Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 5
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 3 out of 8

corresponds to blanching in vegetable canning.

For canning purposes, only firm, fresh apricots and peaches that are not
overripe should be selected. Also, in the case of peaches, care should
be taken to see that they are of the _freestone_ variety, as such
peaches may be split easily. _Clingstone peaches_ should not be chosen
unless the fruit is to be canned whole or unless an implement for
removing the seeds, or stones like that shown in Fig. 2, is at hand.
Proceed with the canning of either apricots or peaches by first scalding
them. To do this, put the fruit in boiling water for 1 to 3 minutes,
depending on its ripeness. Next, cold-dip it quickly, remove the skins,
and, if desired, cut each one in half and remove the seed, or stone.
When thus prepared, pack the fruit into hot jars as tightly as possible,
pour sirup No. 3, 4, or 5 over them, filling each jar, adjust the rubber
and jar top, and proceed as directed for the cold-pack method. In the
water bath, boil the cans of fruit for 15 minutes; in the pressure
cooker, cook them for 10 minutes at a 5-pound pressure or for 6 minutes
at a 10-pound pressure.

90. VERY SOUR SOFT FRUITS.--Some of the fruits of the third subdivision
may be prepared and canned in the same way as those included in the
first subdivision. The cherries may be left whole or they may be seeded,
as preferred, and all the fruit must, of course, be fresh. For these
very sour fruits, sirups Nos. 4, 5, and 6 are required, and the
processing time is 15 minutes in the water bath and 10 minutes at a
5-pound pressure or 5 minutes at a 10-pound pressure in the
pressure cooker.

91. PLUMS for canning should be fresh and firm, but not overripe. This
fruit may be canned with the skins on, but some varieties permit the
skins to be removed after scalding, and this may be done if desired.
Prepare the plums for canning by washing them, and, if the skins are to
be left on, by piercing each one in several places with a fork to
prevent the skins from cracking. Then scald the plums for about 1-1/2
minutes, cold-dip them quickly, and pack them closely into the hot jars.
Pour sirup No. 4, 5, or 6 over the fruit in the jars, using sirup No. 6
if they are very sour, adjust the rubbers and the covers, and proceed
according to the canning method selected. In the water bath, cook for 15
minutes; in the pressure cooker, cook for 10 minutes at a pressure of 5
pounds or for 6 minutes at a pressure of 10 pounds.

92. RHUBARB for canning should be selected when it is most tender. The
variety having red stems is the most attractive after it is canned. Only
the heavy stems, which should be cut from the leaves, may be canned. Cut
these stems into inch lengths, blanch them 1 to 3 minutes in boiling
water, and cold-dip them quickly. Then pack these pieces into the jars.
If the rhubarb is being canned for sauce, fill each jar with sirup No. 5
or 6; if it is being canned for pie, use sirup No. 1, 2, or 3. Next,
adjust the rubbers and covers and proceed with the processing. In the
water bath, cook for 15 minutes; in the pressure cooker, cook for 10
minutes at a 5-pound pressure or for 6 minutes at a 10-pound pressure.


93. APPLES.--The canning of apples should be done when there is a large
supply of summer apples that cannot be stored for winter use or used at
once. Canning is also a good means of utilizing windfall apples. This
fruit may be canned in quarters for sauce, in slices for pie, or in any
other desirable shape or condition.

After apples for canning are selected, wash them, scald, or blanch, them
for 1 to 5 minutes in boiling water, and cold-dip them quickly. Next,
peel and core them, and cut each one into pieces of any desirable size.
As these pieces are cut, drop them into salt water--1 teaspoonful of
salt to each quart of water--to prevent them from discoloring. Then pack
the fruit into the jars and fill the jars with boiling sirup. If the
apples are intended for pie, use sirup No. 1, 2, or 3; if they are for
sauce, use sirup No. 3, 4, or 5. When the jars are filled, adjust the
rubbers and covers and proceed with the processing. If the pieces are
large, cook them in the water bath for 20 minutes; if they are medium in
size, cook them for 15 minutes; and if they are in the form of slices,
cook them for 10 minutes. If they are to be processed in the pressure
cooker, cook them for 8 to 12 minutes at a pressure of 5 pounds or for 6
to 8 minutes at a pressure of 10 pounds.

If the apples to be canned are first baked or made into a sauce, simply
pack them into jars and process them for a few minutes.

94. QUINCES.--Quinces may be canned alone, but they may be combined with
apples to good advantage. If canned alone, they may require a heavier
sirup than if apples are used with them. Prepare the quinces in the same
way as apples. If apples are to be canned with them, cut the pieces of
apples twice the size of the pieces of quinces. This should be done
because more time is required for cooking the quinces soft. After
packing the jars and pouring in the sirup, proceed with the processing.
If quinces alone are in the jars, cook them in the water bath for 30
minutes; but if quinces and apples are combined, cook them for 20
minutes. In the pressure cooker, cook the jars of fruit for 12 to 15
minutes at a 5-pound pressure or for 10 to 12 minutes at a
10-pound pressure.

95. PEARS.--Pears for canning should be firm, but not hard. After
sorting and washing them, blanch them for 1 to 3 minutes and cold-dip
them quickly. Then pare, halve, and core them. Pack them immediately
into the jars and pour sirup No. 3 or 4 over them. Next, adjust the
rubbers and covers and proceed with the processing. In the water bath,
cook them for 20 minutes; in the pressure cooker, cook them for 8
minutes at a 5-pound pressure or 6 minutes at a 10-pound pressure.


96. FIGS.--Although figs are not a common fruit, there are parts of this
country, particularly on the western coast, in which they are abundant.
For canning, ripe figs should be selected. To prepare them, blanch them
for 2 minutes in boiling water and cold-dip them. Then pack them into
the jars and fill the jars by pouring sirup No. 4, 5, or 6 over the
figs. Proceed with the remainder of the process as in canning peaches.

97. KUMQUATS AND LOQUATS.--Kumquats and loquats are small acid fruits
resembling oranges in color and plums in size and shape. Such fruits are
not very common, but they may be obtained in some markets. To can either
of these fruits, wash them, blanch for 5 minutes, cold-dip, pack into
jars, and fill the jars with sirup No. 5 or 6. In the water bath, cook
them for 15 minutes. In the pressure cooker, cook them for 10 minutes at
a 5-pound pressure or for 5 minutes at a 10-pound pressure.

98. NECTARINES.--Nectarines are a smooth-skinned variety of peach. Ripe
nectarines may be canned in the same way as peaches, but they do not
require so much sugar, sirup No. 2 or 3 usually being about right.

99. PERSIMMONS.--Persimmons are a seedy, plum-like fruit common to the
southern and southwestern parts of the United States. This fruit is very
astringent when unripe, but is sweet and delicious when ripe or touched
by frost. Well-frosted persimmons should be selected for canning. Blanch
them so that the skin may be removed easily and cold-dip them quickly.
Then peel them and pack them into hot jars. Fill the jars with sirup No.
6 and process them in the same way as peaches.

100. PINEAPPLES.--Pineapples are better known than any of the other
special fruits. For canning, those ripe enough to permit the center
leaves to pull out easily should be selected; also, they should be free
from soft or rotten spots, which are most likely to appear first near
the bottom. Pineapples are graded in size by the number that may be
packed in a case. These sizes are 24, 30, 36, and 42, size 24 being the
largest and size 42 the smallest. Sizes 30 and 36 are best for canning.

In canning pineapples, first place each in boiling water for 10 minutes
and dip it quickly into cold water. Then prepare it for the cans. This
may be done by removing the peeling with a sharp knife, digging out the
eyes, and then slicing or dicing; by slicing first and then peeling and
taking out the eyes; or by peeling, taking out the eyes, and then
shredding it with the aid of a fork. When it is prepared, pack the fruit
into the jars, fill each jar with sirup No. 4 or 5, adjust the rubbers
and covers, and proceed to process it. In the water bath, cook for 30
minutes; in the pressure cooker, cook for 12 minutes at a pressure of 5
pounds or for 10 minutes at a pressure of 10 pounds.


101. Both fish and meat, including that from fowl and game, may be
canned at times that seem convenient and then used when an emergency
arises or at a time when the same food will cost more to prepare. Fowl,
game, and fish may be canned to special advantage during the season when
each is plentiful. The best process for canning such foods is the
one-period cold-pack method.

102. MEAT.--In canning meat, whether from domestic animals, fowl, or
game, first cut it into pieces of a size that would be suitable for
serving at the table. The meat may be left raw or it may be prepared by
any desirable cooking process, such as frying, fricasseeing, braizing,
etc. Careful attention must be given to the drawing of fowl that is to
be canned, because the entire alimentary tract should be removed without
being broken. The giblets should not be canned with the rest of the
meat, as they will not keep so well. Whether the meat is to be canned
raw or cooked, pack the jars as tightly as possible. If the meat is raw,
add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of food and fill the jars
three-fourths full with boiling water. In case the jar is filled to the
top, fat will rise and injure the rubber. If the meat is cooked, add any
liquid that may have resulted from the cooking, as well as boiling
water, provided more liquid is needed. Then, as in canning vegetables
and fruit, adjust the rubbers and covers and proceed with the
processing. In the case of raw meat, sterilize for 3 hours in the water
bath, or for 1-1/2 hours at a 10-pound pressure in the pressure cooker.
In the case of cooked meat, sterilize for 1-1/2 hours in the water bath,
or for 30 minutes at a 10-pound pressure in the pressure cooker.

103. FISH.--To prepare fish for canning, first clean it by scaling it
and removing the entrails. Wrap the cleaned fish in cheesecloth and
steam for 15 minutes. After steaming, remove the bones, which will come
out easily, and cut the fish into pieces. Pack the pieces into the jars,
and to each quart of the food add 1 teaspoonful of salt. Next, fill each
jar three-fourths full with boiling water and continue with the canning
in the manner directed for meat.


104. After jars of canned food have been cooled and tested for leaks,
carefully wiped with a damp cloth, and then wrapped and labeled, they
are ready to be placed in storage. Such food should be stored in an
orderly manner on shelves that may be covered to keep off dust, or in a
large cupboard provided with doors that may be closed. The temperature
of the room in which the canned foods are kept is of no great
importance, but, in homes provided with cellars, the cellar is the
logical place in which to store them.

Canned foods, no matter how well the canning may have been done, undergo
gradual deterioration. Therefore, those kept for more than a year, will
not be so good as those used during the first year after canning. If
canned foods from a previous year are at hand when new cans are ready to
be stored, the old ones should be placed to the front of the shelves and
the new ones to the back, so that the old ones will be used up first.

