The Diary of Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys

Part 11 out of 18

Butler [Seventh son of the Duke of Ormond, created 1676 Baron of
Aghrim, Viscount of Clonmore, and Earl of Gowran. Ob. 1677,
s. p.] not have her; my Lord of Rochester would have forced her,
and Sir -- Popham [Probably Sir Francis Popham, K.B.] (who
nevertheless is likely to have her), would do any thing to have

26th. Into the House of Parliament, where at a great committee I
did hear as long as I would the great case against my Lord
Mordaunt, for some arbitrary proceedings of his against one
Taylor whom he imprisoned and did all the violence to imaginable,
only to get him to give way to his abusing his daughter. [John
Mordaunt, younger son to the first, and brother to the second
Earl of Peterborough, having incurred considerable personal risk
in endeavouring to promote the King's Restoration, was in 1659,
created Baron Mordaunt of Reigate, and Viscount Mordaunt of
Avalon. He was soon afterwards made K.G. and constituted Lord
Lieutenant of Surrey, and Constable of Windsor Castle; which
offices he held till his death, in 1675. In January 1666-7, Lord
Mordaunt was impeached by the House of Commons for forcibly
ejecting William Tayleur and his family from the apartments which
they occupied in Windsor Castle, where Tayleur held some
appointment, and imprisoning him because he had presumed to offer
himself as a candidate for the borough of Windsor. Lord M. was
also accused of improper conduct towards Tayleur's daughter. He,
however, denied all these charges in his place in the House of
Lords, and put in an answer to the articles of impeachment, for
hearing which a day was absolutely fixed; but the Parliament
being shortly afterwards prorogued, the enquiry seems to have
been entirely abandoned, notwithstanding the vehemence with which
the House of Commons had taken the matter up. Perhaps the King
interfered in Lord Mordaunt's behalf, because Andrew Marvel in
his "Instructions to a Painter," after saying, in allusion to
this business,

"Now Mordaunt may within his castle tower
Imprison parents and the child deflower,"

proceeds to observe,

"Each does the other blame, and all distrust,
But Mordaunt NEW OBLIGED would sure be just."]

Here was Mr. Sawyer, [Afterwards Sir Robert Sawyer, Attorney
General from 1681 to 1687. Ob. 1692.] my old chamber-fellow,
[At Magdalene College, where he was admitted a Pensioner, June
1648.] a counsel against my Lord; and I was glad to see him in
so good play. No news from the North at all to-day; and the
news-book; makes the business nothing, but that they are all

27th. To my Lord Crewe, and had some good discourse with him, he
doubting that all will break in pieces in the Kingdom; and that
the taxes now coming out, which will tax the same man in three or
four several capacities as for land, office, profession, and
money at interest, will be the hardest that ever came out; and do
think that we owe it, and the lateness of its being given, wholly
to the unpreparedness of the King's own party, to make their
demand and choice; for they have obstructed the giving it by
land-tax, which had been done long since.

28th. To White Hall; where, though it blows hard and rains hard,
yet the Duke of York is gone a-hunting. We therefore lost our
labour, and so to get things ready against dinner at home, and at
noon comes my Lord Hinchingbroke, Sir Thomas Crewe, Mr. John
Crewe, Mr. Carteret, and Brisband. I had six noble dishes for
them, dressed by a man-cook, and commended, as indeed they
deserved, for exceeding well done. We eat with great pleasure,
and I enjoyed myself in it; eating in silver plates, and all
things mighty rich and handsome about me. Till dark at dinner,
and then broke up with great pleasure, especially to myself; and
they away, only Mr. Carteret and I to Gresham College. Here was
Mr. Henry Howard, that will hereafter be Duke of Norfolke, who is
admitted this day into the Society, and being a very proud man,
and one that values himself upon his family, writes his name, as
he do every where, Henry Howard of Norfolke. [Henry Howard,
second son of Henry Earl of Arundel, became, on the death of his
brother Thomas in 1677, sixth Duke of Norfolk, having been
previously created Baron Howard of Castle Rising, in 1669, and
advanced to the Earldom of Norwich, 1672; He was a great
benefactor to the Royal Society, and presented the Arundel
Marbles to the University of Oxford. Ob. 1683-4.]

29th. I late at the office, and all the news I hear I put into a
letter this night to my Lord Brouncker at Chatham, thus: "I
doubt not of your Lordship's hearing of Sir Thomas Clifford's
succeeding Sir H. Pollard [M.P. for Devonshire. Ob. Nov. 27,
1666.] in the Controllership of the King's house; but perhaps
our ill (but confirmed) tidings from the Barbadoes may not have
reached you yet, it coming but yesterday; viz. that about eleven
ships (whereof two of the King's, the Hope and Coventry) going
thence with men to attack St. Christopher were seized by a
violent hurricana, and all sunk. Two only of thirteen escaping,
and those with loss of masts, &c. My Lord Willoughby himself is
involved in the disaster, [Francis fifth Lord Willoughby of
Parnham, drowned at Barbadoes, 1666.] and I think two ships
thrown upon an island of the French, and so all the men (to 500)
become their prisoners. 'Tis said too, that eighteen Dutch men-
of-war are passed the Channell, in order to meet with our Smyrna
ships; and some I hear do fright us with the King of Sweden's
seizing our mast-ships at Gottenburgh. But we have too much ill
news true, to afflict ourselves with what is uncertain. That
which I hear from Scotland is, the Duke of York's saying
yesterday, that he is confident the Lieutenant Generall there
hath driven them into a pound somewhere towards the mountains."

To show how mad we are at home here, and unfit for any troubles:
My Lord St. John did a day or two since openly pull a gentleman
in Westminster Hall by the nose, (one Sir Andrew Henly,) while
the Judges were upon their benches, and the other gentleman did
give him a rap over the pate with his cane. Of which fray the
Judges, they say, will make a great matter: men are only sorry
the gentleman did proceed to return a blow; for otherwise my Lord
would have been soundly fined for the affront, and may be yet for
his affront to the Judges.

30th. To White Hall; and pretty to see (it being St. Andrew's
day,) how some few did wear St. Andrew's crosse; but most did
make a mockery at it, and the House of Parliament, contrary to
practice, did sit also: people having no mind to observe the
Scotch saint's days till they hear better news from Scotland.

DECEMBER 1, 1666. Walking to the Old Swan I did see a cellar in
Tower-streete in a very fresh fire, the late great winds having
blown it up. It seemed to be only of log-wood that hath kept the
fire all this while in it. Going further I met my late Lord
Mayor Bludworth, under whom the City was burned; but a very weak
man he seems to be. By coach home in the evening, calling at
Faythorne's buying three of my Lady Castlemaine's heads, printed
this day, which indeed is, as to the head, I think a very fine
picture, and like her. I did this afternoon get Mrs. Michell to
let me only have a sight of a pamphlet lately printed, but
suppressed and much called after, called "The Catholique's
Apology;" lamenting the severity of the Parliament against them,
and comparing it with the lenity of other princes to Protestants.
Giving old and late instances of their loyalty to their princes,
whatever is objected against them; and excusing their disquiets
in Queene Elizabeth's time, for that it was impossible for them
to think her a lawfull Queene, if Queene Mary, who had been owned
as such, were so; one being the daughter of the true, and the
other of a false wife: and that of the Gunpowder Treason, by
saying that it was only the practice of some of us, if not the
King, to trepan some of their religion into it, it never being
defended by the generality of their Church, nor indeed known by
them; and ends with a large Catalogue, in red letters, of the
Catholiques which have lost their lives in the quarrel of the
late King and this. The thing is very well writ indeed.

2nd. Took coach, and no sooner in the coach but something broke,
that we were fain there to stay till a smith could be fetched,
which was above an hour, and then it costing me 6s. to mend.
Away round by the wall and Cow-lane, for fear it should break
again, and in pain about the coach all the way. I went to Sir W.
Batten's, and there I hear more ill news still: that all our
New-England fleet, which went out lately, are put back a third
time by foul weather, and dispersed, some to one port and some to
another; and their convoys also to Plymouth; and whether any of
them be lost or no, we do not know. This, added to all the rest,
do lay us flat in our hopes and courages, every body prophesying
destruction to the nation.

3rd. More cheerful than I have been a good while, to hear that
for certain the Scott rebels are all routed; they having been so
bold as to come within three miles of Edinburgh, and there given
two or three repulses to the King's forces, but at last were
mastered. Three or four hundred killed or taken, among which
their leader, Wallis, and seven ministers they having all taken
the Covenant a few days before, and sworn to live and die in it,
as they did; and so all is likely to be there quiet again. There
is also the very good news come of four New-England ships come
home safe to Falmouth with masts for the King; which is a
blessing mighty unexpected, and without which (if for nothing
else) we must; have failed the next year. But God be praised for
thus much good fortune, and send us the continuance of his favour
in other things!

6th. After dinner my wife and brother [John Pepys, who, being in
holy orders, had lately assumed the canonical habit. He died in
1677, at which period he held some office in the Trinity-house.
PEPYS'S MS. LETTERS.] (in another habit) go out to see a play;
but I am not to take notice that I know of my brother's going.
This day, in the Gazette, is the whole story of defeating of
Scotch rebells, and of the creation of the Duke of Cambridge,
Knight of the Garter.

7th. To the King's playhouse, where two acts were almost done
when I come in; and there I sat with my cloak about my face, and
saw the remainder of "The Mayd's Tragedy;" [By Beaumont and
Fletcher.] a good play, and well acted, especially by the
younger Marshall, who is become a pretty good actor; and is the
first play I have seen in either of the houses, since before the
great plague, they having acted now about fourteen days
publickly. But I was in mighty pain, lest I should be seen by
any body to be at a play.

8th. The great Proviso passed the House of Parliament yesterday:
which makes the King and Court mad, the King having given order
to my Lord Chamberlain to send to the playhouses and brothels, to
bid all the Parliament-men that were there to go to the
Parliament presently. This is true, it seems; but it was carried
against the Court by thirty or forty voices. It is a Proviso to
the Poll Bill, that there shall be a Committee of nine persons
that shall have the inspection upon oath, and power of giving
others, of all the accounts of the money given and spent for this
warr. This hath a most sad face, and will breed very ill blood.
He tells me, brought in by Sir Robert Howard, [A younger son of
Thomas Earl of Berkshire; educated at Magdalene College,
Cambridge; knighted at the Restoration, and chosen M.P. for
Stockbridge, and afterwards for Castle Rising. He was Auditor of
the Exchequer, and a creature of Charles II., who employed him in
cajoling the Parliament for money. He published some poems,
plays, and political tracts. Ob. 1698.] who is one of the
King's servants, at least hath a great office, and hath got, they
say, 20,000l. since the King come in. Mr. Pierce did also tell
me as a great truth, as being told it by Mr. Cowly, [Abraham
Cowley, the poet.] who was by and heard it, that Tom Killigrew
should publickly tell the King that his matters were coming into
a very ill state; but that yet there was a way to help all. Says
he; "There is a good, honest, able man that I could name, that if
your Majesty would employ, and command to see all things well
executed, all things would soon be mended; and this is one
Charles Stuart, who now spends his time in employing his lips
about the Court, and hath no other employment; but if you would
give him this employment, he were the fittest man in the world to
perform it." This, he says, is most true; but the King do not
profit by any of this, but lays all aside, and remembers nothing,
but to his pleasures again: which is a sorowful consideration.
To the King's play-house, and there did see a good part of "The
English Monsieur," [A comedy, by James Howard.] which is a
mighty pretty play, very witty and pleasant. And the women do
very well; but above all, little Nelly. I hear that this Proviso
in Parliament is mightily ill taken by all the Court party as a
mortal blow, and that that strikes deep into the King's
prerogative; which troubles me mightily. In much fear of ill
news of our colliers. A fleet of 200 sail, and 14 Dutch men-of-
war between them and us: and they coming home with small convoy;
and the City in great want, coals being at 3l. 3s. per chaldron,
as I am told. I saw smoke in the ruines this very day.

