The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Part 4 out of 6

north end in Siward's earldom, and in Leofric's, and also
elsewhere; and Earl Godwin was to come thither with his sons to a
conference; They came as far as Southwark, and very many with
them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and
more; for they bound over to the king all the thanes that
belonged to Earl Harold his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne his
other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come
to a conference against the king and against the army that was
with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king
held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole
army; himself and his wife, and all his three sons -- Sweyne and
Tosty and Grith. And he went south to Thorney, (67) with his
wife, and Sweyne his son, and Tosty and his wife, a cousin of
Baldwin of Bruges, and his son Grith. Earl Harold with Leofwine
went to Bristol in the ship that Earl Sweyne had before prepared
and provisioned for himself; and the king sent Bishop Aldred from
London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came
to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then
went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such
adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered
great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the
weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a
castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne, and
brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's men thereabout
as they could. Then came Earl Godwin, and Earl Sweyne, and Earl
Harold, together at Beverstone, and many men with them; to the
intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the
peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's counsel
and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge
the insult offered to the king, and to all the nation. But the
Welshmen were before with the king, and bewrayed the earls, so
that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his
eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to
betray the king. There was now assembled before the king (68)
Earl Siward, and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the
north: and it was told Earl Godwin and his sons, that the king
and the men who were with him would take counsel against them;
but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were
loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the
peers on either side, that they should abstain from all
hostility: and the king gave God's peace and his full friendship
to each party. Then advised the king and his council, that there
should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in
London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king ordered out an army
both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then
was Earl Sweyne proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin and Earl
Harold were summoned to the council as early as they could come.
When they came thither and were cited to the council, then
required they security and hostages, that they might come into
the council and go out without treachery. The king then demanded
all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his
hands. Then sent the king again to them, and commanded them to
come with twelve men to the king's council. Then desired the
earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to
each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the
hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him
to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin and Earl Sweyne
to Bosham, and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking
the protection of Baldwin; and there they abode all the winter.
Earl Harold went westward to Ireland, and was there all the
winter on the king's security. It was from Thorney (69) that
Godwin and those that were with him went to Bruges, to Baldwin's
land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge
therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by
every man that was then in England, if any person had said before
this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a
height, that he ruled the king and all England; his sons were
earls, and the king's darlings; and his daughter wedded and
united to the king. Soon after this took place, the king
dismissed the lady who had been consecrated his queen, and
ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in
gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the
care of his sister at Wherwell. Soon after came Earl William
from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king
entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient
to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven
from his bishopric at London; and William the king's priest was
invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over
Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales;
and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom
which Harold before possessed.

((A.D. 1051. In this year died Eadsine, Archbishop of
Canterbury; and the king gave to Robert the Frenchman, who before
had been Bishop of London, the archbishopric. And Sparhafoc,
Abbot of Abingdon, succeeded to the bishopric of London; and it
was afterwards taken from him before he was consecrated. And
Bishop Heroman and Bishop Aldred went to Rome.))

A.D. 1052. This year, on the second day before the nones of
March, died the aged Lady Elfgiva Emma, the mother of King Edward
and of King Hardacnute, the relict of King Ethelred and of King
Knute; and her body lies in the old minster with King Knute. At
this time Griffin, the Welsh king, plundered in Herefordshire
till he came very nigh to Leominster; and they gathered against
him both the landsmen and the Frenchmen from the castle; and
there were slain very many good men of the English, and also of
the French. This was on the same day thirteen years after that
Edwin was slain with his companions. In the same year advised
the king and his council, that ships should be sent out to
Sandwich, and that Earl Ralph and Earl Odda should be appointed
headmen thereto. Then went Earl Godwin out from Bruges with his
ships to Ysendyck; and sailed forth one day before midsummer-eve,
till he came to the Ness that is to the south of Romney. When it
came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, they went out
after the other ships; and a land-force was also ordered out
against the ships. Meanwhile Earl Godwin had warning, and betook
himself into Pevensey: and the weather was so boisterous, that
the earls could not learn what had become of Earl Godwin. But
Earl Godwin then went out again until he came back to Bruges; and
the other ships returned back again to Sandwich. Then it was
advised that the ships should go back again to London, and that
other earls and other pilots should be appointed over them. But
it was delayed so long that the marine army all deserted; and
they all betook themselves home. When Earl Godwin understood
that, he drew up his sail and his ship: and they (70) went west
at once to the Isle of Wight; and landing there, they plundered
so long that the people gave them as much as they required of
them. Then proceeded they westward until they came to Portland,
where they landed and did as much harm as they could possibly do.
Meanwhile Harold had gone out from Ireland with nine ships, and
came up at Potlock with his ships to the mouth of the Severn,
near the boundaries of Somerset and Devonshire, and there
plundered much. The land-folk collected against him, both from
Somerset and from Devonshire: but he put them to flight, and slew
there more than thirty good thanes, besides others; and went soon
after about Penwithstert, where was much people gathered against
him; but he spared not to provide himself with meat, and went up
and slew on the spot a great number of the people -- seizing in
cattle, in men, and in money, whatever he could. Then went he
eastward to his father; and they went both together eastward (71)
until they came to the Isle of Wight, where they seized whatever
had been left them before. Thence they went to Pevensey, and got
out with them as many ships as had gone in there, and so
proceeded forth till they came to the Ness; (72) getting all the
ships that were at Romney, and at Hithe, and at Folkstone. Then
ordered King Edward to fit out forty smacks that lay at Sandwich
many weeks, to watch Earl Godwin, who was at Bruges during the
winter; but he nevertheless came hither first to land, so as to
escape their notice. And whilst he abode in this land, he
enticed to him all the Kentish men, and all the boatmen from
Hastings, and everywhere thereabout by the sea-coast, and all the
men of Essex and Sussex and Surrey, and many others besides.
Then said they all that they would with him live or die. When
the fleet that lay at Sandwich had intelligence about Godwin's
expedition, they set sail after him; but he escaped them, and
betook himself wherever he might: and the fleet returned to
Sandwich, and so homeward to London. When Godwin understood that
the fleet that lay at Sandwich was gone home, then went he back
again to the Isle of Wight, and lay thereabout by the sea-coast
so long that they came together -- he and his son Earl Harold.
But they did no great harm after they came together; save that
they took meat, and enticed to them all the land-folk by the sea-
coast and also upward in the land. And they proceeded toward
Sandwich, ever alluring forth with them all the boatmen that they
met; and to Sandwich they came with an increasing army. They
then steered eastward round to Dover, and landing there, took as
many ships and hostages as they chose, and so returned to
Sandwich, where they did the same; and men everywhere gave them
hostages and provisions, wherever they required them. Then
proceeded they to the Nore, and so toward London; but some of the
ships landed on the Isle of Shepey, and did much harm there;
whence they steered to Milton Regis, and burned it all, and then
proceeded toward London after the earls. When they came to
London, there lay the king and all his earls to meet them, with
fifty ships. The earls (73) then sent to the king, praying that
they might be each possessed of those things which had been
unjustly taken from them. But the king resisted some while; so
long that the people who were with the earl were very much
stirred against the king and against his people, so that the earl
himself with difficulty appeased them. When King Edward
understood that, then sent he upward after more aid; but they
came very late. And Godwin stationed himself continually before
London with his fleet, till he came to Southwark; where he abode
some time, until the flood (74) came up. On this occasion he
also contrived with the burgesses that they should do almost all
that he would. When he had arranged his whole expedition, then
came the flood; and they soon weighed anchor, and steered through
the bridge by the south side. The land-force meanwhile came
above, and arranged themselves by the Strand; and they formed
an angle with the ships against the north side, as if they wished
to surround the king's ships. The king had also a great land-
force on his side, to add to his shipmen: but they were most of
them loth to fight with their own kinsmen -- for there was little
else of any great importance but Englishmen on either side; and
they were also unwilling that this land should be the more
exposed to outlandish people, because they destroyed each other.
Then it was determined that wise men should be sent between them,
who should settle peace on either side. Godwin went up, and
Harold his son, and their navy, as many as they then thought
proper. Then advanced Bishop Stigand with God's assistance, and
the wise men both within the town and without; who determined
that hostages should be given on either side. And so they did.
When Archbishop Robert and the Frenchmen knew that, they took
horse; and went some west to Pentecost Castle, some north to
Robert's castle. Archbishop Robert and Bishop Ulf, with their
companions, went out at Eastgate, slaying or else maiming many
young men, and betook themselves at once to Eadulf's-ness; where
he put himself on board a crazy ship, and went at once over sea,
leaving his pall and all Christendom here on land, as God
ordained, because he had obtained an honour which God disclaimed.
Then was proclaimed a general council without London; and all the
earls and the best men in the land were at the council. There
took up Earl Godwin his burthen, and cleared himself there before
his lord King Edward, and before all the nation; proving that he
was innocent of the crime laid to his charge, and to his son
Harold and all his children. And the king gave the earl and his
children, and all the men that were with him, his full
friendship, and the full earldom, and all that he possessed
before; and he gave the lady all that she had before. Archbishop
Robert was fully proclaimed an outlaw, with all the Frenchmen;
because they chiefly made the discord between Earl Godwin and the
king: and Bishop Stigand succeeded to the archbishopric at
Canterbury. At the council therefore they gave Godwin fairly his
earldom, so full and so free as he at first possessed it; and his
sons also all that they formerly had; and his wife and his
daughter so full and so free as they formerly had. And they
fastened full friendship between them, and ordained good laws to
all people. Then they outlawed all Frenchmen -- who before
instituted bad laws, and judged unrighteous judgment, and brought
bad counsels into this land -- except so many as they concluded
it was agreeable to the king to have with him, who were true to
him and to all his people. It was with difficulty that Bishop
Robert, and Bishop William, and Bishop Ulf, escaped with the
Frenchmen that were with them, and so went over sea. Earl
Godwin, and Harold, and the queen, sat in their stations. Sweyne
had before gone to Jerusalem from Bruges, and died on his way
home at Constantinople, at Michaelmas. It was on the Monday
after the festival of St. Mary, that Godwin came with his ships
to Southwark: and on the morning afterwards, on the Tuesday, they
were reconciled as it stands here before recorded. Godwin then
sickened soon after he came up, and returned back. But he made
altogether too little restitution of God's property, which he
acquired from many places. At the same time Arnwy, Abbot of
Peterborough, resigned his abbacy in full health; and gave it to
the monk Leofric, with the king's leave and that of the monks;
and the Abbot Arnwy lived afterwards eight winters. The Abbot
Leofric gilded the minster, so that it was called Gildenborough;
and it then waxed very much in land, and in gold, and in silver.

