Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 5
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences
Part 5 out of 8
The main point to consider in the preparation of all cream candies is
that crystallization of the sugar, which is commonly called _graining_,
must be prevented if a creamy mixture is to be the result. Candies of
this kind are not palatable unless they are soft and creamy. However, no
difficulty will be experienced in preparing delicious cream candies if
the principles of candy making previously given are applied.
FUDGES AND RELATED CANDIES
92. FUDGE NO. 1.--Probably no other candy is so well known and so often
made as fudge. Even persons little experienced in candy making have
success with candy of this kind. Another advantage of fudge is that it
can be made up quickly, very little time being required in its
preparation. Several varieties of fudge may be made, the one given in
the accompanying recipe being a chocolate fudge containing a small
quantity of corn starch.
FUDGE No. 1
3 c. sugar
1-1/4 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
Pinch of salt
2 sq. chocolate
1 Tb. corn starch
3 Tb. water
1 tsp. vanilla
Mix the sugar, milk, butter, and salt and boil until a very soft ball
will form in water. Then add the chocolate and the corn starch, which
has been moistened with the cold water. Boil to a temperature of 236
degrees or until a ball that will hold together well and may be handled
is formed in cold water. Remove from the fire and allow the mixture to
cool until there is practically no heat in it. Add the vanilla, beat
until thick, pour into a buttered pan, cut into squares, and serve.
93. FUDGE NO. 2.--A fudge containing corn sirup is liked by many
persons. It has a slightly different flavor from the other variety of
fudge, but is just as creamy if the directions are carefully followed.
FUDGE No. 2
3/4 c. milk
2 c. sugar
1/4 c. corn sirup
2 Tb. butter
Pinch of salt
2 sq. chocolate
1 tsp. vanilla
Cook the milk, sugar, corn sirup, butter, and salt until the mixture
will form a very soft ball when tried in water. Add the chocolate and
cook again until a soft ball that can be handled will form or the
thermometer registers 236 degrees. Remove from the fire, cool without
stirring until entirely cold, and then add the vanilla. Beat until
creamy, pour into buttered pans, cut into squares, and serve.
94. TWO LAYER FUDGE.--A very attractive as well as delicious fudge can
be had by making it in two layers, one white and one dark. The dark
layer contains chocolate while the white one is the same mixture, with
the exception of the chocolate. The layers may be arranged with either
the white or the dark layer on top, as preferred.
4 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. milk
6 Tb. corn sirup
2 Tb. butter
Pinch of salt
2 sq. chocolate
1 tsp. vanilla
Mix the sugar, milk, corn sirup, butter, and salt, and cook until a very
soft ball will form. Transfer half of the mixture to another pan and add
to it the chocolate, which has been melted. Boil each mixture until it
tests 238 degrees with the thermometer or a soft ball that can be
handled well will form in cold water. Upon removing it from the fire,
add the vanilla, putting half into each mixture. Set aside to cool and
when all the heat is gone, beat one of the mixtures until it becomes
creamy and pour it into a buttered pan. Then beat the other one and
pour it over the first. Cut into squares and serve.
95. BROWN-SUGAR FUDGE.--Fudge in which brown sugar is used for the
largest part of the sweetening is explained in the accompanying recipe.
Peanuts are added, but if desired nuts of any other kind may be used.
2 c. brown sugar
1 c. white sugar
1 c. milk
1 Tb. butter
1 tsp. vanilla
3/4 c. chopped peanuts
Mix the sugar, milk, and butter and boil until a soft ball will form in
cold water or a temperature of 238 degrees is reached on the
thermometer. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla, and cool until the
heat is out of the mixture. Beat, and when the candy begins to grow
creamy, add the chopped nuts. When sufficiently thick, pour into a
buttered pan, cut, and serve.
96. MAPLE PENUCHIE.--Almost any kind of maple candy finds favor with the
majority of persons, but maple penuchie is especially well liked. Nuts
and coconut are used in it, and these improve the flavor very much.
3 c. maple sirup
1/4 tsp. soda
1 c. milk
Few grains of salt
1 tsp. vanilla
1/2 c. chopped nuts
1/2 c. shredded coconut
Into the maple sirup, stir the soda, and add the milk and salt. Place
over the fire and boil until a soft ball that can be easily handled will
form in cold water or a temperature of 238 degrees is reached on the
thermometer. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla, and allow the
mixture to become entirely cold. Beat, and when it begins to get thick,
add the nuts and coconut. Continue beating until the candy grows stiff
but can be poured out. Pour in a buttered pan, cut, and serve.
97. DIVINITY.--An excellent confection known as divinity can be made
with very little difficulty if the accompanying recipe is carefully
followed. Nuts and raisins are used in this confection, but if desired
they may be omitted. As divinity is dropped from a spoon on oiled paper,
care should be taken not to boil the mixture too long, or it will be
necessary to work very rapidly in order to drop all of it before it
becomes too dry.
1/3 c. corn sirup
1/2 c. water
2 c. sugar
1 egg white
1 tsp. vanilla
1/4 c. nuts
1/4 c. raisins
Boil the sirup, water, and sugar together until a fairly hard ball will
form in cold water or the mixture registers 240 degrees on the
thermometer, which is a trifle harder than the fudge mixture. Beat the
egg white until it is stiff but not dry. Over this pour the hot mixture
a drop at a time until it can be added faster without cooking the egg
white. Beat rapidly until all the sirup is added, stir in the vanilla,
and when fairly stiff add the nuts and raisins. Continue beating until
the mixture will stand alone, and then drop by spoonfuls on oiled paper
or a buttered surface. When dry enough to handle, divinity may
98. SEA FOAM.--Another candy in which a cooked sirup is poured over
beaten egg white is known as sea foam. Candies of this kind should be
served at once, for they are apt to become dry and hard if they are
allowed to stand.
2 c. light-brown sugar
1/2 c. water
Pinch of salt
1 egg white
1 tsp. vanilla
Boil the sugar, water, and salt until a fairly hard ball will form or
the thermometer registers 240 degrees. Beat the egg white stiff, but not
dry. Pour the hot sirup over the egg white, a drop at a time at first,
and then as fast as possible without cooking the egg white. Add the
vanilla and continue beating the mixture until it will stand alone. Drop
by spoonfuls on a buttered surface or oiled paper. When sufficiently
dry, remove from the surface and serve.
FONDANT AND RELATED CREAMS
99. NATURE OF FONDANT.--Fondant is the foundation cream out of which
bonbons and various other fancy candies are made. It is also used for
stuffing dates, taking the place of the pit. While it is not so
desirable for the centers of chocolate creams as for most of the other
candies for which it is used, it can, of course, be coated with
chocolate if desired. Some persons have an idea that fondant and related
candies are difficult to make, but if directions are followed
carefully this will not be the case.
[Illustration: FIG. 5]
100. In the first place, it should be remembered that the weather is an
important factor in the success of candy of this kind. A clear, cold day
should be selected, for it is difficult to make fondant successfully on
a warm or a damp day. Then, too, it is an excellent plan to make more
than can be used at one time, for no greater labor will be involved in
the making of a large amount than a small amount and better results may
be expected. If the fondant material is cared for properly, small
quantities of it may be made up as desired. Therefore, if convenient
equipment is on hand for making candies of this type, no less than 2-1/2
pounds should be made at one time. Five pounds is a preferable amount,
but, if desired, 10 pounds may be made up at one time, although this
amount is about as much as one person can handle and even this is
somewhat difficult for some to work up.
[Illustration: FIG. 6]
A little ingenuity on the part of the person making up the fondant will
result in many delightful bonbons. Candied fruits, nuts, coconut, and
numerous varieties of flavoring and coloring may be utilized very
successfully with fondant. It should be remembered, however, that
bonbons do not keep fresh for more than a few days or a week at the most
if they are exposed to the air. If it is desired to keep them for any
length of time, they should be packed in a tin box, but when stored in
this way, different colors should not be placed next to each other or
they will mix.
101. FONDANT.--As will be noted, the accompanying recipe for fondant
calls for 5 pounds of sugar. It is not necessary that all of the fondant
be worked up at once. Indeed, it is suggested that this amount be
prepared and then stored so that the fondant may be used as needed. If a
smaller amount should be desired, half of each ingredient may be used.
5 lb. sugar
1 qt. water
6 drops acetic acid or 1/4 tsp. cream tartar
Mix the sugar, water, and acetic acid or cream of tartar. Place over the
fire and, as in Fig. 5, stir until the sugar is dissolved. Just before
the mixture begins to boil, wash down the sides of the kettle with a wet
cloth, as shown in Fig. 6. Then place a lid over the kettle and cook
until almost ready to test. Remove the cover and, as in Fig. 7, insert a
thermometer, which should register 238 degrees. If the fondant is to be
stored for some time, it may be boiled to 240 degrees, but for general
use a mixture that reaches a temperature of 238 degrees will be the most
satisfactory. If the water test is applied, as in Fig. 8, the mixture
should form a firm ball that can be easily held in the fingers. Just
before the boiling is completed, cool a large platter or a slab and
moisten it by wetting it with a damp cloth.
[Illustration: FIG. 7]
No time should intervene between the end of the boiling and the removal
of the sirup from the stove, for every second that the sirup is allowed
to stand over the hot burner before it is poured out will raise the
temperature. Pour quickly on the platter, as in Fig. 9, and do not allow
it to drip. If some sirup is left in the pan, utilize it for something
else, rather than allow it to drop on the surface of the candy in the
platter or slab. It is at this point that crystallization begins, and
the fondant, instead of being creamy, will become grainy. Cool as
quickly as possible, so as to lessen the chances for crystallization to
begin, and do not disturb the sirup in any way during the cooling. The
best way in which to accomplish this is to put the platter in a cool
place and make it perfectly level before the sirup is poured into it.
[Illustration: FIG. 8]
[Illustration: FIG. 9]
When the mixture has cooled to the extent that it no longer retains any
heat, it is ready to be stirred. As already explained, a putty knife or
a wallpaper scraper is the most satisfactory utensil to use for this
purpose, especially if a large batch is being made. However, a small
batch may be stirred very successfully with a case knife. With whatever
utensil is selected, scrape the fondant up into a heap, and then, as in
Fig. 10, start the working. See that all parts are worked alike.
Continue the operation, occasionally scraping off the knife or the
paddle used. The first indication of the creaming stage will be a cloudy
look in the mixture and a slight thinning of it, so that the work will
be easier for a few minutes. It will then gradually begin to harden, and
when the end of the work is reached the hardening will progress rapidly.