10th. Captain Cocke, with whom I walked in the garden, tells me
how angry the Court is at the late Proviso brought in by the
House. How still my Lord Chancellor is, not daring to do or say
any thing to displease the Parliament; that the Parliament is in
a very ill humour, and grows every day more and more so; and that
the unskilfulness of the Court, and their difference among one
another, is the occasion of all not agreeing in what they would
have, and so they give leisure and occasion to the other part to
run away with what the Court would not have.

11th. This day the Poll Bill was to be passed, and great
endeavours used to take away the Proviso.

12th. Sir H. Cholmly did with grief tell me how the Parliament
hath been told plainly that the King hath been heard to say, that
he would dissolve them rather than pass this Bill with the
Proviso. But tells me, that the Proviso is removed, and now
carried that it shall be done by a Bill by itself. He tells me
how the King hath lately paid above 30,000l. to clear the debts
of my Lady Castlemaine's; and that she and her husband are parted
for ever, upon good terms, never to trouble one another more. He
says that he hears that above 400,000l. hath gone into the Privy-
purse since this warr; and that that hath consumed so much of our
money, and makes the King and Court so mad to be brought to
discover it. The very good newes is just come of our four ships
from Smyrna, come safe without convoy even into the Downes,
without seeing any enemy; which is the best, and indeed only
considerable good news to our Exchange, since the burning of the
City; and it is strange to see how it do cheer up men's hearts.
Here I saw shops now come to be in this Exchange; and met little
Batelier who sits here but at 3l. per annum, whereas he sat at
the other at 100l.; which he says he believes will prove as good
account to him now as the other did at that rent. They talk for
certain, that now the King do follow Mrs. Stewart wholly, and my
Lady Castlemaine not above once a-week; that the Duke of York do
not haunt my Lady Denham so much; that she troubles him with
matters of State, being of my Lord Bristoll's faction, and that
he avoids; that she is ill still. News this day from Brampton,
of Mr. Ensum, my sister's sweetheart, being dead: a clowne.

13th. W. Hewer dined with me, and showed me a Gazette, in April
last, (which I wonder should never be remembered by any body,)
which tells how several persons were then tried for their lives,
and were found guilty of a design of killing the King, and
destroying the Government; and as a means to it, to burn the
City; and that the day intended for the plot was the 3rd of last
September. And the fire did indeed break out on the 2nd of
September: which is very strange, methinks. [This circumstance
was so remarkable that it has been thought worth while extracting
the whole passage from the Gazette of April 23-26, 1666:--

"At the Sessions in the Old Bailey, John Rathbone, an old Army
Colonel, William Saunders, Henry Tucker, Thomas Flint, Thomas
Evans, John Myles, Will. Westcot, and John Cole, officers or
soldiers in the late Rebellion, were indicted for conspiring the
death of his Majesty, and the overthrow of the Government.
Having laid their plot and contrivance for the surprisal of the
Tower, the killing his Grace the Lord General, Sir John Robinson,
Lieutenant of the Tower, and Sir Richard Brown; and then to have
declared for an equal division of lands, &c. THE BETTER TO
the portcullis let down to keep out all assistance; and the Horse
Guards to have been suprised in the Inns where they were
quartered, several ostlers having been gained for that purpose.
The Tower was accordingly viewed, and its suprise ordered by
boats over the moat, and from thence to scale the wall. One
Alexander, not yet taken, had likewise distributed money to these
conspirators, and for the carrying on the design most
effectually, they were told of a Council of the great ones that
sat frequently in London, from whom issued all orders; which
Council received their directions from another in Holland, who
sat with the States; and that the THIRD OF SEPTEMBER was pitched
on for the attempt, as being found by Lilly's Almanack, and a
scheme erected for that purpose, to be a lucky day, a planet then
ruling which prognosticated the downfall of Monarchy. The
evidence against these persons was very full and clear, and they
were accordingly found guilty of High Treason."]

14th. Met my good friend Mr. Evelyn, and walked with him a good
while, lamenting our condition for want of good council, and the
King's minding of his business and servants. The House sat till
three o'clock, and then up: and I home with Sir Stephen Fox to
his house to dinner; and the Cofferer [William Ashburnham, an
officer of distinction in the King's Army during the Civil War,
and after the Restoration made Cofferer to Charles II. Ob. s.p.
1671.] with us. There I found his Lady, a fine woman, and seven
the prettiest children of theirs that ever I knew almost. A very
genteel dinner, and in great state and fashion, and excellent
discourse: and nothing like an old experienced man and a
courtier, and such is the Cofferer Ashburnham. The House have
been mighty hot to-day against the Paper Bill, showing all manner
of averseness to give the King money; which these courtiers do
take mighty notice of, and look upon the others as bad rebells as
ever the last were. But the courtiers did carry it against those
men upon a division of the House, a great many, that it should be
committed; and so it was: which they reckon good news.

15th. To the office, where my Lord Brouncker (newly come to town
from his being at Chatham and Harwich to spy enormities): and at
noon I with him and his lady, Williams, to Captain Cocke's; where
a good dinner, and very merry. Good news to-day upon the
Exchange, that our Hamburgh fleet is got in; and good hopes that
we will soon have the like of our Gottenburgh, and then we shall
be well for this winter. And by and by comes in Matt Wren
[Matthew Wren, eldest son of the Bishop of Ely of both his names,
M.P. for St. Michael's 1661, and made Secretary to Lord
Clarendon; after whose fall he filled the same office under the
Duke of York till his death in 1672. He was one of the earliest
Members of the Royal Society, and published two tracts in answer
to Harrington's Oceana.] from the Parliament-House; and tells us
that he and all his party of the House, which is the Court party,
are fools, and have been made so this day by the wise men of the
other side; for after the Court party had carried it yesterday so
powerfully for the Paper Bill, yet now it is laid aside wholly,
and to be supplied by a land-tax; which it is true will do well
and will be the sooner finished, which was the great argument for
the doing of it. But then it shows them fools, that they would
not permit this to have been done six weeks ago, which they might
have had. And next they have parted with the Paper Bill, which
when once begun might have proved a very good flower in the
Crowne, as any there. So they are truly outwitted by the other

16th. To White Hall, and there walked up and down to the
Queene's side, and there saw my dear Lady Castlemaine, who
continues admirable, methinks, and I do not hear that but the
King is the same to her still as ever. Anon to chapel by the
King's closet, and heard a very good anthem. Then with Lord
Brouncker to Sir W. Coventry's chamber; and there we sat with him
and talked. He is weary of any thing to do, he says, in the
Navy. He tells us this Committee of Accounts will enquire
sharply into our office. To Sir P. Neale's chamber; Sir Edward
Walker being there;, and telling us how he hath lost many fine
rowles of antiquity in heraldry by the late fire, but hath saved
the most of his papers. Here was also Dr. Wallis, [John Wallis,
S.T.P. F.R.S. Savilian Professor of Geometry. Ob. 1703, aged
87.] the famous scholar and mathematician; but he promises
little. The Duke of Monmonth, Lord Brouncker says, spends his
time the most viciously and idle of any man, nor will be fit for
any thing; yet he speaks as if it were not impossible but the
King would own him for his son, and that there was marriage
between his mother and him.

17th. My wife well home in the evening from the play; which I
was glad of, it being cold and dark, and she having her necklace
of pearl on, and none but Mercer with her.

19th. Talked of the King's family with Mr. Hingston, the
organist. He says many of the musique are ready to starve, they
being five years behind hand for their wages: nay, Evens, the
famous man upon the Harp, having not his equal in the world, did
the other day die for mere want, and was fain to be buried at the
almes of the parish, and carried to his grave in the dark at
night without one linke, but that Mr. Hingston met it by chance,
and did give 12d. to buy two or three links. Thence I up to the
Lords' House to enquire for my Lord Bellasses; and there hear how
at a conference this morning between the two Houses about the
business of the Canary Company, my Lord Buckingham leaning rudely
over my Lord Marquis Dorchester, [Henry second Earl of Kingston,
created Marquis of Dorchester 1645. Ob. 1680. See an account of
this quarrel in Lord Clarendon's Life.] my Lord Dorchester
removed his elbow. Duke of Buckingham asked whether he was
uneasy; Dorchester replied, yes, and that he durst not do this
were he any where else: Buckingham replied, yes he would, and
that he was a better man than himself; Dorchester said that he
lyed. With this Buckingham struck off his hat, and took him by
his periwigg, and pulled it aside, and held him. My Lord
Chamberlain and others interposed, and upon coming into the House
the Lords did order them both to the Tower, whither they are to
go this afternoon. I down into the Hall, and there the
Lieutenant of the Tower took me with him, and would have me to
the Tower to dinner; where I dined at the head of his table next
his lady, who is comely and seeming sober and stately, but very
proud and very cunning or I am mistaken, and wanton too. This
day's work will bring the Lieutenant of the Tower 350l. Thence
home, and upon Tower Hill saw about 3 or 400 seamen get together;
and one standing upon a pile of bricks made his sign with his
handkercher upon his stick, and called all the rest to him, and
several shouts they gave. This made me afraid; so I got home as
fast as I could. But by and by Sir W. Batten and Sir R. Ford do
tell me that the seamen have been at some prisons to release some
seamen, and the Duke of Albemarle is in armes and all the Guards
at the other end of the town; and the Duke of Albemarle is gone
with some forces to Wapping to quell the seamen; which is a thing
of infinite disgrace to us. I sat long talking with them. And,
among other things, Sir R. Ford did make me understand how the
House of Commons is a beast not to be understood, it being
impossible to know beforehand the success almost of any small
plain thing, there being so many to think and speak to any
business, and they of so uncertain minds and interests and
passions. He did tell me, and so did Sir W. Batten, how Sir
Allen Brodericke [Son of Sir Thomas Broderick of Richmond,
Yorkshire, and Wandsworth, Surrey; knighted by Charles II., and
Surveyor-General in Ireland to his Majesty.] and Sir Allen Apsly
did come drunk the other day into the House, and did both speak
for half an hour, together, and could not be either laughed, or
pulled, or bid to sit down and hold their peace, to the great
contempt of the King's servants and cause; which I am grieved at
with all my heart.

23rd (Lord's day). To church, where a vain fellow with a
periwigg preached, Chaplain (as by his prayer appeared) to the
Earle of Carlisle.

24th. It being frost and dry, as far as Paul's, and so back
again through the City by Guildhall, observing the ruins
thereabouts till I did truly lose myself. No news yet of our
Gottenburgh fleet; which makes us have some fears, it being of
mighty concernment to have our supply of masts safe. I met with
Mr. Cade to-night, my stationer; and he tells me that he hears
for certain, that the Queene-Mother is about and hath near
finished a peace with France, which as a Presbyterian he do not
like, but seems to fear it will be a means to introduce Popery.

26th. To the Duke's house to a play. It was indifferently done,
Gosnell not singing, but a new wench that sings naughtily.

27th. Up; and called up by the King's trumpets, which cost me
10s. By coach to the King's playhouse, and there saw "The
Scornful Lady" well acted; Doll Common doing Abigail most
excellently, and Knipp the widow very well, (and will be an
excellent actor, I think.) In other parts the play not so well
done as need be by the old actors. This day a house or two was
blown up with powder in the Minorys, and several people spoiled,
and manye dug out from under the rubbish.

28th. I to my Lord Crewe's, where I find and hear the news how
my Lord's brother, Mr. Nathaniel Crewe, hath an estate of 6 or
700l. per annum left him by the death of as old acquaintance of
his, but not akin to him at all. And this man is dead without
will, but had above ten years since made over his estate to this
Mr. Crewe, to him and his heirs for ever, and given Mr. Crewe the
keeping of the deeds in his own hand all this time; by which, if
he would, he might have taken present possession of the estate,
for he knew what they were. This is as great an action of
confident friendship as this latter age, I believe, can show.
From hence to the Duke's house, and there saw "Macbeth" most
excellently acted, and a most excellent play for variety. I had
sent for my wife to meet me there, who did come: so I did not go
to White Hall, and got my Lord Bellasses to get me into the
playhouse; and there, after all staying above an hour for the
players (the King and all waiting, which was absurd,) saw "Henry
the Fifth" well done by the Duke's people, and in most excellent
habit, all new vests, being put on but this night. But I sat so
high and far off that I missed most of the words, and sat with a
wind coming into my back and neck, which did much trouble me.
The play continued till twelve at night; and then up, and a most
horrid cold night it was, and frosty, and moonshine.