((A.D. 1052. This year died Alfric, Archbishop of York, a very
pious man, and wise. And in the same year King Edward abolished
the tribute, which King Ethelred had before imposed: that was in
the nine-and-thirtieth year after he had begun it. That tax
distressed all the English nation during so long a time, as it
has been written; that was ever before other taxes which were
variously paid, and wherewith the people were manifestly
distressed. In the same year Eustace [Earl of Boulougne] landed
at Dover: he had King Edward's sister to wife. Then went his men
inconsiderately after quarters, and a certain man of the town
they slew; and another man of the town their companion; so that
there lay seven of his companions. And much harm was there done
on either side, by horse and also by weapons, until the people
gathered together: and then they fled away until they came to the
king at Gloucester; and he gave them protection. When Godwin,
the earl, understood that such things should have happened in his
earldom, then began he to gather together people over all his
earldom, (75) and Sweyn, the earl, his son, over his, and Harold,
his other son, over his earldom; and they all drew together in
Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a great force and countless, all
ready for battle against the king, unless Eustace were given up,
and his men placed in their hands, and also the Frenchmen who
were in the castle. This was done seven days before the latter
mass of St. Mary. Then was King Edward sitting at Gloucester.
Then sent he after Leofric the earl [Of Mercia] and north after
Siward the earl [Of Northumbria] and begged their forces. And
then they came to him; first with a moderate aid, but after they
knew how it was there, in the south, then sent they north over
all their earldoms, and caused to be ordered out a large force
for the help of their lord; and Ralph, also, over his earldom:
and then came they all to Gloucester to help the king, though it
might be late. Then were they all so united in opinion with the
king that they would have sought out Godwin's forces if the king
had so willed. Then thought some of them that it would be a
great folly that they should join battle; because there was
nearly all that was most noble in England in the two armies, and
they thought that they should expose the land to our foes, and
cause great destruction among ourselves. Then counselled they
that hostages should be given mutually; and they appointed a term
at London, and thither the people were ordered out over all this
north end, in Siward's earldom, and in Leofric's, and also
elsewhere; and Godwin, the earl, and his sons were to come there
with their defence. Then came they to Southwark, and a great
multitude with them, from Wessex; but his band continually
diminished the longer he stayed. And they exacted pledges for
the king from all the thanes who were under Harold, the earl, his
son; and then they outlawed Sweyn, the earl, his other son. Then
did it not suit him to come with a defence to meet the king, and
to meet the army which was with him. Then went he by night away;
and the king on the morrow held a council, and, together with all
the army, declared him an outlaw, him and all his sons. And he
went south to Thorney, and his wife, and Sweyn his son, and Tosty
and his wife, Baldwin's relation of Bruges, and Grith his son.
And Harold, the earl, and Leofwine, went to Bristol in the ship
which Sweyn, the earl, had before got ready for himself, and
provisioned. And the king sent Bishop Aldred [Of Worcester] to
London with a force; and they were to overtake him ere he came on
ship-board: but they could not or they would not. And he went
out from Avonmouth, and met with such heavy weather that he with
difficulty got away; and there he sustained much damage. Then
went he forth to Ireland when fit weather came. And Godwin, and
those who were with him, went from Thorney to Bruges, to
Baldwin's land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they might
therein best stow for each man. It would have seemed wondrous to
every man who was in England if any one before that had said that
it should end thus; for he had been erewhile to that degree
exalted, as if he ruled the king and all England; and his sons
were earls and the king's darlings, and his daughter wedded and
united to the king: she was brought to Wherwell, and they
delivered her to the abbess. Then, soon, came William, the earl
[Of Normandy], from beyond seas with a great band of Frenchmen;
and the king received him, and as many of his companions as it
pleased him; and let him away again. This same year was given to
William, the priest, the bishopric of London, which before had
been given to Sparhafoc.))

((A.D. 1052. This year died Elfgive, the lady, relict of King
Ethelred and of King Canute, on the second before the nones of
March. In the same year Griffin, the Welsh king, plundered in
Herefordshire, until he came very nigh to Leominster; and they
gathered against him, as well the landsmen as the Frenchmen of
the castle, and there were slain of the English very many good
men, and also of the Frenchmen; that was on the same day, on
which, thirteen years before, Eadwine had been slain by his

((A.D. 1052. In this year died Elgive Emma, King Edward's mother
and King Hardecanute's. And in this same year, the king decreed,
and his council, that ships should proceed to Sandwich; and they
set Ralph, the earl. and Odda, the earl [Of Devon], as headmen
thereto. Then Godwin, the earl, went out from Bruges with his
ships to Ysendyck, and left it one day before Midsummer's-mass
eve, so that he came to Ness, which is south of Romney. Then
came it to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich; and they
then went out after the other ships, and a land-force was ordered
out against the ships. Then during this, Godwin, the earl, was
warned, and then he went to Pevensey; and the weather was very
severe, so that the earls could not learn what was become of
Godwin, the earl. And then Godwin, the earl, went out again,
until he came once more to Bruges; and the other ships returned
again to Sandwich. And then it was decreed that the ships should
return once more to London, and that other earls and commanders
should be appointed to the ships. Then was it delayed so long
that the ship-force all departed, and all of them went home.
When Godwin, the earl, learned that, then drew he up his sail,
and his fleet, and then went west direct to the Isle of Wight,
and there landed and ravaged so long there, until the people
yielded them so much as they laid on them. And then they went
westward until they came to Portland, and there they landed,
and did whatsoever harm they were able to do. Then was Harold
come out from Ireland with nine ships; and then landed at
Porlock, and there much people was gathered against him; but he
failed not to procure himself provisions. He proceeded further,
and slew there a great number of the people, and took of cattle,
and of men, and of property as it suited him. He then went
eastward to his father; and then they both went eastward until
they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took that which was yet
remaining for them. And then they went thence to Pevensey and
got away thence as many ships as were there fit for service, and
so onwards until he came to Ness, and got all the ships which
were in Romney, and in Hythe, and in Folkstone. And then they
went east to Dover, and there landed, and there took ships and
hostages, as many as they would, and so went to Sandwich and did
"hand" the same; and everywhere hostages were given them, and
provisions wherever they desired. And then they went to North-
mouth, and so toward London; and some of the ships went within
Sheppey, and there did much harm, and went their way to King's
Milton, and that they all burned, and betook themselves then
toward London after the earls. When they came to London, there
lay the king and all the earls there against them, with fifty
ships. Then the earls sent to the king, and required of him,
that they might be held worthy of each of those things which
had been unjustly taken from them. Then the king, however,
resisted some while; so long as until the people who were with
the earl were much stirred against the king and against his
people, so that the earl himself with difficulty stilled the
people. Then Bishop Stigand interposed with God's help, and the
wise men as well within the town as without; and they decreed
that hostages should be set forth on either side: and thus was it
done. When Archbishop Robert and the Frenchmen learned that,
they took their horses and went, some west to Pentecost's castle,
some north to Robert's castle. And Archbishop Robert and Bishop
Ulf went out at East-gate, and their companions, and slew and
otherwise injured many young men, and went their way to direct
Eadulf's-ness; and he there put himself in a crazy ship, and went
direct over sea, and left his pall and all Christendom here on
land, so as God would have it, inasmuch as he had before obtained
the dignity so as God would not have it. Then there was a great
council proclaimed without London: and all the earls and the
chief men who were in this land were at the council. There
Godwin bore forth his defence, and justified himself, before King
Edward his lord, and before all people of the land, that he was
guiltless of that which was laid against him, and against Harold
his son, and all his children. And the king gave to the earl and
his children his full friendship, and full earldom, and all that
he before possessed, and to all the men who were with him. And
the king gave to the lady [Editha] all that she before possessed.
And they declared Archbishop Robert utterly an outlaw, and all
the Frenchmen, because they had made most of the difference
between Godwin, the earl, and the king. And Bishop Stigand
obtained the Archbishopric of Canterbury. In this same time
Arnwy, Abbot of Peterborough, left the abbacy, in sound health,
and gave it to Leofric the monk, by leave of the king and of the
monks; and Abbot Arnwy lived afterwards eight years. And Abbot
Leofric then (enriched) the minster, so that it was called the
Golden-borough. Then it waxed greatly, in land, and in gold, and
in silver.))

((A.D. 1052. And went so to the Isle of Wight, and there took
all the ships which could be of any service, and hostages, and
betook himself so eastward. And Harold had landed with nine
ships at Porlock, and slew there much people, and took cattle,
and men, and property, and went his way eastward to his father,
and they both went to Romney, to Hythe, to Folkstone, to Dover,
to Sandwich, and ever they took all the ships which they found,
which could be of any service, and hostages, all as they
proceeded; and went then to London.))

A.D. 1053. About this time was the great wind, on the mass-night
of St. Thomas; which did much harm everywhere. And all the
midwinter also was much wind. It was this year resolved to slay
Rees, the Welsh king's brother, because he did harm; and they
brought his head to Gloucester on the eve of Twelfth-day. In
this same year, before Allhallowmas, died Wulfsy, Bishop of
Lichfield; and Godwin, Abbot of Winchcomb; and Aylward, Abbot of
Glastonbury; all within one month. And Leofwine, Abbot of
Coventry, took to the bishopric at Lichfield; Bishop Aldred to
the abbacy at Winchcomb; and Aylnoth took to the abbacy at
Glastonbury. The same year died Elfric, brother of Odda, at
Deerhurst; and his body resteth at Pershore. In this year was
the king at Winchester, at Easter; and Earl Godwin with him, and
Earl Harold his son, and Tosty. On the day after Easter sat he
with the king at table; when he suddenly sunk beneath against the
foot-rail, deprived of speech and of all his strength. He was
brought into the king's chamber; and they supposed that it would
pass over: but it was not so. He continued thus speechless and
helpless till the Thursday; when he resigned his life, on the
seventeenth before the calends of May; and he was buried at
Winchester in the old minster. Earl Harold, his son, took to the
earldom that his father had before, and to all that his father
possessed; whilst Earl Elgar took to the earldom that Harold had
before. The Welshmen this year slew a great many of the warders
of the English people at Westbury. This year there was no
archbishop in this land: but Bishop Stigand held the see of
Canterbury at Christ church, and Kinsey that of York. Leofwine
and Wulfwy went over sea, and had themselves consecrated bishops
there. Wulfwy took to the bishopric which Ulf had whilst he was
living and in exile.

((A.D. 1053. This year was the great wind on Thomas's-mass-
night, and also the whole midwinter there was much wind; and it
was decreed that Rees, the Welsh king's brother, should be slain,
because he had done harm; and his head was brought to Gloucester
on Twelfth-day eve. And the same year, before All Hallows-mass,
died Wulfsy, Bishop of Lichfield, and Godwin, Abbot of Winchcomb,
and Egelward, Abbot of Clastonbury, all within one month, and
Leofwine succeeded to the Bishopric of Lichfield, and Bishop
Aidred [Of Worcester] took the abbacy at Winchcomb, and Egelnoth
succeeded to the abbacy at Glastonbury. And the same year died
Elfric, Odda's brother at Deorhurst; and his body resteth at
Pershore. And the same year died Godwin the earl; and he fell
ill as he sat with the king at Winchester. And Harold his son
succeeded to the earldom which his father before held; and Elgar,
the earl, succeeded to the earldom which Harold before held.))

((A.D. 1053. In this year died Godwin, the earl, on the
seventeenth before the kalends of May, and he is buried at
Winchester, in the Old-minster; and Harold, the earl, his son,
succeeded to the earldom, and to all that which his father had
held: and Elgar, the earl, succeeded to the earldom which Harold
before held.))

A.D. 1054. This year died Leo the holy pope, at Rome: and Victor
was chosen pope in his stead. And in this year was so great loss
of cattle as was not remembered for many winters before. This
year went Earl Siward with a large army against Scotland,
consisting both of marines and landforces; and engaging with the
Scots, he put to flight the King Macbeth; slew all the best in
the land; and led thence much spoil, such as no man before
obtained. Many fell also on his side, both Danish and English;
even his own son, Osborn, and his sister's son, Sihward: and many
of his house-carls, and also of the king's, were there slain that
day, which was that of the Seven Sleepers. This same year went
Bishop Aldred south over sea into Saxony, to Cologne, on the
king's errand; where he was entertained with great respect by the
emperor, abode there well-nigh a year, and received presents not
only from the court, but from the Bishop of Cologne and the
emperor. He commissioned Bishop Leofwine to consecrate the
minster at Evesham; and it was consecrated in the same year, on
the sixth before the ides of October. This year also died Osgod
Clapa suddenly in his bed, as he lay at rest.

((A.D. 1054. This year went Siward the earl with a great army
into Scotland, both with a ship-force and with a landforce, and
fought against the Scots, and put to flight King Macbeth, and
slew all who were the chief men in the land, and led thence much
booty, such as no man before had obtained. But his son Osborn,
and his sister's son Siward, and some of his house-carls, and
also of the king's, were there slain, on the day of the Seven
Sleepers. The same year went Bishop Aldred to Cologne, over sea,
on the king's errand; and he was there received with much worship
by the emperor [Henry III], and there he dwelt well nigh a year;
and either gave him entertainment, both the Bishop of Cologne and
the emperor. And he gave leave to Bishop Leofwine [Of Lichfield]
to consecrate the minster at Evesham on the sixth before the ides
of October. In this year died Osgod suddenly in his bed. And
this year died St. Leo the pope; and Victor was chosen pope in
his stead.))