105. Canned foods take the place of raw foods, and whether they should
be cooked or not depends on the kind. In the case of vegetables, most of
them may be made ready to serve simply by heating them, although they
may be used in the preparation of many dishes, as is evident from the
recipes throughout the lessons. In the case of fruits, some may be
served just as they come from the can; however, there are many ways of
using canned fruits in the making of desserts, as is pointed out in
_Fruit and Fruit Desserts_. In the case of meats and fish, the food, if
cooked before canning, may be prepared for serving simply by heating it;
whereas, if it is canned raw, some cookery method for meat will have to
be applied.

When foods are boiled, one reason for a change in taste is that oxygen
is driven off by the boiling. Therefore, to improve the taste of canned
foods that are to be served without any further preparation, it is
advisable, when a jar is opened, to pour the contents into an open dish
and thus expose it to the air.

In opening jars of canned fruit, care must be taken not to crack or nick
either the top of the jar or its cover. The cover of any kind of jar
will come off easily if a little air is admitted. Insert a knife blade
between the cover and jar rubber of a glass-covered jar, but do not use
a knife to loosen a metal top, as it may bend the edge in places. Hot
water poured over the jar will assist in opening it.


106. In order that the housewife may judge the quality of her own canned
products according to standards that have been set by canning
authorities, a score card, together with an explanation of the terms and
the procedure, is here given. The beginner in canning will do well to
score her own foods, so that any fault that may be found can be
corrected when similar foods are canned at another time. In fact, the
chief purpose of scoring any product is to learn of faults that may be
corrected. The scoring should be done as impartially as if a
disinterested person were doing it, and if the cause of any trouble is
not readily apparent, pains should be taken to find it out.


General appearance 10

Method of sealing 10

Proportion of food to liquid 10

Flavor 35

Texture of food 20

Color 15
Total 100

107. As a rule, scoring, or judging, is done at the time the canned food
is to be opened and used.

The _general appearance_ is judged before the jar is opened. If a jar of
food is well and symmetrically packed and has clear liquid and a good
color, it should receive a perfect score of 10.

The _method of sealing_ must also be judged before the can is opened. A
properly filled jar with the rubber and cover in good condition and
tightly sealed should receive a perfect score of 10.

The _proportion of food to liquid_ should score 10. The jars should be
as full of uncrushed food as possible, and the liquid that has been
added should fill all crevices to the very edge of the jar.

The _flavor_ is judged after the can is opened, and if it is perfect, it
is entitled to a score of 35. The flavor of canned fruit is injured by
any kind of spoiling, such as molding, fermentation, etc. Fruits canned
in good condition should retain the characteristic flavor of the fresh
fruits; also, they should contain sufficient sugar to be agreeably
sweet, but no more. Canned vegetables should retain their characteristic
flavors, with no sour, musty, nor disagreeable taste, and be slightly
salty. Canned meats and fish should also possess their characteristic

The _texture of food_ is entitled to a score of 20 if it is perfect.
The canned food should be whole; that is, in the original pieces as they
were put into the can. Underripe fruit or insufficiently cooked fruit or
vegetables do not have the proper texture; neither do overripe or
uncooked foods.

The _color_ of canned food merits a score of 15 if it is right. Fruits
and vegetables should have retained their natural color. Fading after
canning may be prevented by wrapping the cans, as has been explained.

* * * * *



108. DRYING consists in removing the moisture contained in foods by
evaporation and thus rendering them less susceptible to the attacks of
undesirable bacteria. _Dried foods_, as foods so treated are called,
will not replace fresh or canned foods. However, they are valuable in
many cases and possess some advantages over such foods. For example, the
weight of dried foods is very greatly reduced, the storage space
required by them is much less, and they are easy to keep without
spoiling and easy to transport. Likewise, the containers for such foods
are less costly than those required for canned foods and they are easily
procured, since paper boxes or paper bags are satisfactory. In fact, the
housewife, by taking care of the bags and boxes that come into the home,
can easily provide all the containers she will possibly need at
practically no cost.

109. The water in food that is to be dried may be evaporated by applying
heat, by bringing the food in contact with moving air, or by subjecting
it to a combination of both of these methods. The heat for drying may be
obtained from the sun, as in the _sun-drying method_, or from the stove,
as in the _stove-drying method_, while moving air for evaporating
moisture may be obtained from an electric fan, as in the _electric-fan
drying method_.

In the application of any of these drying methods, however, it is
important to note that the more surface of food there is exposed, the
more quickly will evaporation take place. Drying should therefore be
done on devices constructed in such a way that air may pass up through
food, as well as across its surface. In drying foods, the racks should
be turned frequently, so that all parts will be exposed equally to the
heat or the currents of air. Also, the food must be turned over often,
in order that all parts will dry evenly.

110. Any fruit or vegetable may be dried if the method is properly
applied, but there is usually more or less change in both the flavor and
the color of the dried food. The more rapidly the drying can be done,
the more natural will the color and flavor remain; whereas, the longer
the process is continued, the greater will be this change.

Foods should be dried when they are in such quantity that they cannot be
used to advantage in the raw state, when there is no market for them,
when the owner cannot afford to give them away, and when home canning
ceases to be practical and profitable. In other words, if it is not
practical to save foods in another way, they should be dried.


111. DEVICES FOR DRYING.--Many manufactured devices may be had for the
drying of foods. Some are made so that they may be placed on top of a
stove, like that shown in Fig. 23. This device is in the form of a metal
box. It has a tray for holding the food to be dried, and underneath this
is a space for holding water. Water is poured into this space through a
funnel in one corner, and heat for drying is supplied by heating the
water. Other devices are made so that they may be suspended over a
stove, put into a stove oven, or used out of doors. Still others have a
heating device placed inside of them. It is possible, however, to make
drying devices in the home that will answer the purpose just as well as
the devices that may be bought.

[Illustration: FIG. 23]

As has been stated, drying devices should be so made that the air may
pass up through the food and across its surface. A pan, a platter, or a
solid board, as will be readily seen, is not so good for drying as a
wooden frame of convenient size that has small slats or fine,
rustless-wire netting, or screening, attached to the bottom. Such a
device may be covered with cheesecloth to keep out dirt. If it is to be
used in the oven or set in the sun, a nail driven part way into each
corner will provide feet and thus keep it from resting on the oven floor
or any other flat surface.

For suspending food that is to be dried over a stove, a rack like that
shown in Fig. 24 may be easily made in the home. As will be observed, it
consists of three trays fastened together. These trays are suspended by
four strings tied to another string that runs over small pulleys. The
pulleys are attached to a wooden brace that is secured to the kitchen
wall. The pulleys and string permit the rack to be raised or lowered, so
that the food may be easily put into and taken out of the trays.

[Illustration: FIG. 24]

112. SUN-DRYING METHOD.--If food is to be dried in the sun, spread it in
a single layer on each tray, cover the trays so that no dirt will fall
into them, and set them out of doors so that the sun's rays will strike
them. Glass covers will help to increase the heat from the sun. As the
sun changes, change the position of the trays or turn them. Food that is
being dried outdoors should be brought into the house when the sun goes
down and put out again the following morning. This procedure should be
kept up until the food is so dry as to be _leathery_; that is, in a
condition that will permit of bending without cracking.

113. STOVE-DRYING METHOD.--If food is to be dried by the stove-drying
method, it may be placed in the oven, on top of the stove, or suspended
above the stove.

114. If the oven is to be used, a device that fits the oven should be
employed. Spread the food on the trays in single layers, and put the
device into the oven. The temperature of the oven demands attention in
this method. Only a very moderate heat may be applied at first, 110
degrees Fahrenheit being considered the ideal temperature for beginning.
As it is difficult to hold an oven at such a low temperature if a fire
is burning, the oven door should be left open to admit air. The
temperature of the oven of a coal stove in which the fire is banked or
is being allowed to go out is usually ideal for drying foods. If
desired, the heat of an oven may be gradually increased to about 180
degrees as the food dries; but the application of greater heat is liable
to scorch the food and injure its flavor. The food must be turned often
to permit it to dry evenly.

115. If food is to be dried on top of the stove, the device shown in
Fig. 23 will prove satisfactory. The same arrangement may be improvised
by placing a metal tray over a large flat vessel of water. Place the
food to be dried in a single layer on the tray over the water. Let the
water boil and keep it boiling, and turn the food frequently so that the
heat will be applied to all sides. Continue this process until the food
is leathery, when it may be stored.

116. If food is to be dried in a rack suspended above the stove, a rack
like that shown in Fig. 24 should be used. Cover the trays in the rack
with a single layer of food, and dry it to the leathery stage, when it
may be removed and stored. In using this device, only a coal or a wood
stove is practical. When the heat coming from the stove is not great,
the rack may be allowed to come close to it, and when the heat is
intense the rack may be drawn up. Regulating the distance of the rack
from the stove will tend to keep the food at a uniform temperature and
allow it to dry evenly, especially when the food is turned from time
to time.

117. ELECTRIC-FAN DRYING METHOD.--If a house is wired for electricity,
drying foods by means of the air-currents generated by a moving electric
fan is a simple matter. Use devices like those required for the sun and
oven-drying methods. Spread the foods to be dried on the trays in a
single thin layer, and arrange them so that the air from the electric
fan will blow over them. Turn the trays as the food dries, so that one
part does not dry sooner than another; also, turn the food frequently so
as to expose all parts alike. If the fan can be placed so as to blow
across a stove and thus blow heated air on the food, it will dry more
quickly. A very warm kitchen is an excellent place in which to do the
work with an electric fan, as the combination of air and heat does the
work more rapidly than either one used alone.

118. COMBINATION DRYING METHODS.--A combination of any of the drying
methods mentioned may be used effectively. Drying may be started in the
sun and completed in the oven, or it may be started with an electric fan
and completed in the sun or the oven. Any means whereby the time
required for drying may be shortened is advantageous.


119. PREPARATION OF FOODS FOR DRYING.--The correct preparation of the
foods before drying is very important. The thinner and smaller the
pieces to be dried are cut, the more quickly may the process be
completed. Any skins or hulls that would prevent the rapid evaporation
of moisture from the food must be removed or broken, and every raw food
that is to be dried must first be immersed in salt water made in the
proportion of 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water, as this
prevents discoloring to a great extent.