29th. Called up with news from Sir W. Batten that Hogg hath
brought in two prizes more: and so I thither, and hear the
particulars, which are good; one of them, if prize, being worth
4000l.: for which God be thanked! Then to the office, and have
the news brought us of Captain Robinson's coming with his fleet
from Gottenburgh: dispersed, though, by foul weather. But he
hath light of five Dutch men-of-war, and taken three, whereof one
is sunk; which is very good news to close up the year with, and
most of our merchant-men already heard of to be safely come home,
though after long lookings for, and now to several ports as they
could make them.

30th (Lord's day). To church. Here was a collection for the
sexton, But it come into my head why we should be more bold in
making the collection while the psalm is singing, than in the
sermon or prayer.

31st. To my accounts, wherein at last I find them clear and
right; but to my great discontent do find that my gettings this
year have been 573l. less than my last: it being this year in
all but 2986l.; whereas, the last, I got 3560l. And then again
my spendings this year have exceeded my spendings the last, by
644l.: my whole spendings last year being but 509l.; whereas
this year it appears I have spent 1154l. which is a sum not fit
to be said that ever I should spend in one year, before I am
master of a better estate than I am. Yet, blessed be God! and I
pray God make me thankful for it, I do find myself worth in
money, all good, above 6200l.: which is above 1800l. more than I
was the last year. Thus ends this year of publick wonder and
mischief to this nation. Publick matters in a most sad
condition; seamen discouraged for want of pay, and are become not
to be governed: nor, as matters are now, can any fleet go out
next year. Our enemies, French and Dutch, great, and grow more
by our poverty. The Parliament backward in raising, because
jealous of the spending of the money; the City less and less
likely to be built again, every body settling elsewhere, and
nobody encouraged to trade. A sad, vicious, negligent Court, and
all sober men there fearful of the ruin of the whole kingdom this
next year; from which, good God deliver us! One thing I reckon
remarkable in my own condition is, that I am come to abound in
good plate, so as at all entertainments to be served wholly with
silver plates, having two dozen and a half.

JANUARY 2, 1666-7. My wife up, and with Mrs. Pen to walk in the
fields to frost-bite themselves. I find the Court full of great
apprehensions of the French, who have certainly shipped landsmen,
great numbers at Brest; and most of our people here guess his
design for Ireland. We have orders to send all the ships we can
possible to the Downes, every day bringing us news of new
mutinies among the seamen; so that our condition is like to be
very miserable. Mr. George Montagu tells me of the King
displeasing the House of Commons by evading their Bill for
examining Accounts, and putting it into a Commission, though
therein he hath left out Coventry and --[A blank in the MS.], and
named all the rest the Parliament named, and all country Lords,
not one Courtier: this do not please them. He finds the enmity
almost over for my Lord Sandwich. Up to the Painted Chamber, and
there heard a conference between the House of Lords and Commons
about the Wine Patent; which I was exceeding glad to be at,
because of my hearing exceeding good discourses, but especially
from the Commons; among others Mr. Swinfen, and a young man, one
Sir Thomas Meres: [Knight, M.P. for Lincoln, made a Commissioner
of the Admiralty 1679.] and do outdo the Lords infinitely.
Alone to the King's house, and there saw "The Custome of the
Country," [A tragi-comedy, by Beaumont and Fletcher.] the second
time of its being acted, wherein Knipp does the Widow well; but
of all the plays that ever I did see, the worst, having neither
plot, language, nor any thing in the earth that is acceptable;
only Knipp sings a song admirably.

3rd. This day, I hear, hath been a conference between the two
Houses about the Bill for examining Accounts, wherein the House
of Lords their proceedings in petitioning the King for doing it
by Commission, are in great heat voted by the Commons, after the
conference, unparliamentary.

4th. Comes our company to dinner; my Lord Brouncker, Sir W. Pen,
his lady, and Peg, [Their daughter.] and her servant, Mr.
Lowther [[Anthony Lowther, Esq., of Marske, Co. York, Ob. 1692.].
At night to sup, and then to cards, and last of all to have a
flaggon of ale and apples, drunk out of a wood cup, as a
Christmas draught, which made all merry; and they full of
admiration at my plate. Mr. Lowther a pretty gentleman, too good
for Peg. Sir W. Pen was much troubled to hear the song I sung,
"The New Droll," it touching him home.

5th. With my wife to the Duke's house, and there saw
"Mustapha," [A tragedy, by Roger Earl of Orrery.] a most
excellent play.

6th. Young Michell and I, it being an excellent frosty day, did
walk out. He showed me the baker's house in Pudding-lane, where
the late great fire begun: and thence all along Thames-street,
where I did view several places, and so up by London Wall by
Blackfriars to Ludgate; and thence to Bridewell, which I find to
have been heretofore an extraordinary good house, and a fine
coming to it before the house by the bridge was built.

7th. Lord Brouncker tells me that my Lady Denham is at last
dead. Some suspect her poisoned, but it will be best known when
her body is opened to-day, she dying yesterday morning. The Duke
of York is troubled for her; but hath declared he will never have
another public mistress again; which I shall be glad of, and
would the King would do the like. He tells me how the Parliament
is grown so jealous of the King's being unfayre to them in the
business of the Bill for examining Accounts, Irish Bill, and the
business of the Papists, that they will not pass the business for
money till they see themselves secure that those Bills will pass;
which they do observe the Court to keep off till all the Bills
come together, that the King may accept what he pleases, and what
he pleases to object to. He tells me how Mr. Henry Howard of
Norfolke hath given our Royal Society all his grandfather's
library: which noble gift they value at 2000l.; and gives them
accommodation to meet in at his house (Arundell House), they
being now disturbed at Gresham College. To the Duke's house, and
saw "Macbeth," which though I saw it lately, yet appears a most
excellent play in all respects, but especially in divertisement,
though it be a deep tragedy; which is a strange perfection in a
tragedy, it being most proper here, and suitable.

9th. In a hackney-coach to White Hall, the way being most
horribly bad upon the breaking up of the frost, so as not to be
passed almost. I do hear by my Lord Brouncker, that for certain
Sir W. Coventry hath resigned his place of Commissioner up; which
I believe he hath done upon good grounds of security to himself
from all the blame which must attend our office this next year;
but I fear the King will suffer by it. Thence to Westminster
Hall, and there to the conference of the Houses about the word
"Nusance," which the Commons would have, and the Lords will not,
in the Irish Bill. The Commons do it professedly to prevent the
King's dispensing with it; which Sir Robert Howard and others did
expressly repeat often: viz., "that no King ever could do any
thing which was hurtful to his people." Now the Lords did argue
that it was an ill precedent, and that which will ever hereafter
be used as a way of preventing the King's dispensation with acts;
and therefore rather advise to pass the Bill without that word,
and let it go accompanied with a petition to the King that he
will not dispense with it; this being a more civil way to the
King. They answered well, that this do imply that the King
should pass their Bill, and yet with design to dispense with it;
which is to suppose the King guilty of abusing them. And more,
they produce precedents for it; namely, that against new
buildings, and about leather, where the word "Nusance" is used to
the purpose: and further, that they do not rob the King of any
right he ever had, for he never had a power to do hurt to his
people, nor would exercise it; and therefore there is no danger
in the passing this Bill of imposing on his prerogative; and
concluded that they think they ought to do this, so as the people
may really have the benefit of it when it is passed, for never
any people could expect so reasonably to be indulged something
from a King, they having already given him so much money and are
likely to give more. Thus they broke up, both adhering to their
opinions; but the Commons seemed much more full of judgment and
reason than the Lords. Then the Commons made their Report to the
Lords of their vote that their Lordships' proceedings in the Bill
for examining Accounts were unparliamentary, they having, while a
Bill was sent up to them from the Commons about the business,
petitioned his Majesty that he would do the same thing by his
Commission. They did give their reasons: viz. that it had no
precedent; that the King ought not to be informed of any thing
passing in the Houses till it comes to a Bill; that it will
wholly break off all correspondence between the two Houses, and
in the issue wholly infringe the very use and being of
Parliaments. Thence to Faythorne, and bought a head or two; one
of them my Lord of Ormond's, the best I ever saw. To Arundell
House, where first the Royal Society meet by the favour of Mr.
Harry Howard, who was there. And here was a great meeting of
worthy noble persons; but my Lord Brouncker, who pretended to
make a congratulatory speech upon their coming hither, and great
thanks to Mr. Howard, did do it in the worst manner in the world.

14th. Sir W. Batten tells me the Lords do agree at last with the
Commons about the word "Nusance" in the Irish Bill, and do desire
a good correspondence between the two Houses; and that the King
do intend to prorogue them the last of this month.

16th. Sir W. Coventry came to me aside in the Duke's chamber to
tell that he had not answered part of a late letter of mine,
because LITTERA SCRIPTA MANET. About his leaving the office, he
tells me, it is because he finds that his business at Court will
not permit him to attend it; and then he confesses that he seldom
of late could come from it with satisfaction, and therefore would
not take the King's money for nothing. I professed my sorrow for
it, and prayed the continuance of his favour; which he promised,
I do believe he hath acted like a very wise man in reference to
himself; but I doubt it will prove ill for the King, and for the
office. Prince Rupert, I hear, is very ill; yesterday given
over, but better to-day. Sir Stephen Fox, among other things,
told me his whole mystery in the business of the interest he pays
as Treasurer for the Army. They give him 12d. per pound quite
through the Army, with condition to be paid weekly, This he
undertakes for his own private credit, and to be paid by the King
at the end of every four months. If the King pay him not at the
end of every four months, then, for all the time he stays longer,
my Lord Treasurer by agreement allows him eight per cent. per
annum for the forbearance. So that, in fine, he hath about
twelve per cent. from the King, and the Army, for fifteen or
sixteen months' interest; out of which he gains soundly, his
expense being about 130,000l. per annum; and hath no trouble in
it, compared (as I told him) to the trouble I must have to bring
in an account of interest. Talk there is of a letter to come
from Holland, desiring a place of treaty; but I do doubt it.
This day I observe still in many places the smoking remains of
the late fire: the ways mighty bad and dirty. This night Sir R.
Ford told me how this day, at Christ church Hospital, they have
given a living of 200l. per annum to Mr. Sanchy, my old
acquaintance, which I wonder at, he commending him mightily; but
am glad of it. He tells me too how the famous Stillingfleete was
a Blue-coat boy.

18th. This morning come Captain Cocke to me, and tells me that
the King comes to the House this day to pass the Poll Bill and
the Irish Bill; and that, though the Faction is very froward in
the House, yet all will end well there. But he says that one had
got a Bill ready to present in the House against Sir W. Coventry
for selling of places, and says he is certain of it, and how he
was withheld from doing it. He says that the Vice-chamberlaine
is now one of the greatest men in England again, and was he that
did prevail with the King to let the Irish Bill go with the word
"Nusance." He told me that Sir G. Carteret's declaration of
giving double to any man that will prove that any of his people
have demanded or taken any thing for forwarding the payment of
the wages of any man, (of which he sent us a copy yesterday,
which we approved of,) is set up, among other places, upon the
House of Lords' door. I do not know how wisely this is done.
Sir W. Pen told me this night how the King did make them a very
sharp speech in the House of Lords to-day, saying that he did
expect to have had more Bills; that he purposes to prorogue them
on Monday come se'nnight; that whereas they have unjustly
conceived some jealousys of his making a peace, he declares he
knows of no such thing or treaty: and so left them. But with so
little effect, that as soon as he came into the house, Sir W.
Coventry moved, that now the King hath declared his intention of
proroguing them, it would be loss of time to go on with the thing
they were upon when they were called to the King, which was the
calling over the defaults of Members appearing in the House; for
that before any person could now come or be brought to town, the
House would be up. Yet the Faction did desire to delay time, and
contend so as to come to a division of the House; where, however
it was carried by a few voices that the debate should be laid by.
But this shows that they are not pleased, or that they have not
any awe over them from the King's displeasure.