A.D. 1055. This year died Earl Siward at York; and his body lies
within the minster at Galmanho, (76) which he had himself ordered
to be built and consecrated, in the name of God and St. O1ave, to
the honour of God and to all his saints. Archbishop Kinsey
fetched his pall from Pope Victor. Then, within a little time
after, a general council was summoned in London, seven nights
before mid-Lent; at which Earl Elgar, son of Earl Leofric, was
outlawed almost without any guilt; because it was said against
him that he was the betrayer of the king and of all the people of
the land. And he was arraigned thereof before all that were
there assembled, though the crime laid to his charge was
unintentional. The king, however, gave the earldom, which Earl
Siward formerly had, to Tosty, son of Earl Godwin. Whereupon
Earl Elgar sought Griffin's territory in North-Wales; whence he
went to Ireland, and there gave him a fleet of eighteen ships,
besides his own; and then returned to Wales to King Griffin with
the armament, who received him on terms of amity. And they
gathered a great force with the Irishmen and the Welsh: and Earl
Ralph collected a great army against them at the town of
Hereford; where they met; but ere there was a spear thrown the
English people fled, because they were on horses. The enemy then
made a great slaughter there -- about four hundred or five
hundred men; they on the other side none. They went then to the
town, and burned it utterly; and the large minster (77) also
which the worthy Bishop Athelstan had caused to be built, that
they plundered and bereft of relic and of reef, and of all things
whatever; and the people they slew, and led some away. Then an
army from all parts of England was gathered very nigh; (78) and
they came to Gloucester: whence they sallied not far out against
the Welsh, and there lay some time. And Earl Harold caused the
dike to be dug about the town the while. Meantime men began to
speak of peace; and Earl Harold and those who were with him came
to Bilsley, where amity and friendship were established between
them. The sentence of outlawry against Earl Elgar was reversed;
and they gave him all that was taken from him before. The fleet
returned to Chester, and there awaited their pay, which Elgar
promised them. The slaughter was on the ninth before the calends
of November. In the same year died Tremerig, the Welsh bishop,
soon after the plundering; who was Bishop Athelstan's substitute,
after he became infirm.

((A.D. 1055. In this year died Siward the earl at York, and he
lies at Galmanho, in the minster which himself caused to be
built, and consecrated in God's and Olave's name. And Tosty
succeeded to the earldom which he had held. And Archbishop
Kynsey [Of York], fetched his pall from Pope Victor. And soon
thereafter was outlawed Elgar the earl, son of Leofric the earl,
well-nigh without guilt. But he went to Ireland and to Wales,
and procured himself there a great force, and so went to
Hereford: but there came against him Ralph the earl, with a large
army, and with a slight conflict he put them to flight, and much
people slew in the flight: and they went then into Hereford-port,
and that they ravaged, and burned the great minster which Bishop
Athelstan had built, and slew the priests within the minster, and
many in addition thereto, and took all the treasures therein, and
carried them away with them. And when they had done the utmost
evil, this counsel was counselled: that Elgar the earl should be
inlawed, and be given his earldom, and all that had been taken
from him. This ravaging happened on the 9th before the Kalends
of November. In the same year died Tremerin the Welsh bishop [Of
St. David's] soon after that ravaging: and he was Bishop
Athelstan's coadjutor from the time that he had become infirm.))

((A.D. 1055. In this year died Siward the earl: and then was
summoned a general council, seven days before Mid-lent; and they
outlawed Elgar the earl, because it was cast upon him that he was
a traitor to the king and to all the people of the land. And he
made a confession of it before all the men who were there
gathered; though the word escaped him unintentionally. And the
king gave the earldom to Tosty, son of Earl Godwin, which Siward
the earl before held. And Elgar the earl sought Griffin's
protection in North-Wales. And in this year Griffin and Elgar
burned St. Ethelbert's minster, and all the town of Hereford.))

A.D. 1056. This year Bishop Egelric resigned his bishopric at
Durham, and retired to Peterborough minster; and his brother
Egelwine succeeded him. The worthy Bishop Athelstan died on the
fourth before the ides of February; and his body lies at
Hereford. To him succeeded Leofgar, who was Earl Harold's mass-
priest. He wore his knapsack in his priesthood, until he was a
bishop. He abandoned his chrism and his rood -- his ghostly
weapons -- and took to his spear and to his sword, after his
bishophood; and so marched to the field against Griffin the Welsh
king. (79) But he was there slain, and his priests with him, and
Elnoth the sheriff, and many other good men with them; and the
rest fled. This was eight nights before midsummer. Difficult is
it to relate all the vexation and the journeying, the marching
and the fatigue, the fall of men, and of horses also, which the
whole army of the English suffered, until Earl Leofric, and Earl
Harold, and Bishop Eldred, came together and made peace between
them; so that Griffin swore oaths, that he would be a firm and
faithful viceroy to King Edward. Then Bishop Eldred took to the
bishopric which Leofgar had before eleven weeks and four days.
The same year died Cona the emperor; and Earl Odda, whose body
lies at Pershore, and who was admitted a monk before his end;
which was on the second before the calends of September; a good
man and virtuous and truly noble.

A.D. 1057. This year came Edward Etheling, son of King Edmund,
to this land, and soon after died. His body is buried within St.
Paul's minster at London. He was brother's son to King Edward.
King Edmund was called Ironside for his valour. This etheling
King Knute had sent into Hungary, to betray him; but he there
grew in favour with good men, as God granted him, and it well
became him; so that he obtained the emperor's cousin in marriage,
and by her had a fair offspring. Her name was Agatha. We know
not for what reason it was done, that he should see his relation,
King Edward. Alas! that was a rueful time, and injurious to all
this nation -- that he ended his life so soon after he came to
England, to the misfortune of this miserable people. The same
year died Earl Leofric, on the second before the calends of
October; who was very wise before God, and also before the world;
and who benefited all this nation. (80) He lies at Coventry
(81): and his son Elgar took to his territory. This year died
Earl Ralph, on the twelfth before the calends of January; and
lies at Peterborough. Also died Bishop Heca, in Sussex; and
Egelric was elevated to his see. This year also died Pope
Victor; and Stephen was chosen pope, who was Abbot of Monut

((A.D. 1057. In this year Edward Etheling, King Edmund's son,
came hither to land, and soon after died- and his body is buried
within St. Paul's minster at London. And Pope Victor died, and
Stephen [IX.] was chosen pope: he was Abbot of Mont-Cassino. And
Leofric the earl died, and Elgar his son succeeded to the earldom
which the father before held.))

A.D. 1058. This year was Earl Elgar banished: but he soon came
in again by force, through Griffin's assistance: and a naval
armament came from Norway. It is tedious to tell how it all fell
out. In this same year Bishop Aldred consecrated the minster
church at Gloucester, which he himself had raised (82) to the
honour of God and St. Peter; and then went to Jerusalem (83) with
such dignity as no other man did before him, and betook himself
there to God. A worthy gift he also offered to our Lord's
sepulchre; which was a golden chalice of the value of five marks,
of very wonderful workmanship. In the same year died Pope
Stephen; and Benedict was appointed pope. He sent hither the
pall to Bishop Stigand; who as archbishop consecrated Egelric a
monk at Christ church, Bishop of Sussex; and Abbot Siward Bishop
of Rochester.

((A.D. 1058. This year died Pope Stephen, and Benedict was
consecrated pope: the same sent hither to land a pall to
Archbishop Stigand. And in this year died Heca, Bishop of
Sussex; and Archbishop Stigand ordained Algeric, a monk at
Christchurch, Bishop of Sussex, and Abbot Siward Bishop of

A.D. 1059. This year was Nicholas chosen pope, who had been
Bishop of Florence; and Benedict was expelled, who was pope
before. This year also was consecrated the steeple (84) at
Peterborough, on the sixteenth before the calends of November.

A.D. 1060. This year was a great earthquake on the Translation
of St. Martin, and King Henry died in France. Kinsey, Archbishop
of York, died on the eleventh before the calends of January; and
he lies at Peterborough. Bishop Aldred succeeded to the see, and
Walter to that of Herefordshire. Dudoc also died, who was Bishop
of Somersetshire; and Gisa the priest was appointed in his stead.

A.D. 1061. This year went Bishop Aldred to Rome after his pall;
which he received at the hands of Pope Nicholas. Earl Tosty and
his wife also went to Rome; and the bishop and the earl met with
great difficulty as they returned home. In the same year died
Bishop Godwin at St. Martin's, (85) on the seventh before the
ides of March; and in the self-same year died Wulfric, Abbot of
St. Augustine's, in the Easterweek, on the fourteenth before the
calends of May. Pope Nicholas also died; and Alexander was
chosen pope, who was Bishop of Lucca. When word came to the king
that the Abbot Wulfric was dead, then chose he Ethelsy, a monk of
the old minster, to succeed; who followed Archbishop Stigand, and
was consecrated abbot at Windsor on St. Augustine s mass-day.

((A.D. 1061. In this year died Dudoc, Bishop of Somerset, and
Giso succeeded. And in the same year died Godwin, Bishop of St.
Martin's, on the seventh before the ides of March. And in the
self-same year died Wulfric, Abbot of St. Augustine's, within
the Easter week, on the fourteenth before the kalends of May.
When word came to the king that Abbot Wulfric was departed, then
chose he Ethelsy the monk thereto, from the Old-Minster, who then
followed Archbishop Stigand, and was consecrated abbot at
Windsor, on St. Augustine's mass-day.))

A.D. 1063. This year went Earl Harold, after mid-winter, from
Gloucester to Rhyddlan; which belonged to Griffin: and that
habitation he burned, with his ships and all the rigging
belonging thereto; and put him to flight. Then in the gang-days
went Harold with his ships from Bristol about Wales; where he
made a truce with the people, and they gave him hostages. Tosty
meanwhile advanced with a land-force against them, and plundered
the land. But in the harvest of the same year was King Griffin
slain, on the nones of August, by his own men, through the war
that he waged with Earl Harold. He was king over all the Welsh
nation. And his head was brought to Earl Harold; who sent it to
the king, with his ship's head, and the rigging therewith. King
Edward committed the land to his two brothers, Blethgent and
Rigwatle; who swore oaths, and gave hostages to the king and to
the earl, that they would be faithful to him in all things, ready
to aid him everywhere by water and land, and would pay him such
tribute from the land as was paid long before to other kings.

((A.D. 1063. This year went Harold the earl, and his brother
Tosty the earl, as well with a land-force as a shipforce, into
Wales, and they subdued the land; and the people delivered
hostages to them, and submitted; and went afterwards and slew
their King Griffin, and brought to Harold his head: and he
appointed another king thereto.))

