The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Part 3 out of 6

grant, that all the things that here are given and spoken, and
all the things that thy predecessors and mine have given, shall
remain firm; and whosoever breaketh it, then give I him God's
curse, and that of all saints, and of all hooded heads, and mine,
unless he come to repentance. And I give expressly to St. Peter
my mass-hackle, and my stole, and my reef, to serve Christ." "I
Oswald, Archbishop of York, confirm all these words through the
holy rood on which Christ was crucified." (+) "I Bishop
Athelwold bless all that maintain this, and I excommunicate all
that break it, unless they come to repentance." -- Here was
Bishop Ellstan, Bishop Athulf, and Abbot Eskwy, and Abbot Osgar,
and Abbot Ethelgar, and Alderman Elfere; .Alderman Ethelwin,
Britnoth and Oslac aldermen, and many other rich men; and all
confirmed it and subscribed it with the cross of Christ. (+)
This was done in the year after our Lord's Nativity 972, the
sixteenth year of this king. Then bought the Abbot Aldulf lands
rich and many, and much endowed the minster withal; and was there
until Oswald, Archbishop of York, was dead; and then he was
chosen to be archbishop. Soon after another abbot was chosen of
the same monastery, whose name was Kenulf, who was afterwards
Bishop of Winchester. He first made the wall about the minster,
and gave it then the name of Peterborough, which before was
Medhamsted. He was there till he was appointed Bishop of
Winchester, when another abbot was chosen of the same monastery,
whose name was Elfsy, who continued abbot fifty winters
afterwards. It was he who took up St. Kyneburga and St.
Kyneswitha, that lay at Castor, and St. Tibba, that lay at
Ryhall; and brought them to Peterborough, and offered them all to
St. Peter in one day, and preserved them all the while he was

((A.D. 963. This year, by King Edgar, St. Ethelwold was chosen
to the bishoprick at Winchester. And the Archbishop of
Canterbury, St. Dunstan, consecrated him bishop on the first
Sunday of Advent; that was on the third before the kalends of

A.D. 964. This year drove King Edgar the priests of Winchester
out of the old minster, and also out of the new minster; and from
Chertsey; and from Milton; and replaced them with monks. And he
appointed Ethelgar abbot to the new minster, and Ordbert to
Chertsey, and Cyneward to Milton.

((A.D. 964. This year were the canons driven out of the Old-
minster by King Edgar, and also from the New-minster, and from
Chertsey and from Milton; and he appointed thereto monks and
abbots: to the New-minster Ethelgar, to Chertsey Ordbert, to
Milton Cyneward.))

A.D. 965. This year King Edgar took Elfrida for his queen, who
was daughter of Alderman Ordgar.

A.D. 966. This year Thored, the son of Gunner, plundered
Westmorland; and the same year Oslac took to the aldermanship.

A.D. 969. This year King Edgar ordered all Thanet-land to be

A.D. 970. This year died Archbishop Oskytel; who was first
consecrated diocesan bishop at Dorchester, and afterwards it was
by the consent of King Edred and all his council that he was
consecrated Archbishop of York. He was bishop two and twenty
winters; and he died on Alhallow-mas night, ten nights before
Martinmas, at Thame. Abbot Thurkytel, his relative, carried the
bishop's body to Bedford, because he was the abbot there at that

A.D. 971. This year died Edmund Atheling, and his body lies at

((A.D. 972. This year Edgar the etheling was consecrated king at
Bath, on Pentecost's mass-day, on the fifth before the ides of
May, the thirteenth year since he had obtained the kingdom; and
he was then one less than thirty years of age. And soon after
that, the king led all his ship-forces to Chester; and there came
to meet him six kings, and they all plighted their troth to him,
that they would be his fellow-workers by sea and by land.))

A.D. 973. Here was Edgar,
of Angles lord,
with courtly pomp
hallow'd to king
at Akemancester,
the ancient city;
whose modern sons,
dwelling therein,
have named her BATH.
Much bliss was there
by all enjoyed
on that happy day,
named Pentecost
by men below.
A crowd of priests,
a throng of monks,
I understand,
in counsel sage,
were gather'd there.
Then were agone
ten hundred winters
of number'd years
from the birth of Christ,
the lofty king,
guardian of light,
save that thereto
there yet was left
of winter-tale,
as writings say,
seven and twenty.
So near had run
of the lord of triumphs
a thousand years,
when this was done.
Nine and twenty
hard winters there
of irksome deeds
had Edmund's son
seen in the world,
when this took place,
and on the thirtieth
was hallow'd king. (43)
Soon after this the king led all his marine force to Chester; and
there came to meet him six kings; and they all covenanted with
him, that they would be his allies by sea and by land.

A.D. 975. Here ended
his earthly dreams
Edgar, of Angles king;
chose him other light,
serene and lovely,
spurning this frail abode,
a life that mortals
here call lean
he quitted with disdain.
July the month,
by all agreed
in this our land,
whoever were
in chronic lore
correctly taught;
the day the eighth,
when Edgar young,
rewarder of heroes,
his life -- his throne -- resigned.
Edward his son,
unwaxen child,
of earls the prince,
succeeded then
to England's throne.
Of royal race
ten nights before
departed hence
Cyneward the good --
prelate of manners mild.
Well known to me
in Mercia then,
how low on earth
God's glory fell
on every side:
chaced from the land,
his servants fled, --
their wisdom scorned;
much grief to him
whose bosom glow'd
with fervent love
of great Creation's Lord!
Neglected then
the God of wonders,
victor of victors,
monarch of heaven, --
his laws by man transgressed!
Then too was driv'n
Oslac beloved
an exile far
from his native land
over the rolling waves, --
over the ganet-bath,
over the water-throng,
the abode of the whale, --
fair-hair'd hero,
wise and eloquent,
of home bereft!
Then too was seen,
high in the heavens,
the star on his station,
that far and wide
wise men call --
lovers of truth
and heav'nly lore --
"cometa" by name.
Widely was spread
God's vengeance then
throughout the land,
and famine scour'd the hills.
May heaven's guardian,
the glory of angels,
avert these ills,
and give us bliss again;
that bliss to all
abundance yields
from earth's choice fruits,
throughout this happy isle. (45)

((A.D. 975. The eighth before the ides of July.
Here Edgar died,
ruler of Angles,
West-Saxons' joy,
and Mercians' protector.
Known was it widely
throughout many nations.
"Thaet" offspring of Edmund,
o'er the ganet's-bath,
honoured far,
Kings him widely
bowed to the king,
as was his due by kind.
No fleet was so daring,
nor army so strong,
that 'mid the English nation
took from him aught,
the while that the noble king
ruled on his throne.
And this year Edward, Edgar's son, succeeded to the kingdom; and
then soon, in the same year, during harvest, appeared "cometa"
the star; and then came in the following year a very great
famine, and very manifold commotions among the English people.
In his days,
for his youth,
God's gainsayers
God's law broke;
Eldfere, ealdorman,
and others many;
and rule monastic quashed,
and minsters dissolved,
and monks drove out,
and God's servants put down,
whom Edgar, king, ordered erewhile
the holy bishop
Ethelwold to stablish;
and widows they plundered,
many times and oft:
and many unrighteousnesses,
and evil unjust-deeds
arose up afterwards:
and ever after that
it greatly grew in evil.
And at that rime, also, was Oslac the great earl banished from

A.D. 976. This year was the great famine in England.

A.D. 977. This year was that great council at Kirtlington, (46)
after Easter; and there died Bishop Sideman a sudden death, on
the eleventh day before the calends of May. He was Bishop of
Devonshire; and he wished that his resting-place should be at
Crediton, his episcopal residence; but King Edward and Archbishop
Dunstan ordered men to carry him to St. Mary's minster that is at
Abingdon. And they did so; and he is moreover honourably buried
on the north side in St. Paul's porch.

A.D. 978. This year all the oldest counsellors of England fell at
Calne from an upper floor; but the holy Archbishop Dunstan stood
alone upon a beam. Some were dreadfully bruised: and some did
not escape with life. This year was King Edward slain, at
eventide, at Corfe-gate, on the fifteenth day before the calends
of April. And he was buried at Wareham without any royal honour.
No worse deed than this was ever done by the English nation since
they first sought the land of Britain. Men murdered him but God
has magnified him. He was in life an earthly king -- he is now
after death a heavenly saint. Him would not his earthly
relatives avenge -- but his heavenly father has avenged him
amply. The earthly homicides would wipe out his memory from the
earth -- but the avenger above has spread his memory abroad in
heaven and in earth. Those, Who would not before bow to his
living body, now bow on their knees to His dead bones. Now we
may conclude, that the wisdom of men, and their meditations, and
their counsels, are as nought against the appointment of God. In
this same year succeeded Ethelred Etheling, his brother, to the
government; and he was afterwards very readily, and with great
joy to the counsellors of England, consecrated king at Kingston.
In the same year also died Alfwold, who was Bishop of
Dorsetshire, and whose body lieth in the minster at Sherborn.

A.D. 979. In this year was Ethelred consecrated king, on the
Sunday fortnight after Easter, at Kingston. And there were at
his consecration two archbishops, and ten diocesan bishops. This
same year was seen a bloody welkin oft-times in the likeness of
fire; and that was most apparent at midnight, and so in misty
beams was shown; but when it began to dawn, then it glided away.

((A.D. 979. This year was King Edward slain at even-tide, at
Corfe-gate, on the fifteenth before the kalends of April, and
then was he buried at Wareham, without any kind of kingly
There has not been 'mid Angles
a worse deed done
than this was,
since they first
Britain-land sought.
Men him murdered,
but God him glorified.
He was in life
an earthly king;
he is now after death
a heavenly saint.
Him would not his earthly
kinsmen avenge,
but him hath his heavenly Father
greatly avenged.
The earthly murderers
would his memory
on earth blot out,
but the lofty Avenger
hath his memory
in the heavens
and on earth wide-spread.
They who would not erewhile
to his living
body bow down,
they now humbly
on knees bend
to his dead bones.
Now we may understand
that men's wisdom
and their devices,
and their councils,
are like nought
'gainst God's resolves.
This year Ethelred succeeded to the kingdom; and he was very
quickly after that, with much joy of the English witan,
consecrated king at Kingston.))

A.D. 980. In this year was Ethelgar consecrated bishop, on the
sixth day before the nones of May, to the bishopric of Selsey;
and in the same year was Southampton plundered by a pirate-army,
and most of the population slain or imprisoned. And the same
year was the Isle of Thanet overrun, and the county of Chester
was plundered by the pirate-army of the North. In this year
Alderman Alfere fetched the body of the holy King Edward at
Wareham, and carried him with great solemnity to Shaftsbury.

A.D. 981. In this year was St. Petroc's-stow plundered; and in
the same year was much harm done everywhere by the sea-coast,
both upon Devonshire and Wales. And in the same year died
Elfstan, Bishop of Wiltshire; and his body lieth in the minster
at Abingdon; and Wulfgar then succeeded to the bishopric. The
same year died Womare, Abbot of Ghent.