At this stage, try to get the mass together, see that no loose fragments
cling to the platter, and pile all into a heap. By the time the working
is completed, the candy will be rather hard and will look as if it can
never be worked into a soft, creamy candy. It will become soft, however,
by the proper treatment.
[Illustration: FIG. 10]
[Illustration: FIG. 11]
Wring a clean towel or napkin out of cold water, and, as in Fig. 11,
place it tightly over the mass of fondant and tuck it in securely around
the edges. Allow the candy to stand for an hour in this way. At the end
of this time it will be sufficiently moist to work in any desired way.
With a knife or a scraper, break it off into pieces of a size that can
be handled well at one time and work each one of these soft by squeezing
it in the manner shown in Fig. 12. When all of the pieces have been
worked soft, pack them into a bowl and continue working until all the
fondant has been worked together and is soft. Over the top of the bowl,
as shown in Fig. 13, place a damp cloth and cover this with a plate or
an earthen cover. Set away in some place where it will remain cool, but
will not become too moist, until it is desired for further use.
[Illustration: FIG. 12]
The four recipes that follow show how fondant can be made up into
attractive as well as delicious confections. They will doubtless give
the housewife other ideas as to ways of preparing candies from this
102. BONBONS.--In a broad sense, bonbons mean candy or confections in
general, but it is also the name of candies made out of colored and
flavored fondant. Sometimes they are made small and dainty and are
decorated with a nut meat or a piece of maraschino or candied cherry or
candied pineapple. Again, centers may be made that contain coconut,
nuts, figs, dates, raisins, etc., and these then dipped in some of the
fondant that has been colored, flavored, and melted.
[Illustration: FIG. 13]
103. When bonbons are to be made, remove fondant in pieces from the
utensil in which it has been stored. Work it with the hands as it was
worked when put away and add the desired coloring and flavoring at this
time. If simple bonbons are to be made, form the colored and flavored
fondant into tiny balls, place them on oiled paper, and press a nut or a
piece of maraschino or candied cherry or candied pineapple on top.
104. To make more elaborate bonbons, form, as in Fig. 14, small round
centers out of the fondant to which have been added such materials as
dates, figs, raisins, nuts, or coconut, or any combination of these.
Only enough fondant should be used to make the other materials stick
together. Then, in a double boiler, color, flavor, and melt some of the
fondant and, with a coating or other fork, drop the centers into this
melted cream. When thoroughly coated, remove, and place on waxed paper.
While warm, a piece of nut or candied fruit may be placed on the top of
each one. If it is desired not to use fondant in the centers, the nuts
or candied fruits themselves may be dipped into the melted bonbon cream
and then placed on waxed paper to harden.
[Illustration: FIG. 14] [Illustration: FIG. 15]
105. RECEPTION WAFERS.--Thin wafers made of fondant are a confection
much used at parties, receptions, and similar social gatherings. One
variety of these is colored pink and flavored with wintergreen, while
another is flavored with peppermint and not colored in any way. Other
colors and flavors may also be made if desired, but the usual kinds are
the pink and white ones.
Divide the mass of fondant to be used into two parts and color one of
these a pale pink. Flavor the pink mass with wintergreen and the white
one with peppermint. Put one of these in a double boiler and allow it to
melt until it is soft enough to pour. Then, as in Fig. 15, with a
dessert spoon or a tablespoon, drop the melted fondant on a smooth
surface in sufficient amounts to make wafers about the size of a
quarter. Drop quickly and as accurately as possible so that the wafers
will be the same size and shape. Allow them to stand until cold and set.
Sometimes it will be found that two wafers can be dropped from the same
spoonful before the material becomes too cold to pour, but usually it is
necessary to dip a fresh spoonful for each wafer. As the fondant hardens
on the back of the spoon it should be scraped off and put back into the
double boiler. A comparatively small amount of fondant should be melted
at one time in order to provide against its becoming sugary, but if it
shows any signs of this condition the double boiler should be emptied
and thoroughly cleaned before more of the fondant is melted in it.
106. RAINBOW DELIGHT.--An especially attractive candy that has fondant
for its foundation is rainbow delight. As may be inferred from its name,
candy of this kind is in several colors.
To make rainbow delight, divide fondant into three parts. Flavor one
with vanilla and to it add chopped nuts. Flavor the second with
strawberry, color it pink, and, if desired, add shredded coconut. To the
third, add melted bitter chocolate until it is as dark as preferred.
Line a small bread pan or a box as smoothly as possible with waxed
paper, place the white fondant in the bottom, and press it down into a
layer. Over this put the chocolate fondant, press this into a layer, and
on top of it place the pink candy. After making the mass smooth and
even, allow it to remain where it will be cold until it is set. Then
remove it from the pan or box by turning it out on a surface that has
been slightly dusted with confectioner's sugar. Have coating chocolate
melted and cover the surface of three sides of the candy with a thick
layer of the chocolate. If, when the chocolate becomes dry and hard, it
seems a little thin, give it a second coating.
When it is entirely cold, turn the candy over and coat the remaining
side. To serve, cut into slices and cut each slice into pieces.
107. TUTTI-FRUTTI ROLLS.--Another very good candy that can be made from
fondant is tutti-frutti roll. Secure nuts, cherries, candied pineapple,
and citron, chop them fine, and to them add shredded coconut. Work these
in any quantity desired into the fondant until all are worked through
evenly and then flavor with vanilla. Shape the mass into a roll and let
it stand until it is well set. Then coat it with coating chocolate. When
it has become cold, turn it over and coat the bottom. To serve
tutti-frutti roll, cut it into slices.
108. OPERA CREAM.--No more delicious cream candy can be made than that
known as opera cream. This may be colored and flavored in many different
ways or made up in various forms. When chocolate is added to it, a
better fudge than the ordinary kinds is the result. Sufficient time
should be allowed for the making of opera cream, for it is necessary
that this candy stand for several hours before it is worked up.
4 c. sugar
1/8 tsp. cream of tartar
2 Tb. corn sirup
1 pt. thin cream
Mix the sugar and the cream of tartar, add the sirup and cream, and cook
over a hot fire. Watch closely to see whether the cream looks as if it
might curd, and if it does, beat rapidly with a rotary beater. Do not
stir after the boiling has begun unless it is necessary to keep the
mixture from sticking to the pan. Boil until a very hard ball will form
in water or until it registers 240 degrees on the thermometer. Moisten a
large, flat platter or a marble slab, pour the mixture on it, and allow
it to remain until it is entirely cool, disturbing it in no way during
this cooling. When cool, work up with a putty knife or a similar utensil
in the same manner as for fondant until it becomes hard and creamy.
Place all in a heap in the center of the slab or platter and cover
closely with a damp cloth, a clean towel being desirable for this
purpose. Allow it to stand for about 2 hours, and then work it with the
hands, being careful to remove any lumps that it might contain.
The cream is now ready to be worked up in any desirable way. Divide it
into small batches, and then flavor and color it or work melted
chocolate into it. Press it into a layer about 1 inch thick in a shallow
box lined with waxed paper or a pan that has been buttered, cut it into
squares, and allow it to stand for a few hours. Then remove and serve.
109. CENTER CREAM.--An excellent cream candy for the centers of
chocolates is given in the accompanying recipe. As molds are necessary
in its preparation, it is more difficult to make than fondant, but
success can be had with this as well as with other candies.
The cream used for these centers may be colored and flavored in any
desirable way. It is somewhat firm while being handled, but will be
found to soften after it has been made up and coated. It can be handled
better if it is made 3 or 4 days before it is desired for use. As will
be noted, the recipe is given in a fairly large quantity, for it is
preferable to make a good-sized amount of the cream at a time; but it
need not all be used up at once.
8 c. sugar
2 c. glucose or corn sirup
3 c. water
Mix the sugar, glucose or corn sirup, and water and proceed in the same
way as for fondant. Boil until the thermometer registers 234 or 236
degrees or a ball that is not quite so firm as for fondant will form in
cold water. Pour on a moistened platter or slab to cool. Then cream in
the same manner as for fondant, but allow more time for this part of the
work, as the glucose does not cream rapidly. Just before it hardens,
pour it into a crock or a bowl, place a damp cloth over the top of the
bowl, and put away for a couple of days.
110. The molds for shaping center creams are formed in a thick layer of
corn starch by means of a device that may be bought from a candy-making
supply house or made at home. This device consists of a long strip with
projections that may be pushed into the corn starch to make neatly
shaped holes, or molds. These projections are spaced about 1 inch apart,
so that the walls between the corn-starch molds will not fall down when
the center-cream mixture is poured into them. A long stick, such as a
ruler or a yardstick, and either corks of different sizes or plaster of
Paris may be employed to make such a device. If corks are to be used,
simply glue them to the stick, spacing them about 1 inch apart. If
plaster of Paris is to be used, fill small receptacles about the size
and shape of chocolate creams with a thin mixture of plaster of Paris
and water and allow it to set. When hard, remove the plaster-of-Paris
shapes and glue them to the stick, spacing them the same distance as
mentioned for the corks. The home-made device will answer the same
purpose as one that is bought, and is much less expensive.
111. When it is desired to make up the creams, sift corn starch into a
pan to form a thick layer, making it perfectly level on top with the
straight edge of a knife. Then make depressions, or molds, in the corn
starch by pressing into it the device just described. Make as many rows
of molds as the space will permit, but do not make them so close
together as to weaken the walls between the molds. Melt some of the
center cream in a double boiler, color and flavor as desired, and pour
into the molds made in the corn starch. Allow the centers to remain
until they become hard in the molds. Then pick them out, blow off the
corn starch, and set aside until ready to coat. Continue making centers
in this way until all the cream is used up, resifting the corn starch
and making new molds each time. Then coat with chocolate in the
112. ORIENTALS.--Delicious chocolate creams known as orientals can be
made by the amateur if a little care is exercised. It should be
remembered, however, that these cannot be made successfully on a damp
day and that it is somewhat difficult to make them in warm weather. A
clear, cold day is required for satisfactory results. Unlike fondant,
these creams must be made up at once, so it will be necessary to allow
sufficient time not only for the cooking and creaming processes, but
also for the making and coating as well. After being made up, however,
they should be allowed to stand for 3 or 4 days, as they, like many
other cream candies, improve upon standing.
Since these centers are very sweet, a slightly bitter chocolate is the
best kind with which to coat them. Confectioner's bitter-sweet chocolate
will be found to be the most satisfactory, but if this cannot be
procured, bitter chocolate may be mixed with sweet coating chocolate.