20th. I was sorry to hear of the heat the House was in yesterday
about the ill management of the Navy; though I think they were
well answered both by Sir G. Carteret and Sir W. Coventry, as he
informs me the substance of their speeches. I to church, and
there beyond expectation find our seat and all the church crammed
by twice as many people as used to be: and to my great joy find
Mr. Frampton in the pulpit; and I think the best sermon, for
goodness and oratory, without affectation or study, that ever I
heard in my life. The truth is, he preaches the most like an
apostle that ever I heard man; and it was much the best time that
ever I spent in my life at church.

21st To the Swede's-Resident's in the Piazza, to discourse with
him about two of our prizes. A cunning fellow. He lives in one
of the great houses there, but ill-furnished; and come to us out
of bed in his furred mittins and furred cap. Up to the Lords'
House, and there come mighty seasonably to hear the Solicitor
about my Lord Buckingham's pretence to the title of Lord Rosse.
Mr. Atturny Montagu is also a good man, and so is old Sir P. Ball
[Sir Peter Bell, the Queen's attorney.] but the Solicitor, and
Scroggs [Sir William Scroggs, King's Serjeant 1669, and made a
Judge 1676.] after him, are excellent men. This night at supper
comes from Sir W. Coventry the Order of Councill for my Lord
Brouncker to do all the Controller's part relating to the
Treasurer's accounts, and Sir W. Pen all relating to the
Victualler's, and Sir J. Minnes to do the rest. This, I hope,
will do much better for the King, and I think will give neither
of them ground to over-top me, as I feared they would; which
pleases me mightily. This evening Mr. Wren and Captain Cocke
called upon me at the office, and there told me how the House was
in better temper to-day, and hath passed the Bill for the
remainder of the money, but not to be passed finally till they
have done some other things which they will have passed with it;
wherein they are very open, what their meaning is, which was but
doubted before, for they do in all respects doubt the King's
pleasing them.

23rd. My Lord Brouncker and I walking into the Park, I did
observe the new buildings: and my Lord seeing I had a desire to
see them, they being the place for the priests and friers, he
took me back to my Lord Almoner; [Cardinal Howard of Norfolk, the
Queen's Almoner.] and he took us quite through the whole house
and chapel, and the new monastery, showing me most excellent
pieces in wax-worke: a crucifix given by a Pope to Mary Queene
of Scotts, where a piece of the Cross is; two bits set in the
manner of a cross in the foot of the crucifix: several fine
pictures, but especially very good prints of holy pictures. I
saw the dortoire [Dormitory.] and the cells of the priests, and
we went into one; a very pretty little room, very clean, hung
with pictures, set with books. The Priest was in his cell, with
his hair clothes to his skin, bare-legged with a sandall only on,
and his little bed without sheets, and no feather-bed; but yet I
thought, soft enough. His cord about his middle; but in so good
company, living with ease, I thought it a very good life. A
pretty library they have. And I was in the refectoire, where
every man his napkin, knife, cup of earth, and basin of the same;
and a place for one to sit and read while the rest are at meals.
And into the kitchen I went, where a good neck of mutton at the
fire, and other victuals boiling. I do not think they fared very
hard. Their windows all looking into a fine garden and the Park;
and mighty pretty rooms all. I wished myself one of the
Capuchins. To the King's house, and there saw "The Humerous
Lieutenant:" [A tragi-comedy, by Beaumont and Fletcher.] a silly
play, I think; only the Spirit in it that grows very tall and
then sinks again to nothing, having two heads breeding upon one,
and then Knipp's singing, did please us. Here in a box above we
spied Mrs. Pierce; and going out they called us, and so we staid
for them; and Knipp took us all in, and brought to us Nelly,
[Nell Gwynne.] a most pretty woman, who acted the great part
Coelia to-day very fine, and did it pretty well: I kissed her,
and so did my wife; and a mighty pretty soul she is. We also saw
Mrs. Ball, which is my little Roman-nose black girl, that is
mighty pretty: she is usually called Betty. Knipp made us stay
in a box and see the dancing preparatory to to-morrow for "The
Goblins," a play of Suckling's [Sir John Suckling, the poet.],
not acted these twenty-five years; which was pretty. In our way
home we find the Guards of horse in the street, and hear the
occasion to be news that the seamen are in a mutiny; which put me
into a great fright.

24th. Company at home: amongst others, Captain Rolt. And anon
at about seven or eight o'clock comes Mr. Harris of the Duke's
playhouse, and brings Mrs. Pierce with him, and also one dressed
like a country-maid with a straw-hat, on, and at first I could
not tell who it was, though I expected Knipp: but it was she
coming off the stage just as she acted this day in "The Goblins;"
a merry jade. Now my house is full, and four fiddlers that play
well. Harris I first took to my closet: and I find him a very
curious and understanding person in all pictures and other
things, and a man of fine conversation; and so is Rolt. Among
other things, Harris sung his Irish song, the strangest in itself
and the prettiest sung by him that ever I heard.

25th. This afternoon I saw the Poll Bill, now printed; wherein I
do fear I shall be very deeply concerned, being to be taxed for
all my offices, and then for my money that I have, and my title
as well as my head. It is a very great tax; but yet I do think
it is so perplexed, it will hardly ever be collected duly. The
late invention of Sir G. Downing's is continued of bringing all
the money into the Exchequer. This day the House hath passed the
Bill for the Assessment; which I am glad of. And also our little
Bill, for giving any of us in the office the power of justice of
peace, is done as I would have it.

27th. Roger Pepys and I to walk in the Pell Mell. I find by him
that the House of Parliament continues full of ill humours; and
do say how in their late Poll Bill, which cost so much time, the
yeomanry, and indeed two-thirds of the nation, are left out to be
taxed. Walked to White Hall, and there I showed my cosen Roger
the Duchesse of York sitting in state, while her own mother
stands by her: and my Lady Castlemaine, whom he approves to be
very handsome, and wonders that she cannot be as good within as
she is fair without. Her little black boy come by him, and a dog
being in his way, the little boy swore at the dog: "How," says
he, blessing himself, "would I whip this child till the blood
come, if it were my child!"

28th. To Westminster, where I spent the morning at the Lords'
House door to hear the conference between the two Houses about my
Lord Mordaunt, of which there was great expectation. Many
hundreds of people coming to hear it. But when they come, the
Lords did insist upon my Lord Mordaunt's having leave to sit upon
a stool uncovered within their barr, and that he should have
counsel, which the Commons would not suffer, but desired leave to
report their Lordships' resolution to the House of Commons; and
so parted for this day, which troubles me, I having by this means
lost the whole day. Here I hear from Mr. Hayes that Prince
Rupert is very bad still, and so bad that he do now yield to be
trepanned. After supper and reading a little, and my wife's
cutting off my hair short, which is grown too long upon my crown
of my head, I to bed.

FEBRUARY 2, 1666-7. I am very well pleased this night with
reading a poem I brought home with me last night from Westminster
Hall, of Dryden's, upon the present war; a very good poem.

3rd. To White Hall, and there to Sir W. Coventry's chamber, and
there staid till he was ready. Talking, and among other things
of the Prince's being trepanned, which was in doing just as we
passed through the Stone Gallery, we asking at the door of his
lodgings, and were told so. We are full of wishes for the good
success; though I dare say but few do really concern ourselves
for him in our hearts. With others into the House, and there
hear that the work is done to the Prince in a few minutes without
any pain at all to him, he not knowing when it was done. It was
performed by Moulins. Having cut the outward table, as they call
it, they find the inner all corrupted, so as it come out without
any force; and their fear is, that the whole inside of his head
is corrupted like that, which do yet make them afraid of him; but
no ill accident appeared in the doing of the thing, but all with
all imaginable success, as Sir Alexander Frazier did tell me
himself, I asking him, who is very kind to me. To Sir G.
Carteret's to dinner; and before dinner he tells me that he
believes the Duke of York will go to sea with the fleet, which I
am sorry for in respect to his person, but yet there is no person
in condition to command the fleet, now the Captains are grown so
great, but him. By and by to dinner, where very good company.
Among other discourse, we talked much of Nostradamus [Michael
Nostradamus, a physician and astrologer, born in the diocese of
Avignon, 1503. Amongst other predictions he prophesied the death
of Henry II. of France, by which the celebrity he had before
acquired was not a little increased. He succeeded also in
rendering assistance to the inhabitants of Aix, during the
plague, by a powder of his own invention. He died at Salon, July
1566.] his prophecy of these times, and the burning of the City
of London, some of whose verses are put into Booker's Almanack
this year: [John Booker, an eminent astrologer and writing-
master at Hadley.] and Sir G. Carteret did tell a story, how at
his death he did make the town swear that he should never be dug
up, or his tomb opened, after he was buried; but they did after
sixty years do it, and upon his breast they found a plate of
brasse, saying what a wicked and unfaithful people the people of
that place were, who after so many vows should disturb and open
him such a day and year and hour which, if true, is very strange.
Then we fell to talk of the burning of the City. And my Lady
Carteret herself did tell us how abundance of pieces of burnt
papers were cast by the wind as far as Cranborne; and among
others she took up one, or had one brought her to see, which was
a little bit of paper that had been printed, whereon there
remained no more nor less than these words: "Time is, it is
done." Away home, and received some letters from Sir W.
Coventry, touching the want of victuals to Kempthorne's fleet
going to the Streights and now in the Downes: which did trouble
me, he saying that this disappointment might prove fatal; and the
more, because Sir W. Coventry do intend to come to the office
upon business to-morrow morning, and I shall not know what answer
to give him. [John Kempthorne, a distinguished Naval Officer,
afterwards knighted and made Commissioner at Portsmouth, which
place he represented in Parliament. Ob. 1679. Vide some curious
letters about his election in the Correspondence.]

4th. When Sir W. Coventry did come, and the rest met, I did
appear uuconcerned, and did give him answer pretty satisfactory
what he asked me; so that I did get off this meeting without any
ground lost. Soon as dined, my wife and I out to the Duke's
playhouse, and there saw "Heraclius," [A tragedy, by Lodowick
Carlell, taken from Corneille.] an excellent play, to my
extraordinary content; and the more from the house being very
full, and great company; among others Mrs. Stewart, very fine,
with her locks done up with puffes, as my wife calls them: and
several other great ladies had their hair so, though I do not
like it; but my wife do mightily; but it is only because she sees
it is the fashion. Here I saw my Lord Rochester and his lady,
Mrs. Mallett, who hath after all this ado married him; and, as I
hear some say in the pit, it is a great act of charity, for he
hath no estate. But it was so pleasant to see how every body
rose up when my Lord John Butler, the Duke of 0rmond's son, come
into the pit towards the end of the play, who was a servant to
Mrs. Mallett, and now smiled upon her, and she on him. Home, and
to my chamber, and there finished my Catalogue of my books with
my own-hand.

5th. Heard this morning that the Prince is much better, and hath
good rest. All the talk is that my Lord Sandwich hath perfected
the peace with Spain; which is very good, if true. Sir H.
Cholmly was with me this morning, and told me of my Lord
Bellasses' base dealings with him by getting him to give him
great gratuities to near 2000l. for his friendship in the
business of the Molle, and hath been lately underhand
endeavouring to bring another man into his place as Governor, so
as to receive his money of Sir H. Cholmly for nothing. To the
King's house to see "The Chances." [A comedy, by the Duke of
Buckingham.], a good play I find it, and the actors most good in
it. and pretty to hear Knipp sing in the play very properly,
"All night I weepe;" and sung it admirably. The whole play
pleases me well: and most of all, the sight of many fine ladies;
among others my Lady Castlemaine and Mrs. Middleton: the latter
of the two hath also a very excellent face and body, I think.
And so home in the dark over the ruins with a link.

6th. To Westminster Hall, and walked up and down, and hear that
the Prince do still rest well by day and night, and out of pain;
so as great hopes are conceived of him; though I did meet Dr.
Clerke and Mr. Pierce, and they do say: they believe he will not
recover it, they supposing that his whole head within is eaten by
this corruption, which appeared in this piece of the inner table.
To White Hall to attend the Council; but they sat not to-day. So
to Sir W. Coventry's chamber, and find him within, and with a
letter from the Downes in his hands, telling the loss of the St.
Patricke coming from Harwich in her way to Portsmouth; and would
needs chase two ships (she having the Malago fireship in company)
which from English colours put up Dutch, and he would clap on
board the Vice-Admirall; and after long dispute the Admirall
comes on the other side of him, and both together took her. Our
fireship (Seely) not coming in to fire all three, but come away,
leaving her in their possession, and carried away by them: a
ship built at Bristoll the last year, of fifty guns and upwards,
and a most excellent good ship.