120. STRING BEANS.--Beans for drying should be selected while they are
young and tender. Wash them and remove the strings if this is necessary.
Cut them in half, lengthwise, with a sharp knife. Drop them into salt
water, remove, and spread on the drying trays. Dry by any
method selected.

121. CORN.--Corn that is to be dried should be at the dough stage;
younger corn contains too much water for good results. Prepare the corn
by husking it and removing the silk. Then blanch it in boiling water for
5 minutes, after which cut off the grains close to the cob with a sharp
knife. Spread these on the drying trays and proceed according to the
method desired.

122. GREENS.--Wash the greens thoroughly. Cut across the leaves several
times. Drop them into salt water, remove, and spread on the drying
trays. Dry by any method selected.

123. TUBER AND ROOT VEGETABLES.--Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes,
carrots, parsnips, and even onions may be successfully dried. First peel
or scrape them. Then slice or cut them into small pieces. Drop them into
salt water, remove from the water, and spread them on the drying trays.
Dry them by the method selected.

124. SMALL FRUITS.--Berries, cherries, and other small fruits may be
dried, but since they contain considerable water, the drying is not
accomplished very rapidly. Ripe, firm fruit should be selected and
cleaned. Cherries should have the seeds, or pits, removed. Such fruits
must be dried as quickly as possible, or they will spoil in the process.

125. APPLES, QUINCES, AND PEARS.--In order to dry apples, quinces, and
pears, wash, peel, core, and cut the fruit into eighths. Put the peeled
fruit into the salt water and keep it there until all are peeled and cut
and ready to dry. Then spread the cut pieces in a thin layer on the
drying trays and proceed according to the method desired.

126. PEACHES AND APRICOTS.--Peaches and apricots are most easily dried
with the skin on. Wash them thoroughly and, in the case of peaches, rub
the fuzz off the skins. Cut the fruit into halves, remove the seeds, or
stones, and drop the halves into salt water and keep them there until
they are ready to be placed on the drying trays. Dry by any
process desired.


127. When foods are taken from the various drying devices to be stored,
they still contain a very small quantity of moisture. This moisture,
however, is not distributed evenly, because some of the pieces of food
are larger than others, or some have been exposed more than others to
heat or air in drying. To offset this unequal drying, the containers in
which the foods are to be stored should not be closed permanently as
soon as the food is put into them. Rather, once a day, for about 3 days,
the food should be poured from one container into another and back again
several times. This will mix all the food and distribute the
moisture equally.

128. The object in storing dried foods is to keep them as dry as
possible; that is, not to allow them to absorb moisture from the air.
The best containers in which they may be placed are those coated with
paraffin. Paper bags or boxes may be prepared in the home by dipping
them into paraffin, although heavy paper containers already covered with
paraffin may be bought in supply stores. Heavy paper or cloth bags may
be used, provided they are stored in a dry place where there is no
danger from rats and mice. Containers of any kind should be securely
tied before storing them permanently. Bags and boxes of dried food are
preferably suspended from rafters in an attic, but if this is not
possible a rack or a bin located in a place that is not damp
will answer.

It is well, in storing dried foods, to use containers that will hold
only a small quantity of food, so that when some is taken out to be
cooked a large amount will not be exposed. It is best to store just
enough for a meal or two in each container.

129. Before dried foods are cooked, as much as possible of the water
evaporated in drying should be restored. In order to do this, soaking is
necessary. The dried food should be put into cold salt water made in the
proportion of 1 teaspoonful of salt to 1 quart of water and soaked for
at least 1/2 hour. The salt water seems to help restore the original
color of the food. When dried vegetables are to be cooked, they should
be cooked in the salt water in which they are soaked; when dried fruits
are to be cooked, the salt water should be poured off and fresh water
used. Long, slow cooking at a low temperature is better for all kinds of
dried foods than rapid cooking. The fireless cooker will be found
valuable for cooking dried foods.

* * * * *



(1) Give three reasons for canning food.

(2) What foods may be canned?

(3) (_a_) How may satisfactory canning equipment be provided at little
or no cost? (_b_) What metals are not good for canning or
preserving kettles?

(4) (_a_) What are the requirements for satisfactory types of jars?
(_b_) What are the qualities of good jar rubbers?

(5) What kind of tin cans should be used for canning fruits or
vegetables that contain acid?

(6) (_a_) Why should care be exercised in the selection of foods to be
canned? (_b_) What points must be considered in the selection of foods
for canning?

(7) Why do canned foods spoil?

(8) How may canned foods be prevented from spoiling?

(9) (_a_) What are spores? (_b_) What connection have spores with the
spoiling of canned food?

(10) Mention three things that assist in the keeping of canned foods.

(11) (_a_) How should jar covers and rubbers be treated in the
open-kettle canning method? (_b_) Describe the filling and closing of
jars in this method.

(12) (_a_) Describe the utensil used for processing in the one-period
cold-pack canning method. (_b_) How should jars, covers, and rubbers be
treated in this method?

(13) (_a_) How are foods blanched and scalded, and why are blanching and
scalding done? (_b_) How are foods cold-dipped, and why is
cold-dipping done?

(14) (_a_) How should foods be packed in jars in the cold-pack canning
method? (_b_) How should the rubber and cover be adjusted before
processing? (_c_) When should you begin to count the boiling time for
food that is being processed in the water bath?

(15) (_a_) How and when should jars be closed in the cold-pack method?
(_b_) How should jars of food be cooled?

(16) (_a_) How should jars of food be treated for storage? (_b_) How
should they be stored?

(17) Mention some advantages of dried foods over fresh or canned ones.

(18) What important points should be considered in the process of drying

(19) What are the proportions of salt and water into which foods that
discolor are placed before they are canned or dried?

(20) What precautions should be observed in the storing of dried foods?

* * * * *


* * * * *


1. Like canning and drying, JELLY MAKING, PRESERVING, and PICKLING are
methods of preparing perishable foods to resist decomposition and
change. When treated by any of these three processes, fruits and
vegetables will keep for long periods of time and will thus be ready for
use during the seasons when they cannot be obtained fresh. The
preservation of food by making it into jellies, preserves, and pickles
does not, as in the case of canning, depend on the sterilization of the
product, but rather on the use of certain ingredients that act as
preservatives. These include sugar, spices, salt, and vinegar, all of
which are considered harmless preservatives in both the home and the
commercial preparation of foods.

2. The making of jelly, preserves, and pickles may seem like an
extravagance in the expenditure of money for materials, as well as of
time and energy on the part of the housewife. Whether this is the case
or not is a matter that must be decided by the housewife herself. If
these foods are not of enough value to her in the preparation of meals
and the feeding of her family to make it worth her while to use her time
and materials in storing them for winter use, then it is not wise for
her to prepare them. But foods so preserved usually have sufficient
merit to warrant the expenditure of the time and the money required in
their making.

3. In the first place, it will often be necessary to throw away material
that would make excellent jelly or jam unless the sugar can be supplied
and the time given to make this material into something that is edible
and at the same time attractive. As is well known, all through the
canning season, there is some material, which may have been intended
for canning, but which, for some reason, cannot be used in that way.
Such material should be utilized in the preparation of these foods. For
instance, some of the berries and other fruits bought for canning may be
found to be too ripe to make a good-looking product, but may be very
satisfactory for the making of jars or jellies. Then, too, if the
open-kettle method of canning is used, there is almost certain to be a
superfluous amount of juice that would be wasted if it were not used in
the making of jelly. Such material need not necessarily be used at the
time, for it may be canned and then made up later at some more
convenient time.

In addition to material of this kind, there is often a surplus of
vegetables and fruits on hand, particularly if one has access to a
garden. Much of this can be canned and dried, but what is not desired
for these purposes might be wasted if it were not made up into
appetizing jellies, preserves, and pickles.

4. Even though it were not necessary to consider the matter of waste and
the utilizing of surplus fruits and vegetables, there would still be
sufficient reason for the making of jellies, preserves, and pickles,
because these foods, when properly prepared, have great value in the
meal. Jellies and preserves, because of the large quantity of sugar used
in them, are foods high in carbohydrate. In view of this fact, they
should be considered as a part of the meal in which they are served,
instead of being used extravagantly or regarded as something extra in an
already sufficiently large menu.

Besides their importance in food value, they should have a place in the
diet because they stimulate the appetite through their attractive colors
and delicious flavors. The familiar fact that a child will refuse to eat
plain bread and butter, but will accept the same piece when it has been
made attractive by the addition of a little jam, argues much for the use
of foods of this sort in children's diet. As it is with children, so it
is to a large extent with adults. During the winter months, when fruits
and fresh vegetables are scarce and expensive, practically every one
finds jellies and preserves appetizing, for these things, in a measure,
take the place of the foods that are difficult to procure.

5. Not so much can be said of the various kinds of pickles, as they are
not so valuable in the diet from the standpoint of food values. They are
made from fruits and vegetables, as are jellies and preserves, but the
preservatives used in their preparation are vinegar and spices. In
addition to having no food value, such ingredients produce
overstimulation and irritation in the alimentary tract, toughen the
cellulose in the foods used, and consequently often cause indigestion
and various gastric disturbances. For these reasons, pickles should not
be included in the diet of children. However, because of the stimulation
they produce in the stomach, foods of this kind, if taken in small
quantities, are properly served as appetizers, and can be eaten by
normal adults without fear of digestive disturbances. Then, too, as
every one who has meals to prepare knows, they are valuable for
relieving monotony in the diet, a point that should not be overlooked.

6. Because the preservation of food in jellies, preserves, and pickles
is accomplished by the use of certain preservatives instead of by the
sterilization of the food, as in canning, these preparations do not mold
or spoil readily. Therefore, containers of a different nature from those
used in canning may be used to store these foods. Jars having tightly
sealed covers are not required, but such containers as wide-necked
bottles, stone jars or crocks, glasses, etc. may be utilized for this
purpose. In fact, containers of almost any description may be used for
jellies, preserves, and pickles. They should, of course, be sealed in
some way to prevent the entrance of bacteria, and various methods of
accomplishing this have been devised. A very satisfactory way consists
in pouring melted paraffin over the top of the food and then covering
the container with a piece of heavy paper and tying this on securely
with cord.

7. Since jellies, preserves, and pickles occupy a place of importance in
the diet and at the same time provide an opportunity to utilize material
that might otherwise be wasted, they are entitled to a certain amount of
attention from the housewife. To equip her with the knowledge she needs
for this work and give her practice in jelly making, preserving, and
pickling, the details of these processes are taken up, step by step, in
this Section.