5 c. granulated sugar
2 c. water
1 tsp. glycerine
6 drops acetic acid
2 egg whites
Put the sugar, water, and glycerine over the fire and stir until the
sugar is dissolved. Wash down the sides of the kettle with a cloth, and
just as the mixture begins to boil, add the acetic acid. Place a cover
over the pan and allow the mixture to boil until a temperature of 238
degrees is reached on the thermometer or a firm ball that can be easily
held in the fingers will form. Pour out on a slab or a platter to cool,
and when perfectly cool begin to work it as for fondant, but first beat
the egg whites until they are stiff. As soon as the candy is collected
into a mass, pour the egg whites over it, as shown in Fig. 16. Continue
to work the candy until all of the egg white is worked in. Add the
vanilla during this process. If the mixture seems stiff and the eggs do
not work in, continue with a little patience, for they will eventually
combine with the candy. Because of the eggs, oriental cream is whiter
than bonbon cream, and so it is a little difficult to tell just when it
is beginning to get creamy. However, it softens a little as it begins to
set, just as fondant does. At this point work slowly, and as it hardens
get it into a mass in the center of the slab. When completely worked, it
will not be so hard as fondant. Make it up at once into small, round
centers, and as they are made place them on pieces of oiled paper to
become dry. Chopped nuts may be added to the filling if desired before
it is made up. As soon as it is possible to handle the centers, coat
them with chocolate in the usual way. Be careful to cover the entire
surface with chocolate, for otherwise the quality of the center will
deteriorate. A good plan is to wrap candies of this kind in waxed paper,
especially if they are to be packed in boxes, for then they will not be
so likely to crush.
[Illustration: FIG. 16]
113. UNCOOKED FONDANT.--A fairly satisfactory substitute for fondant
can be made by moistening confectioner's sugar with egg white or sweet
cream. A very fine sugar must be secured for this purpose or the candy
will be granular, and even then the result will not be so satisfactory
as in the case of cooked fondant properly made. Uncooked fondant, too,
is more limited in its uses than cooked fondant, for it cannot be melted
and used for bonbons.
Egg white or sweet cream
Roll and sift the sugar if it is lumpy, making it as fine as possible.
Beat the egg white just enough to break it up or pour into a bowl the
desired amount of sweet cream, remembering that very little liquid will
moisten considerable sugar. Add the sugar a little at a time, beating
all the while, until a sufficient amount has been used to make the
mixture dry enough to handle with the fingers. Then flavor and color in
any desired way and make up as if it were fondant.
114. STUFFED DATES.--Dates from which the seeds have been removed and
which have been filled with nuts or fondant or a combination of both are
a confection that meets with much favor. The uncooked fondant is
entirely satisfactory for this purpose, but if some of the other is on
hand it will make an especially fine confection. Regardless of what is
used for a filling, though, the preparation of such dates is the same.
First wash the dates in warm water and rinse them in cold water. Then,
if there is time, spread them out in a single layer on a cloth and let
them remain until they are entirely dry. Cut a slit in the side of each
one with a knife and remove the seed. If nuts, such as English walnuts,
are to be used for the filling, place half a nut meat in the cavity left
by the seed and press the date together over it. In case fondant and
nuts are to be used, chop the nuts and mix them with the fondant.
Coconut may be used in place of the nuts if desired or the fondant may
be used alone. Shape the fondant into tiny balls, press one tightly into
the cavity left by the seed, and close the date partly over the filling.
When all the dates have been stuffed, roll them in sugar, preferably
granulated, and serve.
115. SALTED NUTS.--Nuts to which salt has been added are an excellent
contrast to the sweet confections that have been described. At social
gatherings, luncheons, dinners, etc., they are often served in
connection with some variety of bonbon and many times they replace the
sweet confection entirely. Peanuts and almonds are the nuts generally
used for salting. If peanuts are to be salted, the unroasted ones should
be purchased and then treated in exactly the same way as almonds. Before
nuts are salted, they must first be browned, and this may be
accomplished in three different ways: on the top of the stove, in the
oven, and in deep fat. Preparing them in deep fat is the most
satisfactory method, for by it all the nuts reach the same degree of
116. First blanch the nuts by pouring boiling water over them and
allowing them to remain in the water until the skins can be removed;
then slip off the skins without breaking the nuts apart if possible.
Spread the nuts out on a towel to dry.
If the deep-fat method of browning them is to be followed, have in a
small saucepan or kettle a sufficient quantity of cooking fat or oil.
[Illustration: FIG. 17]
Allow it to become as hot as for frying doughnuts or croquettes, place
the nuts in a sieve, and fry them in the fat until they become a
delicate brown. Pour them out into a pan, sprinkle them with salt, cool,
To brown nuts on top of the stove, heat a heavy frying pan over a slow
fire and into it put a small amount of fat. Add the nuts and stir
constantly until they are browned as evenly as possible. This part of
the work requires considerable time, for the more slowly it is done the
less likely are the nuts to have burned spots. Salt the nuts before
removing them from the pan, turn them out into a dish, cool, and serve.
It is more difficult to brown nuts equally by the oven method, but
sometimes it is desired to prepare them in this way. Put the nuts with a
little fat into a pan and set the pan in a hot oven. Stir frequently
until they are well browned, salt, cool, and serve.
117. ORIENTAL DELIGHT.--An excellent confection that can be prepared
without cooking is known as oriental delight. It is composed of fruit,
nuts, and coconut, which are held together with egg white and powdered
sugar. When thoroughly set and cut into squares, oriental delight
appears as in Fig. 17.
1/2 lb. dates
1/2 lb. raisins
1/2 lb. pressed figs
1/2 c. shredded coconut
1/2 c. English walnuts
1 egg white
Wash all the fruits, put them together, and steam for about 15 minutes.
Then put these with the coconut and nuts through a food chopper or chop
them all in a bowl with a chopping knife. When the whole is reduced to a
pulpy mass, beat the egg white slightly, add sufficient sugar to make a
very soft paste, and mix with the fruit mixture. If it is very sticky,
continue to add powdered sugar and mix well until it is stiff enough to
pack in a layer in a pan. Press down tight and when it is set mark in
squares, remove from the pan, and serve as a confection.
118. MARSHMALLOWS.--To be able to make marshmallows successfully is the
desire of many persons. At first thought, this seems somewhat of a task,
but in reality it is a simple matter if the directions are carefully
followed. Upon being cut into squares, the marshmallows may be served
plain or they may be coated with chocolate or, after standing several
days, dipped into a warm caramel mixture.
8 tsp. gelatine
1-1/4 c. water
2 c. sugar
Few grains salt
1 tsp. vanilla
1/2 Tb. corn starch
Soak the gelatine in one-half of the water for 5 minutes. Cook the sugar
and the remaining water until it will spin a thread when dropped from a
spoon. Remove from the fire and add the gelatine. When partly cold, add
the salt and the flavoring. Beat with an egg whip, cooling the mixture
as rapidly as possible, until it is light and fluffy. When the mixture
is thick, add the corn starch slowly, working it in thoroughly. Then
pour out on a flat surface that is well dusted with confectioner's
sugar. Let stand in a cool place until thoroughly chilled. Cut in
squares by pressing the blade of a knife down through the mass, but do
not slide it along when cutting. Remove the pieces, dust on all sides
with powdered sugar, and serve.
119. NOUGAT.--The confection known as nougat consists usually of a paste
filled with chopped nuts. Both corn sirup and honey are used in the
preparation of this candy. Generally it is merely flavored with vanilla,
but if chocolate flavoring is preferred it may be added.
3 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. corn sirup
1/4 c. strained honey
1 c. water
2 egg whites
1 tsp. vanilla
2 c. nut meats
Put the sugar, corn sirup, honey, and water together and cook until a
temperature of 260 degrees is reached or a brittle ball will form in
water. Beat the egg whites stiff and pour the mass slowly into them,
beating constantly until the mixture grows stiff and waxy. Then add the
vanilla and nut meats. Mix well and pour into a small box or pan lined
with waxed paper. If chocolate is to be used for flavoring, add the
desired amount just before pouring the mixture into the pan. When it has
cooled sufficiently, cut in squares or slices.
120. CANDIED PEEL.--Another favorite confection and one that is much
used in connection with candies for social functions is candied orange,
lemon, and grapefruit peel. After being removed from the fruit, the peel
should be well scraped and then cut into thin strips. In this form, it
is ready to coat with sirup.
1/2 doz. lemons, oranges, or grapefruit
1/2 c. water
1 c. sugar
Remove the skin in quarters from the fruit, scrape off as much of the
white as possible, and cut each piece of skin into narrow strips. Put
these to cook in cold water, boil them until they may be easily pierced
with a fork, and then drain off the water. Add the water to the sugar
and cook until a thread will form when the sirup is dropped from a
spoon. Add the cooked peel to the sirup and cook for 5 to 10 minutes.
Drain and dredge in granulated sugar. Spread in a single layer to dry.
121. POP-CORN BALLS.--Pop corn in any form is always an attractive
confection, especially to young persons. It is often stuck together with
a sirup mixture and made into balls. In this form, it is an excellent
confection for the holiday season.
To make pop-corn balls, first shell the corn and pop it. Then make a
sirup with half as much water as sugar and cook it until it will spin a
thread. Have the pop corn in a large bowl and pour the sirup over it,
working quickly so that all the sirup can be used up while it is warm.
To form the balls, take up a large double handful and press firmly
together. If the sirup sticks to the hands, dip them into cold water so
as to moisten them somewhat before the next handful is taken up. Work in
this manner until all the corn is made into balls.
122. CRACKER JACK.--Another pop-corn confection that is liked by
practically every one is cracker jack. In this variety, pop corn and
peanuts are combined and a sirup made of molasses and sugar is used to
hold them together.
4 qt. popped corn
1 c. shelled, roasted peanuts
1 c. molasses
1/2 c. sugar
Put the popped corn and the peanuts together in a receptacle large
enough to hold them easily. Cook the molasses and the sugar until the
sirup spins a thread. Then pour this over the popped corn and peanuts
and mix well until it becomes cold and hard.
123. The best time to serve candy is when it will interfere least with
the digestion, and this is immediately after meals. A dish of candy
placed on the table with the dessert adds interest to any meal. It
should be passed immediately after the dessert is eaten.