8th. Sir W. Batten come this morning from the House, where the
King hath prorogued this Parliament to October next. I am glad
they are up. The Bill for Accounts was not offered, the party
being willing to let it fall; but the King did tell them he
expected it. They are parted with great heart-burnings, one
party against the other. Pray God bring them hereafter together
in better temper! It is said that the King do intend himself in
this interval to take away Lord Mordaunt's government [Windsor
Castle.], so as to do something to appease the House against
they come together, and let them see he will do that of his own
accord which is fit without their forcing him; and that he will
have his Commission for accounts go on: which will be good
things. At dinner we talked much of Cromwell; all saying he was
a brave fellow, and did owe his crowne he got to himself as much
as any man that ever got one.

9th. Read a piece of a play, "Every Man in his Humour," wherein
is the greatest propriety of speech that; ever I read in my life;
and so to bed. This noon come my wife's watch-maker, and
received 12l. of me for her watch; but Captain Rolt coming to
speak with me about a little business, he did judge of the work
to be very good, and so I am well contented.

10th (Lord's day). To church, where Mr. Mills made an
unnecessary sermon upon Original Sin, neither understood by
himself nor the people. Home, where come Mr. Carter, [Thomas
Carter, S.T.P. 1669.] my old acquaintance of Magdalene College,
who hath not been here of many years. He hath spent his time in
the country with the Bishop of Carlisle much. He is grown a very
comely person, and of good discourse, and one that I like very
much. We had much talk of all our old acquaintance of the
College, concerning their various fortunes; wherein, to my joy, I
met not with any that have sped better than myself. Mrs. Turner
do tell me very odde stories how Mrs. Williams do receive the
applications of people, and hath presents, and she is the hand
that receives all, while my Lord do the business.

12th. With my Lord Brouncker by coach to his house, there to
hear some Italian musique: and here we met Tom Killigrew, Sir
Robert Murray, and the Italian Signor Baptista, [Giovanni
Baptista Draghi, an Italian musician in the service of Queen
Catherine, and a composer of merit. BURNEY, HISTORY OF MUSIC.]
who hath proposed a play in Italian for the Opera, which T.
Killigrew do intend to have up; and here he did sing one of the
acts. He himself is the poet as well as the musician; which is
very much, and did sing the whole from the words without any
musique prickt, and played all along upon a harpsicon most
admirably, and the composition most excellent. The words I did
not understand, and so know not how they are fitted, but believe
very well, and all in the recitative very fine. But I perceive
there is a proper accent in every country's discourse, and that
do reach in their setting of notes to words, which, therefore,
cannot be natural to any body else but them; so that I am not so
much smitten with it as it may be I should be if I were
acquainted with their accent. But the whole composition is
certainly most excellent; and the poetry, T. Killigrew and Sir R.
Murray, who understood the words, did say most excellent. I
confess I was mightily pleased with the musique. He pretends not
to voice, though it be good, but not excellent. This done, T.
Killigrew and I to talk: and he tells me how the audience at his
house is not above half so much as it used to be before the late
fire. That Knipp is like to make the best actor that ever come
upon the stage, she understanding so well: that they are going
to give her 30l. a-year more. That the stage is now by his pains
a thousand times better and more glorious than ever heretofore.
Now wax-candles, and many of them; then not above 3 lbs. of
tallow: now all things civil, no rudeness any where; then, as in
a bear-garden: then two or three fiddlers, now nine or ten of
the best: then nothing but rushes upon the ground, and every
thing else mean; now all otherwise: then the Queene seldom and
the King never would come; now, not the King only for state, but
all civil people do think they may come as well as any. He tells
me that he hath gone several times (eight or ten times, he tells
me,) hence to Rome, to hear good musique; so much he loves it,
though he never did sing or play a note. That he hath ever
endeavoured in the late King's time and in this to introduce good
musique, but he never could do it, there never having been any
musique here better than ballads. And says "Hermitt poore" and
"Chiny Chese" was all the musique we had; and yet no ordinary
fiddlers get so much money as ours do here, which speaks our
rudeness still. That he hath gathered our Italians from several
Courts in Christendome, to come to make a concert for the King,
which he do give 200l. a-year a-piece to; but badly paid, and do
come in the room of keeping four ridiculous Gundilows, he having
got the King to put them away, and lay out money this way. And
indeed I do commend him for it; for I think it is a very noble
undertaking. He do intend to have some times of the year these
operas to be performed at the two present theatres, since he is
defeated in what he intended in Moorefields on purpose for it.
And he tells me plainly that the City audience was as good as the
Court; but now they are most gone. Baptista tells me that
Giacomo Charissimi [Giacomo Chiarissimi, Maestro di Cappella of
the Church of St. Apollinare in the German College at Rome, an
excellent Italian musician. He lived to be 90.--BURNEY.] is
still alive at Rome, who was master to Vinnecotio, who is one of
the Italians that the King hath here, and the chief composer of
them. My great wonder is, how this man do to keep in memory so
perfectly the musique of the whole act, both for the voice and
the instrument too. I confess I do admire it: but in recitative
the sense much helps him, for there is but one proper way of
discoursing and giving the accents. Having done our discourse,
we all took coaches (my Lord's and T. Killigrew's) and to Mrs.
Knipp's chamber, where this Italian is to teach her to sing her
part. And so we all thither, and there she did sing an Italian
song or two very fine, while he played the bass upon a harpsicon
there; and exceedingly taken I am with her singing, and believe
she will do miracles at that and acting.

13th. To the Duke of York, and there did our usual business; but
troubled to see that at this time, after our declaring a debt to
the Parliament of 900,000l. and nothing paid since, but the debt
encreased, and now the fleet to set out, to hear that the King
hath ordered but 35,000l. for the setting out of the fleet, out
of the Poll Bill to buy all provisions, when five times as much
had been little enough to have done any thing to purpose. They
have, indeed, ordered more for paying off of seamen and the Yards
to some time, but not enough for that neither. A foul evening
this was to-night, and I mightily troubled to get a coach home;
and, which is now my common practice, going over the ruins in the
night, I rid with my sword drawn in the coach.

14th. By coach to my Lord Chancellor's, and there a meeting:
the Duke of York, Duke of Albemarle, and several other Lords of
the Commission of Tangier. And there I did present a state of my
accounts, and managed them well and my Lord Chancellor did say,
though he was in other things in an ill humour, that no man in
England was of more method, nor made himself better understood,
than myself. But going, after the business of money was over, to
other businesses, of settling the garrison, he did fling out, and
so did the Duke of York, two or three severe words touching my
Lord Bellasses: that he would have no Governor come away from
thence in less than three years: no, though his lady were with
child. "And," says the Duke of York, "there should be no
Governor continue so, longer than three years."--"And," says
Lord Arlington, "when our rules are once set, and upon good
judgment declared, no Governor should offer to alter them." "We
must correct the many things that are amiss there; for (says the
Lord Chancellor) you must think we do hear of more things amiss
than we are willing to speak before our friends' faces." My Lord
Bellasses would not take notice of their reflecting on him, and
did wisely. H. Cholmly and I to the Temple, and there walked in
the dark in the walks talking of news; and he surprises me with
the certain news that the King did last night in Council declare
his being in treaty with the Dutch: that they had sent him a
very civil letter, declaring that if nobody but themselves were
concerned, they would not dispute the place of treaty, but leave
it to his choice; but that being obliged to satisfy therein a
prince of equal quality with himself, they must except any place
in England or Spain. Also the King hath chosen the Hague, and
thither hath chose my Lord Hollis and Harry Coventry to go
Embassadors to treat; which is so mean a thing as all the world
will believe that we do go to beg a peace of them, whatever we
pretend. And it seems all our Court are mightily for a peace,
taking this to be the time to make one while the King hath money,
that he may save something of what the Parliament hath given him
to put him out of debt, so as he may need the help of no more
Parliaments, as to the point of money: but our debt is so great,
and expence daily so encreased, that I believe little of the
money will be saved between this and the making of the peace up.
But that which troubles me most is, that we have chosen a son of
Secretary Morris, a boy never used to any business, to go
Secretary to the Embassy.

14th. This morning come up to my wife's bedside, I being up
dressing myself, little Will Mercer to be her Valentine; and
brought her name writ upon blue paper in gold letters, done by
himself, very pretty; and we were both well pleased with it. But
I am also this year my wife's Valentine, and it will cost me 5l.;
but that I must have laid out if we had not been Valentines.

15th. Pegg Pen is married this day privately: no friends but
two or three relations of his and hers. Borrowed many things of
my kitchen for dressing their dinner. This wedding, being
private, is imputed to its being just before Lent, and so in vain
to make new clothes till Easter, that they might see the fashions
as they are like to be this summer; which is reason good enough.

16th. To my Lord Brouncker's, and there was Sir Robert Murray, a
most excellent man of reason and learning, and understands the
doctrine of musique, and every thing else I could discourse of,
very finely. Here come Mr. Hooke, Sir George Ent, Dr. Wren, and
many others; and by and by the musique, that is to say, Signior
Vincentio, who is the master composer, and six more, whereof two
eunuches (so tall that Sir T. Harvy said well that he believes
they do grow large as our oxen do), and one woman very well
dressed and handsome enough, but would not be kissed, as Mr.
Killigrew, who brought the company in, did acquaint us. They
sent two harpsicons before, and by and by after tuning them they
begun; and, I confess, very good musique they made; that is, the
composition exceeding good, but yet not at all more pleasing to
me than what I have heard in English by Mrs. Knipp, Captain
Cocke, and others. Their justness in keeping time by practice
much before any that we have, unless it be a good band of
practiced fiddlers. I find that Mrs. Pierce's little girl is my
Valentine, she having drawn me; which I was not sorry for, it
easing me of something more that I must have given to others.
But here I do first observe the fashion of drawing of mottos as
well as names; so that Pierce, who drew my wife, did draw also a
motto, and this girl drew another for me. What mine was I have
forgot; but my wife's was, "Most courteous and most fair:" which
as it may be used, or an anagram made upon each name, might be
very, pretty. One wonder I observed to-day, that there was no
musique in the morning to call up our new-married people; which
is very mean methinks.

17th. Staid till the council was up, and attended the King and
Duke of York round the Park, and was asked several questions by
both; but I was in pain lest they should ask me what I could not
answer; as the Duke of York did the value of the hull of the St.
Patricke lately lost, which I told him I could not presently
answer: though I might have easily furnished myself to answer
all those questions. They stood a good while to see the ganders
and geese in the water. At home by appointment comes Captain
Cocke to me, to talk of State matters and about the peace; who
told me that the whole business is managed between Kevet,
Burgomaster, of Amsterdam, and my Lord Arlington, who hath
through his wife there some interest. [See note Nov. 15, 1666.]
We have proposed the Hague, but know not yet whether the Dutch
will like it; or if they do, whether the French will. We think
we shall have the help of the information of their affairs and
state, and the helps of the Prince of Orange his faction: but
above all, that De Witt, who hath all this while said he cannot
get peace, his mouth will now be stopped, so that he will be
forced to offer fit terms for fear of the people; and lastly, if
France or Spain do not please us, we are in a way presently to
clap up a peace with the Dutch, and secure them. But we are also
in treaty with France, as he says; but it must be to the
excluding our alliance with the King of Spain or House of
Austria: which we do not know presently what will be determined
in. He tells me the Vice-chamberlaine is so great with the King,
that let the Duke of York, and Sir W. Coventry, and this office,
do or say what they will, while the King lives Sir G. Carteret
will do what he will; and advises me to be often with him, and
eat and drink with him; and tells me that he doubts he is jealous
of me, and was mighty mad to-day at our discourse to him before
the Duke of York. But I did give him my reasons, that the office
is concerned to declare that without money the King's work cannot
go on. He assures me that Henry Brouncker is one of the
shrewdest fellows for parts in England, and a dangerous man:
that while we want money so much in the Navy, the officers of the
Ordnance have at this day 300,000l. good in tallies, which they
can command money upon: that Harry Coventry, who is to go upon
this treaty with Lord Hollis (who he confesses to be a very wise
man) into Holland, is a mighty, quick, ready man, but not so
weighty as he should be, he knowing him so well in his drink as
he do: that unless the King do something against my Lord
Mordaunt and the Patents for the Canary Company before the
Parliament next meets, he do believe there will be a civil war
before there will be any more money given, unless it may be at
their perfect disposal; and that all things are now ordered to
the provoking of the Parliament against they come next, and the
spending the King's money, so as to put him into a necessity of
having it at the time it is prorogued for, or sooner. This
evening going to the Queene's side to see the ladies, I did find
the Queene, the Duchesse of York, and another or two, at cards,
with the room full of great ladies and men; which I was amazed at
to see on a Sunday, having not believed it, but contrarily,
flatly denied the same a little while since to my cosen Roger

18th. To the King's house to "The Mayd's Tragedy;" but vexed all
the while with two talking ladies and Sir Charles Sedley; yet
pleased to hear their discourse, he being a stranger. And one of
the ladies would and did sit with her mask on all the play; and
being exceedingly witty as ever I heard woman, did talk most
pleasantly with him; but was, I believe, a virtuous woman, and of
quality. He would fain know who she was, but she would not tell;
yet did give him many pleasant hints of her knowledge of him, by
that means setting his brains at work to find out who she was,
and did give him leave to use all means to find out who she was,
but pulling off her mask. He was mighty witty, and she also
making sport with him very inoffensively, that a more pleasant
rencontre I never heard. But by that means lost the pleasure of
the play wholly, to which now and then Sir Charles Sedley's
exceptions against both words and pronouncing were very pretty.