A.D. 1065. This year, before Lammas, ordered Earl Harold his men
to build at Portskeweth in Wales. But when he had begun, and
collected many materials, and thought to have King Edward there
for the purpose of hunting, even when it was all ready, came
Caradoc, son of Griffin, with all the gang that he could get, and
slew almost all that were building there; and they seized the
materials that were there got ready. Wist we not who first
advised the wicked deed. This was done on the mass-day of St.
Bartholomew. Soon after this all the thanes in Yorkshire and in
Northumberland gathered themselves together at York, and outlawed
their Earl Tosty; slaying all the men of his clan that they could
reach, both Danish and English; and took all his weapons in York,
with gold and silver, and all his money that they could anywhere
there find. They then sent after Morkar, son of Earl Elgar, and
chose him for their earl. He went south with all the shire, and
with Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and Lincolnshire, till he
came to Northampton; where his brother Edwin came to meet him
with the men that were in his earldom. Many Britons also came
with him. Harold also there met them; on whom they imposed an
errand to King Edward, sending also messengers with him, and
requesting that they might have Morcar for their earl. This the
king granted; and sent back Harold to them, to Northampton, on
the eve of St. Simon and St. Jude; and announced to them the
same, and confirmed it by hand, and renewed there the laws of
Knute. But the Northern men did much harm about Northampton,
whilst he went on their errand: either that they slew men, and
burned houses and corn; or took all the cattle that they could
come at; which amounted to many thousands. Many hundred men also
they took, and led northward with them; so that not only that
shire, but others near it were the worse for many winters. Then
Earl Tosty and his wife, and all they who acted with him, went
south over sea with him to Earl Baldwin; who received them all:
and they were there all the winter. About midwinter King Edward
came to Westminster, and had the minster there consecrated, which
he had himself built to the honour of God, and St. Peter, and all
God's saints. This church-hallowing was on Childermas-day. He
died on the eve of twelfth-day; and he was buried on twelfth-day
in the same minster; as it is hereafter said.
Here Edward king, (86)
of Angles lord,
sent his stedfast
soul to Christ.
In the kingdom of God
a holy spirit!
He in the world here
abode awhile,
in the kingly throng
of council sage.
Four and twenty
winters wielding
the sceptre freely,
wealth he dispensed.
In the tide of health,
the youthful monarch,
offspring of Ethelred!
ruled well his subjects;
the Welsh and the Scots,
and the Britons also,
Angles and Saxons
relations of old.
So apprehend
the first in rank,
that to Edward all
the noble king
were firmly held
high-seated men.
Blithe-minded aye
was the harmless king;
though he long ere,
of land bereft,
abode in exile
wide on the earth;
when Knute o'ercame
the kin of Ethelred,
and the Danes wielded
the dear kingdom
of Engle-land.
Eight and twenty
winters' rounds
they wealth dispensed.
Then came forth
free in his chambers,
in royal array,
good, pure, and mild,
Edward the noble;
by his country defended --
by land and people.
Until suddenly came
the bitter Death
and this king so dear
snatched from the earth.
Angels carried
his soul sincere
into the light of heaven.
But the prudent king
had settled the realm
on high-born men --
on Harold himself,
the noble earl;
who in every season
faithfully heard
and obeyed his lord,
in word and deed;
nor gave to any
what might be wanted
by the nation's king.
This year also was Earl Harold hallowed to king; but he enjoyed
little tranquillity therein the while that he wielded the

((A.D. 1065. And the man-slaying was on St. Bartholomew's
mass-day. And then, after Michael's-mass, all the thanes in
Yorkshire went to York, and there slew all Earl Tosty's household
servants whom they might hear of, and took his treasures: and
Tosty was then at Britford with the king. And then, very soon
thereafter, was a great council at Northampton; and then at
Oxford on the day of Simon and Jude. And there was Harold the
earl, and would work their reconciliation if he might, but he
could not: but all his earldom him unanimously forsook and
outlawed, and all who with him lawlessness upheld, because he
robbed God first, and all those bereaved over whom he had power
of life and of land. And they then took to themselves Morkar for
earl; and Tosty went then over sea, and his wife with him, to
Baldwin's land, and they took up their winter residence at St.

A.D. 1066. This year came King Harold from York to Westminster,
on the Easter succeeding the midwinter when the king (Edward)
died. Easter was then on the sixteenth day before the calends of
May. Then was over all England such a token seen as no man ever
saw before. Some men said that it was the comet-star, which
others denominate the long-hair'd star. It appeared first on the
eve called "Litania major", that is, on the eighth before the
calends off May; and so shone all the week. Soon after this came
in Earl Tosty from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight, with as
large a fleet as he could get; and he was there supplied with
money and provisions. Thence he proceeded, and committed
outrages everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, until
he came to Sandwich. When it was told King Harold, who was in
London, that his brother Tosty was come to Sandwich, he gathered
so large a force, naval and military, as no king before collected
in this land; for it was credibly reported that Earl William from
Normandy, King Edward's cousin, would come hither and gain this
land; just as it afterwards happened. When Tosty understood that
King Harold was on the way to Sandwich, he departed thence, and
took some of the boatmen with him, willing and unwilling, and
went north into the Humber with sixty skips; whence he plundered
in Lindsey, and there slew many good men. When the Earls Edwin
and Morkar understood that, they came hither, and drove him from
the land. And the boatmen forsook him. Then he went to Scotland
with twelve smacks; and the king of the Scots entertained him,
and aided him with provisions; and he abode there all the summer.
There met him Harold, King of Norway, with three hundred ships.
And Tosty submitted to him, and became his man. (87) Then came
King Harold (88) to Sandwich, where he awaited his fleet; for it
was long ere it could be collected: but when it was assembled, he
went into the Isle of Wight, and there lay all the summer and the
autumn. There was also a land-force every where by the sea,
though it availed nought in the end. It was now the nativity of
St. Mary, when the provisioning of the men began; and no man
could keep them there any longer. They therefore had leave to go
home: and the king rode up, and the ships were driven to London;
but many perished ere they came thither. When the ships were
come home, then came Harald, King of Norway, north into the Tine,
unawares, with a very great sea-force -- no small one; that might
be, with three hundred ships or more; and Earl Tosty came to him
with all those that he had got; just as they had before said: and
they both then went up with all the fleet along the Ouse toward
York. (89) When it was told King Harold in the south, after he
had come from the ships, that Harald, King of Norway, and Earl
Tosty were come up near York, then went he northward by day and
night, as soon as he could collect his army. But, ere King
Harold could come thither, the Earls Edwin and Morkar had
gathered from their earldoms as great a force as they could get,
and fought with the enemy. (90) They made a great slaughter too;
but there was a good number of the English people slain, and
drowned, and put to flight: and the Northmen had possession of
the field of battle. It was then told Harold, king of the
English, that this had thus happened. And this fight was on the
eve of St. Matthew the apostle, which was Wednesday. Then after
the fight went Harold, King of Norway, and Earl Tosty into York
with as many followers as they thought fit; and having procured
hostages and provisions from the city, they proceeded to their
ships, and proclaimed full friendship, on condition that all
would go southward with them, and gain this land. In the midst
of this came Harold, king of the English, with all his army, on
the Sunday, to Tadcaster; where he collected his fleet. Thence
he proceeded on Monday throughout York. But Harald, King of
Norway, and Earl Tosty, with their forces, were gone from their
ships beyond York to Stanfordbridge; for that it was given them
to understand, that hostages would be brought to them there from
all the shire. Thither came Harold, king of the English,
unawares against them beyond the bridge; and they closed together
there, and continued long in the day fighting very severely.
There was slain Harald the Fair-hair'd, King of Norway, and Earl
Tosty, and a multitude of people with them, both of Normans and
English; (91) and the Normans that were left fled from the
English, who slew them hotly behind; until some came to their
ships, some were drowned, some burned to death, and thus
variously destroyed; so that there was little left: and the
English gained possession of the field. But there was one of the
Norwegians who withstood the English folk, so that they could not
pass over the bridge, nor complete the victory. An Englishman
aimed at him with a javelin, but it availed nothing. Then came
another under the bridge, who pierced him terribly inwards under
the coat of mail. And Harold, king of the English, then came
over the bridge, followed by his army; and there they made a
great slaughter, both of the Norwegians and of the Flemings. But
Harold let the king's son, Edmund, go home to Norway with all the
ships. He also gave quarter to Olave, the Norwegian king's son,
and to their bishop, and to the earl of the Orkneys, and to all
those that were left in the ships; who then went up to our king,
and took oaths that they would ever maintain faith and friendship
unto this land. Whereupon the King let them go home with twenty-
four ships. These two general battles were fought within five
nights. Meantime Earl William came up from Normandy into
Pevensey on the eve of St. Michael's mass; and soon after his
landing was effected, they constructed a castle at the port of
Hastings. This was then told to King Harold; and he gathered a
large force, and came to meet him at the estuary of Appledore.
William, however, came against him unawares, ere his army was
collected; but the king, nevertheless, very hardly encountered
him with the men that would support him: and there was a great
slaughter made on either side. There was slain King Harold, and
Leofwin his brother, and Earl Girth his brother, with many good
men: and the Frenchmen gained the field of battle, as God granted
them for the sins of the nation. Archbishop Aldred and the
corporation of London were then desirous of having child Edgar to
king, as he was quite natural to them; and Edwin and Morkar
promised them that they would fight with them. But the more
prompt the business should ever be, so was it from day to day the
later and worse; as in the end it all fared. This battle was
fought on the day of Pope Calixtus: and Earl William returned to
Hastings, and waited there to know whether the people would
submit to him. But when he found that they would not come to
him, he went up with all his force that was left and that came
since to him from over sea, and ravaged all the country that he
overran, until he came to Berkhampstead; where Archbishop Aldred
came to meet him, with child Edgar, and Earls Edwin and Morkar,
and all the best men from London; who submitted then for need,
when the most harm was done. It was very ill-advised that they
did not so before, seeing that God would not better things for
our sins. And they gave him hostages and took oaths: and he
promised them that he would be a faithful lord to them; though in
the midst of this they plundered wherever they went. Then on
midwinter's day Archbishop Aldred hallowed him to king at
Westminster, and gave him possession with the books of Christ,
and also swore him, ere that he would set the crown on his head,
that he would so well govern this nation as any before him best
did, if they would be faithful to him. Neverrhetess he laid very
heavy tribute on men, and in Lent went over sea to Normandy,
taking with him Archbishop Stigand, and Abbot Aylnoth of
Glastonbury, and the child Edgar, and the Earls Edwin, Morkar,
and Waltheof, and many other good men of England. Bishop Odo and
Earl William lived here afterwards, and wrought castles widely
through this country, and harassed the miserable people; and ever
since has evil increased very much. May the end be good, when
God will! In that same expedition (92) was Leofric, Abbot of
Peterborough; who sickened there, and came home, and died soon
after, on the night of Allhallow-mass. God honour his soul! In
his day was all bliss and all good at Peterborough. He was
beloved by all; so that the king gave to St. Peter and him the
abbey at Burton, and that at Coventry, which the Earl Leofric,
who was his uncle, had formerly made; with that of Croyland, and
that of Thorney. He did so much good to the minster of
Peterborough, in gold, and in silver, and in shroud, and in land,
as no other ever did before him, nor any one after him. But now
was Gilden-borough become a wretched borough. The monks then
chose for abbot Provost Brand, because he was a very good man,
and very wise; and sent him to Edgar Etheling, for that the
land-folk supposed that he should be king: and the etheling
received him gladly. When King William heard say that, he was
very wroth, and said that the abbot had renounced him: but good
men went between them, and reconciled them; because the abbot was
a good man. He gave the king forty marks of gold for his
reconciliation; and he lived but a little while after -- only
three years. Afterwards came all wretchedness and all evil to
the minster. God have mercy on it!

((A.D. 1066. This year died King Edward, and Harold the earl
succeeded to the kingdom, and held it forty weeks and one day.
And this year came William, and won England. And in this year
Christ-Church [Canterbury] was burned. And this year appeared a
comet on the fourteenth before the kalends of May.))