Various kinds of bonbon dishes in which to serve candies are to be had,
some of them being very attractive. Those having a cover are intended
for candy that is to be left standing for a time, while open dishes
should be used for serving. Fig. 18 shows candy tastefully arranged on a
silver dish having a handle. Dishes made of glass or china answer the
purpose equally as well as silver ones, and if a bonbon dish is not in
supply a small plate will do very well. A paper or a linen doily on the
dish or plate adds to the attractiveness, as does also the manner in
which the candy is arranged.
[Illustration: FIG. 18: candies arranged on silver dish.]
* * * * *
(1) What are confections?
(2) Discuss the use of confections in the diet of children and adults.
(3) (_a_) What food substance is found in the largest proportion in
candy? (_b_) Are candies high or low in food value?
(4) Discuss briefly the kinds and qualities of sugar and their uses.
(5) What is the value of glucose in candy making?
(6) What kinds of flavorings are the most desirable?
(7) What care should be exercised in the use of colorings in candy?
(8) (_a_) What acids are used in candy making? (_b_) Why are these acids
(9) Of what value are milk, cream, and butter in the making of candy?
(10) What may be said of the selection of a pan for cooking candy?
(11) (_a_) What methods are used for testing candies? (_b_) Which of
these methods is the most accurate?
(12) (_a_) How should the mixture be poured out to cool when a creamy
candy is being made? (_b_) To what point should the sirup be cooled
before the stirring is begun?
(13) (_a_) How should chocolate be melted? (_b_) How should coating with
chocolate be done?
(14) How should waxed paper be cut for wrapping candies?
(15) Discuss the ingredients generally used for taffy.
(16) On what do good results in caramel making depend?
(17) What should be guarded against in the making of all cream candies?
(18) (_a_) What is fondant? (_b_) How may fondant be stored for future
(19) How should dates be prepared for stuffing?
(20) What is the best time for the serving of candy?
* * * * *
* * * * *
BEVERAGES IN THE DIET
NATURE AND CLASSES OF BEVERAGES
1. Throughout the lifetime of every person there is constant need for
solid food to preserve health and prolong life; and, just as such food
is necessary to satisfy the requirements of the body, so, too, is there
need for water. As is well known, the composition of the body is such
that it contains more liquid than solid material, the tissues and the
bones weighing much less than the liquid. A tremendous amount of this
liquid is continually being lost through the kidneys, through each pore
in the skin, and even through every breath that is exhaled, and if
continued good health is to be maintained this loss must be constantly
made up. This loss is greater in very hot weather or in the performance
of strenuous exercise than under ordinary conditions, which accounts for
the fact that more than the usual amount of liquid must be supplied
during such times. So necessary is liquid refreshment that the body
cannot exist without it for any great length of time. In fact, if the
supply were cut off so that no more could be obtained, the body would
begin to use its own fluids and death would soon occur. A person can
live for many days without solid food, but it is not possible to live
for more than a very few days without drink.
2. Nature's way of serving notice that the body is in need of liquid
refreshment is through the sensation of thirst. Satisfying thirst not
only brings relief, but produces a decidedly pleasant sensation;
however, the real pleasure of drinking is not experienced until one has
become actually thirsty.
The various liquids by which thirst may be slaked, or quenched, are
known as _beverages_. The first one of these given to man was water,
and it is still the chief beverage, for it is used both alone and as a
foundation for numerous other beverages that are calculated to be more
tasty, but whose use is liable in some cases to lead to excessive
drinking or to the partaking of substances that are injurious to health.
3. The beverages that are in common use may be placed in three general
classes: _alcoholic_, _stimulating_, and _non-stimulating_. The
alcoholic beverages include such drinks as beer, wine, whisky, etc.,
some of which are used more in one country than in another. In fact,
almost every class of people known has an alcoholic beverage that has
come to be regarded as typical of that class. Alcoholic fermentation is
supposed to have been discovered by accident, and when its effect became
known it was recognized as a popular means of supplying a beverage and
some stimulation besides. Under stimulating beverages come tea, coffee,
and cocoa. These are in common use all over the world, certain ones, of
course, finding greater favor in some countries than in others. With the
exception of cocoa, they provide very little food value. In contrast
with these drinks are the non-stimulating beverages, which include fruit
punches, soft drinks, and all the milk-and-egg concoctions. These are
usually very refreshing, and the majority of them contain sufficient
nourishment to recommend their frequent use.
WATER IN BEVERAGES
4. Many persons restrict the term beverages, contending that it refers
to refreshing or flavored drinks. It should be remembered, however, that
this term has a broader meaning and refers to any drink taken for the
purpose of quenching thirst. Water is the simplest beverage and is in
reality the foundation of nearly all drinks, for it is the water in them
that slakes thirst. Flavors, such as fruit juice, tea, coffee, etc., are
combined with water to make the beverages more tempting, and
occasionally such foods as eggs, cream, and starchy materials are added
to give food value; but the first and foremost purpose of all beverages
is to introduce water into the system and thus satisfy thirst.
5. KINDS OF WATER.--Inasmuch as water is so important an element in the
composition of beverages, every one should endeavor to become familiar
with the nature of each of its varieties.
SOFT WATER is water that contains very little mineral matter. A common
example of soft water is rainwater.
HARD WATER is water that contains a large quantity of lime in solution.
Boiling such water precipitates, or separates, some of the lime and
consequently softens the water. An example of the precipitation of lime
in water is the deposit that can be found in any teakettle that has been
used for some time.
MINERAL WATER is water containing a large quantity of such minerals as
will go in solution in water, namely, sulphur, iron, lime, etc.
DISTILLED WATER is water from which all minerals have been removed. To
accomplish this, the water is converted into steam and then condensed.
This is the purest form of water.
CARBONATED WATER is water that has had carbon-dioxide, or carbonic-acid,
gas forced into it. The soda water used at soda fountains is an example
of this variety. Carbonated water is bottled and sold for
6. NECESSITY FOR PURE WATER.--The extensive use made of water in the
diet makes it imperative that every effort be exerted to have the water
supply as pure as possible. The ordinary city filter and the smaller
household filter can be depended on to remove sand, particles of leaves,
weeds, and such foreign material as is likely to drop into the water
from time to time, but they will not remove disease germs from an
unclean supply. Therefore, if there is any doubt about water being pure
enough to use for drinking purposes, it should be boiled before it is
used. Boiling kills any disease germs that the water may contain, but at
the same time it gives the water a very flat taste because of the loss
of air in boiling. However, as is mentioned in _Essentials of Cookery_,
Part 1, the natural taste may be restored by beating the boiled water
with an egg beater or by partly filling a jar, placing the lid on, and
shaking it vigorously.
RELATION OF BEVERAGES TO MEALS
7. About one-third of all the water required each day is taken in the
form of beverages with the meals. It was formerly thought that liquids
dilute the gastric juice and so should be avoided with meals. However,
it has been learned that beverages, either warm or cold, with the
exception of an occasional case, may be taken with meals without
injury. The chief point to remember is that it is unwise to drink
beverages either too hot or too cold. For the best results, their
temperature should be rather moderate.
8. Foods that may be dissolved in water can be incorporated in a
beverage to make it nutritious. With many persons, as in the case of
small children and invalids, this is often the only means there is of
giving them nourishment. In serving beverages to healthy persons, the
food value of the meal should be taken into consideration. The beverage
accompanying a heavy meal should be one having very little food value;
whereas, in the case of a light meal, the beverage can be such as will
give additional nutrition. For instance, hot chocolate, which is very
nutritious, would not be a good beverage to serve with a meal consisting
of soup, meat, vegetables, salad, and dessert, but it would be an
excellent drink to serve with a lunch that is made up of light
sandwiches, salad, and fruit.
9. ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES are made by allowing yeast to ferment the starch
or the sugar in a certain kind of food, thus producing acid and alcohol.
Grains and fruits are used oftenest for this purpose. In some cases, the
fermentation is allowed to continue long enough to use up all the starch
or sugar in the material selected, and in this event the resulting
beverages are sour and contain a great deal of alcohol. In others, the
fermentation is stopped before all the sugar or starch is utilized, and
then the beverage is sweet and contains less alcohol. The higher the
percentage of alcohol a beverage contains, the more intoxicating it is
and the more quickly will a state of intoxication be reached by
10. HARMFUL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.--In years past, alcoholic
beverages were considered to be a necessity for medicinal purposes in
hospitals and in homes, but this use of them has been very greatly
decreased. In fact, it is believed by most authorities that often more
harm than good is done by using alcoholic beverages as a medical
stimulant or as a carrier for some drug. As these drinks are harmful in
this respect, so are they detrimental to health when they are taken
merely as beverages. It is definitely known that alcohol acts as a food
when it enters the body, for it is burned just as a carbohydrate would
be and thus produces heat. That this action takes place very rapidly can
be detected by the warmth that is produced almost immediately when the
drink is taken. Some of it is lost through the breath and the kidneys
without producing heat, and it also acts upon the blood vessels near the
skin in such a way as to lose very quickly the heat that is produced. It
is never conserved and used gradually as the heat from food is used. The
taking of alcohol requires much work on the part of the kidneys, and
this eventually injures them. It also hardens the liver and produces a
disease known as hob-nailed, or gin, liver. In addition, if used
continuously, this improper means of nourishing the body produces an
excessive amount of fat. Because of these harmful effects on the various
organs, its too rapid loss from the body, and the fact that it does not
build tissue, alcohol is at best a very poor food and should be avoided
on all occasions.
11. KINDS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.--In spite of the truth that beverages
containing alcohol are found to be harmful, many of them are in common
use. Following are the names of these, together with a short account of
BEER is an alcoholic beverage made from certain grains, usually barley,
by malting the grain, boiling the product with hops, and finally
fermenting it with yeast. The malting of grains, it will be remembered,
is explained in _Cereals_. The hops are used to give the beer a
desirable flavor. This beverage is characterized by a low percentage of
alcohol, containing only 2 to 5 per cent., and consequently is not very
WINE is a beverage that is usually made from grapes, although berries
and other small fruits are occasionally used. It contains from 7 to 16
per cent. of alcohol and is therefore more intoxicating than beer. The
wines in which all of the sugar is fermented are known as _sour_, or
_dry, wines_, while those in which not all of the sugar has been
fermented are called _sweet wines_. Many classes of wines are made and
put on the market, but those most commonly used are claret, sherry,
hock, port, and Madeira.
BRANDY is an alcoholic liquor distilled from wine. It is very
intoxicating, for it consists of little besides alcohol and water, the
percentage of alcohol varying from 40 to 50 per cent. Upon being
distilled, brandy is colorless, but it is then stored in charred wooden
casks, from which it takes its characteristic color.