((A.D. 981. This year came first the seven ships, and ravaged

A.D. 982. In this year came up in Dorsetshire three ships of the
pirates, and plundered in Portland. The same year London was
burned. In the same year also died two aldermen, Ethelmer in
Hampshire, and Edwin in Sussex. Ethelmer's body lieth in
Winchester, at New-minster, and Edwin's in the minster at
Abingdon. The same year died two abbesses in Dorsetshire;
Herelufa at Shaftsbury, and Wulfwina at Wareham. The same year
went Otho, emperor of the Romans, into Greece; and there met he a
great army of the Saracens, who came up from the sea, and would
have proceeded forthwith to plunder the Christian folk; but the
emperor fought with them. And there was much slaughter made on
either side, but the emperor gained the field of battle. He was
there, however, much harassed, ere he returned thence; and as he
went homeward, his brother's son died, who was also called Otho;
and he was the son of Leodulf Atheling. This Leodulf was the son
of Otho the Elder and of the daughter of King Edward.

A.D. 983. This year died Alderman Alfere, and Alfric succeeded
to the same eldership; and Pope Benedict also died.

A.D. 984. This year died the benevolent Bishop of Winchester,
Athelwold, father of monks; and the consecration of the following
bishop, Elfheah, who by another name was called Godwin, was on
the fourteenth day before the calends of November; and he took
his seat on the episcopal bench on the mass-day of the two
apostles Simon and Jude, at Winchester.

A.D. 985. This year was Alderman Alfric driven out of the land;
and in the same year was Edwin consecrated abbot of the minster
at Abingdon.

A.D. 986. This year the king invaded the bishopric of Rochester;
and this year came first the great murrain of cattle in England.

A.D. 987. This year was the port of Watchet plundered.

A.D. 988. This year was Goda, the thane of Devonshire, slain;
and a great number with him: and Dunstan, the holy archbishop,
departed this life, and sought a heavenly one. Bishop Ethelgar
succeeded him in the archbishopric; but he lived only a little
while after, namely, one year and three months.

A.D. 989. This year died Abbot Edwin, and Abbot Wulfgar
succeeded to the abbacy. Siric was this year invested
archbishop, and went afterwards to Rome after his pall.

A.D. 991. This year was Ipswich plundered; and very soon
afterwards was Alderman Britnoth (47) slain at Maidon. In this
same year it was resolved that tribute should be given, for the
first time, to the Danes, for the great terror they occasioned by
the sea-coast. That was first 10,000 pounds. The first who
advised this measure was Archbishop Siric.

A.D. 992. This year the blessed Archbishop Oswald departed this
life, and sought a heavenly one; and in the same year died
Alderman Ethelwin. Then the king and all his council resolved,
that all the ships that were of any account should be gathered
together at London; and the king committed the lead of the land-
force to Alderman Elfric, and Earl Thorod, and Bishop Elfstan,
and Bishop Escwy; that they should try if they could anywhere
without entrap the enemy. Then sent Alderman Elfric, and gave
warning to the enemy; and on the night preceding the day of
battle he sculked away from the army, to his great disgrace. The
enemy then escaped; except the crew of one ship, who were slain
on the spot. Then met the enemy the ships from East-Anglia, and
from London; and there a great slaughter was made, and they took
the ship in which was the alderman, all armed and rigged. Then,
after the death of Archbishop Oswald, succeeded Aldulf, Abbot of
Peterborough, to the sees of York and of Worcester; and Kenulf to
the abbacy of Peterborough.

((A.D. 992. This year Oswald the blessed archbishop died, and
Abbot Eadulf succeeded to York and to Worcester. And this year
the king and all his witan decreed that all the ships which were
worth anything should be gathered together at London, in order
that they might try if they could anywhere betrap the army from
without. But Aelfric the ealdorman, one of those in whom the
king had most confidence, directed the army to be warned; and in
the night, as they should on the morrow have joined battle, the
selfsame Aelfric fled from the forces; and then the army

A.D. 993. This year came Anlaf with three and ninety ships to
Staines, which he plundered without, and went thence to Sandwich.
Thence to Ipswich, which he laid waste; and so to Maidon, where
Alderman Britnoth came against him with his force, and fought
with him; and there they slew the alderman, and gained the field
of battle; whereupon peace was made with him, and the king
received him afterwards at episcopal hands by the advice of
Siric, Bishop of Canterbury, and Elfeah of Winchester. This year
was Bamborough destroyed, and much spoil was there taken.
Afterwards came the army to the mouth of the Humber; and there
did much evil both in Lindsey and in Northumbria. Then was
collected a great force; but when the armies were to engage, then
the generals first commenced a flight; namely, Frene and Godwin
and Frithgist. In this same year the king ordered Elfgar, son of
Alderman Elfric, to be punished with blindness.

((A.D. 993. In this year came Olave with ninety-three ships to
Staines, and ravaged there about, and then went thence to
Sandwich, and so thence to Ipswich, and that all overran; and so
to Maldon. And there Britnoth the ealdorman came against them
with his forces, and fought against them: and they there slew the
ealdorman, and had possession of the place of carnage. And after
that peace was made with them; and him (Anlaf) the king
afterwards received at the bishop's hands, through the
instruction of Siric, bishop of the Kentish-men, and of Aelphege
of Winchester.))

A.D. 994. This year died Archbishop Siric: and Elfric, Bishop of
Wiltshire, was chosen on Easter-day, at Amesbury, by King
Ethelred and all his council. This year came Anlaf and Sweyne to
London, on the Nativity of St. Mary, with four and ninety-ships.
And they closely besieged the city, and would fain have set it on
fire; but they sustained more harm and evil than they ever
supposed that any citizens could inflict on them. The holy
mother of God on that day in her mercy considered the citizens,
and ridded them of their enemies. Thence they advanced, and
wrought the greatest evil that ever any army could do, in burning
and plundering and manslaughter, not only on the sea-coast in
Essex, but in Kent and in Sussex and in Hampshire. Next they
took horse, and rode as wide as they would, and committed
unspeakable evil. Then resolved the king and his council to send
to them, and offer them tribute and provision, on condition that
they desisted from plunder. The terms they accepted; and the
whole army came to Southampton, and there fixed their winter-
quarters; where they were fed by all the subjects of the West-
Saxon kingdom. And they gave them 16,000 pounds in money. Then
sent the king; after King Anlaf Bishop Elfeah and Alderman
Ethelwerd; (48) and, hostages being left with the ships, they led
Anlaf with great pomp to the king at Andover. And King Ethelred
received him at episcopal hands, and honoured him with royal
presents. In return Anlaf promised, as he also performed, that
he never again would come in a hostile manner to England.

A.D. 995. This year appeared the comet-star.

A.D. 996. This year was Elfric consecrated archbishop at Christ
church. (49)

A.D. 997. This year went the army about Devonshire into Severn-
mouth, and equally plundered the people of Cornwall, North-Wales,
(50) and Devon. Then went they up at Watchet, and there much
evil wrought in burning and manslaughter. Afterwards they
coasted back about Penwithstert on the south side, and, turning
into the mouth of the Tamer, went up till they came to Liddyford,
burning and slaying everything that they met. Moreover, Ordulf's
minster at Tavistock they burned to the ground, and brought to
their ships incalculable plunder. This year Archbishop Elfric
went to Rome after his staff.

A.D. 998. This year coasted the army back eastward into the
mouth of the Frome, and went up everywhere, as widely as they
would, into Dorsetshire. Often was an army collected against
them; but, as soon as they were about to come together, then were
they ever through something or other put to flight, and their
enemies always in the end had the victory. Another time they lay
in the Isle of Wight, and fed themselves meanwhile from Hampshire
and Sussex.

A.D. 999. This year came the army about again into the Thames,
and went up thence along the Medway to Rochester; where the
Kentish army came against them, and encountered them in a close
engagement; but, alas! they too soon yielded and fled; because
they had not the aid that they should have had. The Danes
therefore occupied the field of battle, and, taking horse, they
rode as wide as they would, spoiling and overrunning nearly all
West-Kent. Then the king with his council determined to proceed
against them with sea and land forces; but as soon as the ships
were ready, then arose delay from day to day, which harassed the
miserable crew that lay on board; so that, always, the forwarder
it should have been, the later it was, from one time to another;
-- they still suffered the army of their enemies to increase; --
the Danes continually retreated from the sea-coast;-- and they
continually pursued them in vain. Thus in the end these
expeditions both by sea and land served no other purpose but to
vex the people, to waste their treasure, and to strengthen their
enemies. "

A.D. 1000. This year the king went into Cumberland, and nearly
laid waste the whole of it with his army, whilst his navy sailed
about Chester with the design of co-operating with his land-
forces; but, finding it impracticable, they ravaged Anglesey.
The hostile fleet was this summer turned towards the kingdom of

A.D. 1001. This year there was great commotion in England in
consequence of an invasion by the Danes, who spread terror and
devastation wheresoever they went, plundering and burning and
desolating the country with such rapidity, that they advanced in
one march as far as the town of Alton; where the people of
Hampshire came against them, and fought with them. There was
slain Ethelwerd, high-steward of the king, and Leofric of
Whitchurch, and Leofwin, high-steward of the king, and Wulfhere,
a bishop's thane, and Godwin of Worthy, son of Bishop Elfsy; and
of all the men who were engaged with them eighty-one. Of the
Danes there was slain a much greater number, though they remained
in possession of the field of battle. Thence they proceeded
westward, until they came into Devonshire; where Paley came to
meet them with the ships which he was able to collect; for he had
shaken off his allegiance to King Ethelred, against all the vows
of truth and fidelity which he had given him, as well as the
presents which the king had bestowed on him in houses and gold
and silver. And they burned Teignton, and also many other goodly
towns that we cannot name; and then peace was there concluded
with them. And they proceeded thence towards Exmouth, so that
they marched at once till they came to Pin-hoo; where Cole, high-
steward of the king, and Edsy, reve of the king, came against
them with the army that they could collect. But they were there
put to flight, and there were many slain, and the Danes had
possession of the field of battle. And the next morning they
burned the village of Pin-hoo, and of Clist, and also many goodly
towns that we cannot name. Then they returned eastward again,
till they came to the Isle of Wight. The next morning they
burned the town of Waltham, and many other small towns; soon
after which the people treated with them, and they made peace.

((A.D. 1001. This year the army came to Exmouth, and then went
up to the town, and there continued fighting stoutly; but they
were very strenuously resisted. Then went they through the land,
and did all as was their wont; destroyed and burnt. Then was
collected a vast force of the people of Devon and of the people
of Somerset, and they then came together at Pen. And so soon as
they joined battle, then the people gave way: and there they made
great slaughter, and then they rode over the land, and their last
incursion was ever worse than the one before: and then they
brought much booty with them to their ships. And thence they
went into the Isle of Wight, and there they roved about, even as
they themselves would, and nothing withstood them: nor any fleet
by sea durst meet them; nor land force either, went they ever so
far up. Then was it in every wise a heavy time, because they
never ceased from their evil doings.))