((A.D. 1066. ...And then he [Tosty] went thence, and did harm
everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, as far as
Sandwich. Then was it made known to King Harold, who was in
London, that Tosty his brother was come to Sandwich. Then
gathered he so great a ship-force, and also a land force, as no
king here in the land had before gathered, because it had been
soothly said unto him, that William the earl from Normandy, King
Edward's kinsman, would come hither and subdue this land: all as
it afterwards happened. When Tosty learned that King Harold was
on his way to Sandwich, then went he from Sandwich, and took some
of the boatmen with him, some willingly and some unwillingly; and
went then north into Humber, and there ravaged in Lindsey, and
there slew many good men. When Edwin the earl and Morcar the
earl understood that, then came they thither, and drove him out
of the land. And he went then to Scotland: and the king of Scots
protected him, and assisted him with provisions; and he there
abode all the summer. Then came King Harold to Sandwich, and
there awaited his fleet, because it was long before it could be
gathered together. And when his fleet was gathered together,
then went he into the Isle of Wight, and there lay all the summer
and the harvest; and a land-force was kept everywhere by the sea,
though in the end it was of no benefit. When it was the Nativity
of St. Mary, then were the men's provisions gone, and no man
could any longer keep them there. Then were the men allowed to
go home, and the king rode up, and the ships were dispatched to
London; and many perished before they came thither. When the
ships had reached home, then came King Harald from Norway, north
into Tyne, and unawares, with a very large ship-force, and no
small one; that might be, or more. And Tosty the earl came to
him with all that he had gotten, all as they had before agreed;
and then they went both, with all the fleet, along the Ouse, up
towards York. Then was it made known to King Harold in the
south, as he was come from on ship-board, that Harald King of
Norway and Tosty the earl were landed near York. Then went he
northward, day and night, as quickly as he could gather his
forces. Then, before that King Harold could come thither, then
gathered Edwin the earl and Morcar the earl from their earldom
as great a force as they could get together; and they fought
against the army, and made great slaughter: and there was much of
the English people slain, and drowned, and driven away in flight;
and the Northmen had possession of the place of carnage. And
this fight was on the vigil of St. Matthew the apostle, and it
was Wednesday. And then, after the fight, went Harald, King of
Norway, and Tosty the earl, into York, with as much people as
seemed meet to them. And they delivered hostages to them from
the city, and also assisted them with provisions; and so they
went thence to their ships, and they agreed upon a full peace, so
that they should all go with him south, and this land subdue.
Then, during this, came Harold, king of the Angles, with all his
forces, on the Sunday, to Tadcaster, and there drew up his force,
and went then on Monday throughout York; and Harald, King of
Norway, and Tosty the earl, and their forces, were gone from
their ships beyond York to Stanfordbridge, because it had been
promised them for a certainty, that there, from all the shire,
hostages should be brought to meet them. Then came Harold, king
of the English, against them, unawares, beyond the bridge, and
they there joined battle, and very strenuously, for a long time
of the day, continued fighting: and there was Harald, King of
Norway, and Tosty the earl slain, and numberless of the people
with them, as well of the Northmen as of the English: and the
Northmen fled from the English. Then was there one of the
Norwegians who withstood the English people, so that they might
not pass over the bridge, nor obtain the victory. Then an
Englishman aimed at him with a javelin, but availed nothing; and
then came another under the bridge, and pierced him terribly
inwards under the coat of mail. Then came Harold, king of the
English, over the bridge, and his forces onward with him, and
there made great slaughter, as well of Norwegians as of Flemings.
And the King's son, Edmund, Harold let go home to Norway, with
all the ships.))

((A.D. 1066. In this year was consecrated the minster at
Westminster, on Childer-mass-day. And King Edward died on the
eve of Twelfth-day; and he was buried on Twelfth-day within the
newly consecrated church at Westminster. And Harold the earl
succeeded to the kingdom of England, even as the king had granted
it to him, and men also had chosen him thereto; and he was
crowned as king on Twelfth-day. And that same year that he
became king, he went out with a fleet against William [Earl of
Normandy]; and the while, came Tosty the earl into Humber with
sixty ships. Edwin the earl came with a land-force and drove him
out; and the boatmen forsook him. And he went to Scotland with
twelve vessels; and Harald, the King of Norway, met him with
three hundred ships, and Tosty submitted to him; and they both
went into Humber, until they came to York. And Morcar the earl,
and Edwin the earl, fought against them; and the king of the
Norwegians had the victory. And it was made known to King Harold
how it there was done, and had happened; and he came there with a
great army of English men, and met him at Stanfordbridge, and
slew him and the earl Tosty, and boldly overcame all the army.
And the while, William the earl landed at Hastings, on St.
Michael's-day: and Harold came from the north, and fought against
him before all his army had come up: and there he fell, and his
two brothers, Girth and Leofwin; and William subdued this land.
And he came to Westminster, and Archbishop Aldred consecrated him
king, and men paid him tribute, delivered him hostages, and
afterwards bought their land. And then was Leofric, Abbot of
Peterborough, in that same expedition; and there he sickened, and
came home, and was dead soon thereafter, on All-hallows-mass-
night; God be merciful to his soul! In his day was all bliss and
all good in Peterborough; and he was dear to all people, so that
the king gave to St. Peter and to him the abbacy at Burton, and
that of Coventry, which Leofric the earl, who was his uncle,
before had made, and that of Crowland, and that of Thorney. And
he conferred so much of good upon the minster of Peterborough, in
gold, and in silver, and in vestments, and in land, as never any
other did before him, nor any after him. After, Golden-borough
became a wretched borough. Then chose the monks for abbot Brand
the provost, by reason that he was a very good man, and very
wise, and sent him then to Edgar the etheling, by reason that the
people of the land supposed that he should become king: and the
etheling granted it him then gladly. When King William heard say
that, then was he very wroth, and said that the abbot had
despised him. Then went good men between them, and reconciled
them, by reason that the abbot was a good man. Then gave he the
king forty marks of gold for a reconciliation; and then
thereafter, lived he a little while, but three years. After that
came every tribulation and every evil to the minster. God have
mercy on it!))

A.D. 1067. This year came the king back again to England on St.
Nicholas's day; and the same day was burned the church of Christ
at Canterbury. Bishop Wulfwy also died, and is buried at his see
in Dorchester. The child Edric and the Britons were unsettled
this year, and fought with the castlemen at Hereford, and did
them much harm. The king this year imposed a heavy guild on the
wretched people; but, notwithstanding, let his men always plunder
all the country that they went over; and then he marched to
Devonshire, and beset the city of Exeter eighteen days. There
were many of his army slain; out he had promised them well, and
performed ill; and the citizens surrendered the city because the
thanes had betrayed them. This summer the child Edgar departed,
with his mother Agatha, and his two sisters, Margaret and
Christina, and Merle-Sweyne, and many good men with them; and
came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm, who
entertained them all. Then began King Malcolm to yearn after the
child's sister, Margaret, to wife; but he and all his men long
refused; and she also herself was averse, and said that she would
neither have him nor any one else, if the Supreme Power would
grant, that she in her maidenhood might please the mighty Lord
with a carnal heart, in this short life, in pure continence. The
king, however, earnestly urged her brother, until he answered
Yea. And indeed he durst not otherwise; for they were come into
his kingdom. So that then it was fulfilled, as God had long ere
foreshowed; and else it could not be; as he himself saith in his
gospel: that "not even a sparrow on the ground may fall, without
his foreshowing." The prescient Creator wist long before what he
of her would have done; for that she should increase the glory of
God in this land, lead the king aright from the path of error,
bend him and his people together to a better way, and suppress
the bad customs which the nation formerly followed: all which she
afterwards did. The king therefore received her, though it was
against her will, and was pleased with her manners, and thanked
God, who in his might had given him such a match. He wisely
bethought himself, as he was a prudent man, and turned himself to
God, and renounced all impurity; accordingly, as the apostle
Paul, the teacher of all the gentries, saith: "Salvabitur vir
infidelis per mulierem fidelem; sic et mulier infidelis per virum
fidelem," etc.: that is in our language, "Full oft the
unbelieving husband is sanctified and healed through the
believing wife, and so belike the wife through the believing
husband." This queen aforesaid performed afterwards many useful
deeds in this land to the glory of God, and also in her royal
estate she well conducted herself, as her nature was. Of a
faithful and noble kin was she sprung. Her father was Edward
Etheling, son of King Edmund. Edmund was the son of Ethelred;
Ethelred the son of Edgar; Edgar the son of Edred; and so forth
in that royal line: and her maternal kindred goeth to the Emperor
Henry, who had the sovereignty over Rome. This year went out
Githa, Harold's mother, and the wives of many good men with her,
to the Flat-Holm, and there abode some time; and so departed
thence over sea to St. Omer's. This Easter came the king to
Winchester; and Easter was then on the tenth before the calends
of April. Soon after this came the Lady Matilda hither to this
land; and Archbishop Eldred hallowed her to queen at Westminster
on Whit Sunday. Then it was told the king, that the people in
the North had gathered themselves together, and would stand
against him if he came. Whereupon he went to Nottingham, and
wrought there a castle; and so advanced to York, and there
wrought two castles; and the same at Lincoln, and everywhere in
that quarter. Then Earl Gospatric and the best men went into
Scotland. Amidst this came one of Harold's sons from Ireland
with a naval force into the mouth of the Avon unawares, and
plundered soon over all that quarter; whence they went to
Bristol, and would have stormed the town; but the people bravely
withstood them. When they could gain nothing from the town, they
went to their ships with the booty which they had acquired by
plunder; and then they advanced upon Somersetshire, and there
went up; and Ednoth, master of the horse, fought with them; but
he was there slain, and many good men on either side; and those
that were left departed thence.

A.D. 1068. This year King William gave Earl Robert the earldom
over Northumberland; but the landsmen attacked him in the town of
Durham, and slew him, and nine hundred men with him. Soon
afterwards Edgar Etheling came with all the Northumbrians to
York; and the townsmen made a treaty with him: but King William
came from the South unawares on them with a large army, and put
them to flight, and slew on the spot those who could not escape;
which were many hundred men; and plundered the town. St. Peter's
minster he made a profanation, and all other places also he
despoiled and trampled upon; and the etheling went back again to
Scotland. After this came Harold's sons from Ireland, about
midsummer, with sixty-four ships into the mouth of the Taft,
where they unwarily landed: and Earl Breon came unawares against
them with a large army, and fought with them, and slew there all
the best men that were in the fleet; and the others, being small
forces, escaped to the ships: and Harold's sons went back to
Ireland again.

A.D. 1069. This year died Aldred, Archbishop of York; and he is
there buried, at his see. He died on the day of Protus and
Hyacinthus, having held the see with much dignity ten years
wanting only fifteen weeks. Soon after this came from Denmark
three of the sons of King Sweyne with two hundred and forty
ships, together with Earl Esborn and Earl Thurkill, into the
Humber; where they were met by the child Edgar, and Earl
Waltheof, and Merle-Sweyne, and Earl Gospatric with the
Northumbrians, and all the landsmen; riding and marching full
merrily with an immense army: and so all unanimously advanced to
York; where they stormed and demolished the castle, and won
innumerable treasures therein; slew there many hundreds of
Frenchmen, and led many with them to the ships; but, ere that the
shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had burned the city, and also
the holy minster of St. Peter had they entirely plundered, and
destroyed with fire. When the king heard this, then went he
northward with all the force that he could collect, despoiling
and laying waste the shire withal; whilst the fleet lay all the
winter in the Humber, where the king could not come at them. The
king was in York on Christmas Day, and so all the winter on land,
and came to Winchester at Easter. Bishop Egelric, who was at
Peterborough, was this year betrayed, and led to Westminster; and
his brother Egelwine was outlawed. This year also died Brand,
Abbot of Peterborough, on the fifth before the calends of