* * * * *



8. JELLY MAKING consists in cooking fruit juice with sugar until, upon
cooling, it will solidify, or jell. While this is not a difficult nor a
complicated process, there are some housewives who do not have success
with it. Often the result may be very good when a certain fruit is used,
whereas it may be entirely unsatisfactory at another time, even though
the same fruit is used and practically the same procedure is followed.
If the best results are to be assured in jelly making, the principles
that are involved in this process must first be thoroughly understood
and then the correct procedure must be painstakingly followed out.

9. To solidify properly and thus become a desirable jelly, the fruit
juice that is used for this purpose must have the following
characteristics and treatment: (1) it must contain certain jelly-making
properties; (2) it must be extracted properly; (3) it must be combined
with the correct proportion of sugar; and (4) it must be cooked the
proper length of time. There are, of course, numerous degrees of
solidity of jelly, varying from that which will barely retain its shape
to that which is very tough and hard, but neither extreme is desirable.
To be right, the jelly should be firm enough to stand up well, but
should be tender and soft when a spoon is cut into it.

10. Fruit is the principal ingredient in the making of jelly, as it is
the source from which the juice is obtained. Such imperfections in
fruits as poor shape or unattractive appearance do not count in this
matter, since only the juice is used; but they must contain jelly-making
properties in order that jelly can be made from them.

Green or slightly unripe fruits are better for jelly making than fruits
that have become ripe. In fact, when in this immature state, fruits may
be used to make jelly, whereas the same fruits, when perfectly ripe,
often will not make jelly at all, or, if they do, will produce a jelly
that is inferior in quality.

11. The chief requirement of fruits that are to be used for jelly
making is that they contain acid and pectin. _Pectin_ is the real
jelly-making property of fruits. When it is in the presence of acid and
combined with the correct proportion of sugar and the combination is
properly boiled, a desirable jelly is the result. Without pectin,
however, it is impossible to make the juice solidify, or jell. Pectin is
closely related to the carbohydrates, but as it does not yield heat
energy nor build tissue, its food value is not considered. In this
respect, it is like the cellulose of fruits and vegetables.

It is because green fruits contain more pectin than do ripe fruits that
they are more suitable for jelly making. The lack of either acid or
pectin need not, however, prevent the making of jelly from fruits, such
as sweet fruits, that contain other jelly-making properties, for either
or both may be supplied from some other source. In other words, jelly
may be made from any fruit that will yield juice and flavor.


[Illustration: FIG. 1]

12. NECESSARY EQUIPMENT.--In the making of jelly, as in the preparation
of many other foods, numerous utensils will be found convenient and may,
if desired, be supplied to make the work easier. However, the necessary
ones are comparatively few in number and, for the most part, are found
in almost every kitchen. In Fig. 1 are shown assembled practically all
the equipment used in the making of jelly, and if a housewife is
provided with these things or substitutes for them, she will be well
equipped for her work.

13. KETTLES.--As will be observed, two kettles are required in jelly
making. The larger one is used for cooking the fruit, and the smaller
one, to cook the juice and the sugar. These should have a perfectly
smooth surface, and may be made of almost any material used for such
utensils, except tin or iron. These two metals are undesirable, as they
are liable to lend to the jelly a disagreeable flavor and in all
probability an unattractive color. The one used to cook the fruit should
generally be a little larger than the other. As about 6 glassfuls of
jelly may be cooked at one time, the kettle in which the juice is boiled
should be of adequate size to cook this amount without danger of its
boiling over. When fruit juice and sugar are boiled together, the
mixture often boils up and runs over if the vessel is not large enough.

14. JELLY BAG.--The jelly bag, which is used for straining the boiled
fruit and thus obtaining the juice, may be a home-made one or, as shown
in the illustration, one that is purchased for the purpose. If the bag
is made at home, a heavy, closely woven material, such as flannel,
should be selected, so as to prevent the tiny particles of fruit from
passing through with the juice. A liquid strained in this manner will be
much clearer and will make better looking jelly than that which has been
run through a coarse material, such as cheesecloth. The juice can be
strained very conveniently if the bag is attached to a wire arrangement,
like the one shown, or to an upright standard that can be fastened to a
chair or a table, for then the bag is held securely over the vessel into
which the juice drips. Sometimes, especially when more than one
extraction of the juice is to be made, the first extraction is made by
means of a strainer or a colander and the juice thus obtained is then
strained through the bag.

15. ADDITIONAL UTENSILS.--As accurate measurements are absolutely
essential in jelly making, a measuring cup should be included in the
equipment. Then, too, a quart measure will be found very convenient,
especially if large quantities of materials are to be cooked at one
time. A large spoon or two for stirring, skimming, and testing should
also be provided. The spoon used for skimming will produce better
results if the bowl contains holes that will permit the juice to drop
back into the vessel, for then none of the juice will be wasted.

16. CONTAINERS FOR JELLY.--Various types of receptacles in which to keep
jelly are in use, some turning out more attractive molds than others.
The shape of the mold, however, is a matter of minor importance. Almost
any wide-mouthed glass receptacle with comparatively smooth sides will
do very well, since the sealing of jelly is not a difficult thing to do.
Therefore, new receptacles should not be purchased if there is a supply
of any suitable kind on hand, for many other containers besides
purchased jelly glasses may be used for this purpose. The most
convenient type, which may be bought in any store selling kitchen
utensils, is that shown in Fig. 1. As will be observed, these are
somewhat broad and not very tall. A mold of jelly turned from a tall,
narrow glass does not stand up so well as that turned from a flat, wide
one. Then, too, a tall glass is much more likely to tip and spill than a
more shallow one.

17. Metal covers that fit the tops of the glasses, like the ones shown,
are the most convenient kind that can be used, but they are not an
absolute necessity. In their place may be used paper caps that fit the
glasses, or the tops of the glasses may be covered with paper and then
tied. Before a cover of any kind is put on a glass, paraffin, several
cakes of which are arranged on a plate in Fig. 1, is melted and poured
in a thin layer over the top of the jelly itself.

To designate the kind of jelly, it is advisable to label the glasses
with neat labels, a box of which is included in the equipment
here shown.

18. Paraffin-covered paper cups have been recommended to take the place
of jelly glasses, and while they do very well in the case of scarcity of
containers they have some disadvantages. In the first place, they can be
used only once, as it is impossible to wash them. In addition, it will
be necessary to wait until the jelly is partly cold before pouring it
into such cups, as hot jelly will melt the paraffin on the surface of
the paper.


19. When the necessary utensils have been conveniently placed and the
desired fruit has been selected, the housewife may proceed at once to
the work of making jelly. Each step is here outlined in the order in
which it should be taken up in doing the actual work. The entire
procedure should be properly followed out in order to insure the best
results, and every part of the work should be carefully done so as to
avoid any waste of material.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

20. COOKING THE FRUIT.--Prepare the fruit in whatever way is necessary.
The preparation needed will depend, of course, on the kind of fruit
selected for the jelly, but usually not so much preparation is needed as
in the case of canning. For instance, when crab-apple jelly is made, the
stems are removed and the fruit is cut into halves or quarters, but they
need not be peeled nor have the seeds taken out. Specific directions for
the different varieties of fruits are given in the various recipes. The
chief precaution to take in preparing the fruit, no matter what kind is
used, is to see that it is thoroughly cleaned.

With the fruit prepared, put it into a large kettle and add enough water
to start the cooking and prevent scorching. Some fruits will require
more water than others, especially when they must be cooked a long time
in order to soften them sufficiently to extract the juice. Juicy fruits,
like plums, need only the minimum amount of water, while drier fruits,
such as apples, require more. Place the kettle on the stove, as in Fig.
2, and allow the fruit to cook until it is soft or is reduced to a pulp.
The length of time for cooking will also depend entirely on the kind of
fruit that is being used.

21. EXTRACTING JUICE.--When the fruit is thoroughly cooked, pour the
pulp and the juice that has formed into the jelly bag and allow it to
drip into a pan placed directly under the bag, as shown in Fig. 3.
Formerly, it was the custom to let the juice drip until no more remained
in the bag. This method is followed to some extent at present, but it is
falling into disuse, as it is not the most economical way of extracting
the juice from the pulp. More juice can be obtained and more jelly made
from the same amount of fruit if three extractions instead of one are
made. Make the first extraction by pouring the pulp and juice into the
bag and permitting the juice to drip only until it begins to run very
slowly. Then return the pulp to the kettle, add a small quantity of
water, and let it boil again for a few minutes. Pour it the second time
into the jelly bag, and let it drip as before. Cook it the third time in
the same way, and then allow it to drip until all the juice is
extracted. At this point, mix the juice from the three extractions. They
should not be used separately, for they are much different in quality,
the third one being not so good as the second and the second, inferior
to the first. On the other hand, when all three are mixed, an excellent
quality is the result, provided all conditions are correct, and a larger
quantity of juice is obtained for the jelly.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

22. The quantity of juice that may be extracted depends on the quality
as well as the kind of fruit. If the season is a rainy one, the fruits
will be found to contain more juice than they would in a dry season.
Then, too, if the fruits are picked immediately after a rain, they will
contain more juice than the same fruits before the rain. The amount of
juice the fruit contains determines, of course, the quantity of water
that should be added in the cooking. If only one extraction is intended,
3 to 4 quarts of water may be used for 8 quarts of fruit, depending on
the kind of fruit; but if three extractions are to be made, less water
should be added for each extraction. In case the extracted juice
contains more water than it should have, either because the fruit
contains an excessive amount of water or because too much water was
added to the fruit in its cooking, the superfluous water will be
extracted by boiling the juice with the sugar a little longer as the
jelly is being made.

It is not always necessary to have the fleshy part of fruit for jelly
making, for often the skins, seeds, and cores of fruits may be cooked
with water and the juice then extracted from them. Another point to
remember is that the pulp from which the juice is extracted may
sometimes be used for jam or marmalade. If points like these are taken
into consideration, it will not be necessary to waste any part of
edible fruits.

23. TESTING THE JUICE FOR PECTIN.--When the juice has been extracted
from the fruit, it should be tested for pectin in order to determine
whether or not it will be satisfactory for the making of jelly. A test
that can be applied by the housewife is illustrated in Fig. 4. Into a
tumbler, put a tablespoonful of juice and with this mix a tablespoonful
of alcohol. If, upon adding the alcohol, the fruit juice turns into a
gelatinous, or jelly-like, mass that may be easily gathered up on the
spoon, it may be known that pectin is present. As has already been
stated, the presence of this substance in fruit juice insures the fact
that jelly can be made from the juice.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

24. USING JUICE LACKING IN PECTIN.--If, in the test for pectin, the
addition of alcohol to the fruit juice does not turn the juice into a
jelly-like mass, pectin is not present. Such juice, or juice that
contains only a small amount of pectin, will prove unsuccessful in jelly
making unless some substance or juice high in pectin is added to it. The
white skin from the inside of orange, lemon, or grapefruit peelings or
the juice from apples, crab apples, currants, green gooseberries, or
other fruit containing a large quantity of pectin may be used for this
purpose. Also, commercial pectin may be purchased and used with fruits
according to the directions that accompany it.