A.D. 1002. This year the king and his council agreed that
tribute should be given to the fleet, and peace made with them,
with the provision that they should desist from their mischief.
Then sent the king to the fleet Alderman Leofsy, who at the
king's word and his council made peace with them, on condition
that they received food and tribute; which they accepted, and a
tribute was paid of 24,000 pounds. In the meantime Alderman
Leofsy slew Eafy, high-steward of the king; and the king banished
him from the land. Then, in the same Lent, came the Lady Elfgive
Emma, Richard's daughter, to this land. And in the same summer
died Archbishop Eadulf; and also, in the same year the king gave
an order to slay all the Danes that were in England. This was
accordingly done on the mass-day of St. Brice; because it was
told the king, that they would beshrew him of his life, and
afterwards all his council, and then have his kingdom without any

A.D. 1003. This year was Exeter demolished, through the French
churl Hugh, whom the lady had appointed her steward there. And
the army destroyed the town withal, and took there much spoil.
In the same year came the army up into Wiltshire. Then was
collected a very great force, from Wiltshire and from Hampshire;
which was soon ready on their march against the enemy: and
Alderman Elfric should have led them on; but he brought forth his
old tricks, and as soon as they were so near, that either army
looked on the other, then he pretended sickness, and began to
retch, saying he was sick; and so betrayed the people that he
should have led: as it is said, "When the leader is sick the
whole army is hindered." When Sweyne saw that they were not
ready, and that they all retreated, then led he his army into
Wilton; and they plundered and burned the town. Then went he to
Sarum; and thence back to the sea, where he knew his ships were.

A.D. 1004. This year came Sweyne with his fleet to Norwich,
plundering and burning the whole town. Then Ulfkytel agreed with
the council in East-Anglia, that it were better to purchase peace
with the enemy, ere they did too much harm on the land; for that
they had come unawares, and he had not had time to gather his
force. Then, under the truce that should have been between them,
stole the army up from their ships, and bent their course to
Thetford. When Ulfkytel understood that, then sent he an order
to hew the ships in pieces; but they frustrated his design. Then
he gathered his forces, as secretly as he could. The enemy came
to Thetford within three weeks after they had plundered Norwich;
and, remaining there one night, they spoiled and burned the town;
but, in the morning, as they were proceeding to their ships, came
Ulfkytel with his army, and said that they must there come to
close quarters. And, accordingly, the two armies met together;
and much slaughter was made on both sides. There were many of
the veterans of the East-Angles slain; but, if the main army had
been there, the enemy had never returned to their ships. As they
said themselves, that they never met with worse hand-play in
England than Ulfkytel brought them.

A.D. 1005. This year died Archbishop Elfric; and Bishop Elfeah
succeeded him in the archbishopric. This year was the great
famine in England so severe that no man ere remembered such. The
fleet this year went from this land to Denmark, and took but a
short respite, before they came again.

A.D. 1006. This year Elfeah was consecrated Archbishop; Bishop
Britwald succeeded to the see of Wiltshire; Wulfgeat was deprived
of all his property; (51) Wulfeah and Ufgeat were deprived of
sight; Alderman Elfelm was slain; and Bishop Kenulf (52) departed
this life. Then, over midsummer, came the Danish fleet to
Sandwich, and did as they were wont; they barrowed and burned and
slew as they went. Then the king ordered out all the population
from Wessex and from Mercia; and they lay out all the harvest
under arms against the enemy; but it availed nothing more than it
had often done before. For all this the enemy went wheresoever
they would; and the expedition did the people more harm than
either any internal or external force could do. When winter
approached, then went the army home; and the enemy retired after
Martinmas to their quarters in the Isle of Wight, and provided
themselves everywhere there with what they wanted. Then, about
midwinter, they went to their ready farm, throughout Hampshire
into Berkshire, to Reading. And they did according to their
custom, -- they lighted their camp-beacons as they advanced.
Thence they marched to Wallingford, which they entirely
destroyed, and passed one night at Cholsey. They then turned
along Ashdown to Cuckamsley-hill, and there awaited better cheer;
for it was often said, that if they sought Cuckamsley, they would
never get to the sea. But they went another way homeward. Then
was their army collected at Kennet; and they came to battle
there, and soon put the English force to flight; and afterwards
carried their spoil to the sea. There might the people of
Winchester see the rank and iniquitous foe, as they passed by
their gates to the sea, fetching their meat and plunder over an
extent of fifty miles from sea. Then was the king gone over the
Thames into Shropshire; and there he fixed his abode during
midwinter. Meanwhile, so great was the fear of the enemy, that
no man could think or devise how to drive them from the land, or
hold this territory against them; for they had terribly marked
each shire in Wessex with fire and devastation. Then the king
began to consult seriously with his council, what they all
thought most advisable for defending this land, ere it was
utterly undone. Then advised the king and his council for the
advantage of all the nation, though they were all loth to do it,
that they needs must bribe the enemy with a tribute. The king
then sent to the army, and ordered it to be made known to them,
that his desire was, that there should be peace between them, and
that tribute and provision should be given them. And they
accepted the terms; and they were provisioned throughout England.

((A.D. 1006. This year Elphege was consecrated archbishop [of

A.D. 1007. In this year was the tribute paid to the hostile
army; that was, 30,000 pounds. In this year also was Edric
appointed alderman over all the kingdom of the Mercians. This
year went Bishop Elfeah to Rome after his pall.

A.D. 1008. This year bade the king that men should speedily
build ships over all England; that is, a man possessed of three
hundred and ten hides to provide on galley or skiff; and a man
possessed of eight hides only, to find a helmet and breastplate

A.D. 1009. This year were the ships ready, that we before spoke
about; and there were so many of them as never were in England
before, in any king's days, as books tell us. And they were all
transported together to Sandwich; that they should lie there, and
defend this land against any out-force. But we have not yet had
the prosperity and the honour, that the naval armament should be
useful to this land, any more than it often before was. It was
at this same time, or a little earlier, that Brihtric, brother of
Alderman Edric, bewrayed Wulnoth, the South-Saxon knight, father
of Earl Godwin, to the king; and he went into exile, and enticed
the navy, till he had with him twenty ships; with which he
plundered everywhere by the south coast, and wrought every kind
of mischief. When it was told the navy that they might easily
seize him, if they would look about them, then took Brihtric with
him eighty ships; and thought that he should acquire for himself
much reputation, by getting Wulnoth into his hands alive or dead.
But, whilst they were proceeding thitherward, there came such a
wind against them, as no man remembered before; which beat and
tossed the ships, and drove them aground; whereupon Wulnoth soon
came, and burned them. When this was known to the remaining
ships, where the king was, how the others fared, it was then as
if all were lost. The king went home, with the aldermen and the
nobility; and thus lightly did they forsake the ships; whilst the
men that were in them rowed them back to London. Thus lightly
did they suffer the labour of all the people to be in vain; nor
was the terror lessened, as all England hoped. When this naval
expedition was thus ended, then came, soon after Lammas, the
formidable army of the enemy, called Thurkill's army, to
Sandwich; and soon they bent their march to Canterbury; which
city they would quickly have stormed, had they not rather desired
peace; and all the men of East-Kent made peace with the army, and
gave them 3,000 pounds for security. The army soon after that
went about till they came to the Isle of Wight; and everywhere in
Sussex, and in Hampshire, and also in Berkshire, they plundered
and burned, as THEIR CUSTOM IS. (54) Then ordered the king to
summon out all the population, that men might hold firm against
them on every side; but nevertheless they marched as they
pleased. On one occasion the king had begun his march before
them, as they proceeded to their ships, and all the people were
ready to fall upon them; but the plan was then frustrated through
Alderman Edric, AS IT EVER IS STILL. Then after Martinmas they
went back again to Kent, and chose their winter-quarters on the
Thames; obtaining their provisions from Essex, and from the
shires that were next, on both sides of the Thames. And oft they
fought against the city of London; but glory be to God, that it
yet standeth firm: and they ever there met with ill fare. Then
after midwinter took they an excursion up through Chiltern, (55)
and so to Oxford; which city they burned, and plundered on both
sides of the Thames to their ships. Being fore-warned that there
was an army gathered against them at London, they went over at
Staines; and thus were they in motion all the winter, and in
spring, appeared again in Kent, and repaired their ships.

A.D. 1010. This year came the aforesaid army, after Easter, into
East Anglia; and went up at Ipswich, marching continually till
they came where they understood Ulfcytel was with his army. This
was on the day called the first of the Ascension of our Lord.
The East-Angles soon fled. Cambridgeshire stood firm against
them. There was slain Athelstan, the king's relative, and Oswy,
and his son, and Wulfric, son of Leofwin, and Edwy, brother of
Efy, and many other good thanes, and a multitude of the people.
Thurkytel Myrehead first began the flight; and the Danes remained
masters of the field of slaughter. There were they horsed; and
afterwards took possession of East-Anglia, where they plundered
and burned three months; and then proceeded further into the wild
fens, slaying both men and cattle, and burning throughout the
fens. Thetford also they burned, and Cambridge; and afterwards
went back southward into the Thames; and the horsemen rode
towards the ships. Then went they west-ward into Oxfordshire,
and thence to Buckinghamshire, and so along the Ouse till they
came to Bedford, and so forth to Temsford, always burning as they
went. Then returned they to their ships with their spoil, which
they apportioned to the ships. When the king's army should have
gone out to meet them as they went up, then went they home; and
when they were in the east, then was the army detained in the
west; and when they were in the south, then was the army in the
north. Then all the privy council were summoned before the king,
to consult how they might defend this country. But, whatever was
advised, it stood not a month; and at length there was not a
chief that would collect an army, but each fled as he could: no
shire, moreover, would stand by another. Before the feast-day of
St. Andrew came the enemy to Northampton, and soon burned the
town, and took as much spoil thereabout as they would; and then
returned over the Thames into Wessex, and so by Cannings-marsh,
burning all the way. When they had gone as far as they would,
then came they by midwinter to their ships.

A.D. 1011. This year sent the king and his council to the army,
and desired peace; promising them both tribute and provisions, on
condition that they ceased from plunder. They had now overrun
East-Anglia [1], and Essex [2], and Middlesex [3], and
Oxfordshire [4], and Cambridgeshire [5], and Hertfordshire [6],
and Buckinghamshire [7], and Bedfordshire [8], and half of
Huntingdonshire [9], and much of Northamptonshire [10]; and, to
the south of the Thames, all Kent, and Sussex, and Hastings, and
Surrey, and Berkshire, and Hampshire, and much of Wiltshire. All
these disasters befel us through bad counsels; that they would
not offer tribute in time, or fight with them; but, when they had
done most mischief, then entered they into peace and amity with
them. And not the less for all this peace, and amity, and
tribute, they went everywhere in troops; plundering, and
spoiling, and slaying our miserable people. In this year,
between the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas, they beset
Canterbury, and entered therein through treachery; for Elfmar
delivered the city to them, whose life Archbishop Elfeah formerly
saved. And there they seized Archbishop Elfeah, and Elfward the
king's steward, and Abbess Leofruna, (56) and Bishop Godwin; and
Abbot Elfmar they suffered to go away. And they took therein all
the men, and husbands, and wives; and it was impossible for any
man to say how many they were; and in the city they continued
afterwards as long as they would. And, when they had surveyed
all the city, they then returned to their ships, and led the
archbishop with them.
Then was a captive
he who before was
of England head
and Christendom; --
there might be seen

great wretchedness,
where oft before
great bliss was seen,
in the fated city,
whence first to us
came Christendom,
and bliss 'fore God
and 'fore the world.
And the archbishop they kept with them until the time when they
martyred him.

