches, Rye-bread-and-,
Cherry frappé,
pie, Mock,
salad, Filbert-and-,
Chicken salad,
-salad filling for sandwiches,
-salad sandwiches,
Chocolate and cocoa in cake,
Chocolate blanc mange,
bread pudding,
butter icing,
cake, Sour-milk,
filling for éclairs,
ice cream,
nut cake,
water icing,
Christmas pudding,
Cider frappé,
Cinnamon cake,
cup cakes,
Classes of cookies,
Cleaning and freshening salad ingredients,
Club sandwiches,
Cocoa and chocolate in cake,
cup cakes,
Coconut-corn-starch custard,
in cake,
Coffee cakes,
filling for éclairs,
Cold and frozen desserts,
desserts and their preparation,
-water icing,
-water sponge cake,
Combination fruit-and-vegetable salads,
fruit salad,
salad, Summer,
Combining butter-cake ingredients,
sponge-cake ingredients,
Composition and food value of desserts,
of salads,
Cooked icings,
Cookery rules to desserts, Applying,
and puddings, Cakes,
Classes of,
Filling for,
Cookies, Ingredients in,
Procedure in making,
Cooky recipes,
Corn oil,
-starch cake,
-starch custard,
Cottage pudding,
Cottonseed oil,
Crab salad, Lobster or,
Cranberry frappé,
Cream, Caramel ice,
-cheese salad, Peach-and-,
-cheese sandwiches, Jelly-and-,
Chocolate ice,
Dessert sauces and whipped,
filling for cream puffs,
filling, Fruit,
fluff, Pineapple,
fluff, Strawberry,
Mocha ice,
Neapolitan ice,
Philadelphia ice,
pie, Boston,
pie, Date,
puffs and éclairs,
puffs, Cream filling for,
Vanilla ice,
Crullers, Frying doughnuts and,
Nature of doughnuts and,
Shaping doughnuts and,
Cucumber-and-onion salad, Sliced,
-and-tomato salad,
Cup and drop cakes,
cakes, Cinnamon,
cakes, Cocoa,
cakes, Ornamental icing for,
Currants and raisins in cake,
Custard, Baked,
Plain frozen,
Custard, Rice,
Tutti-frutti frozen,
with nuts, Frozen,
with raisins, Frozen,
Custards, True,


Daisy salad,
Date-and-English-walnut salad,
-and-orange salad, Apple-,
cream pie,
Dessert in the meal,
ingredients, Economical use of,
making, Principles of,
making, Principles of frozen-,
Packing a frozen,
sauces and whipped cream,
Desserts and their preparation, Cold,
Applying cookery rules to,
Attractiveness of,
Carbohydrate in,
Cold and frozen,
Composition and food value of,
Fat in,
General discussion of,
Method of freezing,
Molding frozen,
Principles of making gelatine,
Procedure in freezing,
Proportion of ice to salt in frozen,
Protein in,
Recipes for frozen,
Recipes for gelatine,
Serving frozen,
Devil's food cake,
Diet, Cake and pudding mixtures in the,
Purposes of salads in the,
Salads in the,
Double-crust pies,
and crullers, Frying,
and crullers, Nature of,
and crullers, Shaping,
Dreams, Cheese,
Dressing, Boiled salad,
Dressing, French,
Thousand Island,
Dressings and their preparation, Salad,
Nature of salad,
Dried-fruit pies,
Drop cakes,
cakes, Cup and,
cakes, Fruit,
cakes, Ginger,
cakes, Oat-flake,
cakes, Sour-milk,


Easter salad,
Easy pastry,
and cream puffs,
Caramel filling for,
Chocolate filling for,
Coffee filling for,
Economical use of dessert ingredients,
Economy paste,
Egg sandwiches, Ham-and-,
sandwiches, Hard-cooked-,
sandwiches, Hot fried-,
English-walnut salad, Date-and-,
Equipment for cake making,
Extracts in cake, Flavoring,


Farina custard,
Fat for cakes,
in desserts,
in salads,
Feather cake,
Fig pudding, Steamed,
Filbert-and-cherry salad,
Filled cookies,
Filling, Chocolate,
for cookies,
for cream puffs, Cream,
for éclairs, Caramel,
for éclairs, Chocolate,
for éclairs, Coffee,
for ladyfingers,
for sandwiches, Cheese,
for sandwiches, Chicken-salad,
for sandwiches, Fruit,
Fruit cream,
Filling, Orange
Fillings and icings, Cake
Flavoring extracts in cake
Floating island
Flour for cakes
for pastry
Fluff, Pineapple cream
Strawberry cream
Food value of desserts, Composition and
Forks, Salad
Frappé, Cherry
Freezer, Using a vacuum
Freezing desserts, Method of
desserts, Procedure in
Table showing details of
Theory of
French cream
ice cream
Fresh-fruit pudding
Freshening salad ingredients, Cleaning and
Fried-egg sandwiches
Frozen custard, Plain
custard, Tutti-frutti
custard with nuts
custard with raisins
--dessert making, Principles of
dessert, Packing a
desserts, Cold and
desserts, Molding
desserts, Proportion of ice to salt in
desserts, Recipes for
desserts, Serving
spiced punch
Fruit-and-vegetable salads, Combination of
cake, White
cream filling
drop cakes
filling for sandwiches
in cantaloupe shells
salad, Combination
--salad dressing
Fruits in cake, Miscellaneous
Frying doughnuts and crullers