A.D. 1070. This year Landfranc, who was Abbot of Caen, came to
England; and after a few days he became Archbishop of Canterbury.
He was invested on the fourth before the calends of September in
his own see by eight bishops, his suffragans. The others, who
were not there, by messengers and by letter declared why they
could not be there. The same year Thomas, who was chosen Bishop
of York, came to Canterbury, to be invested there after the
ancient custom. But when Landfranc craved confirmation of his
obedience with an oath, he refused; and said, that he ought not
to do it. Whereupon Archbishop Landfranc was wroth, and bade the
bishops, who were come thither by Archbishop Landfranc's command
to do the service, and all the monks to unrobe themselves. And
they by his order so did. Thomas, therefore, for the time,
departed without consecration. Soon after this, it happened that
the Archbishop Landfranc went to Rome, and Thomas with him. When
they came thither, and had spoken about other things concerning
which they wished to speak, then began Thomas his speech: how he
came to Canterbury, and how the archbishop required obedience of
him with an oath; but he declined it. Then began the Archbishop
Landfranc to show with clear distinction, that what he craved he
craved by right; and with strong arguments he confirmed the same
before the Pope Alexander, and before all the council that was
collected there; and so they went home. After this came Thomas
to Canterbury; and all that the archbishop required of him he
humbly fulfilled, and afterwards received consecration. This
year Earl Waltheof agreed with the king; but in the Lent of the
same year the king ordered all the monasteries in England to be
plundered. In the same year came King Sweyne from Denmark into
the Humber; and the landsmen came to meet him, and made a treaty
with him; thinking that he would overrun the land. Then came
into Ely Christien, the Danish bishop, and Earl Osbern, and the
Danish domestics with them; and the English people from all the
fen-lands came to them; supposing that they should win all that
land. Then the monks of Peterborough heard say, that their own
men would plunder the minster; namely Hereward and his gang:
because they understood that the king had given the abbacy to a
French abbot, whose name was Thorold; -- that he was a very stern
man, and was then come into Stamford with all his Frenchmen. Now
there was a churchwarden, whose name was Yware; who took away by
night all that he could, testaments, mass-hackles, cantel-copes,
and reefs, and such other small things, whatsoever he could; and
went early, before day, to the Abbot Thorold; telling him that he
sought his protection, and informing him how the outlaws were
coming to Peterborough, and that he did all by advice of the
monks. Early in the morning came all the outlaws with many
ships, resolving to enter the minster; but the monks withstood,
so that they could not come in. Then they laid on fire, and
burned all the houses of the monks, and all the town except one
house. Then came they in through fire at the Bull-hithe gate;
where the monks met them, and besought peace of them. But they
regarded nothing. They went into the minster, climbed up to the
holy rood, took away the diadem from our Lord's head, all of pure
gold, and seized the bracket that was underneath his feet, which
was all of red gold. They climbed up to the steeple, brought
down the table that was hid there, which was all of gold and
silver, seized two golden shrines, and nine of silver, and took
away fifteen large crucifixes, of gold and of silver; in short,
they seized there so much gold and silver, and so many treasures,
in money, in raiment, and in books, as no man could tell another;
and said, that they did it from their attachment to the minster.
Afterwards they went to their ships, proceeded to Ely, and
deposited there all the treasure. The Danes, believing that they
should overcome the Frenchmen, drove out all the monks; leaving
there only one, whose name was Leofwine Lang, who lay sick in the
infirmary. Then came Abbot Thorold and eight times twenty
Frenchmen with him, all full-armed. When he came thither, he
found all within and without consumed by fire, except the church
alone; but the outlaws were all with the fleet, knowing that he
would come thither. This was done on the fourth day before the
nones of June. The two kings, William and Sweyne, were now
reconciled; and the Danes went out of Ely with all the aforesaid
treasure, and carried it away with them. But when they came into
the middle of the sea, there came a violent storm, and dispersed
all the ships wherein the treasures were. Some went to Norway,
some to Ireland, some to Denmark. All that reached the latter,
consisted of the table, and some shrines, and some crucifixes,
and many of the other treasures; which they brought to a king's
town, called ---, and deposited it all there in the church.
Afterwards through their own carelessness, and through their
drunkenness, in one night the church and all that was therein was
consumed by fire. Thus was the minster of Peterborough burned
and plundered. Almighty God have mercy on it through his great
goodness. Thus came the Abbot Thorold to Peterborough; and the
monks too returned, and performed the service of Christ in the
church, which had before stood a full week without any kind of
rite. When Bishop Aylric heard it, he excommunicated all the men
who that evil deed had done. There was a great famine this year:
and in the summer came the fleet in the north from the Humber
into the Thames, and lay there two nights, and made afterwards
for Denmark. Earl Baldwin also died, and his son Arnulf
succeeded to the earldom. Earl William, in conjunction with the
king of the Franks, was to be his guardian; but Earl Robert came
and slew his kinsman Arnulf and the earl, put the king to flight,
and slew many thousands of his men.

A.D. 1071. This year Earl Edwin and Earl Morkar fled out, (93)
and roamed at random in woods and in fields. Then went Earl
Morkar to Ely by ship; but Earl Edwin was treacherously slain by
his own men. Then came Bishop Aylwine, and Siward Barn, and many
hundred men with them, into Ely. When King William heard that,
then ordered he out a naval force and land force, and beset the
land all about, and wrought a bridge, and went in; and the naval
force at the same time on the sea-side. And the outlaws then all
surrendered; that was, Bishop Aylwine, and Earl Morkar, and all
that were with them; except Hereward (94) alone, and all those
that would join him, whom he led out triumphantly. And the king
took their ships, and weapons, and many treasures; (95) and all
the men he disposed of as he thought proper. Bishop Aylwine he
sent to Abingdon, where he died in the beginning of the winter.

A.D. 1072. This year King William led a naval force and a land
force to Scotland, and beset that land on the sea-side with
ships, whilst he led his land-force in at the Tweed; (96) but he
found nothing there of any value. King Malcolm, however, came,
and made peace with King William, and gave hostages, and became
his man; whereupon the king returned home with all his force.
This year died Bishop Aylric. He had been invested Bishop of
York; but that see was unjustly taken from him, and he then had
the bishopric of Durham given him; which he held as long as he
chose, but resigned it afterwards, and retired to Peterborough
minster; where he abode twelve years. After that King William
won England, then took he him from Peterborough, and sent him to
Westminster; where he died on the ides of October, and he is
there buried, within the minster, in the porch of St. Nicholas.

A.D. 1073. This year led King William an army, English and
French, over sea, and won the district of Maine; which the
English very much injured by destroying the vineyards, burning
the towns, and spoiling the land. But they subdued it all into
the hand of King William, and afterwards returned home to

A.D. 1074. This year King William went over sea to Normandy; and
child Edgar came from Flanders into Scotland on St. Grimbald's
mass-day; where King Malcolm and his sister Margaret received him
with much pomp. At the same time sent Philip, the King of
France, a letter to him, bidding him to come to him, and he would
give him the castle of Montreuil; that he might afterwards daily
annoy his enemies. What then? King Malcolm and his sister
Margaret gave him and his men great presents, and many treasures;
in skins ornamented with purple, in pelisses made of martin-
skins, of grey-skins, and of ermine-skins, in palls, and in
vessels of gold and silver; and conducted him and his crew with
great pomp from his territory. But in their voyage evil befel
them; for when they were out at sea, there came upon them such
rough weather, and the stormy sea and the strong wind drove them
so violently on the shore, that all their ships burst, and they
also themselves came with difficulty to the land. Their treasure
was nearly all lost, and some of his men also were taken by the
French; but he himself and his best men returned again to
Scotland, some roughly travelling on foot, and some miserably
mounted. Then King Malcolm advised him to send to King William
over sea, to request his friendship, which he did; and the king
gave it him, and sent after him. Again, therefore, King Malcolm
and his sister gave him and all his men numberless treasures, and
again conducted him very magnificently from their territory. The
sheriff of York came to meet him at Durham, and went all the way
with him; ordering meat and fodder to be found for him at every
castle to which they came, until they came over sea to the king.
Then King William received him with much pomp; and he was there
afterwards in his court, enjoying such rights as he confirmed to
him by law.

A.D. 1075. This year King William gave Earl Ralph the daughter
of William Fitz-Osborne to wife. This same Ralph was British on
his mother's side; but his father, whose name was also Ralph, was
English; and born in Norfolk. The king therefore gave his son
the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk; and he then led the bride to
There was that bride-ale
The source of man's bale.
There was Earl Roger, and Earl Waltheof, and bishops, and abbots;
who there resolved, that they would drive the king out of the
realm of England. But it was soon told the king in Normandy how
it was determined. It was Earl Roger and Earl Ralph who were the
authors of that plot; and who enticed the Britons to them, and
sent eastward to Denmark after a fleet to assist them. Roger
went westward to his earldom, and collected his people there, to
the king's annoyance, as he thought; but it was to the great
disadvantage of himself. He was however prevented. Ralph also
in his earldom would go forth with his people; but the castlemen
that were in England and also the people of the land, came
against him, and prevented him from doing anything. He escaped
however to the ships at Norwich. (97) And his wife was in the
castle; which she held until peace was made with her; when she
went out of England, with all her men who wished to join her.
The king afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger, his
relative, and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof went over
sea, and bewrayed himself; but he asked forgiveness, and
proffered gifts of ransom. The king, however, let him off
lightly, until he (98) came to England; when he had him seized.
Soon after that came east from Denmark two hundred ships; wherein
were two captains, Cnute Swainson, and Earl Hacco; but they durst
not maintain a fight with King William. They went rather to
York, and broke into St. Peter's minster, and took therein much
treasure, and so went away. They made for Flanders over sea; but
they all perished who were privy to that design; that was, the
son of Earl Hacco, and many others with him. This year died the
Lady Edgitha, who was the relict of King Edward, seven nights
before Christmas, at Winchester; and the king caused her to be
brought to Westminster with great pomp; and he laid her with King
Edward, her lord. And the king was then at Westminster, at
midwinter; where all the Britons were condemned who were at the
bride-ale at Norwich. Some were punished with blindness; some
were driven from the land; and some were towed to Scandinavia.
So were the traitors of King William subdued.

A.D. 1076. This year died Sweyne, King of Denmark; and Harold
his son took to the kingdom. And the king gave the abbacy of
Westminster to Abbot Vitalis, who had been Abbot of Bernay. This
year also was Earl Waltheof beheaded at Winchester, on the mass-
day of St. Petronilla; (99) and his body was carried to Croyland,
where he lies buried. King William now went over sea, and led
his army to Brittany, and beset the castle of Dol; but the
Bretons defended it, until the king came from France; whereupon
William departed thence, having lost there both men and horses,
and many of his treasures.

A.D. 1077. This year were reconciled the king of the Franks and
William, King of England. But it continued only a little while.
This year was London burned, one night before the Assumption of
St. Mary, so terribly as it never was before, since it was built.
This year the moon was eclipsed three nights before Candlemas;
and in the same year died Aylwy, the prudent Abbot of Evesham, on
the fourteenth day before the calends of March, on the mass-day
of St. Juliana; and Walter was appointed abbot in his stead; and
Bishop Herman also died, on the tenth day before the calends of
March, who was Bishop in Berkshire, and in Wiltshire, and in
Dorsetshire. This year also King Malcolm won the mother of
Malslaythe.... and all his best men, and all his treasures, and
his cattle; and he himself not easily escaped.... This year also
was the dry summer; and wild fire came upon many shires, and
burned many towns; and also many cities were ruined thereby.

A.D. 1079. This year Robert, the son of King William, deserted
from his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders; because his
father would not let him govern his earldom in Normandy; which he
himself, and also King Philip with his permission, had given him.
The best men that were in the land also had sworn oaths of
allegiance to him, and taken him for their lord. This year,
therefore, Robert fought with his father, without Normandy, by a
castle called Gerberoy; and wounded him in the hand; and his
horse, that he sat upon, was killed under him; and he that
brought him another was killed there right with a dart. That was
Tookie Wiggodson. Many were there slain, and also taken. His
son William too was there wounded; but Robert returned to
Flanders. We will not here, however, record any more injury that
he did his father. This year came King Malcolm from Scotland
into England, betwixt the two festivals of St. Mary, with a large
army, which plundered Northumberland till it came to the Tine,
and slew many hundreds of men, and carried home much coin, and
treasure, and men in captivity.

A.D. 1080. This year was Bishop Walker slain in Durham, at a
council; and an hundred men with him, French and Flemish. He
himself was born in Lorrain. This did the Northumbrians in the
month of May. (100)

A.D. 1081. This year the king led an army into Wales, and there
freed many hundreds of men.