A.D. 1012. This year came Alderman Edric, and all the oldest
counsellors of England, clerk and laity, to London before Easter,
which was then on the ides of April; and there they abode, over
Easter, until all the tribute was paid, which was 48,000 pounds.
Then on the Saturday was the army much stirred against the
bishop; because he would not promise them any fee, and forbade
that any man should give anything for him. They were also much
drunken; for there was wine brought them from the south. Then
took they the bishop, and led him to their hustings, on the eve
of the Sunday after Easter, which was the thirteenth before the
calends of May; and there they then shamefully killed him. They
overwhelmed him with bones and horns of oxen; and one of them
smote him with an axe-iron on the head; so that he sunk downwards
with the blow; and his holy blood fell on the earth, whilst his
sacred soul was sent to the realm of God. The corpse in the
morning was carried to London; and the bishops, Ednoth and
Elfhun, and the citizens, received him with all honour, and
buried him in St. Paul's minster; where God now showeth this holy
martyr's miracles. When the tribute was paid, and the peace-
oaths were sworn, then dispersed the army as widely as it was
before collected. Then submitted to the king five and forty of
the ships of the enemy; and promised him, that they would defend
this land, and he should feed and clothe them.

A.D. 1013. The year after that Archbishop Elfeah was martyred,
the king appointed Lifing to the archiepiscopal see of
Canterbury. And in the same year, before the month August, came
King Sweyne with his fleet to Sandwich; and very soon went about
East-Anglia into the Humber-mouth, and so upward along the Trent,
until he came to Gainsborough. Then soon submitted to him Earl
Utred, and all the Northumbrians, and all the people of Lindsey,
and afterwards the people of the Five Boroughs, and soon after
all the army to the north of Watling-street; and hostages were
given him from each shire. When he understood that all the
people were subject to him, then ordered he that his army should
have provision and horses; and he then went southward with his
main army, committing his ships and the hostages to his son
Knute. And after he came over Watling-street, they wrought the
greatest mischief that any army could do. Then he went to
Oxford; and the population soon submitted, and gave hostages;
thence to Winchester, where they did the same. Thence went they
eastward to London; and many of the party sunk in the Thames,
because they kept not to any bridge. When he came to the city,
the population would not submit; but held their ground in full
fight against him, because therein was King Ethelred, and
Thurkill with him. Then went King Sweyne thence to Wallingford;
and so over Thames westward to Bath, where he abode with his
army. Thither came Alderman Ethelmar, and all the western thanes
with him, and all submitted to Sweyne, and gave hostages. When
he had thus settled all, then went he northward to his ships; and
all the population fully received him, and considered him full
king. The population of London also after this submitted to him,
and gave hostages; because they dreaded that he would undo them.
Then bade Sweyne full tribute and forage for his army during the
winter; and Thurkill bade the same for the army that lay at
Greenwich: besides this, they plundered as oft as they would.
And when this nation could neither resist in the south nor in the
north, King Ethelred abode some while with the fleet that lay in
the Thames; and the lady (57) went afterwards over sea to her
brother Richard, accompanied by Elfsy, Abbot of Peterborough.
The king sent Bishop Elfun with the ethelings, Edward and Alfred,
over sea; that he might instruct them. Then went the king from
the fleet, about midwinter, to the Isle of Wight; and there abode
for the season; after which he went over sea to Richard, with
whom he abode till the time when Sweyne died. Whilst the lady
was with her brother beyond sea, Elfsy, Abbot of Peterborough,
who was there with her, went to the abbey called Boneval, where
St. Florentine's body lay; and there found a miserable place, a
miserable abbot, and miserable monks: because they had been
plundered. There he bought of the abbot, and of the monks, the
body of St. Florentine, all but the head, for 500 pounds; which,
on his return home, he offered to Christ and St. Peter.

A.D. 1014. This year King Sweyne ended his days at Candlemas,
the third day before the nones of February; and the same year
Elfwy, Bishop of York, was consecrated in London, on the festival
of St. Juliana. The fleet all chose Knute for king; whereupon
advised all the counsellors of England, clergy and laity, that
they should send after King Ethelred; saying, that no sovereign
was dearer to them than their natural lord, if he would govern
them better than he did before. Then sent the king hither his
son Edward, with his messengers; who had orders to greet all his
people, saying that he would be their faithful lord -- would
better each of those things that they disliked -- and that each
of the things should be forgiven which had been either done or
said against him; provided they all unanimously, without
treachery, turned to him. Then was full friendship established,
in word and in deed and in compact, on either side. And every
Danish king they proclaimed an outlaw for ever from England.
Then came King Ethelred home, in Lent, to his own people; and he
was gladly received by them all. Meanwhile, after the death of
Sweyne, sat Knute with his army in Gainsborough until Easter; and
it was agreed between him and the people of Lindsey, that they
should supply him with horses, and afterwards go out all together
and plunder. But King Ethelred with his full force came to
Lindsey before they were ready; and they plundered and burned,
and slew all the men that they could reach. Knute, the son of
Sweyne, went out with his fleet (so were the wretched people
deluded by him), and proceeded southward until he came to
Sandwich. There he landed the hostages that were given to his
father, and cut off their hands and ears and their noses.
Besides all these evils, the king ordered a tribute to the army
that lay at Greenwich, of 21,000 pounds. This year, on the eve
of St. Michael's day, came the great sea-flood, which spread wide
over this land, and ran so far up as it never did before,
overwhelming many towns, and an innumerable multitude of people.

A.D. 1015. This year was the great council at Oxford; where
Alderman Edric betrayed Sigferth and Morcar, the eldest thanes
belonging to the Seven Towns. He allured them into his bower,
where they were shamefully slain. Then the king took all their
possessions, and ordered the widow of Sigferth to be secured, and
brought within Malmsbury. After a little interval, Edmund
Etheling went and seized her, against the king's will, and had
her to wife. Then, before the Nativity of St. Mary, went the
etheling west-north into the Five Towns, (58) and soon plundered
all the property of Sigferth and Morcar; and all the people
submitted to him. At the same time came King Knute to Sandwich,
and went soon all about Kent into Wessex, until he came to the
mouth of the Frome; and then plundered in Dorset, and in
Wiltshire, and in Somerset. King Ethelred, meanwhile, lay sick
at Corsham; and Alderman Edric collected an army there, and
Edmund the etheling in the north. When they came together, the
alderman designed to betray Edmund the etheling, but he could
not; whereupon they separated without an engagement, and sheered
off from their enemies. Alderman Edric then seduced forty ships
from the king, and submitted to Knute. The West-Saxons also
submitted, and gave hostages, and horsed the army. And he
continued there until midwinter.

A.D. 1016. This year came King Knute with a marine force of one
hundred and sixty ships, and Alderman Edric with him, over the
Thames into Mercia at Cricklade; whence they proceeded to
Warwickshire, during the middle of the winter, and plundered
therein, and burned, and slew all they met. Then began Edmund
the etheling to gather an army, which, when it was collected,
could avail him nothing, unless the king were there and they had
the assistance of the citizens of London. The expedition
therefore was frustrated, and each man betook himself home.
After this. an army was again ordered, under full penalties, that
every person, however distant, should go forth; and they sent to
the king in London, and besought him to come to meet the army
with the aid that he could collect. When they were all
assembled, it succeeded nothing better than it often did before;
and, when it was told the king, that those persons would betray
him who ought to assist him, then forsook he the army, and
returned again to London. Then rode Edmund the etheling to Earl
Utred in Northumbria; and every man supposed that they would
collect an army King Knute; but they went into Stafforddhire, and
to Shrewsbury, and to Chester; and they plundered on their parts,
and Knute on his. He went out through Buckinghamshire to
Bedfordshire; thence to Huntingdonshire, and so into
Northamptonshire along the fens to Stamford. Thence into
Lincolnshire. Thence to Nottinghamshire; and so into Northumbria
toward York. When Utred understood this, he ceased from
plundering, and hastened northward, and submitted for need, and
all the Northumbrians with him; but, though he gave hostages, he
was nevertheless slain by the advice of Alderman Edric, and
Thurkytel, the son of Nafan, with him. After this, King Knute
appointed Eric earl over Northumbria, as Utred was; and then went
southward another way, all by west, till the whole army came,
before Easter, to the ships. Meantime Edmund Etheling went to
London to his father: and after Easter went King Knute with all
his ships toward London; but it happened that King Ethelred died
ere the ships came. He ended his days on St. George's day;
having held his kingdom in much tribulation and difficulty as
long as his life continued. After his decease, all the peers
that were in London, and the citizens, chose Edmund king; who
bravely defended his kingdom while his time was. Then came the
ships to Greenwich, about the gang-days, and within a short
interval went to London; where they sunk a deep ditch on the
south side, and dragged their ships to the west side of the
bridge. Afterwards they trenched the city without, so that no
man could go in or out, and often fought against it: but the
citizens bravely withstood them. King Edmund had ere this gone
out, and invaded the West-Saxons, who all submitted to him; and
soon afterward he fought with the enemy at Pen near Gillingham.
A second battle he fought, after midsummer, at Sherston; where
much slaughter was made on either side, and the leaders
themselves came together in the fight. Alderman Edric and Aylmer
the darling were assisting the army against King Edmund. Then
collected he his force the third time, and went to London, all by
north of the Thames, and so out through Clayhanger, and relieved
the citizens, driving the enemy to their ships. It was within
two nights after that the king went over at Brentford; where he
fought with the enemy, and put them to flight: but there many of
the English were drowned, from their own carelessness; who went
before the main army with a design to plunder. After this the
king went into Wessex, and collected his army; but the enemy soon
returned to London, and beset the city without, and fought
strongly against it both by water and land. But the almighty God
delivered them. The enemy went afterward from London with their
ships into the Orwell; where they went up and proceeded into
Mercia, slaying and burning whatsoever they overtook, as their
custom is; and, having provided themselves with meat, they drove
their ships and their herds into the Medway. Then assembled King
Edmund the fourth time all the English nation, and forded over
the Thames at Brentford; whence he proceeded into Kent. The
enemy fled before him with their horses into the Isle of Shepey;
and the king slew as many of them as he could overtake. Alderman
Edric then went to meet the king at Aylesford; than which no
measure could be more ill-advised. The enemy, meanwhile,
returned into Essex, and advanced into Mercia, destroying all
that he overtook. When the king understood that the army was up,
then collected he the fifth time all the English nation, and went
behind them, and overtook them in Essex, on the down called
Assingdon; where they fiercely came together. Then did Alderman
Edric as he often did before -- he first began the flight with
the Maisevethians, and so betrayed his natural lord and all the
people of England. There had Knute the victory, though all
England fought against him! There was then slain Bishop Ednoth,
and Abbot Wulsy, and Alderman Elfric, and Alderman Godwin of
Lindsey, and Ulfkytel of East-Anglia, and Ethelward, the son of
Alderman Ethelsy (59). And all the nobility of the English
nation was there undone! After this fight went King Knute up
with his army into Glocestershire, where he heard say that King
Edmund was. Then advised Alderman Edric, and the counsellors
that were there assembled, that the kings should make peace with
each other, and produce hostages. Then both the kings met
together at Olney, south of Deerhurst, and became allies and
sworn brothers. There they confirmed their friendship both with
pledges and with oaths, and settled the pay of the army. With
this covenant they parted: King Edmund took to Wessex, and Knute
to Mercia and the northern district. The army then went to their
ships with the things they had taken; and the people of London
made peace with them, and purchased their security, whereupon
they brought their ships to London, and provided themselves
winter-quarters therein. On the feast of St. Andrew died King
Edmund; and he is buried with his grandfather Edgar at
Gastonbury. In the same year died Wulfgar, Abbot of Abingdon;
and Ethelsy took to the abbacy.