It is always necessary to supply pectin in some way to such fruits as
strawberries, peaches, raspberries, blueberries, cherries, pears, etc.
To the sweet ones, like peaches and raspberries, lemon juice or other
acid fruit juice also must be added if satisfactory jelly is desired.

25. DETERMINING PROPORTION OF SUGAR.--The only other ingredient used in
jelly making, besides the fruit juice, is sugar. After the juice has
been strained from the fruit, the next step is to determine how much
sugar must be used. This is of extreme importance, as the success of the
jelly depends very largely on whether or not the correct proportion is
used. If too much sugar is added to the juice, a greater quantity of
jelly will result, but it will not stand up as it should when it is
turned out of the glass. On the other hand, if too little sugar is used,
a smaller quantity of jelly than the required amount will be made and it
will be tough and sour.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

26. It is difficult to give the exact proportion of sugar to use with
every kind of fruit, for some fruits require more than others. However,
in general, 3/4 cupful of sugar to each cupful of juice, as shown in
Fig. 5, will be sufficient. This is especially true if the season has
been a dry one and the fruits are neither very sour nor very juicy.
After a wet season or with very sour or very juicy fruits, it will
usually be necessary to use 1 cupful of sugar to each cupful of juice.

27. Much waste of sugar and spoiling of jelly can be avoided by the use
of the test for pectin, which has just been described. After the juice
and the alcohol have been mixed, pour the mixture slowly from the glass,
noting how the pectin is precipitated. If it is precipitated as one
lump, a cupful of sugar may be used for each cupful of juice; if in
several lumps, the proportion of sugar must be reduced to approximately
three-fourths the amount of juice. If the pectin is not in lumps, but is
merely precipitated, the sugar should be one-half or less of the amount
of the juice.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

28. To assist in determining the correct proportion of sugar to use in
the making of jelly, the hydrometer, or sirup gauge, which is explained
in _Canning and Drying_, will be found helpful. After the juice has been
extracted, mix with a small amount of it the proportion of sugar that is
to be used when the jelly is cooked. Allow the sugar to dissolve
completely, pour a little of the mixture into a glass or a graduate, and
insert the hydrometer, as shown in Fig. 6. Regardless of the kind of
juice, the hydrometer should register 25 degrees for perfect jelly. If
it registers less than 25 degrees, more sugar should be added. Then if
it is necessary to add either sugar or juice, the additional ingredient
should be carefully measured in order that the proportions may be
correct for the making of jelly. It must not be understood that a
hydrometer is an actual necessity in the making of jelly, for very good
jelly can be made without measuring the ingredients in this manner.
However, if a hydrometer is not used, it will be necessary to apply the
best judgment possible to the rules given for the proportion of
ingredients used in jelly making.

29. COMBINING THE JUICE AND SUGAR.--The mixing of the juice and the
sugar may seem like a trivial matter, but in reality much is involved in
combining these ingredients properly. It may be done in three different
ways. In the first method, which is called _long boiling_, the sugar and
the juice are mixed cold and are then allowed to come to the boiling
point together. The second, which is known as _mean boiling_, consists
in putting the cold juice on the stove, allowing it to boil about half
the required time, and then adding the sugar, which has also been
heated. In the third, which is known as the _short-boiling method_, the
juice is boiled without the sugar almost the full length of time
required for making the jelly, and the sugar, which has been heated, is
added just before the boiling is completed.

30. Experience in the use of these three methods has shown their
advantages and disadvantages. The first one, or the long-boiling
process, has the disadvantage of losing sugar through the skimming that
is always necessary in the making of jelly. In addition, the long
boiling often causes the sugar to crystallize and thus produces a jelly
that would not score very high. The short boiling is not entirely
satisfactory, because of the difficulty in determining just when to add
the sugar to the juice. The process of mean boiling, having neither of
these drawbacks and usually resulting in jelly of excellent quality, is
the most satisfactory and the one that is recommended.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

To carry out this method, place the sugar in a pan in a warm oven or
other place where it will gradually become heated without either melting
or scorching. Put the juice over the fire in a saucepan and let it boil
for 5 to 8 minutes. Then, as shown in Fig. 7, slowly add the correct
proportion of hot sugar to the boiling juice, stirring constantly so
that the sugar will dissolve as quickly as possible.

31. BOILING THE JUICE AND SUGAR.--The boiling of the juice, both before
and after the sugar is added, should be done rapidly. During this
process, it will be found that a scum will form over the top of the
juice. This should be skimmed off as it forms, for it is a detriment to
the jelly. As shown in Fig. 8, draw a large spoon over the top of the
boiling juice from time to time and skim off the scum that rises,
placing it into any small dish that is handy. It is usually advisable
to do as much skimming as possible before the sugar is added, so that
only a minimum amount of sugar will be lost.

The length of time required to boil the juice after the sugar is added
depends very largely on the way in which the boiling is carried on. If
the mixture is boiled rapidly, less time will, of course, be needed than
if it is boiled slowly. Therefore, no definite time can be set for the
cooking. However, several tests may be resorted to in order to determine
whether the sugar and juice have boiled long enough to jell when the
mixture is cold.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

32. TESTING THE JELLY MIXTURE.--The testing of the mixture can be done
in various ways, the one to select depending on the success the
housewife has in using them. A means very often resorted to consists in
dipping a spoonful or two of the mixture out of the kettle and pouring
it on the flat surface of a cold dish. If it is cooked sufficiently, it
will solidify when it is cold and will appear just like jelly. The
disadvantage of this test lies in the fact that the jelly on the stove
continues to boil while the test is being made, and as this takes
several minutes, the jelly is likely to overboil to a considerable
extent. Tests that can be performed more quickly are therefore more

33. A test that invariably proves successful consists in dipping up a
spoonful of the juice and allowing it to run slowly from the spoon back
into the pan. If, as shown in Fig. 9, a double row of drops forms on the
spoon with the last of the jelly that remains, it may be known that the
cooking is finished.

34. Another very satisfactory test is called _sheeting_. In the
performing of this test, a spoonful of the jelly is dipped from the pan
and then poured from the spoon into the pan again. If it is cooked to
the proper consistency, large drops will form at the edge of the spoon
and break off quickly.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

35. FILLING THE GLASSES.--As soon as it has been determined that the
jelly is sufficiently cooked, it should be removed from the stove. The
glasses may then be filled at once. These, together with the covers,
must be thoroughly cleansed before being used, and this can be done
while the jelly is cooking. After being thoroughly washed, submerge them
in a pan of hot water and allow them to remain there until they are to
be used. Keeping them hot in this way will prevent them from cracking
when the hot jelly is poured into them. Take out one glass at a time,
place it on a small plate or any small dish, and, as shown in Fig. 10,
pour the hot jelly into it from the pan to within 1/4 inch of the top.
Fill the remaining glasses in the same way, and then set them somewhere
out of a draft to cool. If, as the jelly cools, it seems to be a little
bit thin, place it somewhere in the sunshine and the heat of the sun
will help to thicken it.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

36. CLOSING AND STORING THE JELLY GLASSES.--The jelly should be allowed
to cool completely and should then be closed for storing. The best
results are obtained by putting a thin layer of paraffin over the top of
the jelly in each glass before applying the cover. To do this, put into
a small saucepan as much paraffin as you think will be needed to cover
the jelly you have made and set this on the stove to melt. When it has
melted, pour a layer about 1/8 inch thick over the surface of the jelly,
as shown in Fig. 11. As soon as it cools, it will harden and thus form a
protective covering for the jelly. When it is hard, cover the glass in
the desired way. Covers of tin are perhaps the most satisfactory, but if
these cannot be secured, heavy paper covers that fit into the glasses
snugly will answer the purpose very well. In the event of not having
covers of either of these kinds, cover the tops of the glasses with
paper--any good wrapping paper will do--and then tie this paper
securely. Just before putting the jelly away, label each glass with a
neat label on which is written the name of the jelly. Then no difficulty
will be experienced in selecting at once the kind of jelly desired when
one is taking a glass from the place where it is stored.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]


37. With jelly, as with canned fruit, it is a splendid idea for every
housewife to score each kind she makes, so that she can determine how it
measures up in its various characteristics. If it falls below the
standard, this fact should be known, so that the fault can be remedied
the next time. On the other hand, extreme satisfaction is felt if it is
found to score high. To assist in scoring jelly, a score card is here
given, and following it each one of the characteristics is discussed.

Per Cent.
Color 20
Solidity 25
Flavor 25
Sugar Content 25
Method of Sealing 5
Total 100

_Color_.-For jelly having the proper color, 20 per cent. is given. The
fruit used in the making of jelly determines to a great extent the color
of the finished product, but it is possible to have a very wide
difference in the colors of jelly made from the same fruit. To be right,
jelly should be clear, bright, and not too dark. If the juice is boiled
too long, the jelly will be darker than it should be. If pulp has been
allowed to pass through the jelly bag in straining out the juice, either
through squeezing the bag or using a bag that is too thin, the jelly
will be found to have a cloudy appearance.

_Solidity_.--When jelly is turned from the glass, it should be firm
enough to stand alone. If it has not been boiled long enough, it will
crush down and perhaps run like sirup. If it is boiled too long or the
proportion of juice to sugar is not correct, it may be tough and
leathery. Jelly whose solidity is correct scores 25 per cent. in
this respect.

_Flavor_.--The characteristic flavor of the fruit used in making jelly
should be retained as much as possible, and when this is the case 25 per
cent. is given to the product. The flavor of the jelly is therefore
dependent on the flavor of the fruit. In addition, the flavor depends on
the amount of sugar used, the amount of acid in the fruit, and the
length of time consumed by the boiling. Jellies boiled too long will be
strong in flavor.

_Sugar Content_.--The sugar content of jelly should be determined by the
amount of acid that must be sweetened. An insufficient amount of sugar
will result in tough, sour jelly, while too large a quantity will make
the jelly taffy-like. The correct amount of sugar, which produces the
right degree of sweetness, receives a score of 25 per cent.