Garnishes, Salad
Gelatine desserts
desserts, Principles of making
desserts, Recipes for
Ginger drop cakes
pudding, Steamed
Glacé, Bomebe
Gold cake
Grape sherbet
Grapefruit-and-celery salad
Green-pepper-and-cheese salad
-vegetable salad


Ham-and-egg sandwiches
Hard-cooked-egg sandwiches
High-protein salads
-protein sandwiches
Highland dainties
Hot fried-egg sandwiches
-meat sandwiches
-water sponge cake
Humpty Dumpty salad


Ice-cream cake
cream, Caramel
cream, Chocolate
cream, French
cream, Mocha
cream, Neapolitan
cream, Philadelphia
cream, Vanilla
cream with peaches, Junket
Icing, Boiled
Chocolate butter
Chocolate water
for cup cakes, Ornamental
Icing, White
Icings and fillings, Cake
Kinds of
Preparation of cake
Indian pudding
Ingredients, Condition of salad
in cookies
Marinating salad
of salads
Quality of cake
Variety in salad


Jelly-and-cream-cheese sandwiches
and marmalade sandwiches
Junket ice cream with peaches


Kisses and macaroons
or meringues


Lady Baltimore cake
Lady fingers
and sponge drops
Filling for
Layer cake, Nut
-cake pans
cake, Plain
Leavening for cakes
Left-over pastry, Utilizing
Lemon filling
Lettuce sandwiches
Liquid for cakes
for pastry
Loaf-cake pans
Lobster or crab salad


Macaroons, Almond
Maize pudding
Maple icing
Maraschino sauce
Marinating salad ingredients
Marmalade sandwiches, Jelly and
Marshmallow filling
Mayonnaise, Cooked
Meal, Dessert in the
Meals, Relation of salads to
Meat sandwiches
sandwiches, Hot-
used for pastry
used in cakes
for one-crust pies
Meringues or kisses
Milk sherbet
Mince pie
pie, Mock
Mineral salts and salads
Mint punch
Minute tapioca
-tapioca custard
Miscellaneous fruits in cake
Mixtures for small cakes, Nature of
Mocha ice cream
Mock cherry pie
mince pie
Molding frozen deserts
Mousses, parfaits, and biscuits
Mousse, Banana-and-apricot
Mousses, Definition of
parfaits, and biscuits


Nature of butter cake
of doughnuts and crullers
of mixtures for small cakes
of salad dressings
of sandwiches
of sponge cake
Neapolitan ice cream
Nut cake, Chocolate
filling, Raisin-and-
layer cake
salad, Pineapple-and-
sandwiches, Cheese-and-
spice cake
Nuts in cake


Oat-flake drop cakes
Oatmeal cookies
-fruit macaroons
Old-fashioned potato salad
Olive oil, Characteristics of
One-crust pies,
-egg cake,
Onion-and-pepper sandwiches,
Open peach pie,
Orange filling,
salad, Apple-date-and-,
sponge cake,
Ornamental icing,
icing for cup cakes,


Packing a frozen dessert,
Pans, Layer-cake,
Preparation of cake,
Parfait, Café,
Strawberry angel,
Parfaits, Definition of,
Paste, Baking puff,
Procedure in making puff,
Pastries and pies,
and pies, Requirements for,
Baking plain,
Definition of,
Flour for,
for pies,
ingredients, Proportion of,
Ingredients used for,
Liquid for,
making, Utensils for,
Methods of mixing,
Procedure in making plain,
Shortening for,
Utilizing left-over,
Peach-and-cream-cheese salad,
pie, Open,
Peaches, Junket ice cream with,
Peanut-butter sandwiches,
salad, Banana-and-,
Pear-and-cheese salad,
Pearl tapioca,
Peas-and-celery salad,
Pecan macaroons,
Philadelphia ice cream,
Pie a la mode,
Boston cream,
Date cream,
Mock cherry,
Mock mince,
Open peach,
Pierrot pudding,
Pies and pastries,
and pastries, Requirements for,
Meringue for one-crust,
Pastry for,
Pineapple-and-nut salad,
cream fluff,
Plain blanc mange,
frozen custard,
layer cake,
pastry, Baking,
pastry, Procedure in making,
sponge cake,
Pocono pudding,
Poinsettia salad,
Poor man's pudding,
Potato-and-barley doughnuts,
-flour sponge cake,
flour, Sponge cake with,
salad, Old-fashioned,
Pound cake,
Preparation of butter cake,
of cake icings,
of cake ingredients,
of cake pans,
of sandwiches,
of small cakes,
of sponge cakes,
Salad dressings and their,
Varieties of salads and their,
Preparing fruits for salads
nuts for salads,
Principles of dessert making,
of frozen-dessert making,
of making gelatine desserts,
of salad making,
of sandwich making,
Procedure in cake making,
in freezing desserts,
in making butter cakes,
in making cookies,
in making puff paste,
in making sponge cake,
Proportion of pastry ingredients,
Protein in desserts,
in salads,
Pudding, Bread,
Chocolate bread,
mixtures in the diet, Cake and,
Poor man's,
Steamed fig,
Steamed ginger,
Puddings and pudding sauces,
Cakes, cookies, and,
Nature of,
Preparation of,
Puff paste,
paste, Baking,
paste, Procedure in making,
paste, Recipe for,
paste, Uses of,
Pumpkin pie,
Punch, Frozen spice,
Purposes of salads in the diet,