A.D. 1017. This year King Knute took to the whole government of
England, and divided it into four parts: Wessex for himself,
East-Anglia for Thurkyll, Mercia for Edric, Northumbria for Eric.
This year also was Alderman Edric slain at London, and Norman,
son of Alderman Leofwin, and Ethelward, son of Ethelmar the
Great, and Britric, son of Elfege of Devonshire. King Knute also
banished Edwy etheling, whom he afterwards ordered to be slain,
and Edwy, king of the churls; and before the calends of August
the king gave an order to fetch him the widow of the other king,
Ethelred, the daughter of Richard, to wife.

((A.D. 1017. This year Canute was chosen king.))

A.D. 1018. This year was the payment of the tribute over all
England; that was, altogether, two and seventy thousand pounds,
besides that which the citizens of London paid; and that was ten
thousand five hundred pounds. The army then went partly to
Denmark; and forty ships were left with King Knute. The Danes
and Angles were united at Oxford under Edgar's law; and this year
died Abbot Ethelsy at Abingdon, to whom Ethelwine succeeded.

A.D. 1019. This year went King Knute with nine ships to Denmark,
where he abode all the winter; and Archbishop Elfstan died this
year, who was also named Lifing. He was a very upright man both
before God and before the world.

((A.D. 1019. And this winter died Archbishop Elfstan [of
Canterbury]: he was named Living; and he was a very provident
man, both as to God and as to the world.))

A.D. 1020. This year came King Knute back to England; and there
was at Easter a great council at Cirencester, where Alderman
Ethelward was outlawed, and Edwy, king of the churls. This year
went the king to Assingdon; with Earl Thurkyll, and Archbishop
Wulfstan, and other bishops, and also abbots, and many monks with
them; and he ordered to be built there a minster of stone and
lime, for the souls of the men who were there slain, and gave it
to his own priest, whose name was Stigand; and they consecrated
the minster at Assingdon. And Ethelnoth the monk, who had been
dean at Christ's church, was the same year on the ides of
November consecrated Bishop of Christ's church by Archbishop

((A.D. 1020. And caused to be built there [Canterbury] a minster
of stone and lime, for the souls of the men who there were slain,
and gave it to one of his priests, whose name was Stigand.))

A.D. 1021. This year King Knute, at Martinmas, outlawed Earl
Thurkyll; and Bishop Elfgar, the abundant giver of alms, died in
the morning of Christmas day.

A.D. 1022. This year went King Knute out with his ships to the
Isle of Wight. And Bishop Ethelnoth went to Rome; where he was
received with much honour by Benedict the magnificent pope, who
with his own hand placed the pall upon him, and with great pomp
consecrated him archbishop, and blessed him, on the nones of
October. The archbishop on the self-same day with the same pall
performed mass, as the pope directed him, after which he was
magnificently entertained by the pope himself; and afterwards
with a full blessing proceeded homewards. Abbot Leofwine, who
had been unjustly expelled from Ely, was his companion; and he
cleared himself of everything, which, as the pope informed him,
had been laid to his charge, on the testimony of the archbishop
and of all the company that were with him.

((A.D. 1022. And afterwards with the pall he there [at Rome]
performed mass as the pope instructed him: and he feasted after
that with the pope; and afterwards went home with a full

A.D. 1023. This year returned King Knute to England; and
Thurkyll and he were reconciled. He committed Denmark and his
son to the care of Thurkyll, whilst he took Thurkyll's son with
him to England. This year died Archbishop Wulfstan; and Elfric
succeeded him; and Archbishop Egelnoth blessed him in Canterbury.
This year King Knute in London, in St. Paul's minster, gave full
leave (60) to Archbishop Ethelnoth, Bishop Britwine, and all
God's servants that were with them, that they might take up from
the grave the archbishop, Saint Elphege. And they did so, on the
sixth day before the ides of June; and the illustrious king, and
the archbishop, and the diocesan bishops, and the earls, and very
many others, both clergy and laity, carried by ship his holy
corpse over the Thames to Southwark. And there they committed
the holy martyr to the archbishop and his companions; and they
with worthy pomp and sprightly joy carried him to Rochester.
There on the third day came the Lady Emma with her royal son
Hardacnute; and they all with much majesty, and bliss, and songs
of praise, carried the holy archbishop into Canterbury, and so
brought him gloriously into the church, on the third day before
the ides of June. Afterwards, on the eighth day, the seventeenth
before the calends of July, Archbishop Ethelnoth, and Bishop
Elfsy, and Bishop Britwine, and all they that were with them,
lodged the holy corpse of Saint Elphege on the north side of the
altar of Christ; to the praise of God, and to the glory of the
holy archbishop, and to the everlasting salvation of all those
who there his holy body daily seek with earnest heart and all
humility. May God Almighty have mercy on all Christian men
through the holy intercession of Elphege!

((A.D. 1023. And he caused St. Elphege's remains to be borne
from London to Canterbury.))

A.D. 1025. This year went King Knute to Denmark with a fleet to
the holm by the holy river; where against him came Ulf and Eglaf,
with a very large force both by land and sea, from Sweden. There
were very many men lost on the side of King Knute, both of Danish
and English; and the Swedes had possession of the field of

A.D. 1026. This year went Bishop Elfric to Rome, and received
the pall of Pope John on the second day before the ides of

A.D. 1028. This year went King Knute from England to Norway with
fifty ships manned with English thanes, and drove King Olave from
the land, which he entirely secured to himself.

A.D. 1029. This year King Knute returned home to England.

A.D. 1030. This year returned King Olave into Norway; but the
people gathered together against him, and fought against him; and
he was there slain, in Norway, by his own people, and was
afterwards canonised. Before this, in the same year, died Hacon
the doughty earl, at sea.

((A.D. 1030. This year came King Olave again into Norway, and
the people gathered against him, and fought against him; and he
was there slain.))

A.D. 1031. This year returned King Knute; and as soon as he came
to England he gave to Christ's church in Canterbury the haven of
Sandwich, and all the rights that arise therefrom, on either side
of the haven; so that when the tide is highest and fullest, and
there be a ship floating as near the land as possible, and there
be a man standing upon the ship with a taper-axe in his hand,
whithersoever the large taper-axe might be thrown out of the
ship, throughout all that land the ministers of Christ's church
should enjoy their rights. This year went King Knute to Rome;
and the same year, as soon as he returned home, he went to
Scotland; and Malcolm, king of the Scots, submitted to him, and
became his man, with two other kings, Macbeth and Jehmar; but he
held his allegiance a little while only. Robert, Earl of
Normandy, went this year to Jerusalem, where he died; and
William, who was afterwards King of England, succeeded to the
earldom, though he was a child.

A.D. 1032. This year appeared that wild fire, such as no man
ever remembered before, which did great damage in many places.
The same year died Elfsy, Bishop of Winchester; and Elfwin, the
king's priest, succeeded him.

A.D. 1033. This year died Bishop Merewhite in Somersetshire, who
is buried at Glastonbury; and Bishop Leofsy, whose body resteth
at Worcester, and to whose see Brihteh was promoted.

A.D. 1034. This year died Bishop Etheric, who lies at Ramsey.

A.D. 1035. This year died King Knute at Shaftesbury, on the
second day before the ides of November; and he is buried at
Winchester in the old minster. He was king over all England very
near twenty winters. Soon after his decease, there was a council
of all the nobles at Oxford; wherein Earl Leofric, and almost all
the thanes north of the Thames, and the naval men in London,
chose Harold to be governor of all England, for himself and his
brother Hardacnute, who was in Denmark. Earl Godwin, and all the
eldest men in Wessex, withstood it as long as they could; but
they could do nothing against it. It was then resolved that
Elfgiva, the mother of Hardacnute, should remain at Winchester
with the household of the king her son. They held all Wessex in
hand, and Earl Godwin was their chief man. Some men said of
Harold, that he was the son of King Knute and of Elfgive the
daughter of Alderman Elfelm; but it was thought very incredible
by many men. He was, nevertheless, full king over all England.
Harold himself said that he was the son of Knute and of Elfgive
the Hampshire lady; though it was not true; but he sent and
ordered to be taken from her all the best treasure that she could
not hold, which King Knute possessed; and she nevertheless abode
there continually within the city as long as she could.

A.D. 1036. This year came hither Alfred the innocent etheling,
son of King Ethelred, and wished to visit his mother, who abode
at Winchester: but Earl Godwin, and other men who had much power
in this land, did not suffer it; because such conduct was very
agreeable to Harold, though it was unjust.
Him did Godwin let,
and in prison set.
His friends, who did not fly,
they slew promiscuously.
And those they did not sell,
like slaughter'd cattle fell!
Whilst some they spared to bind,
only to wander blind!
Some ham-strung, helpless stood,
whilst others they pursued.
A deed more dreary none
in this our land was done,
since Englishmen gave place
to hordes of Danish race.
But repose we must
in God our trust,
that blithe as day
with Christ live they,
who guiltless died --
their country's pride!
The prince with courage met
each cruel evil yet;
till 'twas decreed,
they should him lead,
all bound, as he was then,
to Ely-bury fen.
But soon their royal prize
bereft they of his eyes!
Then to the monks they brought
their captive; where he sought
a refuge from his foes
till life's sad evening close.
His body ordered then
these good and holy men,
according to his worth,
low in the sacred earth,
to the steeple full-nigh,
in the south aile to lie
of the transept west --
his soul with Christ doth rest.

((A.D. 1036. This year died King Canute at Shaftesbury, and he
is buried at Winchester in the Old-minster: and he was king over
all England very nigh twenty years. And soon after his decease
there was a meeting of all the witan at Oxford; and Leofric, the
earl, and almost all the thanes north of the Thames, and the
"lithsmen" at London, chose Harold for chief of all England, him
and his brother Hardecanute who was in Denmark. And Godwin the
earl and all the chief men of Wessex withstood it as long as they
could; but they were unable to effect anything in opposition to
it. And then it was decreed that Elfgive, Hardecanute's mother,
should dwell at Winchester with the king's, her son's, house-
hold, and hold all Wessex in his power; and Godwin the earl was
their man. Some men said of Harold that he was son of King
Canute and of Elfgive, daughter of Elfelm the ealdorman, but it
seemed quite incredible to many men; and he was nevertheless full
king over all England.))