_Method of Sealing_.--The method of sealing may seem like a matter of
little importance, but if jelly is not sealed properly, it will not be
in good condition when it is to be served. To score in this respect, for
which 5 per cent. is given, the jelly should be covered with paraffin
and then closed with a cover or with paper in order to exclude the
dust and dirt.


38. Recipes for the kinds of jelly usually made are here given. If the
directions given in the procedure for jelly making are thoroughly
mastered and then applied to these recipes, the housewife will
experience very little difficulty in making any of these varieties.
Other jellies may, without doubt, be made by combining the proper
fruits. All that has to be done in order to determine whether a certain
fruit juice or combination of fruit juices will make jelly is to apply
the test for pectin already explained. Whatever quantity of jelly is
desired may be made, but usually it can be handled best if not more than
6 glassfuls are made at one time.

39. CRAB-APPLE JELLY.--Crab apples are much used for jelly, as they make
a product of good consistency and excellent flavor. Apples may be used
in the same way as crab apples with equally good results.

Wash the apples thoroughly, remove the stems, and cut into quarters.
Make sure that the apples contain no worms. Put them into a kettle, add
about half as much water as apples, and cook slowly until the apples are
soft. Strain the juice through a jelly bag. Before it stops dripping,
return the pulp to the kettle, add half as much water as pulp, and allow
the fruit to cook again. Make a second extraction, and in the same way
make a third one. Then combine the juice, and strain all of it through a
bag to make it clear. Measure 6 or 8 cupfuls of juice, and pour it into
a preserving kettle. Boil for about 5 minutes, straining off the scum
that rises to the top. To each cupful of juice, add 3/4 to 1 cupful of
sugar that has been heated. Crab apples will require 1 cupful of sugar,
but apples milder in flavor will not need more than 3/4 cupful. Boil
until the test shows that it has boiled long enough. Pour into hot
glasses, cool, and seal. Label and then store for later use.

40. CURRANT JELLY.--If jelly having a tart flavor is desired, currant
jelly should be tried. This kind of jelly is especially good to serve
with the heavy course of a meal.

Wash and stem the currants. Put them into a kettle and add about
one-fourth as much water as currants. Boil until the currants are
reduced to a pulp. Pour into a jelly bag and strain. Make at least one
more extraction, and a third extraction if there is a fairly large
quantity of pulp. When all the juice has been strained from the pulp,
strain it again through the bag or a heavy cloth. Measure 6 or 8 cupfuls
of juice into a kettle, boil for about 5 minutes, and then add from
three-fourths to an equal amount of heated sugar. Remove the scum as it
forms, taking off as much as possible before the sugar is added.
Continue to boil until the tests show that the mixture has cooked
sufficiently. Remove from the heat and pour into hot glasses. Cool,
seal, label, and store.

41. GRAPE JELLY.--Thoroughly ripe grapes may be used for jelly, but they
are not so satisfactory for this purpose as grapes that are only partly
ripe. This is due to the fact that green grapes contain more pectin and,
upon being cooked, produce fewer of the cream-of-tartar crystals usually
found in grape jelly than do ripe ones. The procedure for grape jelly is
the same as that for currant jelly. If ripe grapes are used, 3/4 cupful
of sugar will be needed to each cupful of juice; but if only partly ripe
grapes are used, 1 cupful of sugar will be required for every cupful
of juice.

42. QUINCE JELLY.--Because of its attractive color and delicate flavor,
quince jelly is much favored. The quinces may be used alone, but if a
still more delicate flavor is desired, apples may be added to the
quinces, or the parings and cores of the quinces may be used with apples
or crab apples. To make quince jelly, proceed in the same way as for
apple jelly, using 3/4 cupful of sugar to 1 cupful of juice.

43. RASPBERRY JELLY.--Either black or red raspberries may be used for
jelly making. To give jelly made from these fruits a better consistency,
a small quantity of green grape, crab-apple, or currant juice should be
added. The procedure in this case is the same as for currant jelly.

44. STRAWBERRY JELLY.--Unripe strawberries contain a small amount of
pectin, but thoroughly ripe ones are almost lacking in this respect. For
this reason, strawberries cannot be used alone for making jelly. They
make a delicious jelly, however, if currants are combined with them. For
each 5 or 6 quarts of strawberries, 1 quart of currants will be
sufficient to make a jelly of good consistency. Wash and hull the
strawberries and then proceed as for currant jelly.

45. PLUM JELLY.--Plums make a jelly that many persons like. If it is
desired to use plums alone, those which are not thoroughly ripe should
be selected. Ripe plums do not contain enough pectin for jelly;
therefore, a fruit high in pectin, such as crab apples, must be added.
The procedure for currant jelly should be followed for plum jelly.

46. PEACH JELLY.--Peaches contain so little pectin that it is almost
impossible to make jelly of them unless some other fruit is added in
rather large quantities. Currants, crab apples, or green grapes may be
used with peaches, and whichever one is selected will be needed in the
proportion of about 50 per cent.; that is, half as much additional fruit
as peaches is needed. In the making of peach jelly, proceed as for
currant jelly.

47. CANNING FRUIT JUICES FOR JELLY.--During the canning season, when a
great deal of such work is being done, the housewife often feels that
making jelly and preserves is an extravagant use of sugar. Still, fruit
juices left over from canning and large quantities of fruit, such as
crab apples and currants, that are not suitable for other purposes, will
be wasted unless they are used for jelly. If it is not convenient to use
the fruit at the time it is obtained, a good plan is to extract the
juice as for jelly making and then can it. In case this is done, jelly
may be made from the juice during the seasons of the year when less
sugar is required for other things.

48. To can fruit juice, extract it from the fruit as for jelly making
and then bring it to the boiling point. Select bottles or jars that may
be tightly closed, sterilize them, fill them with the boiling juice, and
seal them. Bottles may be used for this purpose if they are well corked
and then dipped into melted sealing wax or paraffin. When properly
sealed, fruit juices will probably keep without any further effort to
preserve them, but to make positively certain that they will not spoil,
it is a wise precaution to process the filled bottles or jars in boiling
water for about 6 or 8 minutes in the same way in which canned fruit is
processed. When treated in this way, fruit juices will keep perfectly
and may be made into jelly at any time during the winter.

* * * * *



49. PRESERVING consists in preparing fruits in perfect condition to
resist decomposition or change by cooking them in heavy sirup. The
cooking is done so slightly that the original form, flavor, and color of
the fruit are retained as far as possible. This process is similar to
that of canning by the open-kettle method; that is, the fruit and sugar
are combined and cooked to the proper consistency in the preserving
kettle. Sugar is used in such quantity in the preparation of preserves
that it acts as a preservative and prevents bacteria from attacking the
foods in which it is used. If preserves of any kind ferment, it may be
known that not enough sugar was used in their preparation. The
sterilization of the product and the air-tight sealing of the
containers, which are necessary in the canning of fruits and vegetables,
need not be resorted to in the case of preserves.

50. SELECTION OF FRUIT.--When fruit is to be made into preserves, much
attention should be paid to its selection, for, as a rule, only the
finest fruits are used for preserving. This is especially true of the
smaller fruits, such as berries and cherries, for they are preserved
whole. Therefore, in order that they may have a good appearance when
preserved, it is necessary that they be as perfect as possible to begin
with. In addition, the fruit should be thoroughly ripe, but not mushy
nor overripe. As the cooking of the fruits in sirup hardens them to a
certain extent, fruits that are not sufficiently ripe cannot be used,
for they would be too hard when done. If care is used in selecting
fruits that are to be preserved, a good-appearing product will be the
result, since this process is carried on in such a way as not to impair
their shape.

51. METHODS OF PRESERVING.--Several methods of preserving fruit are in
practice, but in general the same principles characterise each one.
Probably the most successful method consists in bringing a certain
proportion of sugar and water to the boiling point, dropping the fruit
into the sirup thus formed, and cooking it for a definite length of
time. Boiling fruits in heavy sirup has a tendency to make them firm and
solid, rather than to cook them to pieces, as would be the case with
water or a thin sirup. Even very soft berries, when used for preserves,
will retain almost their original size and shape if they are properly
cooked. Except for the fact that a heavier sirup is used, the process of
preserving fruit is exactly like that of canning fruit by the
open-kettle method. The chief precaution to take in this method is that
as little water as possible be used, so that the sirup may be very thick
when the fruit is added.

Another method that may be recommended because it helps to keep the
fruit in good condition consists in cooking it in its own juice. In this
method, equal quantities of fruit and sugar are put together and allowed
to stand until enough juice is formed, preferably overnight, so that the
fruit may be cooked without the addition of any water. Strawberries are
excellent when preserved in this way.

Whichever method is followed, better results will be obtained if only a
few quarts of fruit are cooked at a time. When a large quantity of
berries, for instance, is added to the boiling sirup, they will form
such a thick layer that they will have to remain over the fire a long
time before they come to the boiling point. They will therefore be much
more likely to crush and give the finished product a mushy appearance
than if a smaller quantity, which will form a thinner layer, is cooked
each time.

52. UTENSILS FOR PRESERVING.--The equipment necessary in the making of
preserves is similar to that used for making jelly, with the exception
of the dripping bag and the hydrometer. A good-sized preserving kettle
is, of course, required for the cooking of the fruit and sirup; a
measuring cup and a quart measure are needed for the measuring of the
ingredients; and a long-handled wooden spoon or paddle is the most
convenient utensil with which to stir all foods of this class.
Containers similar to those used for jelly will be satisfactory
receptacles in which to put preserves, but as preserved fruits are not
turned out in a mold, almost any kind of wide-mouthed bottle or jar may
be used for this purpose. Paraffin should also be provided, as this
should always be used for the first covering to prevent the formation of
molds, which are likely to grow on moist sweet substances exposed to the
air. Before using paraffin for preserves, they should be allowed to
stand until the surface has become absolutely dry. It is well to label
preserves, too; so labels should be kept on hand for this purpose.

* * * * *



53. The several methods of preserving fruits result in considerable
variety in the finished product. _Preserves proper_ are those cooked in
a heavy sirup, either whole or cut into pieces. In addition to being
prepared in this way, fruit may be made into _conserve, marmalade, jam_,
and _butter_. Specific directions for the preparation of each one of
these varieties are here given, together with a number of recipes
showing the kinds of fruit most suitable for the different varieties. No
housewife need deprive her family of any of these delicious preparations
if she will familiarize herself with the methods explained and will
follow out minutely the directions given. In the making of the various
kinds of preserves, just as much care must be exercised as in canning
and jelly making if the best results are desired.