A.D. 1082. This year the king seized Bishop Odo; and this year
also was a great famine.

A.D. 1083. This year arose the tumult at Glastonbury betwixt the
Abbot Thurstan and his monks. It proceeded first from the
abbot's want of wisdom, that he misgoverned his monks in many
things. But the monks meant well to him; and told him that he
should govern them rightly, and love them, and they would be
faithful and obedient to him. The abbot, however, would hear
nothing of this; but evil entreated them, and threatened them
worse. One day the abbot went into the chapter-house, and spoke
against the monks, and attempted to mislead them; (101) and sent
after some laymen, and they came full-armed into the chapter-
house upon the monks. Then were the monks very much afraid (102)
of them, and wist not what they were to do, but they shot
forward, and some ran into the church, and locked the doors after
them. But they followed them into the minster, and resolved to
drag them out, so that they durst not go out. A rueful thing
happened on that day. The Frenchmen broke into the choir, and
hurled their weapons toward the altar, where the monks were; and
some of the knights went upon the upper floor, (103) and shot
their arrows downward incessantly toward the sanctuary; so that
on the crucifix that stood above the altar they stuck many
arrows. And the wretched monks lay about the altar, and some
crept under, and earnestly called upon God, imploring his mercy,
since they could not obtain any at the hands of men. What can we
say, but that they continued to shoot their arrows; whilst the
others broke down the doors, and came in, and slew (104) some of
the monks to death, and wounded many therein; so that the blood
came from the altar upon the steps, and from the steps on the
floor. Three there were slain to death, and eighteen wounded.
And in this same year departed Matilda, queen of King William, on
the day after All-Hallow-mass. And in the same year also, after
mid-winter, the king ordained a large and heavy contribution
(105) over all England; that was, upon each hide of land, two and
seventy pence.

A.D. 1084. In this year died Wulfwold, Abbot of Chertsey, on the
thirteenth day before the calends of May.

A.D. 1085. In this year men reported, and of a truth asserted,
that Cnute, King of Denmark, son of King Sweyne, was coming
hitherward, and was resolved to win this land, with the
assistance of Robert, Earl of Flanders; (106) for Cnute had
Robert's daughter. When William, King of England, who was then
resident in Normandy (for he had both England and Normandy),
understood this, he went into England with so large an army of
horse and foot, from France and Brittany, as never before sought
this land; so that men wondered how this land could feed all that
force. But the king left the army to shift for themselves
through all this land amongst his subjects, who fed them, each
according to his quota of land. Men suffered much distress this
year; and the king caused the land to be laid waste about the sea
coast; that, if his foes came up, they might not have anything on
which they could very readily seize. But when the king
understood of a truth that his foes were impeded, and could not
further their expedition, (107) then let he some of the army go
to their own land; but some he held in this land over the winter.
Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Glocester with his
council, and held there his court five days. And afterwards the
archbishop and clergy had a synod three days. There was
Mauritius chosen Bishop of London, William of Norfolk, and Robert
of Cheshire. These were all the king's clerks. After this had
the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his
council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort
of men. Then sent he his men over all England into each shire;
commissioning them to find out "How many hundreds of hides were
in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon
the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the
shire." Also he commissioned them to record in writing, "How
much land his archbishops had, and his diocesan bishops, and his
abbots, and his earls;" and though I may be prolix and tedious,
"What, or how much, each man had, who was an occupier of land in
England, either in land or in stock, and how much money it were
worth." So very narrowly, indeed, did he commission them to
trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a yard
(108) of land, nay, moreover (it is shameful to tell, though he
thought it no shame to do it), not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a
swine was there left, that was not set down in his writ. And all
the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him. (109)

A.D. 1086. This year the king bare his crown, and held his
court, in Winchester at Easter; and he so arranged, that he was
by the Pentecost at Westminster, and dubbed his son Henry a
knight there. Afterwards he moved about so that he came by
Lammas to Sarum; where he was met by his councillors; and all the
landsmen that were of any account over all England became this
man's vassals as they were; and they all bowed themselves before
him, and became his men, and swore him oaths of allegiance that
they would against all other men be faithful to him. Thence he
proceeded into the Isle of Wight; because he wished to go into
Normandy, and so he afterwards did; though he first did according
to his custom; he collected a very large sum from his people,
wherever he could make any demand, whether with justice or
otherwise. Then he went into Normandy; and Edgar Etheling, the
relation of King Edward, revolted from him, for he received not
much honour from him; but may the Almighty God give him honour
hereafter. And Christina, the sister of the etheling, went into
the monastery of Rumsey, and received the holy veil. And the
same year there was a very heavy season, and a swinkful and
sorrowful year in England, in murrain of cattle, and corn and
fruits were at a stand, and so much untowardness in the weather,
as a man may not easily think; so tremendous was the thunder and
lightning, that it killed many men; and it continually grew worse
and worse with men. May God Almighty better it whenever it be
his will.

A.D. 1087. After the birth of our Lord and Saviour Christ, one
thousand and eighty-seven winters; in the one and twentieth year
after William began to govern and direct England, as God granted
him, was a very heavy and pestilent season in this land. Such a
sickness came on men, that full nigh every other man was in the
worst disorder, that is, in the diarrhoea; and that so
dreadfully, that many men died in the disorder. Afterwards came,
through the badness of the weather as we before mentioned, so
great a famine over all England, that many hundreds of men died a
miserable death through hunger. Alas! how wretched and how
rueful a time was there! When the poor wretches lay full nigh
driven to death prematurely, and afterwards came sharp hunger,
and dispatched them withall! Who will not be penetrated with
grief at such a season? or who is so hardhearted as not to weep
at such misfortune? Yet such things happen for folks' sins, that
they will not love God and righteousness. So it was in those
days, that little righteousness was in this land with any men but
with the monks alone, wherever they fared well. The king and the
head men loved much, and overmuch, covetousness in gold and in
silver; and recked not how sinfully it was got, provided it came
to them. The king let his land at as high a rate as he possibly
could; then came some other person, and bade more than the former
one gave, and the king let it to the men that bade him more.
Then came the third, and bade yet more; and the king let it to
hand to the men that bade him most of all: and he recked not how
very sinfully the stewards got it of wretched men, nor how many
unlawful deeds they did; but the more men spake about right law,
the more unlawfully they acted. They erected unjust tolls, and
many other unjust things they did, that are difficult to reckon.
Also in the same year, before harvest, the holy minster of St.
Paul, the episcopal see in London, was completely burned, with
many other minsters, and the greatest part, and the richest of
the whole city. So also, about the same time, full nigh each
head-port in all England was entirely burned. Alas! rueful and
woeful was the fate of the year that brought forth so many
misfortunes. In the same year also, before the Assumption of St.
Mary, King William went from Normandy into France with an army,
and made war upon his own lord Philip, the king, and slew many of
his men, and burned the town of Mante, and all the holy minsters
that were in the town; and two holy men that served God, leading
the life of anachorets, were burned therein. This being thus
done, King William returned to Normandy. Rueful was the thing he
did; but a more rueful him befel. How more rueful? He fell
sick, and it dreadfully ailed him. What shall I say? Sharp
death, that passes by neither rich men nor poor, seized him also.
He died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of St.
Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. Stephen's minster, which
he had formerly reared, and afterwards endowed with manifold
gifts. Alas! how false and how uncertain is this world's weal!
He that was before a rich king, and lord of many lands, had not
then of all his land more than a space of seven feet! and he
that was whilom enshrouded in gold and gems, lay there covered
with mould! He left behind him three sons; the eldest, called
Robert, who was earl in Normandy after him; the second, called
William, who wore the crown after him in England; and the third,
called Henry, to whom his father bequeathed immense treasure. If
any person wishes to know what kind of man he was, or what honour
he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then will we write
about him as well as we understand him: we who often looked upon
him, and lived sometime in his court. This King William then
that we speak about was a very wise man, and very rich; more
splendid and powerful than any of his predecessors were. He was
mild to the good men that loved God, and beyond all measure
severe to the men that gainsayed his will. On that same spot
where God granted him that he should gain England, he reared a
mighty minster, and set monks therein, and well endowed it. In
his days was the great monastery in Canterbury built, and also
very many others over all England. This land was moreover well
filled with monks, who modelled their lives after the rule of St.
Benedict. But such was the state of Christianity in his time,
that each man followed what belonged to his profession -- he that
would. He was also very dignified. Thrice he bare his crown
each year, as oft as he was in England. At Easter he bare it in
Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in
Glocester. And then were with him all the rich men over all
England; archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls,
thanes and knights. So very stern was he also and hot, that no
man durst do anything against his will. He had earls in his
custody, who acted against his will. Bishops he hurled from
their bishoprics, and abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into
prison. At length he spared not his own brother Odo, who was a
very rich bishop in Normandy. At Baieux was his episcopal stall;
and he was the foremost man of all to aggrandise the king. He
had an earldom in England; and when the king was in Normandy,
then was he the mightiest man in this land. Him he confined in
prison. But amongst other things is not to be forgotten that
good peace that he made in this land; so that a man of any
account might go over his kingdom unhurt with his bosom full of
gold. No man durst slay another, had he never so much evil done
to the other; and if any churl lay with a woman against her will,
he soon lost the limb that he played with. He truly reigned over
England; and by his capacity so thoroughly surveyed it, that
there was not a hide of land in England that he wist not who had
it, or what it was worth, and afterwards set it down in his book.
(110) The land of the Britons was in his power; and he wrought
castles therein; and ruled Anglesey withal. So also he subdued
Scotland by his great strength. As to Normandy, that was his
native land; but he reigned also over the earldom called Maine;
and if he might have yet lived two years more, he would have won
Ireland by his valour, and without any weapons. Assuredly in his
time had men much distress, and very many sorrows. Castles he
let men build, and miserably swink the poor. The king himself
was so very rigid; and extorted from his subjects many marks of
gold, and many hundred pounds of silver; which he took of his
people, for little need, by right and by unright. He was fallen
into covetousness, and greediness he loved withal. He made many
deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever
slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight. As
he forbade men to kill the harts, so also the boars; and he loved
the tall deer as if he were their father. Likewise he decreed by
the hares, that they should go free. His rich men bemoaned it,
and the poor men shuddered at it. But he was so stern, that he
recked not the hatred of them all; for they must follow withal
the king's will, if they would live, or have land, or
possessions, or even his peace. Alas! that any man should
presume so to puff himself up, and boast o'er all men. May the
Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of
his sins! These things have we written concerning him, both good
and evil; that men may choose the good after their goodness, and
flee from the evil withal, and go in the way that leadeth us to
the kingdom of heaven. Many things may we write that were done
in this same year. So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, a
nation that was formerly accounted the truest of all, were turned
aside to the greatest untruth, and to the greatest treachery that
ever could be. They chose and bowed to King Cnute, and swore him
oaths, and afterwards dastardly slew him in a church. It
happened also in Spain, that the heathens went and made inroads
upon the Christians, and reduced much of the country to their
dominion. But the king of the Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent
everywhere into each land, and desired assistance. And they came
to his support from every land that was Christian; and they went
and slew or drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land
again, through God's assistance. In this land also, in the same
year, died many rich men; Stigand, Bishop of Chichester, and the
Abbot of St. Augustine, and the Abbot of Bath, and the Abbot of
Pershore, and the lord of them all, William, King of England,
that we spoke of before. After his death his son, called William
also as the father, took to the kingdom, and was blessed to king
by Archbishop Landfranc at Westminster three days ere Michaelmas
day. And all the men in England submitted to him, and swore
oaths to him. This being thus done, the king went to Winchester,
and opened the treasure house, and the treasures that his father
had gathered, in gold, and in silver, and in vases, and in palls,
and in gems, and in many other valuable things that are difficult
to enumerate. Then the king did as his father bade him ere he
was dead; he there distributed treasures for his father's soul to
each monastery that was in England; to some ten marks of gold, to
some six, to each upland (111) church sixty pence. And into each
shire were sent a hundred pounds of money to distribute amongst
poor men for his soul. And ere he departed, he bade that they
should release all the men that were in prison under his power.
And the king was on the midwinter in London.