A.D. 1037. This year men chose Harold king over all; and forsook
Hardacnute, because he was too long in Denmark; and then drove
out his mother Elgiva, the relict of King Knute, without any
pity, against the raging winter! She, who was the mother of
Edward as well as of King Hardacnute, sought then the peace of
Baldwin by the south sea. Then came she to Bruges, beyond sea;
and Earl Baldwin well received her there; and he gave her a
habitation at Bruges, and protected her, and entertained her
there as long as she had need. Ere this in the same year died
Eafy, the excellent Dean of Evesham.

((A.D. 1037. This year was driven out Elfgive, King Canute's
relict; she was King Hardecanute's mother; and she then sought
the protection of Baldwin south of the sea, and he gave her a
dwelling in Bruges, and protected and kept her, the while that
she there was.))

A.D. 1038. This year died Ethelnoth, the good archbishop, on the
calends of November; and, within a little of this time, Bishop
Ethelric in Sussex, who prayed to God that he would not let him
live any time after his dear father Ethelnoth; and within seven
nights of this he also departed. Then, before Christmas, died
Bishop Brihteh in Worcestershire; and soon after this, Bishop
Elfric in East Anglia. Then succeeded Bishop Edsy to the
archbishopric, Grimkytel to the see of Sussex, and Bishop Lifing
to that of Worcester shire and Gloucestershire.

((A.D. 1038. This year died Ethelnoth, the good archbishop, on
the kalends of November, and a little after, Ethelric, bishop in
Sussex, and then before Christmas, Briteagus, Bishop in
Worcestershire, and soon after, Elfric, bishop in East-Anglia.))

A.D. 1039. This year happened the terrible wind; and Bishop
Britmar died at Lichfield. The Welsh slew Edwin. brother of Earl
Leofric, and Thurkil, and Elfget, and many good men with them.
This year also came Hardacnute to Bruges, where his mother was.

((A.D. 1039. This year King Harold died at Oxford, on the
sixteenth before the kalends of April, and he was buried at
Westminster. And he ruled England four years and sixteen weeks;
and in his days sixteen ships were retained in pay, at the rate
of eight marks for each rower, in like manner as had been before
done in the days of King Canute. And in this same year came King
Hardecanute to Sandwich, seven days before midsummer. And he was
soon acknowledged as well by English as by Danes; though his
advisers afterwards grievously requited it, when they decreed
that seventy-two ships should be retained in pay, at the rate of
eight marks for each rower. And in this same year the sester of
wheat went up to fifty-five pence, and even further.))

A.D. 1040. This year died King Harold at Oxford, on the
sixteenth before the calends of April; and he was buried at
Westminster. He governed England four years and sixteen weeks;
and in his days tribute was paid to sixteen ships, at the rate of
eight marks for each steersman, as was done before in King
Knute's days. The same year they sent after Hardacnute to
Bruges, supposing they did well; and he came hither to Sandwich
with sixty ships, seven nights before midsummer. He was soon
received both by the Angles and Danes, though his advisers
afterwards severely paid for it. They ordered a tribute for
sixty-two ships, at the rate of eight marks for each steersman.
Then were alienated from him all that before desired him; for he
framed nothing royal during his whole reign. He ordered the dead
Harold to be dragged up and thrown into a ditch. This year rose
the sester of wheat to fifty-five pence, and even further. This
year Archbishop Edsy went to Rome.

((A.D. 1040. This year was the tribute paid; that twenty-one
thousand pounds and ninety-nine pounds. And after that they paid
to thirty-two ships, eleven thousand and forty-eight pounds.
And, in this same year, came Edward, son of King Ethelred, hither
to land, from Weal-land; he was brother of King Hardecanute: they
were both sons of Elfgive; Emma, who was daughter of Earl

A.D. 1041. This year was the tribute paid to the army; that was,
21,099 pounds; and afterwards to thirty-two ships, 11,048 pounds.
This year also ordered Hardacnute to lay waste all
Worcestershire, on account of the two servants of his household,
who exacted the heavy tribute. That people slew them in the town
within the minster. Early in this same year came Edward, the son
of King Ethelred, hither to land, from Weal-land to Madron. He
was the brother of King Hardacnute, and had been driven from this
land for many years: but he was nevertheless sworn as king, and
abode in his brother's court while he lived. They were both sons
of Elfgive Emma, who was the daughter oś Earl Richard. In this
year also Hardacnute betrayed Eadulf, under the mask of
friendship. He was also allied to him by marriage. This year
was Egelric consecrated Bishop of York, on the third day before
the ides of January.

((A.D. 1041. This year died King Hardecanute at Lambeth, on the
sixth before the ides of June: and he was king over all England
two years wanting ten days; and he is buried in the Old-minster
at Winchester with King Canute his father. And his mother, for
his soul, gave to the New-minster the head of St. Valentine the
martyr. And before he was buried, all people chose Edward for
king at London: may he hold it the while that God shall grant it
to him! And all that year was a very heavy time, in many things
and divers, as well in respect to ill seasons as to the fruits of
the earth. And so much cattle perished in the year as no man
before remembered, as well through various diseases as through
tempests. And in this same time died Elsinus, Abbot of
Peterborough; and then Arnwius the monk was chosen abbot, because
he was a very good man, and of great simplicity.))

A.D. 1042. This year died King Hardacnute at Lambeth, as he
stood drinking: he fell suddenly to the earth with a tremendous
struggle; but those who were nigh at hand took him up; and he
spoke not a word afterwards, but expired on the sixth day before
the ides of June. He was king over all England two years wanting
ten nights; and he is buried in the old minster at Winchester
with King Knute his father. And his mother for his soul gave to
the new minster the head of St. Valentine the Martyr: and ere he
was buried all people chose Edward for king in London. And they
received him as their king, as was natural; and he reigned as
long as God granted him. All that year was the season very
severe in many and various respects: both from the inclemency of
the weather, and the loss of the fruits of the earth. More
cattle died this year than any man ever remembered, either from
various diseases, or from the severity of the weather. At this
same time died Elfsinus, Abbot of Peterborough; and they chose
Arnwy, a monk, for their abbot; because he was a very good and
benevolent man.

A.D. 1043. This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester,
early on Easter-day, with much pomp. Then was Easter on the
third day before the nones of April. Archbishop Edsy
consecrated him, and before all people well admonished him. And
Stigand the priest was consecrated bishop over the East Angles.
And this year, fourteen nights before the mass of St. Andrew, it
was advised the king, that he and Earl Leofric and Earl Godwin
and Earl Siward with their retinue, should ride from Gloucester
to Winchester unawares upon the lady; and they deprived her of
all the treasures that she had; which were immense; because she
was formerly very hard upon the king her son, and did less for
him than he wished before he was king, and also since: but they
suffered her to remain there afterwards. And soon after this the
king determined to invest all the land that his mother had in her
hands, and took from her all that she had in gold and in silver
and in numberless things; because she formerly held it too fast
against him. Soon after this Stigand was deprived of his
bishopric; and they took all that he had into their hands for the
king, because he was nighest the counsel of his mother; and she
acted as he advised, as men supposed.

((A.D. 1043. This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester
on the first day of Easter. And this year, fourteen days before
Andrew's-mass, the king was advised to ride from Gloucester, and
Leofric the earl, and Godwin the earl, and Sigwarth [Siward] the
earl, with their followers, to Winchester, unawares upon the lady
[Emma]; and they bereaved her of all the treasures which she
possessed, they were not to be told, because before that she had
been very hard with the king her son; inasmuch as she had done
less for him than he would, before he was king, and also since:
and they suffered her after that to remain therein. This year
King Edward took the daughter [Edgitha] of Godwin the earl for
his wife. And in this same year died Bishop Brithwin, and he
held the bishopric thirty-eight years, that was the bishopric of
Sherborne, and Herman the king's priest succeeded to the
bishopric. And in this year Wulfric was hallowed Abbot of St.
Augustine's at Christmas, on Stephen's mass-day, by leave of the
king, and, on account of his great infirmity, of Abbot Elfstun.))

A.D. 1044. This year Archbishop Edsy resigned his see from
infirmity, and consecrated Siward, Abbot of Abingdon, bishop
thereto, with the permission and advice of the king and Earl
Godwin. It was known to few men else before it was done; because
the archbishop feared that some other man would either beg or buy
it, whom he might worse trust and oblige than him, if it were
known to many men. This year there was very great hunger over
all England, and corn so dear as no man remembered before; so
that the sester of wheat rose to sixty pence, and even further.
And this same year the king went out to Sandwich with thirty-five
ships; and Athelstan, the churchwarden, succeeded to the abbacy
of Abingdon, and Stigand returned to his bishopric. In the same
year also King Edward took to wife Edgitha, the daughter of Earl
Godwin, ten nights before Candlemas. And in the same year died
Britwold, Bishop of Wiltshire, on the tenth day before the
calends of May; which bishopric he held thirty-eight winters;
that was, the bishopric of Sherborn. And Herman, the king's
priest, succeeded to the bishopric. This year Wulfric was
consecrated Abbot of St. Augustine's, at Christmas, on the
mass-day of St. Stephen, by the king's leave and that of Abbot
Elfstan, by reason of his great infirmity.

((A.D. 1044. This year died Living, Bishop in Devonshire, and
Leoftic succeeded thereto; he was the king's priest. And in this
same year died Elfstan, Abbot of St. Augustine's, on the third
before the nones of July. And in this same year was outlawed
Osgod Clapa.))

A.D. 1045. This year died Elfward, Bishop of London, on the
eighth day before the calends of August. He was formerly Abbot
of Evesham, and well furthered that monastery the while that he
was there. He went then to Ramsey, and there resigned his life:
and Mannie was chosen abbot, being consecrated on the fourth day
before the ides of August. This year Gunnilda, a woman of rank,
a relative of King Knute, was driven out, and resided afterwards
at Bruges a long while, and then went to Denmark. King Edward
during the year collected a large fleet at Sandwich, through the
threatening of Magnus of Norway; but his contests with Sweyne in
Denmark prevented him from coming hither.

((A.D. 1045. This year died Grimkytel, Bishop in Sussex, and
Heca, the king's priest, succeeded thereto. And in this year
died Alwyn, Bishop of Winchester, on the fourth before the
kalends of September; and Stigand, bishop to the north
[Flanders], succeeded thereto. And in the same year Sweyn the
earl went out to Baldwin's land [Of Elmham] to Bruges and abode
there all the winter; and then in summer he went out.))

A.D. 1046. This year died Lifting, the eloquent bishop, on the
tenth day before the calends of April. He had three bishoprics;
one in Devonshire, one in Cornwall, and another in
Worcestershire. Then succeeded Leofric, who was the king's
priest, to Devonshire and to Cornwall, and Bishop Aldred to
Worcestershire. This year died Elfwine, Bishop of Winchester, on
the fourth day before the calends of September; and Stigand,
Bishop of Norfolk, was raised to his see. Ere this, in the same
year, died Grimkytel, Bishop of Sussex; and he lies at
Christ-church, in Canterbury. And Heca, the' king's priest,
succeeded to the bishopric. Sweyne also sent hither, and
requested the aid of fifty ships against Magnus, king of the
Norwegians; but it was thought unwise by all the people, and it
was prevented, because that Magnus had a large navy: and he drove
Sweyne out, and with much slaughter won the land. The Danes then
gave him much money, and received him as king. The same year
Magnus died. The same year also Earl Sweyne went out to
Baldwin's land, to Bruges; and remained there all the winter. In
the summer he departed.