54. STRAWBERRY PRESERVE.--Strawberries selected for preserves should be
of the dark, solid variety, if possible, since these shrink less and
retain their shape and size better than do the lighter varieties. This
fruit is made into preserves probably more often than any other kind,
and this is not strange, for it makes a most delicious preserve.


2 qt. strawberries
1/2 c. hot water
1 lb. sugar

Clean the strawberries by placing them in a colander and raising and
lowering them into a large pan of water. Remove the hulls and make sure
that all the water is carefully drained from the berries. Add the water
to the sugar and place over the fire in a preserving kettle that has a
smooth surface. Stir until the sugar is dissolved, and allow the mixture
to come to a rapid boil. To the rapidly boiling sirup, add the
strawberries by dropping them carefully into it. Allow the fruit to
come to the boiling point in the sirup, and continue to boil for 10 or
12 minutes. If the berries seem to contain an unusual amount of water,
boiling for 15 minutes may be necessary. Remove from the fire and fill
into hot sterilized glasses at once, or set aside to cool. It has been
found that if the preserves are allowed to stand in the kettle
overnight, they will improve in flavor and, because of the absorption of
oxygen, which they lose in boiling, they will increase in size. If the
preserves are treated in this way, it will be necessary to pour them
cold into the sterilized glasses. When the preserves in the glasses are
cold, pour melted paraffin over them. Cover them with metal or paper
covers, label, and store for future use.

55. CHERRY PRESERVE.--If sour cherries can be secured, an excellent
preserve can be made of them. Cherries should, of courser be seeded, or
pitted, when they are prepared in this way.


2 qt. seeded sour cherries
1 c. hot water
1-1/2 lb. sugar

Drain off the superfluous juice from the cherries. Add the hot water to
the sugar in a preserving kettle, and allow the mixture to come to a
boil. Add the cherries and boil for 10 or 12 minutes. Have hot
sterilized jelly glasses ready and fill with the hot preserves. Allow
the preserves to cool, cover first with paraffin and then with metal or
paper covers, and label.

56. RASPBERRY PRESERVE.--Although red raspberries are a rather soft
fruit, they can be used very well for preserves if care is taken not to
break them into pieces by too long cooking or too rapid boiling.


2 qt. red raspberries
3/4 c. hot water
1 lb. sugar

Wash the raspberries by placing them in a colander and raising and
lowering them in a large pan of cold water. Mix the hot water with the
sugar in a preserving kettle, place the mixture over the fire and bring
to the boiling point. Add the raspberries to the boiling sirup, and when
they have come to the boiling point, cook for 8 to 10 minutes. Remove
the hot preserves from the fire and pour into hot sterilized jars. Allow
them to cool, seal with paraffin and metal or paper covers, and label.

57. PLUM PRESERVE.--A very rich, tart preserve can be made by cooking
plums in a thick sirup. Those who care for the flavor of plums will find
preserves of this kind very much to their taste.


2 qt. plums
1 c. hot water
1-1/2 lb. sugar

Select any variety of plums desired for preserves, and wash them in cold
water. Cut them in half and remove the seeds. Place the hot water and
the sugar in a preserving kettle, and bring to a rapid boil. Add the
plums and boil slowly for 15 minutes. Remove from the fire, pour into
hot sterilized jelly glasses. Allow them to cool and cover first with
paraffin and then with metal or paper covers. Before storing, label each
glass neatly.

58. QUINCE PRESERVE.--Quinces combined with apples make a preserve that
finds favor with many. As shown in the accompanying recipe, about
one-third as many apples as quinces make the required proportion.


3 qt. quinces, peeled and quartered
1 qt. apples, peeled and quartered
1-1/2 c. hot water
3 lb. sugar

Select well-ripened quinces. Rub the fuzz from the skin with a cloth,
and then wash, peel, quarter, and core. If desired, they may be sliced,
but they are very nice when preserved in quarters. Select firm apples,
wash, peel, quarter, and core them, and cut them the same size as the
quinces. Add the water to the sugar, place the mixture over the fire in
a preserving kettle, and let it come to a boil. Add the quinces, cook
until tender, and remove from the sirup. Then cook the apples in the
sirup in the same way, and when tender remove from the sirup. Place the
fruits in alternate layers in hot jars. Unless the sirup is very thick,
boil it until it becomes heavy; then fill each jarful of fruit with this
sirup. Seal with paraffin, cover with metal or paper covers, and label.

59. PEACH PRESERVE.--Although somewhat bland in flavor, peaches make an
excellent preserve. Some persons prefer them cut into very small slices,
while others like them preserved in large slices.


4 qt. peaches
1-1/2 c. hot water
3 lb. sugar

Select firm peaches. Wash, pare, and cut into slices of any desirable
size. Add the water to the sugar in a preserving kettle, place over the
fire, and allow the mixture to come to a rapid boil. Drop the sliced
peaches into the sirup and cook until tender. Have hot sterilized jars
ready, fill with the hot preserves, and seal with paraffin. Cover in the
desired way and label.


60. CONSERVES do not differ materially from preserves in their
preparation, but they usually consist of a mixture of two or more
fruits, whereas preserves are made from a single fruit. All rules that
govern the making of preserves apply equally well to the making of

There are certain fruits that combine very well as far as flavor, color,
etc. are concerned, and these are generally used together in the
preparation of this food. However, almost any combination of fruits may
be made into conserves. This is therefore a very good way in which to
utilize small quantities of left-over fruits. Then, too, a cheap
material may be combined with a more expensive one to make a larger
quantity of a moderately priced product, as, for instance, rhubarb and
pineapple. Again, the pulp from which juice has been extracted for jelly
may be used to make conserve. In fact, a little ingenuity on the part of
the housewife and familiarity with general preserving methods will
enable her to make many kinds of excellent conserves, even though she
may not have a definite rule or recipe to cover the use of the
particular material that happens to be on hand.

61. STRAWBERRY-AND-PINEAPPLE CONSERVE.--The combination of strawberries
and pineapple is an excellent one. The accompanying recipe shows how to
combine these fruits to make a most appetizing conserve.


2 qt. strawberries
1 large pineapple
1 c. hot water
2-1/2 lb. sugar

Prepare the strawberries as for canning. Peel and slice the pineapple,
remove the eyes, and cut into small pieces. Add the water to the sugar
in a preserving kettle, and allow it to come to a boil. Drop the pieces
of pineapple into the sirup and cook them until they are tender. To this
add the strawberries and cook for 5 or 10 minutes longer. The conserve
should then be sufficiently cooked to put into the jars. If the juice
seems too thin, fill the jars, which should be hot sterilized ones,
about three-fourths full of the fruit, and then return the sirup to the
heat and boil it until it is the right consistency. Remove the boiling
sirup from the stove, and pour it over the fruit in the jars until they
are full. Allow the conserve to cool, and then seal, first with paraffin
and then with metal or paper covers. Label each glass and set away for
future use.

62. STRAWBERRY-AND-RHUBARB CONSERVE.--Rhubarb combines very well with
either strawberries or pineapple. The accompanying recipe is for
strawberries and rhubarb, but if pineapple is desired, it may be
substituted for the strawberries in the same quantity.


2 qt. strawberries
1-1/2 qt. rhubarb
1-1/2 c. hot water
3 lb. sugar

Prepare the strawberries as for canning. Cut the rhubarb, which should
be very tender, into cubes without removing the skin. Add the water to
the sugar, and bring to a rapid boil in a preserving kettle. Put the
rhubarb and strawberries into this sirup, and cook for at least 15
minutes. Pour into hot sterilized glasses, and when cool seal in the
usual way. Label and store.

63. PINEAPPLE-AND-APRICOT CONSERVE.--No more delicious conserve can be
made than pineapple-and-apricot conserve. The tartness of the apricots
gives a flavor that is pleasing to most persons.


2 qt. apricots
1 large pineapple
1 c. hot water
2-1/2 lb. sugar

Wash the apricots, plunge them into boiling water to remove the skins,
and then cut into quarters. Peel and slice the pineapple, remove the
eyes, and cut into cubes. Add the water to the sugar in a preserving
kettle, and bring to the boiling point. Add the pineapple to the sirup,
and cook until tender. Then drop in the apricots and boil several
minutes longer. Have hot sterilized glasses ready, fill them with the
conserve, and when cool seal in the usual way. Before putting the
glasses away, label each one neatly.

64. CRAB-APPLE-AND-ORANGE CONSERVE.--It is a good idea to make
crab-apple-and-orange conserve at the same time that crab-apple jelly is
made, for the pulp that remains after extracting the juice may be
utilized for the conserve. However, if it is desired to make it at some
other time, fresh pulp can be prepared for the purpose.


1 qt. crab-apple pulp
3 lb. sugar
8 oranges

To the crab-apple pulp, add the sugar, and place over the fire to boil.
Peel the oranges, scoop out the white portion from the peelings, cut the
peelings into thin strips, and add to the crab-apple pulp. Remove the
pulp of the orange from the skins and from between the sections, cut it
into small pieces, and add to the boiling mixture a few minutes before
it is removed from the stove. When it has cooked thick, pour into hot
sterilized glasses. Cool and then seal and label.

65. PLUM CONSERVE.--A rather unusual conserve is made by combining
raisins and English walnut meats with plums. The accompanying recipe
gives directions for the preparation of this conserve.


4 qt. plums
1 c. hot water
2 lb. sugar
1 lb. raisins
2 c. English walnut meats

Wash the plums, cut them in half, and remove the seeds. Add the water to
the sugar, place over the fire in a preserving kettle, and stir until
the mixture comes to a rapid boil. Wash the raisins, which should be
seeded, add them with the plums to the sirup, and cook until the mixture
is the consistency of jelly. Just before removing from the stove, add
the nut meats. Pour the mixture into hot sterilized glasses, cool, seal,
and label. If very sour plums are used, increase the amount of sugar.

66. CHERRY-AND-PINEAPPLE CONSERVE.--Cherries combine very well with
pineapple in a conserve. Sweet cherries should, if possible, be used for
this purpose.


2 qt. sweet cherries
1 pineapple
2 lb. sugar
1 c. hot water

Wash, stem, and seed the cherries. Slice and peel the pineapple and
remove the eyes. Put the sugar and water over the fire in a preserving
kettle, and stir until the sirup comes to the boiling point. To this
sirup add the pineapple and the cherries and cook until the juice is
very thick. Pour into hot sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.