20th. They talked how the King's viallin, Bannister, is mad;
that the King hath a Frenchman come to be chief of some part of
the King's musique. I with Lord Bellasses, to Lord Chancellor's.
Lord Bellasses tells me how the King of France hath caused the
stop to be made to our proposition of treating in the Hague; that
he being greater than they, we may better come and treat at
Paris: so that God knows what will become of the peace! He
tells me, too, as a grand secret, that he do believe the
offensive and defensive between Spain and us is quite finished,
but must not be known, to prevent the King of France's present
falling upon Flanders. He do believe the Duke of York will be
made General of the Spanish Armies there, and Governor of
Flanders, if the French should come against it, and we assist the
Spaniard: that we have done the Spaniard abundance of mischief
in the West Indys by our privateers at Jamaica, which they lament
mightily, and I am sorry for it to have it done at this time. By
and by come to my Lord Chancellor, who heard mighty quietly my
complaints for lack of money, and spoke mighty kind to me, but
little hopes of help therein.

24th. To White Hall, and there meeting my Lord Arlington, he by
I know not what kindness offered to carry me along with him to my
Lord Treasurer's, whither I told him I was going. I believe he
had a mind to discourse of some Navy businesses, but Sir Thomas
Clifford coming into the coach to us, we were prevented; which I
was sorry for, for I had a mind to begin an acquaintance with
him. He speaks well, and hath pretty slight superficial parts, I
believe. He, in our going, talked much of the plain habit of the
Spaniards; how the King and Lords themselves wear but a cloak of
Colchester bayze, and the ladies mantles in cold weather of white
flannell: and that the endeavours frequently of setting up the
manufactory of making these stuffs there, have only been
prevented by the Inquisition. Captain Cocke did tell me what I
must not forget: that the answer of the Dutch, refusing the
Hague for a place of treaty, and proposing Boysse, Bredah,
Bergen-op-Soome, or Mastricht, was seemingly stopped by the
Swedes Embassador (though he did show it the King, but the King
would take no notice of it, nor does not,) from being delivered
to the King; and he hath wrote to desire them to consider better
of it. So that, though we know their refusal of the place, yet
they know not that we know it, nor the King obliged to show his
sense of the affront. That the Dutch are in very great straits,
so as to be said to be not able to set out their fleet this year.
By and by comes Sir Robert Viner and Lord Mayor [Sir William
Bolton.] to ask the King's direction about measuring out the
streets according to the new Act for building of the City,
wherein the King is to be pleased. But he says that the way
proposed in Parliament by Colonel Birch would have been the best,
to have chosen some persons in trust, and sold the whole ground,
and let it be sold again by them with preference to the old
owner, which would have certainly caused the City to be built
where these Trustees pleased; whereas now great differences will
be, and the streets built by fits, and not entire till all
differences be decided. This, as he tells it, I think would have
been the best way. I enquired about the Frenchman that was said
to fire the City, and was hanged for it by his own confession,
that he was hired for it by a Frenchman of Roane, and that he did
with a stick reach in a fire-ball in at a window of the house:
whereas the master of the house, who is the King's baker, and his
son, and daughter, do all swear there was no such window, and
that the fire did not begin there-abouts. Yet the fellow, who,
though a mopish besotted fellow, did not speak like a madman, did
swear that he did fire it: and did not this like a madman; for
being tried on purpose and landed with his keeper at the Town-
Wharf, he could carry the keeper to the very house. Asking Sir
R. Viner what he thought was the cause of the fire, he tells me,
that the baker, son, and his daughter, did all swear again and
again, that their oven was drawn by ten o'clock at night: that
having occasion to light a candle about twelve, there was not so
much fire in the bakehouse as to light a match for a candle, so
that they were fain to go into another place to light it: that
about two in the morning they felt themselves almost choked with
smoke, and rising did find the fire coming upstairs; so they rose
to save themselves; but that at that time the bavins were not on
fire in the yard. So that they are, as they swear, in absolute
ignorance how this fire should come; which is a strange thing,
that so horrid an effect should have so mean and uncertain a

25th. Lay long in bed, talking with pleasure with my poor wife,
how she used to make coal fires, and wash my foul clothes with
her own hand for me, poor wretch! in our little room at my Lord
Sandwich's; for which I ought for ever to love and admire her,
and do: and persuade myself she would do the same thing again,
if God should reduce us to it. At my goldsmith's did observe the
King's new medall, where in little there is Mrs. Stewart's face
as well done as ever I saw any thing in my whole life, I think:
and a pretty thing it is, that he should choose her face to
represent Brittannia by.

27th. This day at a leisure, the King and Duke of York being
gone down to Sheerenesse this morning to lay out the design for a
fortification there to the river Medway; and so we do not attend
the Duke or York as we should otherwise have done. To the Dock
Yard, and went into Mr. Pett's; and there beyond expectation he
did present me with a Japan cane with a silver head, and his wife
sent me by him a ring with a Woolwich stone, now much in request;
which I accepted, the values not being great: and then at my
asking did give me an old draught of an ancient-built ship, given
him by his father, of the Beare in Queene Elizabeth's time. Mr.
Hunt, newly come out of the country, tells me the country is much
impoverished by the greatness of taxes: the farmers do break
every day almost, and 1000l. a year become not worth 500l. He
told me some ridiculous pieces of thrift of Sir G. Downing's, who
is his countryman, in inviting some poor people at Christmas
last, to charm the country people's mouths; but did give them
nothing but beef, porridge, pudding, and pork, and nothing said
all dinner, but only his mother would say, "It's good broth,
son." He would answer, "Yes, it is good broth." Then says his
lady, "Confirm all, and say, Yes, very good broth." By and by
she would begin and say, "Good pork:" "Yes," says the mother,
"good pork." Then he cries, "Yes, very good pork." And so they
said of all things; to which nobody made any answer, they going
there not out of love or esteem of them, but to eat his victuals,
knowing him to be a, niggardly fellow; and with this he is jeered
now all over the country. Met Mr. Cooling, who tells me of my
Lord Duke of Buckingham's being sent for last night by a Sergeant
at Armes to the Tower for treasonable practices, and that the
King is infinitely angry with him, and declared him no longer one
of his Council. I know not the reason of it, or occasion.

28th. Mr. Holland gives it me as his opinion, that the City will
never be built again together, as is expected, while any
restraint is laid upon them. I did within these six days see
smoke still remaining of the late fire in the City. Sir J.
Minnes this night tells me that he hears for certain that ballads
are made of us in Holland for begging of a peace; which I
expected, but am vexed at. So ends this month with nothing of
weight upon my mind but for my father and mother, who are both
very ill, and have been so for some weeks: whom God help! but I
do fear my poor father will hardly be ever naturally well again.

March 1, 1666-7. In Mark-lane I do observe (it being St. David's
day) the picture of a man, dressed like a Welchman, hanging by
the neck upon one of the poles that stand out at the top of one
of the merchant's houses, in full proportion, and very handsomely
done; which is one of the oddest sights I have seen a good while.
Tom Woodall, the known chyrurgeon, is killed at Somerset House by
a Frenchman in a drunken quarrel.

2nd. After dinner with my wife to the King's house to see "The
Mayden Queene," a new play of Dryden's, mightily commended for
the regularity of it, and the strain and wit: and the truth is,
there is a comical part done by Nell, which is Florimell, that I
never can hope ever to see the like done again by man or woman.
The King and Duke of York were at the play. But so great
performance of a comical part was never, I believe, in the world
before as Nell do this, both as a mad girle, then most and best
of all when she comes in like a young gallant; and hath the
motions and carriage of a spark the most that ever I saw any man
have. It makes me, I confess, admire her.

3rd. it is believed that the Dutch will yield to have the treaty
at London or Dover, neither of which will get our King any
credit, we having already consented to have it at the Hague;
which, it seems, De Witt opposed, as a thing wherein the King of
England must needs have some profound design, which in my
conscience he hath not. They do also tell me that news is this
day come to the King, that the King of France is come with his
army to the frontiers of Flanders, demanding leave to pass
through their country towards Poland, but is denied, and
thereupon that he is gone into the country. How true this is I
dare not believe till I hear more. I walked into the Park, it
being a fine but very cold day; and there took two or three turns
the length of the Pell Mell: and there I met Serjeant Bearcroft,
who was sent for the Duke of Buckingham, to have brought him
prisoner to the Tower. He come to town this day, and brings word
that being overtaken and outrid by the Duchesse of Buckingham
within a few miles of the Duke's house of Westhorp, he believes
she got thither about a quarter of an hour before him, and so had
time to consider; so that when he come the doors were kept shut
against him. The next day coming with officers of the neighbour
market-town to force open the doors, they were open for him, but
the Duke gone: so he took horse presently, and heard upon the
road that the Duke of Buckingham was gone before him for London:
so that he believes he is this day also come to town before him;
but no news is yet heard of him. This is all he brings. Thence
to my Lord Chancellor's, and there meeting Sir H. Cholmly, he and
I walked in my Lord's garden, and talked among other things, of
the treaty; and he says there will certainly be a peace, but I
cannot believe it. He tells me that the Duke of Buckingham his
crimes, as far as he knows, are his being of a cabal with some
discontented persons of the late House of Commons, and opposing
the desires of the King in all his matters in that House: and
endeavouring to become popular, and advising how the Commons'
House should proceed, and how he would order the House of Lords.
And that he hath been endeavouring to have the King's nativity
calculated: which was done, and the fellow now in the Tower
about it: which itself hath heretofore, as he says, been held
treason, and people died for it: but by the Statute of Treason
in Queen Mary's time and since, it hath been left out. He tells
me that this silly Lord hath provoked by his ill carriage the
Duke of York, my Lord Chancellor, and all the great persons; and
therefore most likely will die. He tells me too many pratices of
treachery against this King; as betraying him in Scotland, and
giving Oliver an account of the King's private councils: which
the King knows very well, and yet hath pardoned him.

6th. To White Hall; and here the Duke of York did acquaint us
(and the King did the like also afterwards coming in) with his
resolution of altering the manner of the war this year: that is,
we shall keep what fleet we have abroad in several squadrons: so
that now all is come out; but we are to keep it as close as we
can, without hindering the work that is to be done in preparation
to this. Great preparations there are to fortify Sheerenesse and
the yard at Portsmouth, and forces are drawing down to both those
places, and elsewhere by the sea-side; so that we have some fear
of invasion: and the Duke of York himself did declare his
expectation of the enemy's blocking us up here in the river, and
therefore directed that we should send away all the ships that we
have to fit out hence. Sir W. Pen told me, going with me this
morning to White Hall, that for certain the Duke of Buckingham is
brought into the Tower, and that he hath had an hour's private
conference with the King before he was sent thither. Every body
complains of the dearness of coals, being at 4l. per chaldron,
the weather too being become most bitter cold, the King saying
to-day that it was the coldest day he ever knew in England.
Thence by coach to my Lord Crewe's, where very welcome. Here I
find they are in doubt where the Duke of Buckingham is; which
makes me mightily reflect on the uncertainty of all history, when
in a business of this moment, and of this day's growth, we cannot
tell the truth.