A.D. 1046. This year went Earl Sweyne into Wales; and Griffin,
king of the northern men with him; and hostages were delivered to
him. As he returned homeward, he ordered the Abbess of
Leominster to be fetched him; and he had her as long as he list,
after which he let her go home. In this same year was outlawed
Osgod Clapa, the master of horse, before midwinter. And in the
same year, after Candlemas, came the strong winter, with frost
and with snow, and with all kinds of bad weather; so that there
was no man then alive who could remember so severe a winter as
this was, both through loss of men and through loss of cattle;
yea, fowls and fishes through much cold and hunger perished.

((A.D. 1046. This year died Brithwin, bishop in Wiltshire, and
Herman was appointed to his see. In that year King Edward
gathered a large ship-force at Sandwich, on account of the
threatening of Magnus in Norway: but his and Sweyn's contention
in Denmark hindered his coming here. This year died Athelstan,
Abbot of Abingdon, and Sparhawk, monk of St. Edmund's-bury,
succeeded him. And in this same year died bishop Siward, and
Archbishop Eadsine again obtained the whole bishopric. And in
this same year Lothen and Irling came with twenty-five ships to
Sandwich, and there took unspeakable booty, in men, and in gold,
and in silver, so that no man knew how much it all was. And they
then went about Thanet, and would there do the like; but the
land's-folk strenuously withstood them, and denied them as well
landing as water; and thence utterly put them to flight. And
they betook themselves then into Essex, and there they ravaged,
and took men, and property, and whatsoever they might find. And
they betook themselves then east to Baldwine's land, and there
they sold what they had plundered; and after that went their way
east, whence they before had come. In this year was the great
synod at St. Remi's [Rheins]. Thereat was Leo the pope, and the
Archbishop of Burgundy [Lyons], and the Archbishop of Besancon,
and the Archbishop of Treves, and the Archbishop of Rheims; and
many men besides, both clergy and laity. And King Edward sent
thither Bishop Dudoc [Of Wells], and Wulfric, Abbot of St.
Augustine's, and Abbot Elfwin [Of Ramsey], that they might make
known to the king what should be there resolved on for
Christendom. And in this same year King Edward went out to
Sandwich with a great fleet. And Sweyn the earl, son of Godwin
the earl, came in to Bosham with seven ships; and he obtained the
king's protection, and he was promised that he should be held
worthy of everything which he before possessed. Then Harold the
earl, his brother, and Beorn the earl contended that he should
not be held worthy of any of the things which the king had
granted to them: but a protection of four days was appointed him
to go to his ships. Then befell it during this, that word came
to the king that hostile ships lay westward, and were ravaging.
Then went Godwin the earl west about with two of the king's
ships; the one commanded Harold the earl, and the other Tosty his
brother; and forty-two of the people's ships. Then Harold the
earl was removed from the king's ship which Harold the earl
before had commanded. Then went they west to Pevensey, and lay
there weather-bound. Upon this, after two days, then came Sweyn
the earl thither, and spoke with his father, and with Beorn the
earl, and begged of Beorn that he would go with him to the king
at Sandwich, and help him to the king's friendship: and he
granted it. Then went they as if they would go to the king.
Then whilst they were riding, then begged Sweyn of him that he
would go with him to his ships: saying that his seamen would
depart from him unless he should at the soonest come thither.
Then went they both where his ships lay. When they came thither,
then begged Sweyn the earl of him that he would go with him on
ship-board. He strenuously refused, so long as until his seamen
seized him, and threw him into the boat, and bound him, and rowed
to the ship, and put him there aboard. Then they hoisted up
their sails and ran west to Exmouth, and had him with them until
they slew him: and they took the body and buried it in a church.
And then his friends and litsmen came from London, and took him
up, and bore him to Winchester to the Old-minster, and he is
there buried with King Canute his uncle. And Sweyn went then
east to Baldwin's land, and sat down there all the winter at
Bruges, with his full protection. And in the same year died
Eadnoth [II.] bishop [Of Dorchester] of the north and Ulf was
made bishop.))

A.D. 1047. This year died Athelstan, Abbot of Abingdon, on the
fourth day before the calends of April; and Sparhawk, monk of St.
Edmundsbury, succeeded him. Easter day was then on the third day
before the nones of April; and there was over all England very
great loss of men this year also. The same year came to Sandwich
Lothen and Irling, with twenty-five ships, and plundered and took
incalculable spoil, in men, and in gold, and in silver, so that
no man wist what it all was; and went then about Thanet, and
would there have done the same; but the land-folk firmly
withstood, and resisted them both by land and sea, and thence put
them to flight withal. They betook themselves thence into Essex,
where they plundered and took men, and whatsoever they could
find, whence they departed eastward to Baldwin's land, and having
deposited the booty they had gained, they returned east to the
place whence they had come before.

((A.D. 1047. This year died Living the eloquent bishop, on the
tenth before the kalends of April, and he had three bishoprics;
one in Devonshire, and in Cornwall, and in Worcester. Then
Leofric (61) succeeded to Devonshire and to Cornwall, and Bishop
Aldred to Worcester. And in this year Osgod, the master of the
horse, was outlawed: and Magnus [King of Norway] won Denmark. In
this year there was a great council in London at mid-Lent, and
nine ships of lightermen were discharged, and five remained
behind. In this same year came Sweyn the earl into England. And
in this same year was the great synod at Rome, and King Edward
sent thither Bishop Heroman and Bishop Aldred; and they came
thither on Easter eve. And afterwards the pope held a synod at
Vercelli, and Bishop Ulf came thereto; and well nigh would they
have broken his staff, if he had not given very great gifts;
because he knew not how to do his duty so well as he should. And
in this year died Archbishop Eadsine, on the fourth before the
kalends of November.))

A.D. 1048. This year came Sweyne back to Denmark; and Harold,
the uncle of Magnus, went to Norway on the death of Magnus, and
the Northmen submitted to him. He sent an embassy of peace to
this land, as did also Sweyne from Denmark, requesting of King
Edward naval assistance to the amount at least of fifty ships;
but all the people resisted it. This year also there was an
earthquake, on the calends of May, in many places; at Worcester,
at Wick, and at Derby, and elsewhere wide throughout England;
with very great loss by disease of men and of cattle over all
England; and the wild fire in Derbyshire and elsewhere did much
harm. In the same year the enemy plundered Sandwich, and the
Isle of Wight, and slew the best men that were there; and King
Edward and the earls went out after them with their ships. The
same year Bishop Siward resigned his bishopric from infirmity,
and retired to Abingdon; upon which Archbishop Edsy resumed the
bishopric; and he died within eight weeks of this, on the tenth
day before the calends of November.

((A.D. 1048. This year was the severe winter: and this year died
Alwyn, Bishop of Winchester, and Bishop Stigand was raised to his
see. And before that, in the same year, died Grinketel, Bishop
in Sussex, and Heca the priest succeeded to the bishopric. And
Sweyn also sent hither, begging assistance against Magnus, King
of Norway; that fifty ships should be sent to his aid. But it
seemed unadvisable to all people: and it was then hindered by
reason that Magnus had a great ship-force. And he then drove out
Sweyn, and with much man-slaying won the land: and the Danes paid
him much money and acknowledged him as king. And that same year
Magnus died. In this year King Edward appointed Robert, of
London, Archbishop of Canterbury, during Lent. And in the same
Lent he went to Rome after his pall: and the king gave the
bishopric of London to Sparhafoc, Abbot of Abingdon; and the king
gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop Rodulf, his kinsman. Then
came the archbishop from Rome one day before St. Peter's mass-
eve, and entered on his archiepiscopal see at Christ's Church on
St. Peter's mass-day; and soon after went to the king. Then came
Abbot Sparhafoc to him with the king's writ and seal, in order
that he should consecrate him Bishop of London. Then the
archbishop refused, and said that the pope had forbidden it him.
Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for that purpose, and
there desired episcopal ordination; and the archbishop constantly
refused him, and said that the pope had forbidden it him. Then
went the abbot to London, and occupied the bishopric which the
king before had granted him, with his full leave, all the summer
and the harvest. And then came Eustace [Earl of Boulogne] from
beyond sea soon after the bishop, and went to the king, and spoke
with him that which he then would, and went then homeward. When
he came to Canterbury, east, then took he refreshment there, and
his men, and went to Dover. When he was some mile or more, on
this side of Dover, then he put on his breast-plate, and so did
all his companions, and went to Dover. When they came thither,
then would they lodge themselves where they chose. Then came one
of his men, and would abide in the house of a householder against
his will, and wounded the householder; and the householder slew
the other. Then Eustace got upon his horse, and his companions
upon theirs; and they went to the householder, and slew him
within his own dwelling; and they went up towards the town, and
slew, as well within as without, more than twenty men. And the
townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded they
knew not how many. And Eustace escaped with a few men, and went
again to the king, and made known to him, in part, how they had
fared. And the king became very wroth with the townsmen. And
the king sent off Godwin the earl, and bade him go into Kent in a
hostile manner to Dover: for Eustace had made it appear to the
king, that it had been more the fault of the townsmen than his:
but it was not so. And the earl would not consent to the inroad,
because he was loth to injure his own people. Then the king sent
after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester, nigh the
aftermass of St. Mary. Then had the Welshmen erected a castle in
Herefordshire among the people of Sweyn the earl, and wrought
every kind of harm and disgrace to the king's men there about
which they could. Then came Godwin the earl, and Sweyn the earl,
and Harold the earl, together at Beverstone, and many men with
them, in order that they might go to their royal lord, and to all
the peers who were assembled with him, in order that they might
have the advice of the king and his aid, and of all this council,
how they might avenge the king's disgrace, and the whole
nation's. Then were the Welshmen with the king beforehand, and
accused the earls, so that they might not come within his eyes'
sight; because they said that they were coming thither in order
to betray the king. Thither had come Siward the earl [Of
Northumbria] and Leofric the earl [Of Mercia], and much people
with them, from the north, to the king; and it was made known to
the Earl Godwin and his sons, that the king and the men who were
with him, were taking counsel concerning them: and they arrayed
themselves on the other hand resolutely, though it were loathful
to them that they should stand against their royal lord. Then
the peers on either side decreed that every kind of evil should
cease: and the king gave the peace of God and his full friendship
to either side. Then the king and his peers decreed that a
council of all the nobles should be held for the second time in
London at the harvest equinox; and the king directed the army to
be called out, as well south of the Thames as north, all that was
in any way most eminent. Then declared they Sweyn the earl an
outlaw, and summoned Godwin the earl and Harold the earl, to the
council, as quickly as they could effect it. When they had come
thither, then were they summoned into the council. Then required
he safe conduct and hostages, so that he might come, unbetrayed,
into the council and out of the council. Then the king demanded
all the thanes whom the earls before had: and they granted them
all into his hands. Then the king sent again to them, and
commanded them that they should come with twelve men to the
king's council. Then the earl again required safe conduct and
hostages, that he might defend himself against each of those
things which were laid to him. Then were the hostages refused
him; and he was allowed a safe conduct for five nights to go out
of the land. And then Godwin the earl and Sweyn the earl went to
Bosham, and shoved out their ships, and betook themselves beyond
sea, and sought Baldwin's protection, and abode there all the
winter. And Harold the earl went west to Ireland, and was there
all the winter within the king's protection. And soon after this
happened, then put away the king the lady who had been
consecrated his queen [Editha], and caused to be taken from her
all which she possessed, in land, and in gold, and in silver, and
in all things, and delivered her to his sister at Wherwell. And
Abbot Sparhafoc was then driven out of the bishopric of London,
and William the king's priest was ordained thereto. And then
Odda was appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and
over Dorset, and over the Welsh. And Algar, the son of Leofric
the earl, was appointed to the earldom which Harold before