67. RED-RASPBERRY-AND-CURRANT CONSERVE.--A conserve having a very
attractive color and a most appetizing flavor is made by combining red
raspberries with red currants.


3 qt. red raspberries
1 qt. red currants
1 c. hot water
2-1/2 lb. sugar

Look the raspberries over carefully, and remove any that show signs of
spoiling. Wash the currants and stem them. Add the water to the sugar
and put the mixture over the fire to boil. Add the currants to this, and
stir until the mixture comes to the boiling point. Boil for several
minutes, or until the mixture begins to thicken, and then add the red
raspberries. Continue to boil for 2 or 3 minutes longer. Pour into hot
sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.

68. CARROT CONSERVE.--Conserve made from carrots will be found to be
surprisingly delicious, and it has the added advantage of being


1-1/2 qt. cooked cut carrots
Rind of 2 lemons
5 c. sugar
2 c. hot water
Juice of 3 lemons

Boil the carrots until tender and chop or put through a grinder with the
lemon rind. Then mix with the sugar, water, and lemon juice, and boil
for about 1/2 hour or until thick. Put into hot sterilized glasses,
cool, seal, and label.


69. MARMALADES are a form of preserves that differ from the other
varieties more in the nature of the fruit used than in any other
respect. For marmalades, large fruits are generally used, and, as a
rule, the fruits are left in sections or in comparatively large pieces.
The preparation of this food, however, differs in no way from preserves
proper and conserves, the processes of cooking, sealing, storing, etc.
being practically the same.

70. ORANGE MARMALADE.--Oranges combined with half as many lemons make a
marmalade that most persons like. In fact, orange marmalade is probably
made more often than any other kind.


12 oranges
6 lemons
1-1/2 qt. hot water
5 lb. sugar

Peel the oranges and the lemons in the same way an apple would be
peeled, inserting the knife deep enough to cut through the skin covering
the sections. Remove the contents of the sections and squeeze out any
juice that may remain in the thin skin. Remove the white material from
the inside of the peeling, and cut the yellow portion that remains into
thin strips. Add the water to the skins and simmer slowly for 1 hour. At
the end of this time, add the sugar and the orange and the lemon pulp,
and boil until the mixture is thick. Pour into hot, sterilized glasses,
cool, and then seal and label.

71. ORANGE-AND-RHUBARB MARMALADE.--If a somewhat different flavor is
desired in a marmalade, rhubarb instead of lemons may be used with
oranges, as shown in the accompanying recipe.


8 oranges
1 qt. hot water
4 lb. sugar
3 qt. rhubarb cut into pieces

Prepare the oranges as for orange marmalade. Slowly cook the yellow part
of the skin in 1 quart of water for 1/2 hour. To this add the sugar and
the rhubarb, and cook slowly until it is quite thick. Stir in the orange
pulp and cook until the mixture is again thick. Pour into hot sterilized
glasses, cool, seal, and label.

72. QUINCE MARMALADE.--Quinces cut into quarters, cooked, and then
forced through a sieve make an exceptionally good marmalade, so far as
both flavor and color are concerned. No other fruit need be used with
the quinces, as they have enough flavor in themselves.


4 qt. quartered quinces
1 qt. hot water
4 lb. sugar

Wipe the fuzz from the quinces, wash, quarter, and remove the cores, but
do not peel. Put over the fire in a preserving kettle with the water.
Cook until the quinces are soft, remove from the fire, and mash through
a sieve. Add the sugar to the quince pulp, replace on the fire, and
cook until the mixture is thick, stirring constantly to prevent burning.
Pour into hot sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.

73. GRAPE MARMALADE.--The pulp and skins of grapes are especially
satisfactory for marmalade. In fact, most persons who are fond of grapes
find marmalade of this kind very appetizing.


4 qt. stemmed grapes
2 c. hot water
3 lb. sugar

Separate the pulp of the grapes from the skins, put it into a preserving
kettle with the water, and heat to the boiling point. Cook slowly until
the seeds can be separated from the pulp, and then remove the seeds by
pressing the pulp through a sieve. Return to the preserving kettle with
the grape skins. Add the sugar, and cook the mixture slowly until it is
thick, stirring constantly to prevent scorching. Care must be taken not
to cook it too long, as the marmalade becomes quite stiff. Pour into
hot, sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.

74. ORANGE-AND-PINEAPPLE MARMALADE.--No better combination can be
secured than oranges and pineapple. To make marmalade, both fruits are
cut into small pieces and then cooked in a thick sirup.


8 oranges
2 c. hot water
2 pineapples
4 lb. sugar

Wash the oranges, cut skins and all into small pieces, remove the seeds,
and boil slowly in the water until the skins are soft. Prepare the
pineapples by peeling them, removing the eyes, and then shredding or
cutting into very small pieces. Add the pineapple to the orange, stir in
sugar, and continue to boil until the juice is at the jelly stage. Pour
into hot sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.


75. JAM is similar to preserves, except that the fruit used is made into
a pulp before it is cooked with the sugar or after a part of the cooking
is done. As a rule, only whole small fruits are used for jams, but the
larger fruits can be utilized for this purpose by being cut fine and
made into a pulp. When small fruits are used, part or all of the seeds
are sometimes removed, but generally the seeds are allowed to remain if
they are not too large. Jam is made thick by long boiling, and when done
is usually quite smooth. A precaution, however, that should always be
taken is not to cook it too long, for jam is very unappetizing if it is
too thick.

Fruit may be purchased purposely for jam, but for the most part, this
form of preserve is made of imperfect or very ripe fruits that are not
suitable for canning, preserves, and other processes that require almost
perfect fruit. If this point is kept in mind, it will be possible,
during the canning season, to make into a delicious jam fruit that would
otherwise be wasted.

76. STRAWBERRY JAM.--As strawberries have very small seeds, this fruit
makes an excellent jam.


4 qt. strawberries
2 lb. sugar

Wash and hull the strawberries. Then mash them in a preserving kettle
and add the sugar to them. Place over the fire, and boil slowly until
the mixture becomes thick, stirring frequently to prevent the jam from
sticking to the kettle and scorching. When the jam is cooked to the
proper consistency, the juice should test as for jelly. Pour the mixture
into hot sterilized glasses, cool, and then seal and label.

77. RASPBERRY JAM.--Both red and black raspberries are much used for
jam. Some persons like to remove the seeds from raspberry jam, but as
very little pulp remains after the seeds are taken out, this plan is not


4 qt. raspberries
2 lb. sugar

Look over the raspberries carefully and then wash. Put them into a
preserving kettle with the sugar. Heat to the boiling point, and cook
slowly for a few minutes. Then mash the berries to a pulp, and continue
to cook until the mixture thickens and the juice tests as for jelly.
Pour into hot sterilized jars, cool, seal, and label.

78. GREEN-GAGE JAM.--Green gages make a smooth, tart jam that appeals to
most persons. The seeds of the plums are, of course, removed, but the
skins are allowed to remain in the jam.


4 qt. green-gage plums
4 lb. sugar
1-1/2 c. hot water

Wash the plums, cut them in half, and remove the seeds, but not the
skins. Dissolve the sugar in the water over the fire, and when it comes
to the boiling point, add the plums. Cook slowly until the plums are
mushy and the entire mixture is thick. Pour into sterilized glasses,
cool, seal, and label. If sweet plums are used, decrease the quantity
of sugar.

79. GOOSEBERRY JAM.--When gooseberries are well ripened, they make very
good jam. As this fruit is rather tart, considerable sugar must be used
if a sweet jam is desired.


4 qt. gooseberries
3 lb. sugar

Remove the stems and blossom ends from the gooseberries and wash
thoroughly. Add the sugar to the berries in a preserving kettle. Bring
to a rapid boil, cook for a few minutes, and then mash the berries to a
pulp. Cook until the mixture thickens and tests as for jelly. Pour into
hot sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.

80. BLACKBERRY JAM.--Probably no jam is so well liked as that made from
blackberries. Some varieties of these are large in size and contain
considerable pulp in proportion to seeds. These are especially
suitable for jam.


4 qt. blackberries
1/2 c. hot water
2 lb. sugar

Wash the berries thoroughly, and put them over the fire with the water.
Bring to the boiling point, and boil slowly for a few minutes. Then mash
the berries, add the sugar, and cook the mixture until, when tested, it
is of a jelly-like consistency. Pour into hot, sterilized glasses, cool,
and label.


81. FRUIT BUTTERS are a form of preserves similar to jams, and are used
in the place of preserves, jams, conserves, or marmalades. The fruit
used for this purpose, which may be either large or small, is usually
very ripe and somewhat soft. Therefore, as in the case of jams,
imperfect fruits that are not suitable for other purposes can be used
very well for butters.

Butters made from fruits differ from jams in that both the skins and
seeds are always removed. The completed mixture is smooth and thick,
having been made thick by long boiling and evaporation, rather than by
the addition of large quantities of sugar. In fact, less sugar is used
for butters proportionately than for any other preserved fruit. Spices
are generally used in butters, so that the mixture is very
highly flavored.

To prevent butters from scorching, they should be stirred constantly for
a long period of time. This stirring becomes very tiresome, but it
should not be stopped or the mixture is certain to scorch. If they are
properly cooked, butters keep well with very little care in storage.
Crocks are generally used for the storage of butters, but glasses or
jars may be substituted.

82. APPLE BUTTER.--Apples are very often made into butter, but for this
purpose sour apples that will cook soft should be selected. If the
procedure explained in the accompanying recipe is followed, very good
results may be expected.


4 qt. apples
8 qt. cider
1 lb. sugar
3 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. allspice

Peel the apples and quarter them. Boil the cider until it is reduced
half. Add the apples to the cider, and cook slowly for about 3 hours, or
until they are mushy, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon to prevent
the apples from sticking to the bottom of the kettle. At the end of this
time, the mixture should be thick and smooth and dark in color. If it
gets too thick, more cider can be added. About 1 hour before the cooking
is completed, add the sugar and the spices. Even greater care must be
exercised from this time on to prevent scorching. If, after cooking 3
hours, the mixture is not sufficiently thick, continue to cook until
more of the moisture is evaporated. Have hot sterilized glasses or
crocks ready, fill them with the butter, cool, and seal.

83. PEACH BUTTER.--Peaches are especially satisfactory when made into
butter. This fruit does not require such long cooking as apples, as will
be seen in the accompanying recipe.


4 qt. peaches
1 c. hot water
1 lb. sugar
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. cloves


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