7th. To Devonshire House, to a burial of a kinsman of Sir R.
Viner's; and there I received a ring. To the Duke's playhouse,
and saw "The English Princesse, or Richard the Third;" [A
tragedy, by J. Caryl.] a most sad, melancholy play, and pretty
good, but nothing eminent in it, as some tragedys are; only
little Miss Davis did dance a jigg after the end of the play, and
there telling the next day's play, so that it come in by force
only to please the company to see her dance in boy's clothes; and
the truth is, there is no comparison between Nell's dancing the
other day at the King's house in boy's clothes and this, this
being infinitely beyond the other. [Mary Davis, some time a
comedian in the Duke of York's troop, was, according to Pepys,
natural daughter of the Earl of Berkshire: she afterwards became
the King's mistress, and had by him a child named Mary Tudor,
married to Francis Ratcliffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater; whose son
James, the 3rd Earl, was attainted and beheaded for High Treason.
There is a fine whole-length portrait of Miss Davis, by Kneller,
lately removed to Audley End, from the collection at Billingbear,
in which she is represented as a tall handsome woman, and her
general appearance ill accords with time description given of her
in the Diary.] This day was reckoned by all people the coldest
day that ever was remembered in England; and, God knows, coals at
a very great price.

8th. Sir H. Cholmly and I to the Temple, and there parted, he
telling me of my Lord Bellasses's want of generosity, and that he
will certainly be turned out of his government, and he thinks
himself stands fair for it.

9th. Captain Cocke, who was here to-night, did tell us that he
is certain that yesterday a proclamation was voted at the council
touching the proclaiming of my Lord Duke of Buckingham a traytor,
and that it will be out on Monday.

11th. Yesterday the King did publicly talk of the King of
France's dealing with all the Princes of Christendome. As to the
States of Holland he hath advised them, on good grounds, to
refuse to treat with us at the Hague, because of having
opportunity of spies by reason of our interest in the House of
Orange; and then, it being a town in one particular province, it
would not be fit to have it but in a town wherein the provinces
have equal interest, as at Mastricht and other places named. That
he advises them to offer no terms, nor accept of any, without his
privity and consent, according to agreement; and tells them, if
not so, he hath in his power to be even with them, the King of
England being come to offer any terms he pleases: and that my
Lord St. Albans is now at Paris, Plenipotentiary, to make what
peace he pleases; and so he can make it and exclude them (the
Dutch) if he sees fit. A copy of this letter of the King of
France's the Spanish Ambassador here gets, and comes and tells
all to our King; which our King denies, and says the King of
France only uses his power of saying anything. At the same time
the King of France writes to the Emperor, that he is resolved to
do all things to express affection to the Emperor, having it now
in his power to make what peace he pleases between the King of
England and him, and the States of the United Provinces; and
therefore, that he would not have him to concern himself in a
friendship with us; and assures him that on that regard he will
not offer anything to his disturbance in his interest in Flanders
or elsewhere. He writes at the same time to Spain, to tell him
that he wonders to hear of a league almost ended between the
Crown of Spain and England, by my Lord Sandwich, and all without
his privity, while he was making a peace upon what terms he
pleased with England. That he is a great lover of the Crown of
Spain, and would take the King and his affairs during his
minority into his protection, nor would offer to set; his foot in
Flanders or any where else to disturb him; and therefore would
not have him to trouble himself to make peace with any body; only
he hath a desire to offer an exchange, which he thinks may be of
moment to both sides: that is, that he will enstate the King of
Spain in the kingdom of Portugall, and he and the Dutch will put;
him into possession of Lisbon; and that being done, he may have
Flanders: and this, they say, do mightily take in Spain, which
is sensible of the fruitless expence Flanders, so far off, gives
them; and how much better it would be for them to be master of
Portugall: and the King of France offers for security herein
that the King of England shall be bond for him, and that he will
counter-secure the King of England with Amsterdam: and it seems
hath assured our King, that if he will make a league with him, he
will make a peace exclusive to the Hollander. These things are
almost romantique, but yet true, as Sir H. Cholmly tells me the
King himself did relate it all yesterday; and it seems as if the
King of France did think other princes fit for nothing but to
make sport for him: but simple princes they are that are forced
to suffer this from him. The proclamation has this day come out
against the Duke of Buckingham, commanding him to come in to one
of the Secretaries, or to the Lieutenant of the Tower. A silly,
vain man to bring himself to this: and there be many hard
circumstances in the proclamation of the causes of this
proceeding of the King's, which speak great displeasure of the
King's, and crimes of his.

13th. The Duke of Buckingham is concluded gone over sea, and, it
is thought, to France.

14th. To my Lord Treasurer's. By and by comes the King and Duke
of York, and presently the officers of the Ordnance were called;
my Lord Barkeley, Sir John Duncomb, and Mr. Chichly; then my Lord
Brouncker, W. Batten, W. Pen, and myself; where we find only the
King and Duke of York, and my Lord Treasurer, and Sir G.
Carteret; when I only did speak, laying down the state of our
wants, which the King and Duke of York seemed very well pleased
with, and we did get what we asked, 500,000l., signed upon the
eleven months' tax: but that is not so much ready-money, or what
will raise 40,000l. per week, which we desired, and the business
will want. The King did prevent my offering any thing by and by
as Treasurer for Tangier, telling me that he had ordered us
30,000l. on the same tax; but that is not what we would have to
bring our payments to come within a year. So we gone out, in
went others; viz. one after another, Sir Stephen Fox for the
Army, Captain Cocke for sick and wounded, Mr. Ashburnham for the
household. Thence W. Batten, W. Pen, and I back again; I
mightily pleased with what I had said and done, and the success

15th. Letters this day come to Court do tell us that we are
likely not to agree, the Dutch demanding high terms, and the King
of France the like in a most braveing manner. This morning I was
called up by Sir John Winter, poor man! come in a sedan from the
other end of the town, about helping the King in the business of
bringing down his timber to the sea-side in the forest of Deane.

18th. The weather is now grown warm again after much cold; and
it is observable that within these eight days I did see smoke
remaining, coming out of some cellars from the late great fire,
now above six months since.

17th. I to the Duke of York's lodging, where in his dressing-
chamber, he talking of his journey to-morrow or next day to
Harwich, to prepare some fortifications there; so that we are
wholly upon the defensive part this year. I to walke in the
Parke; where to the Queene's chapel, and there heard a fryer
preach with his cord about his middle in Portuguese, something I
could understand, showing that God did respect the meek and
humble as well as the high and rich. He was full of action, but
very decent and good, I thought, and his manner of delivery very
good. Then I went back to White Hall, and there up to the
closet, and spoke with several people till sermon was ended,
which was preached by the Bishop of Hereford, [Dr. Herbert Croft
was made Bishop of Hereford 1661, but he could not then be very
old, as he lived till 1691. The Bishop's father was a knight and
his son a Baronet.] an old good man, that they say made an
excellent sermon. He was by birth a Catholique, and a great
gallant, having 1500l. per annum patrimony, and is a Knight
Barronet: was turned from his persuasion by the late Archbishop
Laud. He and the Bishop of Exeter, Dr. Ward, are the two Bishops
that the King do say he cannot have bad sermons from. Here I met
with Sir H. Cholmly, who tells me, that undoubtedly my Lord
Bellasses do go no more to Tangier, and that he do believe he do
stand in a likely way to go governor; though he sees and showed
me a young silly lord (one Lord Allington [William 2nd Baron
Allington of Killard, Ireland, created an English Peer 1682;
which title was extinct 1692. He was thrice married.]) who hath
offered a great sum of money to go, and will put hard for it, he
having a fine lady, and a great man would be glad to have him out
of the way. The King is very kind to my Lord Sandwich, and did
himself observe to him (Sir G. Carteret) how those very people
(meaning the Prince, and Duke of Albemarle) are punished in the
same kind as they did seek to abuse my Lord Sandwich.

18th. Comes my old good friend Mr. Richard Cumberland [Richard
Cumberland educated at St. Paul's School, and Magdalene College,
Cambridge, made Bishop of Peterborough 1691. Ob. 1718, aged 86.]
to see me, being newly come to town, whom I have not seen almost,
if not quite these seven years. In a plain country-parson's
dress. I could not spend much time with him, but prayed him to
come with his brother, who was with him, to dine with me to-day;
which he did do: and I had a great deal of his good company; and
a most excellent person he is as any I know, and one that I am
sorry should be lost and buried in a little country town, and
would be glad to remove him thence; and the truth is, if he would
accept of my sister's fortune, I should give 100l. more with him
than to a man able to settle her four times as much as I fear he
is able to do. Comes Captain Jenifer to me, a great servant of
my Lord Sandwich's, who tells me that he do hear for certain,
though I do not yet believe it, that Sir W. Coventry is to be
Secretary of State, and my Lord Arlington Lord Treasurer. I only
wish that the latter were as fit for the latter office as the
former is for the former, and more fit than my Lord Arlington.
Anon Sir W. Pen come and talked with me in the garden; and tells
me that for certain the Duke of Richmond is to marry Mrs.
Stewart, he having this day brought in an account of his estate
and debts to the King on that account. This day Mr. Caesar told
me a pretty experiment of his of angling with a minikin, a gut-
string varnished over, which keeps it from swelling, and is
beyond any hair for strength and smallness. The secret I like

19th. It comes in my mind this night to set down how a house was
the other day in Bishopsgate-street blowed up with powder; a
house that was untenanted; but, thanks be to God, it did no more
hurt; and all do conclude it a plot. This afternoon I am told
again that the town do talk of my Lord Arlington's being to be
Lord Treasurer, and Sir W. Coventry to be Secretary of State; and
that for certain the match is concluded between the Duke of
Richmond and Mrs. Stewart; which I am well enough pleased with:
and it is pretty to consider how his quality will allay people's
talk; whereas had a meaner person married her, he would for
certain have been derided at first dash.

20th. To our church to the vestry, to be assessed by the late
Poll Bill, where I am rated as an Esquire, and for my office all
will come to about 50l. But not more than I expected, nor so much
by a great deal as I ought to be for all my offices. The Duke of
Richmond and Mrs. Stewart were betrothed last night. It is
strange how "Rycaut's Discourse of Turky," which before the fire
I was asked but 8s. for, there being all but twenty-two or
thereabouts burned, I did now offer 20s., and he demands 50s.,
and I think I shall give it him, though it be only as a monument
of the fire.

21st. To the Duke of York's playhouse, where unexpectedly I come
to see only the young men and women of the house act; they having
liberty to act for their own profit on Wednesdays and Fridays
this Lent: and the play they did yesterday, being Wednesday, was
so well taken, that they thought fit to venture it publickly to-
day; a play my Lord Falkand's, [Henry Carey, third Viscount
Falkland, M.P, for Arundell 1661. Ob. 1664.] called "The
Wedding Night," a kind of a tragedy, and some things very good in
it, but the whole together, I thought, not so. I confess I was
well enough pleased with my seeing it; and the people did do
better (without the great actors) than I did expect, but yet far
short of what they do when they are there. Our trial for a good
prize came on to-day, "The Phoenix, worth 2 or 3000l." when by
and by Sir W. Batten told me we had got the day, which was mighty
welcome news to me and us all. But it is pretty to see what
money will do. Yesterday Walker [Sir W. Walker.] was mighty
cold on our behalf, till Sir W. Batten promised him, if we sped
in this business of the goods, a coach; and if at the next trial
we sped for the ship, we would give him a pair of horses. And he
hath strove for us to-day like a prince. Though the Swedes'
Agent was there with all the vehemence he could to save the
goods, but yet we carried it against him.