A.D. 1049. (62) This year the emperor gathered an innumerable
army against Baldwin of Bruges, because he had destroyed the
palace of Nimeguen, and because of many other ungracious acts
that he did against him. The army was immense that he had
collected together. There was Leo, the Pope of Rome, and the
patriarch, and many other great men of several provinces. He
sent also to King Edward, and requested of him naval aid, that he
might not permit him to escape from him by water. Whereupon he
went to Sandwich, and lay there with a large naval armament,
until the emperor had all that he wished of Baldwin. Thither
also came back again Earl Sweyne, who had gone from this land to
Denmark, and there ruined his cause with the Danes. He came
hither with a pretence, saying that he would again submit to the
king, and be his man; and he requested Earl Beorn to be of
assistance to him, and give him land to feed him on. But Harold,
his brother, and Earl Beorn resisted, and would give him nothing
of that which the king had given them. The king also refused him
everything. Whereupon Swevne retired to his ships at Bosham.
Then, after the settlement between the emperor and Baldwin, many
ships went home, and the king remained behind Sandwich with a few
ships. Earl Godwin also sailed forty-two ships from Sandwich to
Pevensey, and Earl Beorn went with him. Then the king gave leave
to all the Mercians to return home, and they did so. Then it was
told the king that Osgod lay at Ulps with thirty-nine ships;
whereupon the king sent after the ships that he might dispatch,
which before had gone homewards, but still lay at the Nore. Then
Osgod fetched his wife from Bruges; and they went back again with
six ships; but the rest went towards Essex, to Eadulf's-ness, and
there plundered, and then returned to their ships. But there
came upon them a strong wind, so that they were all lost but four
persons, who were afterwards slain beyond sea. Whilst Earl
Godwin and Earl Beorn lay at Pevensey with their ships, came Earl
Sweyne, and with a pretence requested of Earl Beorn, who was his
uncle's son, that he would be his companion to the king at
Sandwich, and better his condition with him; adding, that he
would swear oaths to him, and be faithful to him. Whereupon
Beorn concluded, that he would not for their relationship betray
him. He therefore took three companions with him, and they rode
to Bosham, where his (63) ships lay, as though they should
proceed to Sandwich; but they suddenly bound him, and led him to
the ships, and went thence with him to Dartmouth, where they
ordered him to be slain and buried deep. He was afterwards
found, and Harold his cousin fetched him thence, and led him to
Winchester, to the old minster, where he buried him with King
Knute, his uncle. Then the king and all the army proclaimed
Sweyne an outlaw. A little before this the men of Hastings and
thereabout fought his two ships with their ships, and slew all
the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich to the king. Eight
ships had he, ere he betrayed Beorn; afterwards they all forsook
him except two; whereupon he went eastward to the land of
Baldwin, and sat there all the winter at Bruges, in full
security. In the same year came up from Ireland thirty-six ships
on the Welsh coast, and thereabout committed outrages, with the
aid of Griffin, the Welsh king. The people were soon gathered
against them, and there was also with them Bishop Eldred, but
they had too little assistance, and the enemy came unawares on
them very early in the morning, and slew on the spot many good
men; but the others burst forth with the bishop. This was done
on the fourth day before the calends of August. This year died
the good Bishop Ednoth in Oxfordshire; and Oswy, Abbot of Thomey;
and Wulfnoth, Abbot of Westminster; and King Edward gave the
bishopric which Ednoth had to Ulf his priest, but it ill betided
him; and he was driven from it, because he did nought like a
bishop therein, so that it shameth us now to say more. Bishop
Siward also died who lies at Abingdon. In this same year King
Edward put nine ships out of pay; and the crews departed, and
went away with the ships withal, leaving five ships only behind,
for whom the king ordered twelve months pay. The same year went
Bishops Hereman and Aldred to the pope at Rome on the king's
errand. This year was also consecrated the great minster at
Rheims, in the presence of Pope Leo and the emperor. There was
also a great synod at St. Remy; (64) at which was present Pope
Leo, with the Archbishops of Burgundy, of Besancon, of Treves,
and of Rheims; and many wise men besides, both clergy and laity.
A great synod there held they respecting the service of God, at
the instance of St. Leo the pope. It is difficult to recognise
all the bishops that came thither, and also abbots. King Edward
sent thither Bishop Dudoc, and Abbot Wulfric, of St. Augustine's,
and Elfwin, Abbot of Ramsey, with the intent that they should
report to the king what was determined there concerning
Christendom. This same year came Earl Sweyne into England.

((A.D. 1049. This year Sweyn came again to Denmark, and Harold.
uncle of Magnus, went to Norway after Magnus was dead; and the
Normans acknowledged him: and he sent hither to land concerning
peace. And Sweyn also sent from Denmark, and begged of King
Edward the aid of his ships. They were to be at least fifty
ships: but all people opposed it. And this year also there was
an earthquake, on the kalends of May, in many places in
Worcester, and in Wick, and in Derby, and elsewhere; and also
there was a great mortality among men, and murrain among cattle:
and moreover, the wild-fire did much evil in Derbyshire and

A.D. 1050. This year returned the bishops home from Rome; (65)
and Earl Sweyne had his sentence of outlawry reversed. The same
year died Edsy, Archbishop of Canterbury, on the fourth day
before the calends of November; and also in the same year Elfric,
Archbishop of York, on the eleventh before the calends of
February, a very venerable man and wise, and his body lies at
Peterborough. Then had King Edward a meeting of the great
council in London, in mid-lent, at which he appointed Robert the
Frank, who was before Bishop of London, Archbishop of Canterbury;
and he, during the same Lent, went to Rome after his pall. The
king meanwhile gave the see of London to Sparhawk, Abbot of
Abingdon, but it was taken from him again before he was
consecrated. The king also gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop
Rodulph his cousin. The same year he put all the lightermen out
of pay. (66) The pope held a council again, at Vercelli; and
Bishop Ulf came thither, where he nearly had his staff broken,
had he not paid more money, because he could not perform his
duties so well as he should do. The same year King Edward
abolished the Danegeld which King Ethelred imposed. That was in
the thirty-ninth year after it had begun. That tribute harassed
all the people of England so long as is above written; and it was
always paid before other imposts, which were levied
indiscriminately, and vexed men variously.

((A.D. 1050. Thither also came Sweyn the earl, who before had
gone from this land to Denmark, and who there had ruined himself
with the Danes. He came thither with false pretences; saying
that he would again be obedient to the king. And Beorn the earl
promised him that he would be of assistance to him. Then, after
the reconciliation of the emperor and of Baldwin, many of the
ships went home, and the king remained behind at Sandwich with a
few ships; and Godwin the earl also went with forty-two ships
from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Beorn the earl went with him.
Then was it made known to the king that Osgood lay at Ulps with
thirty-nine ships; and the king then sent after the ships which
before had gone home, that he might send after him. And Osgod
fetched his wife from Bruges, and they went back again with six
ships. And the others landed in Sussex [Essex] at Eadulf-ness,
and there did harm, and went again to their ships: and then a
strong wind came against them, so that they were all destroyed,
except four, whose crews were slain beyond sea. While Godwin the
earl and Beorn the earl lay at Pevensey, then came Sweyn the
earl, and begged Beorn the earl, with fraud, who was his uncle's
son, that he would be his companion to the king at Sandwich, and
better his affairs with him. He went then, on account of the
relationship, with three companions, with him; and he led him
then towards Bosham, where his ships lay: and then they bound
him, and led him on ship-board. Then went he thence with him to
Dartmouth, and there ordered him to be slain, and deeply buried.
Afterwards he was found, and borne to Winchester, and buried with
king Canute his uncle. A little before that, the men of Hastings
and thereabout, fought two of his ships with their ships; and
slew all the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich to the king.
Eight ships he had before he betrayed Beorn; after that all
forsook him except two. In the same year arrived in the Welsh
Axa, from Ireland, thirty-six ships, and thereabout did harm,
with the help of Griffin the Welsh king. The people were
gathered together against them; Bishop Aldred [Of Worchester] was
also there with them; but they had too little power. And they
came unawares upon them at very early morn; and there they slew
many good men, and the others escaped with the bishop: this was
done on the fourth before the kalends of August. This year died,
in Oxfordshire, Oswy, Abbot of Thorney, and Wulfnoth, Abbot of
Westminster; and Ulf the priest was appointed as pastor to the
bishopric which Eadnoth had held; but he was after that driven
away; because he did nothing bishop-like therein: so that it
shameth us now to tell more about it. And Bishop Siward died: he
lieth at Abingdon. And this year was consecrated the great
minster at Rheims: there was Pope Leo [IX.] and the emperor
[Henry III]; and there they held a great synod concerning God's
service. St. Leo the pope presided at the synod: it is difficult
to have a knowledge of the bishops who came there, and how many
abbots: and hence, from this land were sent two -- from St.
Augustine's and from Ramsey.))

A.D. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with
his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took
his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and
soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to
him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should
consecrate him Bishop oś London; but the archbishop refused,
saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to
the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded
episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused,
repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot
to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before
given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn.
Then during the same year came Eustace, who had the sister of
King Edward to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and
went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose,
he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward,
there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to
Dover. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, he
put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they
proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to
quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his
men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against
his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was
slain by the other. Then was Eustace quickly upon his horse, and
his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the
family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the
boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty
men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and
wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace escaped with a
few men, and went again to the king, telling him partially how
they had fared. The king was very wroth with the townsmen, and
sent off Earl Godwin, bidding him go into Kent with hostility to
Dover. For Eustace had told the king that the guilt of the
townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl
would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to
destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his
council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of
St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin took it much to heart, that in his
earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather
forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne, his son, over his;
and Harold, his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled
all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a large and innumerable
army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace and
his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen
that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the
latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward was sitting at
Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north
after Earl Siward, and summoned their retinues. At first they
came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in
the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and
ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph
also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to
the aid of the king, though it was late. So unanimous were they
all in defence of the king, that they would seek Godwin's army if
the king desired it. But some prevented that; because it was
very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies
was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore
prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy
of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt
ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange
hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout
to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this


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