GIN is a practically colorless liquor distilled from various grains and
flavored with oil of juniper or some other flavoring substance, such as
anise, orange peel, or fennel. It contains from 30 to 40 per cent. of
alcohol. It is usually stored in glass bottles, which do not impart a
color to it.
RUM is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting cane sugar, molasses,
cane juice, or the scum and waste from sugar refineries and then
distilling the product. It contains from 45 to 50 per cent. of alcohol,
and has a disagreeable odor when it is distilled. This odor, however, is
removed by storing the rum in wooden receptacles for a long period
CORDIALS are beverages made by steeping fruits or herbs in brandy.
_Absinthe_, which is barred from the United States because it contains
wormwood, a very injurious substance, is a well-known cordial. Besides
being extremely intoxicating, it overstimulates the heart and the
stomach if taken in even comparatively small quantities.
WHISKY is an alcoholic beverage obtained by distilling fermented grain
several times until it has a strength of 40 to 50 per cent. of alcohol.
Then it is flavored and stored in charred casks to ripen and become
mellow, after which it has a characteristic color. As can readily be
understood, distilled liquors contain the highest percentage of alcohol.
* * * * *
NATURE OF STIMULATING BEVERAGES
12. STIMULATING BEVERAGES are those which contain a drug that stimulates
the nervous and the circulatory system; that is, one that acts on the
nerves and the circulation in such a way as to make them active and
alert. Common examples of these beverages are coffee, tea, and cocoa or
chocolate. If the nerves are in need of rest, it is dangerous to
stimulate them with such beverages, for, as the nervous system
indirectly affects all the organs of the body, the effects of this
stimulation are far-reaching. The immediate effect of the stimulant in
these beverages is to keep the drinker awake, thus causing
sleeplessness, or temporary insomnia. If tea and coffee are used
habitually and excessively, headaches, dull brains, and many nervous
troubles are liable to result.
13. The stimulant that is found in the leaves of tea is known as
_theine_; that found in coffee beans, _caffeine_; and that found in
cacao beans, from which cocoa and chocolate are made, _theobromine_.
Each of these stimulants is extracted by the hot liquid that is always
used to make the beverage. It is taken up by the liquid so quickly that
the method used to prepare the beverage makes little difference as to
the amount obtained. In other words, tea made by pouring water through
the leaves will contain nearly as much of the stimulant as tea made by
boiling the leaves.
14. In addition to the stimulant, tea and coffee contain _tannin_, or
_tannic acid_, an acid that is also obtained from the bark of certain
trees and used in the tanning of animal hides in the preparation of
leather. Tannin is not taken so quickly from tea and coffee by the hot
liquid used in preparing the beverage as is the stimulant, so that the
longer tea leaves and coffee grounds remain in the liquid, the more
tannic acid will be drawn out. This fact can be detected by the bitter
flavor and the puckery feeling in the mouth after drinking tea that has
been allowed to remain on the leaves or coffee that has stood for some
time on the grounds. Tannic acid has a decidedly bad effect on the
digestion in the stomach, so that if improperly prepared tea or coffee
is indulged in habitually, it may cause stomach disorders.
STIMULANT AND TANNIC ACID PRESENT IN STIMULATING BEVERAGES
Quantity of Quantity of
Beverage Stimulant Stimulant Tannic Acid
Coffee Caffeine 2 to 3 1 to 2
Tea Theine 1 to 2 1 to 4
Cocoa or chocolate Theobromine 1 to 1-1/2 1/2 to 1
15. The quantity of stimulant and tannic acid contained in an ordinary
cup of tea, coffee, and cocoa or chocolate is given in Table I. As this
table shows, the quantity, which is given in grains, does not vary
considerably in the different beverages and is not present in such
quantity as to be harmful, unless these beverages are indulged in
To reduce the quantity of caffeine contained in coffee has been the aim
of many coffee producers. As a result, there are on the market a number
of brands of coffee that have been put through a process that removes
practically all the caffeine. The beverage made from coffee so treated
is less harmful than that made from ordinary coffee, and so far as the
flavor is concerned this loss of caffeine does not change it.
16. Neither tea nor coffee possesses any food value. Unless sugar or
cream is added, these beverages contain nothing except water, flavor,
stimulant, and tannic acid. Chocolate and cocoa, however, are rich in
fat, and as they are usually made with milk and sugar they have the
advantage of conveying food to the system. Because of their nature, tea
and coffee should never be given to children. Cocoa and chocolate
provide enough food value to warrant their use in the diet of young
persons, but they should not be taken in too great quantity because of
the large amount of fat they contain. Any of these beverages used in
excessive amounts produces the same effect as a mild drug habit.
Consequently, when a person feels that it is impossible to get along
without tea or coffee, it is time to stop the use of that beverage.
* * * * *
HISTORY AND PRODUCTION
17. COFFEE is the seed of the coffee tree, which in its wild state grows
to a height of 20 feet, but in cultivation is kept down to about 10 or
12 feet for convenience in gathering the fruit. Coffee originated in
Abyssinia, where it has been used as a beverage from time immemorial. At
the beginning of the 15th century, it found its way into Arabia, where
it was used by the religious leaders for preventing drowsiness, so that
they could perform religious ceremonies at night. About 100 years later
it came into favor in Turkey, but it was not until the middle of the
17th century that it was introduced into England. Its use gradually
increased among common people after much controversy as to whether it
was right to drink it or not. It is now extensively grown in India,
Ceylon, Java, the West Indies, Central America, Mexico, and Brazil. The
last-named country, Brazil, furnishes about 75 per cent. of the coffee
used in the United States and about 60 per cent. of the world's supply.
18. Coffee is a universal drink, but it finds more favor in some
countries than others. The hospitality of a Turkish home is never
thought to be complete without the serving of coffee to its guests;
however, the coffee made by the Turks is not pleasant except to those
who are accustomed to drinking it. As prepared in Turkey and the East, a
small amount of boiling water is poured over the coffee, which is
powdered and mixed with sugar, and the resulting beverage, which is very
thick, is served in a small cup without cream. The French make a
concoction known as _café an lait_, which, as explained in _Essentials
of Cookery_, Part 2, is a combination of coffee and milk. These two
ingredients are heated separately in equal proportions and then mixed
before serving. This is a very satisfactory way in which to serve coffee
if cream cannot be obtained.
19. OBTAINING THE COFFEE SEEDS.--The seeds of the coffee tree are
enclosed in pairs, with their flat surfaces toward each other, in dark,
cherry-like berries. The pulp of the berry is softened by fermentation
and then removed, leaving the seeds enclosed in a husk. They are then
separated from the husks by being either sun-dried and rolled or reduced
to a soft mass in water with the aid of a pulping machine. With the
husks removed, the seeds are packed into coarse cloth bags and
20. ROASTING THE COFFEE BEANS.--The next step in the preparation of
coffee for use is the roasting of the coffee beans. After being
separated from the husks, the beans have a greenish-yellow color, but
during the roasting process, when they are subjected to high temperature
and must be turned constantly to prevent uneven roasting, they turn to a
dark brown. As the roasting also develops the flavor, it must be done
carefully. Some persons prefer to buy unroasted coffee and roast it at
home in an oven, but it is more economical to purchase coffee already
roasted. In addition, the improved methods of roasting produce coffee of
a better flavor, for they accomplish this by machinery especially
devised for the purpose.
21. GRINDING THE COFFEE BEANS.--During the roasting process there is
developed an aromatic volatile oil, called _caffeol_, to which the
flavor of the coffee is due. This oil is very strong, but upon being
exposed to the air it passes off and thus causes a loss of flavor in the
coffee. For this reason, roasted coffee should be kept in air-tight
cans, boxes, or jars. Before it is used, however, it must be ground.
The grinding of the coffee beans exposes more surface and hence the
flavor is more quickly lost from ground than unground coffee. Because of
this fact and because ground coffee can be adulterated very easily, it
is not wise to buy coffee already ground. If only a small quantity is
bought at a time and it can be used up at once, the grinding may be done
by the grocer, but even in such a case the better plan is to grind it
immediately before using it.
22. The method by which the coffee is to be prepared for drinking will
determine to a large extent the way in which the coffee beans must be
ground. When coffee is to be made by a method in which the grounds are
not left in the water for any length of time, the beans must be ground
very fine, in fact, pulverized, for the flavor must be extracted
quickly. For other purposes, such as when it is to be made in a
percolator, the beans need not be ground quite so fine, and when it is
to be made in an ordinary coffee pot they may be ground very coarse.
23. For use in the home, simple coffee mills that will grind coffee as
coarse or as fine as may be desired are to be had. Fig. 1 shows two of
the common types of home coffee mills.
[Illustration: FIG. 1]
The one shown in (_a_) is fastened to a board so that it can be attached
to the wall. The coffee to be ground is put in the chamber _a_, from
which it is fed to the grinding rolls, and the ground coffee drops into
the chamber _b_. The grinding rolls are adjusted to the desired fineness
by the notched arrangement on the end of the shaft.
The coffee mill shown in (_b_) may be placed on a table top or some
other flat surface, but it operates on the same principle as the other.
The coffee beans are placed in the chamber at the top, and the ground
coffee drops into the drawer _a_ at the bottom. The adjustment of the
grinding rolls is regulated by the notched head at the end of the
24. ADULTERATION OF COFFEE.--As in the case of numerous other foods,
attempts are often made to adulterate coffee. Since the Pure Food Laws
have been enforced, there is not so much danger of adulteration in a
product of this kind; still, every housewife should be familiar with the
ways in which this beverage may be reduced in strength or quality, so
that she may be able to tell whether she is getting a good or an
inferior product for her money.
Coffee may be adulterated in a number of ways. Ground coffee is
especially easy to adulterate with bread crumbs, bran, and similar
materials that have been thoroughly browned. Many of the cheaper coffees
are adulterated with chicory, a root that has a flavor similar to that
of coffee and gives the beverages with which it is used a reddish-brown
color. Chicory is not harmful; in fact, its flavor is sought by some
people, particularly the French. The objection to it, as well as to
other adulterants, is that it is much cheaper than coffee and the use of
it therefore increases the profits of the dealer. The presence of
chicory in coffee can be detected by putting a small amount of the
ground coffee in a glass of water. If chicory is present, the water will
become tinged with red and the chicory will settle to the bottom more
quickly than the coffee.