Quality of cake ingredients,


Raisin-and-nut filling,
spice cake,
Raisins and currants in cake,
Raspberry sherbet,
Relation of salads to meals,
Removing sponge cake from pans,
Rhubarb pie,
Ribbon sandwiches,
Rice custard,
Ring, Swedish tea,
Ripening the frozen mixture,
Roll, Jelly,
Rolled celery sandwiches,
Round sandwiches,
Roxbury cakes,
Royal éclairs,
Rye-bread-and-cheese sandwiches,


Salad accompaniments,
Cabbage and celery,
Combination fruit,
dressing, Boiled,
dressings and their preparation,
dressings, Nature of,
filling for sandwiches, Chicken-,
greens, Care of,
Humpty Dumpty,
ingredients, Cleaning and freshening,
ingredients, Condition of,
ingredients, Marinating,
ingredients, Variety in,
Lobster or crab,
Salad making, Principles of,
sandwiches, Chicken-,
Sliced cucumber-and-onion,
Summer combination,
Salads and sandwiches,
and their preparation, Varieties of,
Carbohydrates in,
Cellulose in,
Definition of,
Fat in,
in the diet,
in the diet, Purposes of,
Mineral salts in,
Preparing nuts for,
Protein in,
Selection of,
to meals, Relation of,
Salmon salad,
Salts in salads, Mineral,
Sand tarts,
Sandwich making, Principles of,
making, Utensils for,
after making, Care of,
Bread for,
Cheese filling for,
Chicken-salad filling for,
Sandwiches, Fruit,
Fruit filling for,
Jelly and marmalade,
Hot fried-egg,
Nature of,
Rolled celery,
Salads and,
Variety in,
Sauce, Apricot,
Sauces and whipped cream, Dessert,
Selection of salads,
Serving frozen desserts,
Sherbet, Grape,
Shortening for pastry,
Shredded lettuce,
Shrimp salad,
Sliced cucumber-and-onion salad,
Small cakes,
Snow pudding,
Soft custard,
Sour-cream cookies,
-cream dressing,
-cream pastry,
-milk chocolate cake,
-milk doughnuts,
Sour-milk drop cakes,
Spanish cream,
Spice cake, Nut,
cake, Raisin,
Spices in cake,
Sponge cake,
cake, Baking,
cake, Cold-water,
cake from pans, Removing,
cake, Hot-water,
-cake ingredients, Combining the,
cake, Nature of,
cake, Orange,
-cake pans,
cake, Plain,
cake, Potato-flour,
cake, Procedure in making,
cake with potato flour,
cakes, Preparation of,
drops, Ladyfingers and,
Squash pie,
Steamed fig pudding,
ginger pudding,
Sterling sauce,
Strawberry angel parfait,
cream fluff,
Straws, Cheese,
String-bean salad,
bean salad, Tomato-and-,
Stuffed celery,
-tomato salad,
Suet-fruit pudding,
Summer combination salad,
Sunshine cake,
Swedish tea ring,
Sweet-potato pie,
Sweetening for cakes,


Table showing details of freezing,
Tapioca, Apple,
Tea ring, Swedish,
Theory of freezing,
Thickened juicy fruit for pies,

Thousand Island dressing,
Time-saving icing,
Tomato-and-string-bean salad,
salad, Stuffed-,
Tortoni, Biscuit,
True custard,
Tuna-fish salad,
Tutti-frutti frozen custard,


Uncooked icings,
Use of dessert ingredients, Economical,
Using a vacuum freezer,
Utensils for pastry making,
for sandwich making,
Utilizing left-over pastry,


Vacuum freezer, Using a,
Value of desserts, Composition and food,
Vanilla cream,
Varieties of salads and their preparation,
of small cakes,
Variety in salad ingredients,
in sandwiches,
Vegetable salad, Green-,
salads, Combination fruit-and-,


Wafers, Vanilla
Waldorf salad,
War cake,
Water icing, Chocolate,
-lily salad,
Wedding cake,
Whip, Marshmallow,
Whipped cream,
cream, Dessert sauces and,
White cake,
fruit cake,
Winter salad,


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