A.D. 1088. In this year was this land much stirred, and filled
with great treachery; so that the richest Frenchmen that were in
this land would betray their lord the king, and would have his
brother Robert king, who was earl in Normandy. In this design
was engaged first Bishop Odo, and Bishop Gosfrith, and William,
Bishop of Durham. So well did the king by the bishop [Odo] that
all England fared according to his counsel, and as he would. And
the bishop thought to do by him as Judas Iscariot did by our
Lord. And Earl Roger was also of this faction; and much people
was with him all Frenchmen. This conspiracy was formed in Lent.
As soon as Easter came, then went they forth, and harrowed, and
burned, and wasted the king's farms; and they despoiled the lands
of all the men that were in the king's service. And they each of
them went to his castle, and manned it, and provisioned it as
well as they could. Bishop Gosfrith, and Robert the peace-
breaker, went to Bristol, and plundered it, and brought the spoil
to the castle. Afterwards they went out of the castle, and
plundered Bath, and all the land thereabout; and all the honor
(112) of Berkeley they laid waste. And the men that eldest were
of Hereford, and all the shire forthwith, and the men of
Shropshire, with much people of Wales, came and plundered and
burned in Worcestershire, until they came to the city itself,
which it was their design to set on fire, and then to rifle the
minster, and win the king's castle to their hands. The worthy
Bishop Wulfstan, seeing these things, was much agitated in his
mind, because to him was betaken the custody of the castle.
Nevertheless his hired men went out of the castle with few
attendants, and, through God's mercy and the bishop's merits,
slew or took five hundred men, and put all the others to flight.
The Bishop of Durham did all the harm that he could over all by
the north. Roger was the name of one of them; (113) who leaped
into the castle at Norwich, and did yet the worst of all over all
that land. Hugh also was one, who did nothing better either in
Leicestershire or in Northamptonshire. The Bishop Odo being one,
though of the same family from which the king himself was
descended, went into Kent to his earldom, and greatly despoiled
it; and having laid waste the lands of the king and of the
archbishop withal, he brought the booty into his castle at
Rochester. When the king understood all these things, and what
treachery they were employing against him, then was he in his
mind much agitated. He then sent after Englishmen, described to
them his need, earnestly requested their support, and promised
them the best laws that ever before were in this land; each
unright guild he forbade, and restored to the men their woods and
chaces. But it stood no while. The Englishmen however went to
the assistance of the king their lord. They advanced toward
Rochester, with a view to get possession of the Bishop Odo; for
they thought, if they had him who was at first the head of the
conspiracy, they might the better get possession of all the
others. They came then to the castle at Tunbridge; and there
were in the castle the knights of Bishop Odo, and many others who
were resolved to hold it against the king. But the Englishmen
advanced, and broke into the castle, and the men that were
therein agreed with the king. The king with his army went toward
Rochester. And they supposed that the bishop was therein; but it
was made known to the king that the bishop was gone to the castle
at Pevensea. And the king with his army went after, and beset
the castle about with a very large force full six weeks. During
this time the Earl of Normandy, Robert, the king's brother,
gathered a very considerable force, and thought to win England
with the support of those men that were in this land against the
king. And he sent some of his men to this land, intending to
come himself after. But the Englishmen that guarded the sea
lighted upon some of the men, and slew them, and drowned more
than any man could tell. When provisions afterwards failed those
within the castle, they earnestly besought peace, and gave
themselves up to the king; and the bishop swore that he would
depart out of England, and no more come on this land, unless the
king sent after him, and that he would give up the castle at
Rochester. Just as the bishop was going with an intention to
give up the castle, and the king had sent his men with him, then
arose the men that were in the castle, and took the bishop and
the king's men, and put them into prison. In the castle were
some very good knights; Eustace the Young, and the three sons of
Earl Roger, and all the best born men that were in this land or
in Normandy. When the king understood this thing, then went he
after with the army that he had there, and sent over all England.
and bade that each man that was faithful should come to him,
French and English, from sea-port and from upland. Then came to
him much people; and he went to Rochester, and beset the castle,
until they that were therein agreed, and gave up the castle. The
Bishop Odo with the men that were in the castle went over sea,
and the bishop thus abandoned the dignity that he had in this
land. The king afterwards sent an army to Durham, and allowed it
to beset the castle, and the bishop agreed, and gave up the
castle, and relinquished his bishopric, and went to Normandy.
Many Frenchmen also abandoned their lands, and went over sea; and
the king gave their lands to the men that were faithful to him.

A.D. 1089. In this year the venerable father and favourer of
monks, Archbishop Landfranc, departed this life; but we hope that
he is gone to the heavenly kingdom. There was also over all
England much earth-stirring on the third day before the ides of
August, and it was a very late year in corn, and in every kind of
fruits, so that many men reaped their corn about Martinmas, and
yet later.

A.D. 1090. Indiction XIII. These things thus done, just as we
have already said above, by the king, and by his brother and by
this men, the king was considering how he might wreak his
vengeance on his brother Robert, harass him most, and win
Normandy of him. And indeed through his craft, or through
bribery, he got possession of the castle at St. Valeri, and the
haven; and so he got possession of that at Albemarle. And
therein he set his knights; and they did harm to the land in
harrowing and burning. After this he got possession of more
castles in the land; and therein lodged his horsemen. When the
Earl of Normandy, Robert, understood that his sworn men deceived
him, and gave up their castles to do him harm, then sent he to
his lord, Philip, king of the Franks; and he came to Normandy
with a large army, and the king and the earl with an immense
force beset the castle about, wherein were the men of the King of
England. But the King William of England sent to Philip, king of
the Franks; and he for his love, or for his great treasure,
abandoned thus his subject the Earl Robert and his land; and
returned again to France, and let them so remain. And in the
midst of these things this land was much oppressed by unlawful
exactions and by many other misfortunes.

A.D. 1091. In this year the King William held his court at
Christmas in Westminster, and thereafter at Candlemas he went,
for the annoyance of his brother, out of England into Normandy.
Whilst he was there, their reconciliation took place, on the
condition, that the earl put into his hands Feschamp, and the
earldom of Ou, and Cherbourg; and in addition to this, that the
king's men should be secure in the castles that they had won
against the will of the earl. And the king in return promised
him those many [castles] that their father had formerly won, and
also to reduce those that had revolted from the earl, also all
that his father had there beyond, except those that he had then
given the king, and that all those, that in England before for
the earl had lost their land, should have it again by this
treaty, and that the earl should have in England just so much as
was specified in this agreement. And if the earl died without a
son by lawful wedlock, the king should be heir of all Normandy;
and by virtue of this same treaty, if the king died, the earl
should be heir of all England. To this treaty swore twelve of
the best men of the king's side, and twelve of the earl's, though
it stood but a little while afterwards. In the midst of this
treaty was Edgar Etheling deprived of the land that the earl had
before permitted him to keep in hand; and he went out of Normandy
to the king, his sister's husband, in Scotland, and to his
sister. Whilst the King William was out of England, the King
Malcolm of Scotland came hither into England, and overran a great
deal of it, until the good men that governed this land sent an
army against him and repulsed him. When the King William in
Normandy heard this, then prepared he his departure, and came to
England, and his brother, the Earl Robert, with him; and he soon
issued an order to collect a force both naval and military; but
the naval force, ere it could come to Scotland, perished almost
miserably, a few days before St. Michael's mass. And the king
and his brother proceeded with the land-force; but when the King
Malcolm heard that they were resolved to seek him with an army,
he went with his force out of Scotland into Lothaine in England,
and there abode. When the King William came near with his army,
then interceded between them Earl Robert, and Edgar Etheling, and
so made the peace of the kings, that the King Malcolm came to our
king, and did homage, (114) promising all such obedience as he
formerly paid to his father; and that he confirmed with an oath.
And the King William promised him in land and in all things
whatever he formerly had under his father. In this settlement
was also Edgar Etheling united with the king. And the kings then
with much satisfaction departed; yet that stood but a little
while. And the Earl Robert tarried here full nigh until
Christmas with the king, and during this time found but little of
the truth of their agreement; and two days before that tide he
took ship in the Isle of Wight, and went into Normandy, and Edgar
Etheling with him.

A.D. 1092. In this year the King William with a large army went
north to Carlisle, and restored the town, and reared the castle,
and drove out Dolphin that before governed the land, and set his
own men in the castle, and then returned hither southward. And a
vast number of rustic people with wives and with cattle he sent
thither, to dwell there in order to till the land.

A.D. 1093. In this year, during Lent, was the King William at
Glocester so sick, that he was by all reported dead. And in his
illness he made many good promises to lead his own life aright;
to grant peace and protection to the churches of God, and never
more again with fee to sell; to have none but righteous laws
amongst his people. The archbishopric of Canterbury, that before
remained in his own hand, he transferred to Anselm, who was
before Abbot of Bec; to Robert his chancellor the bishopric of
Lincoln; and to many minsters he gave land; but that he
afterwards took away, when he was better, and annulled all the
good laws that he promised us before. Then after this sent the
King of Scotland, and demanded the fulfilment of the treaty that
was promised him. And the King William cited him to Glocester,
and sent him hostages to Scotland; and Edgar Etheling,
afterwards, and the men returned, that brought him with great
dignity to the king. But when he came to the king, he could not
be considered worthy either of our king's speech, or of the
conditions that were formerly promised him. For this reason
therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King
Malcolm returned to Scotland. And soon after he came home, he
gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more
hostility than behoved him; and Robert, the Earl of
Northumberland, surrounded him unawares with his men, and slew
him. Morel of Barnborough slew him, who was the earl's steward,
and a baptismal friend (115) of King Malcolm. With him was also
slain Edward his son; who after him should have been king, if he
had lived. When the good Queen Margaret heard this -- her most
beloved lord and son thus betrayed she was in her mind almost
distracted to death. She with her priests went to church, and
performed her rites, and prayed before God, that she might give
up the ghost. And the Scots then chose (116) Dufenal to king,
Malcolm's brother, and drove out all the English that formerly
were with the King Malcolm. When Duncan, King Malcolm's son,
heard all that had thus taken place (he was then in the King
William's court, because his father had given him as a hostage to
our king's father, and so he lived here afterwards), he came to
the king, and did such fealty as the king required at his hands;
and so with his permission went to Scotland, with all the support
that he could get of English and French, and deprived his uncle
Dufenal of the kingdom, and was received as king. But the Scots
afterwards gathered some force together, and slew full nigh all
his men; and he himself with a few made his escape. (117)
Afterwards they were reconciled, on the condition that he never
again brought into the land English or French.

A.D. 1094. This year the King William held his court at
Christmas in Glocester; and messengers came to him thither from
his brother Robert of Normandy; who said that his brother
renounced all peace and conditions, unless the king would fulfil
all that they had stipulated in the treaty; and upon that he
called him forsworn and void of truth, unless he adhered to the
treaty, or went thither and explained himself there, where the
treaty was formerly made and also sworn. Then went the king to
Hastings at Candlemas; and whilst he there abode waiting the
weather, he let hallow the minster at Battel, and deprived
Herbert Losang, the Bishop of Thetford, of his staff; and
thereafter about mid-Lent went over sea into Normandy. After he
came, thither, he and his brother Robert, the earl, said that
they should come together in peace (and so they did), and might
be united. Afterwards they came together with the same men that
before made the treaty, and also confirmed it by oaths; and all
the blame of breaking the treaty they threw upon the king; but he
would not confess this, nor even adhere to the treaty; and for
this reason they parted with much dissatisfaction. And the king


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