PREPARATION OF COFFEE
25. SELECTION OF COFFEE.--Many varieties of coffee are to be had, but
Mocha, Java, and Rio are the ones most used. A single variety, however,
is seldom sold alone, because a much better flavor can be obtained from
_blend coffee_, by which is meant two or more kinds of coffee
It is usually advisable to buy as good a quality of coffee as can be
afforded. The more expensive coffees have better flavor and greater
strength than the cheaper grades and consequently need not be used in
such great quantity. It is far better to serve this beverage seldom and
to have what is served the very best than to serve it so often that a
cheap grade must be purchased. For instance, some persons think that
they must have coffee for at least two out of three daily meals, but it
is usually sufficient if coffee is served once a day, and then for the
morning or midday meal rather than for the evening meal.
After deciding on the variety of coffee that is desired, it is well to
buy unground beans that are packed in air-tight packages. Upon
receiving the coffee in the home, it should be poured into a jar or a
can and kept tightly covered.
26. NECESSARY UTENSILS.--Very few utensils are required for coffee
making, but they should be of the best material that can be afforded in
order that good results may be had. A coffee pot, a coffee percolator,
and a drip pot, or coffee biggin, are the utensils most frequently used
for the preparation of this beverage.
[Illustration: FIG. 2]
27. If a COFFEE POT is preferred, it should be one made of material that
will withstand the heat of a direct flame. The cheapest coffee pots are
made of tin, but they are the least desirable and should be avoided, for
the tin, upon coming in contact with the tannic acid contained in
coffee, sometimes changes the flavor. Coffee pots made of enamelware are
the next highest in price. Then come nickel-plated ones, and, finally,
the highest-priced ones, which are made of aluminum. The usual form of
plain coffee pot is shown in Fig. 2.
[Illustration: FIG. 3]
28. PERCOLATORS are very desirable for the making of coffee, for they
produce excellent results and at the same time make the preparation of
coffee easy. Those having an electric attachment are especially
convenient. One form of percolator is shown in Fig. 3. In this
percolator, the ground coffee is put in the filter cup _a_ and the water
in the lower part of the pot _b_. The water immediately passes into the
chamber _c_, as shown by the arrows. In this chamber, which is small, it
heats rapidly and then rises through the vertical tube _d_. At the top
_e_, it comes out in the form of a spray, strikes the glass top, and
falls back on a perforated metal plate _f_, called the spreader. It then
passes through this plate into the filter cup containing the grounds,
through which it percolates and drops into the main chamber. The
circulation of the water continues as long as sufficient heat is
applied, and the rate of circulation depends on the degree of heat.
29. The DRIP POT, or _coffee biggin_, as it is sometimes called, one
type of which is shown in Fig. 4, is sometimes preferred for the making
of coffee. This utensil is made of metal or earthenware and operates on
the same principle as a percolator. The ground coffee is suspended above
the liquid in a cloth bag or a perforated receptacle and the water
percolates through it.
[Illustration: FIG. 4]
30. In case a more complicated utensil than any of those mentioned is
used for the making of coffee, the directions that accompany it will
have to be followed. But no matter what kind of utensil is selected for
the preparation of coffee, it should be thoroughly cleaned each time it
is used. To clean it, first empty any coffee it contains and then wash
every part carefully and scald and dry it. If the utensil is not clean,
the flavor of the coffee made in it will be spoiled.
31. METHODS OF MAKING COFFEE.--Several methods are followed in the
making of coffee, the one to select depending on the result desired and
the kind of utensil to be used. The most common of these methods are:
_boiling_, which produces a decoction; _infusion_, or _filtration_,
which consists in pouring boiling water over very finely ground coffee
in order to extract its properties; and _percolating_, in which boiling
water percolates, or passes through, finely ground coffee and extracts
its flavor. For any of these methods, soft water is better than water
that contains a great deal of lime. Many times persons cannot understand
why coffee that is excellent in one locality is poor in another. In the
majority of cases, this variation is due to the difference in the water
and not to the coffee. From 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls of coffee to 1 cupful
of water is the usual proportion followed in making coffee.
32. BOILED COFFEE.--Without doubt, coffee is more often boiled in its
preparation than treated in any other way. Usually, an ordinary coffee
pot is all that is required in this method of preparation. The amount of
ground coffee used may be varied to obtain the desired strength.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
1 c. cold water
1/2 c. ground coffee
3 c. boiling water
After scalding the coffee pot, put 1/2 cupful of the cold water and the
ground coffee into it. Stir well and then add the boiling water. Allow
it to come to the boiling point and boil for 3 minutes. Pour a little of
the coffee into a cup to clear the spout of grounds, add the remaining
cupful of cold water, and put back on the stove to reheat, but not to
boil. When hot, serve at once. Never allow the liquid to stand on the
grounds for any length of time, for the longer it stands the more tannic
acid will be drawn out.
33. As coffee made by boiling is usually somewhat cloudy, it may be
cleared in one way or another. The last cold water is added for this
purpose, for as it is heavier than the warm liquid it sinks to the
bottom and carries the grounds with it. Coffee may also be cleared by
stirring a small quantity of beaten raw egg, either the white or the
yolk, or both, into the grounds before the cold water is added to them.
One egg will clear two or three potfuls of coffee if care is exercised
in its use. What remains of the egg after the first potful has been
cleared should be placed in a small dish and set away for future use. A
little cold water poured over it will assist in preserving it. If the
egg shells are washed before the egg is broken, they may be crushed and
added to the grounds also, for they will help to clear the coffee. The
explanation of the use of egg for this purpose is that it coagulates as
the coffee heats and carries the particles of coffee down with it as
34. Another very satisfactory way in which to make boiled coffee is to
tie the ground coffee loosely into a piece of cheesecloth, pour the
boiling water over it, and then let it boil for a few minutes longer
than in the method just given. Coffee prepared in this manner will be
found to be clear and therefore need not be treated in any of the ways
35. FILTERED COFFEE.--When it is desired to make coffee by the filtering
process, the coffee must be ground into powder. Then it should be made
in a drip, or French, coffee pot. If one of these is not available,
cheesecloth of several thicknesses may be substituted. The advantage of
making coffee by this method is that the coffee grounds may sometimes be
used a second time.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
1/2 c. powdered coffee
1 qt. boiling water
Place the coffee in the top of the drip pot, pour the boiling water over
it, and allow the water to drip through into the vessel below. When all
has run through, remove the water and pour it over the coffee a second
time. If cheesecloth is to be used, put the coffee in it, suspend it
over the coffee pot or other convenient utensil, and proceed as with
the drip pot.
36. PERCOLATED COFFEE.--The coffee used for percolated coffee should be
ground finer than for boiled coffee, but not so fine as for filtered
coffee. This is perhaps the easiest way in which to prepare coffee and
at the same time the surest method of securing good coffee.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
1/2 c. finely ground coffee
1 qt. cold water
Place the coffee in the perforated compartment in the top of the
percolator and pour the cold water in the lower chamber. As the water
heats, it is forced up through the vertical tube against the top. It
then falls over the coffee and percolates through into the water below.
This process begins before the water boils, but the hotter the water
becomes the more rapidly does it percolate through the coffee. The
process continues as long as the heat is applied, and the liquid becomes
stronger in flavor as it repeatedly passes through the coffee. When the
coffee has obtained the desired strength, serve at once.
37. AFTER-DINNER COFFEE.--After a rather elaborate meal, a small cup of
very strong, black coffee is often served. To prepare after-dinner
coffee, as this kind is called, follow any of the methods already
explained, but make it twice as strong as coffee that is to accompany
the usual meal. Sugar and cream may be added to after-dinner coffee, but
usually this coffee is drunk black and unsweetened.
38. VIENNA COFFEE.--An especially nice way in which to serve coffee is
to combine it with boiled milk and whipped cream. It is then known as
Vienna coffee. The accompanying directions are for just 1 cup, as this
is prepared a cupful at a time.
(Sufficient to Serve One)
1/4 c. boiled milk
3 Tb. whipped cream
1/2 c. hot filtered coffee, or coffee prepared by any method
Place the boiled milk in a cup, add the whipped cream, and fill the cup
with the hot coffee.
39. ICED COFFEE.--Persons fond of coffee find iced coffee a most
delicious hot-weather drink. Iced coffee is usually served in a glass,
as shown in Fig. 5, rather than in a cup, and when whipped cream is
added an attractive beverage results.
To prepare iced coffee, make coffee by any desired method, but if the
boiling method is followed be careful to strain the liquid so that it is
entirely free from grounds. Cool the liquid and then pour into glasses
containing cracked ice. Serve with plain cream and sugar or with a
tablespoonful or two of whipped cream. If desired, however, the cream
may be omitted and the coffee served with an equal amount of milk, when
it is known as _iced café au lait_.
40. LEFT-OVER COFFEE.--The aim of the person who prepares coffee should
be to make the exact quantity needed, no more nor no less, and this can
usually be done if directions are carefully followed. However, if any
coffee remains after all are served, it should not be thrown away, as it
can be utilized in several ways. Drain the liquid from the grounds as
soon as possible so that the flavor will not be impaired.
[Illustration: FIG. 5]
If desired, left-over coffee may be added to fresh coffee when it is
prepared for the next meal or, in hot weather, it may be used for iced
coffee. It may also be used to flavor gelatine, which, when sweetened
and served with whipped cream, makes an excellent dessert. Again,
left-over coffee is very satisfactory as a flavoring for cake icing, for
custards, or for whipped cream that is to be served with desserts. When
coffee is desired for flavoring, it should be boiled in order to
evaporate some of the water. Very good cake is made by using left-over
coffee for the liquid and spices for the flavoring.
41. The serving of coffee may be done in several ways, but, with the
exception of iced coffee, this beverage should always be served as hot
as possible. As can well be imagined, nothing is more insipid than
lukewarm coffee. Therefore, coffee is preferably made immediately before
it is to be served. Sugar and cream usually accompany coffee, but they
may be omitted if they are not desired.
Coffee may be served with the dinner course, with the dessert, or after
the dessert. When it is served with the dinner course or the dessert, a
coffee cup or a tea cup of ordinary size is used; but when it is served
after the dessert, a demi-tasse, or small cup that holds less than half
the amount of the other size, is preferable. Usually, after-dinner
coffee, or _café noir_, as such black coffee is called, rather than
coffee with cream and sugar, is served after the dessert course of a
heavy dinner because it is supposed to be stimulating to the digestion.
The pouring of coffee may be done at the table or in the kitchen. If it
is done at the table, the person serving should ask those to be served
whether or not they desire cream and sugar, and then serve accordingly.
If it is done before the coffee is brought to the table, the cream and
sugar should be passed, so that those served may help themselves to the
desired amount. Care should always be taken in the serving of coffee not
to fill the cup so full that it will run over or that it will be too
full to handle easily when the cream and sugar are added.
* * * * *
HISTORY AND PRODUCTION
42. TEA consists of the prepared leaves or leaf buds of a plant known as
the tea plant and is used as one of the three stimulating beverages.
This plant is grown in China, Japan, India, Ceylon, and the East Indies,
and to a small extent in South Carolina. There are two distinct
varieties of tea, and each one may be used for the preparation of either
green or black tea. The leaves of the tea plant, which are what is used
for making the beverage, are gathered four times a year from the time
the plants are 4 years old until they are 10 or 12 years old. Then the
plants are pulled up and new ones planted. Upon being gathered, the
leaves are put through a series of processes before they are ready for
use. During this treatment, various modifications of flavor are
developed and the leaves are changed in color to black or green,
depending on the process used.
43. It is surprising to most persons to learn that tea was known in
China for many years before people began to make a beverage of it. The
first record of its use as a beverage was probably in the 6th century,
when an infusion of tea leaves was given to a ruler of the Chinese
Empire to cure a headache. A century later, tea had come into common use
as a beverage in that country. As civilization advanced and new
countries were formed, tea was introduced as a beverage, and today there
is scarcely a locality in which it is not commonly used.
44. CLASSIFICATION OF TEA AS TO QUALITY.--The position of the leaf on
the tea plant determines the quality of the tea. The farther from the
top, the coarser are the leaves and the poorer is the quality. On the
other hand, the smaller the leaves and the nearer the top, the better is
the quality. In the very best qualities of tea, the buds of the plant
are included with the tiny top leaves.
45. Tea that is raised in China is graded in a particular way, and it
will be well to understand this grading. The top buds are used entirely
for a variety known as _flowery pekoe_, but this is seldom found in our
markets. The youngest leaves next to the buds are made into a tea called
_orange pekoe_; the next older leaves are used for _pekoe_; the third,
for _souchong first_; the fourth, for _souchong second_; the fifth, for
_congou_; and if there is another leaf, it is made into a tea known as
_bohea_. Sometimes the first three leaves are mixed, and when this is
done the tea is called _pekoe_. If they are mixed with the next two, the
tea is called _souchong pekoe_. The laws controlling the importation of
tea require that each shipment be tested before it passes the custom
house, to determine whether or not it contains what the label claims
46. VARIETIES OF TEA.--The teas that are put on the market are of two
general varieties, _black tea_ and _green tea_. Any quality of tea or
tea raised in any country may be made into these two kinds, for, as has
been mentioned, it is the method of preparation that is accountable for
the difference. A number of the common brands of tea are blends or
mixtures of green and black tea. These, which are often called _mixed
teas_, are preferred by many persons to the pure tea of either kind.
47. BLACK TEA is made by fermenting the tea leaves before they are
dried. This fermentation turns them black and produces a marked change
in their flavor. The process of preparation also renders some of the
tannin insoluble; that is, not so much of it can be dissolved when the
beverage is made. Some well-known brands of black tea are _China
congou_, or _English breakfast_, _Formosa_, _oolong_, and the various
_pekoes_. The English are especially fond of black tea, and the people
of the United States have followed their custom to the extent that it
has become a favorite in this country.
48. GREEN TEA is made by steaming the leaves and then drying them, a
process that retains the green color. With tea of this kind, all
fermentation of the leaves is carefully avoided. Some familiar kinds of
green tea are _hyson_, _Japan_, and _gunpowder_. The best of these are
the ones that come from Japan.
PREPARATION OF TEA
49. SELECTION OF TEA.--In the course of its preparation, tea is rolled
either into long, slender pieces or into little balls. Knowing this, the
housewife should be able to detect readily the stems and other foreign
material sometimes found in teas, especially the cheaper varieties. Such
teas should be avoided, for they are lacking not only in flavor but also
in strength. If economy must be practiced, the moderately expensive
grades will prove to be the best ones to buy.
50. METHODS OF MAKING TEA.--Upon steeping tea in hot water, a very
pleasant beverage results. If this is properly made, a gentle stimulant
that can be indulged in occasionally by normal adults without harmful
results can be expected. However, the value of tea as a beverage has at
all times been much overestimated. When it is served as afternoon tea,
as is frequently done, its chief value lies in the pleasant hospitality
that is afforded by pouring it. Especially is this the case in England,
where the inhabitants have adopted the pretty custom of serving
afternoon tea and feel that guests have not received the hospitality of
the home until tea has been served. Through their continued use of this
beverage, the English have become expert in tea making.
51. The Russians are also adepts so far as the making of tea is
concerned. They use a very good kind of tea, called _caravan tea_, which
is packed in lead-covered packages and brought to them by caravans. This
method of packing and delivery is supposed to have a ripening effect on
the leaves and to give them an unusually good flavor. For making tea,
the Russians use an equipment called a _samovar_. This is an urn that is
constantly kept filled with boiling water, so that tea can be served to
all visitors or callers that come, no matter what time of day
52. Most persons, however, make tea into a beverage by steeping it in
boiling water or by placing it in a tea ball or some similar utensil and
then allowing it to stand in boiling water for a short time. Whichever
method of preparation is followed, the water must be at the boiling
point and it must be freshly boiled. Water that has been boiled for any
length of time becomes very insipid and flat to the taste and affects
the flavor of the tea. Tea leaves that have been used once should never
be resteeped, for more tannin is extracted than is desirable and the
good tea flavor is lost, producing a very unwholesome beverage. As a
rule, 1 to 1-1/2 teaspoonfuls of tea to 1 cupful of water is the
proportion followed in tea making.
53. STEEPED TEA.--When tea is to be steeped, a teapot is used. That the
best results may be secured, the teapot should always be freshly scalded
and the water freshly boiled.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
2 Tb. tea
1 qt. boiling water
Scald the teapot. Put the tea into the teapot and pour the boiling water
over it. Let stand on the back of the stove for 3 minutes, when a
beverage of sufficient strength will be formed. Strain the beverage from
the tea leaves and serve at once.
[Illustration: FIG. 6]
54. AFTERNOON TEA.--When tea is desired for afternoon serving or when it
is to be prepared at the table, a _tea ball_ is the most satisfactory
utensil to use. This is a perforated silver or aluminum ball, such as
shown in Fig. 6, which opens by means of a hinge and into which the tea
is placed. For convenience in use, a chain is attached to the ball and
ends in a ring that is large enough to slip over the finger. Some
teapots contain a ball attached to the inside of the lid and suspended
inside the pot. Utensils of this kind are very convenient, for when the
tea made in them becomes strong enough, the leaves may be removed
without pouring off the tea.
To prepare afternoon tea with a tea ball, put 1 or 2 teaspoonfuls of tea
in the ball, fasten it securely, and place it in a cup. Then pour enough
freshly boiled water over the ball to fill the cup to the desired
height. Allow the ball to remain in the water until the desired strength
is attained and then remove it. If more than 2 or 3 persons are to be
served, it will be necessary to refill the ball.
55. ICED TEA.--Perhaps one of the most refreshing drinks for warm
weather is iced tea. A tea that is especially blended for this purpose
and that is cheaper in price than other tea may be purchased. Slices of
lemon or crushed mint leaves add much to the flavor of the tea and are
often served with it.
Prepare tea by steeping it, but make it double strength. Strain it from
the leaves and allow it to become cool. Then pour it into glasses
containing cracked ice. Serve with sugar and slices of lemon or
56. LEFT-OVER TEA.--Tea that remains after all persons are served need
not be wasted if it is poured off the leaves at once. Such tea is
satisfactory for iced tea, or it may be combined with certain fruit
juices in the preparation of various cold beverages. However, there are
not many satisfactory uses for left-over tea; so it is best to take
pains not to make more than will be required for one time.
[Illustration: FIG. 7]
57. Tea may be served as an accompaniment to meals or with small
sandwiches, dainty cakes, or macaroons as an afternoon ceremony. If it
is served with meals and is poured at the table, the hostess or the one
pouring asks those to be served whether they desire sugar and cream and
then uses these accompaniments accordingly. In the event that it is
brought to the table poured, the sugar and cream are passed and those
served may help themselves to what they desire. Lemon adds much to the
flavor of tea and is liked by most persons. A dish of sliced lemon may
be passed with the cream and sugar or placed where the hostess may add
it to the tea. The Russians, who are inveterate tea drinkers, prepare
this beverage by putting a slice of lemon in the cup and then pouring
the hot tea over it. If this custom is followed, the lemons should be
washed and sliced very thin and the seeds should be removed from the
slices. The flavor may also be improved by sticking a few cloves in each
slice of lemon; or, if the clove flavor is desired, several cloves may
be put in the teapot when the tea is made. Fig. 7 shows slices of lemons
ready to be served with tea. Some of them, as will be observed, have
cloves stuck in them.
Lemon is almost always served with iced tea, for it adds a delightful
flavor. If it is not squeezed into the glass, it should be cut into
quarters or eighths lengthwise and then cut across so that small
triangular pieces are formed. These are much easier to handle than
[Illustration: FIG. 8]
58. In the serving of afternoon tea, the pouring of the tea is the main
thing, and the remainder of the service simply complements this pleasant
ceremony. Tiny sandwiches, small cakes, or macaroons usually accompany
the tea, while such confections as candied orange peel, stuffed dates,
or salted nuts are often served also. When sandwiches are used, they may
be merely bread-and-butter sandwiches or they may contain marmalade or
any desired filling. The principal requirement is that they be made as
small and thin as possible, so that they will be extremely dainty in
59. A _tea cozy_ is a convenient device to use when tea is served from
the pot. It consists of a padded cap, or cover, that may be slipped over
the teapot to prevent the heat from escaping after the tea is infused.
It is made of several thicknesses of material in a shape and size that
will slip over the teapot easily and can then be removed when the tea
is to be poured. This can be made very attractive by means of a nicely
60. Fig. 8 shows an attractive table that may be used for serving tea.
The top folds over vertically, so that when the table is not in use it
may be disposed of by placing it against the wall of a room. This table
holds nothing except the pot containing the tea, which must be made in
the kitchen and placed in the pot before it is brought to the table, the
sugar and cream, the teacups, and the lemon. Sandwiches, wafers, or
cakes that are to be served with the tea should be passed to the guests.
[Illustration: FIG. 9]
61. Fig. 9 shows a tea wagon and the equipment for making tea, with the
sandwiches and cakes to be served arranged on a muffin stand, or Lazy
Susan. When tea is to be made with an equipment of this kind, the water
is heated in the little kettle by means of the alcohol burner. The can
with the long spout contains an extra supply of alcohol with which to
keep the burner filled. The tea ball, which is in the little glass, is
filled with tea and the boiling water is poured over it into each cup.
The ball is allowed to remain until the tea is of the desired strength,
when it is removed and used for another cup, provided sufficient
strength remains in the tea leaves.
The silver tea caddy at the back of the wagon contains the tea, and
lemon with a fork for serving it is on a small plate near the front of
the wagon. Napkins and plates for the cakes and sandwiches are on the
lower part of the wagon. The napkins and plates are first passed; then
the tea is served with the sandwiches, after which cakes are served.
* * * * *
COCOA AND CHOCOLATE
NATURE AND SELECTION
[Illustration: FIG. 10]
62. COCOA and CHOCOLATE are made from the fruit of the cacao, or
chocolate, tree. This tree is native to Mexico, where cocoa was first
used as a beverage, but it is also grown in South America and the West
Indies. The fruit of this tree was named _cocoa Theobroma_, which means
"food for the gods," because of its excellent flavor. The original
natives of Mexico and Peru used cocoa in place of money. When the
Spanish invaded these countries, they learned its use and took it back
to Spain, where it is still a popular beverage. In many localities in
Spain it became a fashionable morning drink, but it was also served at
63. PRODUCTION OF COCOA AND CHOCOLATE.--The fruit of the cacao tree is
in the form of pods from 6 to 10 inches in length and 3 to 4 inches in
diameter. These pods are filled with a white, pulpy mass in which are
embedded from twenty to forty seeds about twice the size and very much
the shape of kidney beans. Fig. 10 shows the three stages of the
treatment through which the seeds are put before they can be used for a
beverage. After they are removed from the pod, they are fermented and
then dried, when they appear as at _a_. In this form they are packed in
bags and distributed. The beans are then roasted to develop their flavor
and are crushed into small pieces called _cocoa nibs_, as shown at _b_.
The cocoa nibs are then ground fine, when they become almost a liquid
mass because of the very large amount of fat contained in cocoa. To make
the ordinary _bitter chocolate_ used so extensively for cooking
purposes, this mass is run into shallow pans, where it hardens as it
cools. It is often flavored and sweetened and then forms the confection
known as _sweet chocolate_. The application of pressure to bitter
chocolate extracts considerable fat, which is known as _cocoa butter_
and is used largely in creams and toilet preparations. The remaining
material is ground into a powder, as shown at _c_, and becomes the
To prevent the formation of a large amount of sediment in the bottom of
the cup, cocoa is treated with various kinds of alkali. Some of these
remain in the cocoa and are supposed to be harmful if it is taken in any
quantity. The cocoas that are treated with alkali are darker in color
than the others. The Dutch cocoas are considered to be the most soluble
and also contain the most alkali.
64. SELECTION OF COCOA AND CHOCOLATE.--Chocolate is usually pure in the
form in which it is sold, because it does not offer much chance for
adulteration. However, the volume of cocoa can be easily increased by
cheaper materials, such as starch, ground cocoa shells, etc. Cocoa so
adulterated should be avoided if possible. Generally the best brands,
although higher in price than others, are free from adulteration, and
from these a selection should be made. The particular brand of chocolate
or cocoa to buy must be governed by the taste of those to whom it is to
PREPARATION OF COCOA AND CHOCOLATE
65. As a beverage, cocoa probably has greater use than chocolate; still
there are some who prefer the flavor of chocolate to that of cocoa.
Directions for preparing beverages from both of these materials are
given, with the intention that the housewife may decide for herself
which one she prefers to use. For either one, any ordinary saucepan or
kettle may be used, but those made of enamel or aluminum are best. Of
these two materials, aluminum is the better, for milk is less liable to
scorch in a vessel of this kind than in one of any other material.
66. When chocolate is to be used for a beverage, the amount required
varies with the strength desired. Recipes for bitter chocolate usually
give the amount in squares, but no difficulty will be experienced in
determining the amount, for the cakes of chocolate are marked in squares
of 1 ounce each. If sweet chocolate is used, less sugar should, of
course, be added to the beverage.
67. In all but the first of the recipes that follow, it will be observed
that milk is used for a part of the liquid. The quantity given makes an
excellent beverage, but more or less may be used if desired. However, if
the quantity of milk is changed, the quantity of water should be changed
accordingly. Condensed or evaporated milk may be utilized very nicely in
the making of these two beverages. Milk of this kind should, of course,
be diluted, a half-pint can requiring 2 to 3 cupfuls of water. If
condensed milk is used, less sugar than the recipe calls for may be
employed. A few drops of vanilla added just before serving always
improves the flavor of cocoa or chocolate.
68. PLAIN COCOA.--The quickest and cheapest method of making cocoa is
explained in the recipe that follows. It may be prepared in a saucepan
and poured into the cups or it may be made in the cups themselves. To
improve the flavor of cocoa made in this way, as well as add to its food
value, cream should be served with it. Salt also is used to improve the
flavor of all cocoa and chocolate beverages.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
2-1/2 Tb. cocoa
2-1/2 Tb. sugar
Few grains of salt
4 c. boiling water
Mix the cocoa, sugar, and salt, form into a paste by stirring in a
little of the water, and then add the remainder of the water. Serve
69. BREAKFAST COCOA.--Delicious cocoa can be made by following the
directions given in the accompanying recipe. Here milk and water are
used in equal amounts. When milk is used in the preparation of this
beverage, a scum of albumin is likely to form on the top of the cups
unless care is taken. To prevent this, the cocoa, as soon as it is
prepared, should be beaten with a rotary egg beater until a fine froth
forms on top. This process is known as _milling_, and should always be
applied whenever milk is used in the preparation of these beverages.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
2 c. milk
2 Tb. cocoa
2 Tb. sugar
Few grains of salt
2 c. boiling water
Scald the milk. Mix the cocoa, sugar, and salt, form into a paste by
stirring in a little of the boiling water, and then add the scalded milk
and the remainder of the water. Beat with an egg beater until a froth is
formed and serve at once.
70. RICH COCOA.--There are times when it is desired to serve rich cocoa,
as, for instance, with a lunch that is not high in food value or with
wafers at afternoon social affairs. The accompanying recipe explains how
to make cocoa that will be suitable for such occasions.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
4 c. milk
3 Tb. cocoa
1/4 c. sugar
Few grains of salt
1/2 c. boiling water
Scald the milk. Stir the cocoa, sugar, and salt into a smooth paste with
the boiling water and boil for 2 or 3 minutes. Add the scalded milk,
mill, and serve.
71. CREAMY COCOA.--When there is not very much milk on hand and still a
rich, creamy cocoa is desired, the accompanying recipe should be tried.
As will be noted, flour is used in addition to the usual ingredients.
While this is accountable for the creamy consistency of the cocoa, it
should be remembered that the cocoa must be cooked long enough to remove
the raw, starchy flavor of the flour.
(Sufficient to Serve Six)
4 Tb. cocoa
1 Tb. flour
4 Tb. sugar
Few grains of salt
2 c. boiling water
2 c. milk
Mix the cocoa, flour, sugar, and salt, and stir into a paste with some
of the water. Add the rest of the water, cook for 5 minutes, and then
add the milk, which has been scalded. Mill and serve.
72. HOT CHOCOLATE.--Very good hot chocolate can be made by following
the directions here given. As will be noted, this recipe is similar to
several of those given for cocoa, except that chocolate is substituted
for the cocoa. It may therefore be used on any occasion when cocoa would
be served. It is especially delicious when served with a tablespoonful
or two of whipped cream.
2 c. milk
1-1/2 sq. unsweetened chocolate
1/4 c. sugar
Few grains of salt
2 c. boiling water
Scald the milk. Melt the chocolate over the fire, add the sugar and
salt, and gradually stir in the boiling water. Place over the fire, let
boil for 2 or 3 minutes, and add the scalded milk. Mill and serve plain
or with whipped cream.
73. ICED COCOA OR CHOCOLATE.--An excellent warm-weather beverage
consists of cold cocoa or cold chocolate served either with or without
sweetened whipped cream. Prepare the cocoa or chocolate according to any
of the recipes already given and then allow it to cool. Fill glasses
with cracked ice, pour the cocoa or chocolate over it, and serve either
with or without sweetened whipped cream.
74. LEFT-OVER COCOA AND CHOCOLATE.--As the materials used in the
preparation of cocoa and chocolate are rather expensive, not the
slightest quantity of these beverages that remains after serving should
be wasted. However, a small amount of chocolate usually has to be added
so that it will have a stronger flavor. It may then be thickened with
corn starch for chocolate blanc mange or with gelatine for chocolate
jelly. Either of these served with whipped cream or a sauce of some kind
makes an excellent dessert. Chocolate bread pudding may also be flavored
with these left-over beverages.
It is also a good plan to utilize left-over cocoa or chocolate for
flavoring purposes. However, additional cocoa or chocolate and sugar
should first be added to it, and the mixture should then be boiled to a
sirup. When so prepared it may be used whenever a chocolate flavoring is
desired, such as for flavoring other beverages, cake icings, custards,
sauces for desserts, and ice creams.
SERVING COCOA AND CHOCOLATE
75. When cocoa or chocolate is used to accompany meals, it is served in
the usual sized teacup. However, when either of these beverages is
served at receptions or instead of tea in the afternoon, regular
chocolate cups, which hold only about half as much as teacups, are used.
An attractive chocolate service to use for special occasions is shown in
Fig. 11. The cocoa or chocolate is prepared in the kitchen, but is
served to the guests from a chocolate pot, such as the one shown, in
tall cups that match the chocolate pot in design. If such a service is
not available, the cocoa or chocolate may be poured into the cups in the
kitchen and then brought to the guests on a tray.
[Illustration: FIG. 11]
Besides sugar, which is generally added in the preparation of cocoa and
chocolate, cream usually accompanies these beverages, especially when
they are made without milk or with only a little. If the cream is
whipped and slightly sweetened, a spoonful or two will be sufficient to
render the beverage delightful. In case no cream is on hand,
marshmallows make a very good substitute. One of these should be placed
in the bottom of each cup and the hot beverage poured over it. The
marshmallow softens and rises to the top. When marshmallows are to be
added to cocoa, less sugar should be used in its preparation.
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