23rd. At the office, where Sir W. Pen come, being returned from
Chatham, from considering the means of fortifying the river
Medway, by a chain at the stakes, and ships laid there with guns
to keep the enemy from coming up to burn our ships; all our care
being now to fortify ourselves against their invading us.

24th. With Sir G. Carteret and Sir J. Minnes; and they did talk
of my Lord Brouncker; whose father it seems did give Mr.
Ashburnham and the present Lord Digby [The Earl of Bristol,
frequently called in the Diary Lord Digby, long after he had
succeeded to the Earldom.] 1200l. to be made an Irish lord, and
swore the same day that he had not 12d. left to pay for his
dinner: they made great mirth at this, my Lord Brouncker having
lately given great matter of offence both to them and us all,
that we are at present mightily displeased with him. By and by
to the Duke of York, where we all met, and there was the King
also; and all our discourse was about fortifying of the Medway
and Harwich, which is to be entrenched quite round, and
Portsmouth: and here they advised with Sir Godfrey Lloyd and Sir
Bernard de Gunn, [Engineer-general, who had been employed in 1661
to construct the works at Dunkirk.] the two great engineers, and
had the plates drawn before them; and indeed all their care they
now take is to fortify themselves, and are not ashamed of it; for
when by and by my Lord Arlington come in with letters, and seeing
the King and Duke of York give us and the officers of the
Ordnance directions in this matter, he did move that we might do
it as privately as we could, that it might not come into the
Dutch Gazette presently, as the King's and Duke of York's going
down the other day to Sheerenesse was the week after in the
Harlem Gazette. The King and Duke of York both laughed at it,
and made no matter, but said, "Let us be safe, and let them talk,
for there is nothing will trouble them more, nor will prevent
their coming more, than to hear that we are fortifying
ourselves." And the Duke of York said further, "What said
Marshal Turenne, when some in vanity said that the enemies were
afraid, for they entrenched themselves? 'Well,' says he, 'I
would they were not afraid, for then they would not entrench
themselves, and so we could deal with them the better.'" Away
thence, and met with Sir H. Cholmly, who tells me that he do
believe the government of Tangier is bought by my Lord Allington
for a sum of money to my Lord Arlington, and something to Lord
Bellasses. I did this night give the waterman who uses to carry
me 10s. at his request, for the painting of his new boat, on
which shall be my arms.

25th. Called at Mr. Lilly's, who was working; and indeed his
pictures are without doubt much beyond Mr. Hales's, I think I may
say I am convinced: but a mighty proud man he is, and full of
state. To the King's playhouse; and by and by comes Mr. Lowther
and his wife and mine, and into a box forsooth, neither of them
being dressed, which I was almost ashamed of. Sir W. Pen and I
in the pit, and here saw "The Mayden Queene" again; which indeed
the more I see the more I like, and is an excellent play, and so
done by Nell her merry part, as cannot be better done in nature.

26th. To Exeter House, where the Judge was sitting, and there
heard our cause pleaded; Sir -- Turner, Sir W. Walker, and Sir
Ellis Layton being our counsel against Sir Robert Wiseman [D.C.L.
King's Advocate 1669.] on the other. The second of our three
counsel was the best, and indeed did speak admirably, and is a
very shrewd man. Nevertheless as good as he did make our case,
and the rest, yet when Wiseman come to argue (nay, and though he
did begin so sillily that we laughed in scorn in our sleeves at
him,) he did so state the case, that the Judge [Sir Leoline
Jenkins, Principal of Jesus College, Oxford, and afterwards made
Judge of the Admiralty and the Prerogative Court. He was
subsequently employed on several Embassies, and in 1680 succeeded
Henry Coventry as secretary of State. Ob. 1685, aged 62.] did
not think it to decide the cause to-night, but took to to-morrow,
and did stagger us in our hopes, so as to make us despair of the
success. I am mightily pleased with the Judge, who seems a very
rational, learned, and uncorrupt man, though our success do shake

27th. To the Castle Taverne by Exeter House; and there Sir Ellis
Layton, whom I find a wonderful witty, ready man for sudden
answers and little tales, and sayings very extraordinary witty.
He did give me a full account, upon my demand, of this Judge of
the Admiralty, Judge Jenkins; who, he says, is a man never
practised in this Court but taken merely for his merit and
ability's sake from Trinity Hall where he had always lived; only
by accident the business of the want of a Judge: being proposed,
the present Archbishop of Canterbury sent for him up: and here
he is against the gre and content of the old Doctors made Judge,
but is a very excellent man both for judgment and temper (yet
majesty enough), and by all men's report not to be corrupted.
After dinner to the Court, where Sir Ellis Layton did make a very
silly motion in our behalf, but did neither hurt nor good after
him Walker and Wiseman. And then the Judge did pronounce his
sentence; for some a part of the goods and ship, and the freight
of the whole to be free and returned and paid by us, and the
remaining (which was the greater part) to be ours. The loss of
so much troubles us; but we have got a pretty good part, thanks
be to God! Received from my brother the news of my mother's
dying on Monday about five or six o'clock in the afternoon, and
that the last time she spoke of her children was on Friday last,
and her last words were, "God bless my poor Sam!" The reading;
hereof did set me a-weeping heartily.

29th. The great streets in the City are marked out with piles
drove into the ground; and if ever it be built in that form with
so fair streets, it will be a noble sight. To a periwigg-maker's
and there bought two periwiggs, mighty fine indeed; too fine, I
thought, for me; but he persuaded me, and I did buy them for 4l.
10s. the two. To the Bull-Head Taverne, whither was brought my
French gun; and one Truelocke, the famous gunsmith, that is a
mighty ingenious man, did take my gun in pieces, and made me
understand the secrets thereof: and upon the whole I do find it
a very good piece of work, and truly wrought; but for certain not
a thing to be used much with safety: and he do find that this
very gun was never yet shot off.

30th. To see the silly play of my Lady Newcastle's, [Margaret,
daughter of Thomas Lucas of Colchester, and sister to John Lord
Lucas, married William Marquis of Newcastle, created a Duke
1664.] called "The Humourous Lovers;" the most silly thing that
ever came upon a stage. I was sick to see it, but yet would not
but have seen it, that I might the better understand her.

31st. To church; and with my mourning, very handsome, and new
periwigg, make a great show. Walked to my Lord Treasurer's,
where the King, Duke of York, and the Caball, and much company
without; and a fine day. Anon come out from the Caball my Lord
Hollis and Mr. H. Coventry, [Third son of Thomas first Lord
Coventry; after the Restoration made a Groom of the Bedchamber,
and elected M.P. for Droitwich. In 1664 he was sent Envoy
Extraordinary to Sweden, where he remained two years, and was
again employed on an Embassy to the same Court in 1671. He also
succeeded in negotiating the peace at Breda here alluded to, and
in 1672 became Secretary of State; which office he resigned in
1679, on account of ill health. He died unmarried, Dec. 7,
1686.] who, it is conceived, have received their instructions
from the King this day; they being to begin their journey towards
their treaty at Bredagh speedily, their passes being come. Here
I saw the Lady Northumberland [Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of
Theophilus Earl of Suffolk, wife of Algernon tenth Earl of
Northumberland.] and her daughter-in-law (my Lord Treasurer's
daughter) my Lady Piercy, a beautiful lady indeed. [Lady
Elizabeth Wriothesly, daughter to the Earl of Southampton,
married Joscelin Lord Percy.] The month shuts up only with great
desires of peace in all of us, and a belief that we shall have a
peace, in most people if it can be had on any terms, for there is
a necessity of it; for we cannot go on with the war, and our
masters are afraid to come to depend upon the good will of the
Parliament any more, as I do hear.

APRIL 1st. 1667. To White Hall, and there had the good fortune
to walk with Sir W. Coventry into the garden, and there read our
melancholy letter to the Duke of York, which he likes. And so to
talk: and he flatly owns that we must have a peace, for we
cannot set out a fleet; and (to use his own words) he fears that
we shall soon have enough of fighting in this new way that we
have thought on for this year. He bemoans the want of money, and
discovers himself jealous that Sir G. Carteret do not look after
or concern himself for getting money; and did further say, that
he and my Lord Chancellor do at this very day labour all they can
to vilify this new way of raising money, and making it payable as
it now is into the Exchequer; and that in pursuance hereof my
Lord Chancellor hath prevailed with the King in the close of his
speech to the House to say, that he did hope to see them come to
give money as it used to be given, without so many provisos,
meaning this new method of the Act. Mrs. Rebecca Allen, poor
heart! come to desire favour for her husband, who is clapt up,
being a Lieutenant, for sending a challenge to his Captain in the
most saucy, base language that could be writ. I perceive Sir W.
Coventry is wholly resolved to bring him to punishment; for "bear
with this," says he, "and no discipline shall ever be expected."
Sir J. Minnes did tell of the discovery of his own great-
grandfather's murder, fifteen years after he was murdered.

3rd. To the Duke of York, where Sir G. Carteret did say that he
had no funds to raise money on; and being asked by Sir W.
Coventry whether the eleven months' tax was not a fund, he
answered "No," that the banquers would not lend money upon it.
Then Sir W. Coventry burst out and said he did supplicate His
Royal Highness, and would do the same to the King, that he would
remember who they were that did persuade the King from parting
with the Chimney-money to the Parliament, and taking that in lieu
which they would certainly have given, and which would have
raised infallibly ready-money; meaning the bankers and the
farmers of the Chimney-money, (whereof Sir G. Carteret, I think,
is one;) saying plainly, that whoever did advise the King to
that, did as much as in them lay cut the King's throat, and did
wholly betray him. To which the Duke of York did assent; and
remembered that the King did say again and again at the time,
that he was assured, and did fully believe, the money would be
raised presently upon a land-tax, This put us all into a stound.
And Sir W. Coventry went on to declare that he was glad he was
come to have so lately concern in the Navy as he hath, for he
cannot now give any good account of the Navy business; and that
all his work now was to be able to provide such orders as would
justify His Royal Highness in business when it shall be called to
account; and that he do do, not concerning himself whether they
are or can be performed, or no: and that when it comes to be
examined and falls on my Lord Treasurer, he cannot help it,
whatever the issue of it shall be. One thing more Sir W.
Coventry did say to the Duke of York, when I moved again, that of
about 9000l. debt to Lanyon at Plymouth, he might pay 3700l.
worth of prize-goods that he bought lately at the candle out of
this debt due to him from the King; and the Duke of York, and Sir
G. Carteret, and Lord Barkeley, saying all of them that my Lord
Ashly would not be got to yield it, who is Treasurer of the
Prizes: Sir W. Coventry did plainly desire that it might be
declared whether the proceeds of the prizes were to go to the
helping on of the war, or no; and if it were, how then this could
be denied. Which put them all into another stound; and it is
true, God forgive us! Thence to the chapel, and there by chance
hear that Dr. Crewe is to preach; and so into the organ loft,
where I met Mr. Carteret, and my Lady Jemimah, and Sir Thomas
Crewe's two daughters, and Dr. Childe playing: and Dr. Crewe did
make a very pretty, neat, sober, honest sermon; and delivered it
very readily, decently, and gravely, beyond his years: so as I
was exceedingly taken with it, and I believe the whole chapel, he
being but young; but his manner of his delivery I do like
exceedingly. His text was, "But first seek the kingdom of God,
and all things shall be added unto you." The Dutch letters are
come, and say that the Dutch have ordered a passe to be sent for
our Commissioners, and that it is now upon the way coming with a
trumpeter blinded, as is usual. But I perceive every body begins
to doubt the success of the treaty, all their hopes being only
that if it can be had on any terms, the Chancellor will have it;
for he dare not come before a Parliament, nor a great many more
of the courtiers, and the King himself do declare he do not
desire it, nor intend but on a strait; which God defend him from!
Here I hear how the King is not so well pleased of this marriage
between the Duke of Richmond and Mrs. Stewart, as is talked; and
that he by a wile did fetch her to the Beare, at the Bridge-foot,
where a coach was ready, and they are stole away into Kent
without the King's leave; and that the King hath said he will
never see her more: but people do think that it is only a trick.
This day I saw Prince Rupert abroad in the vane-room, pretty well
as he used to be, and looks as well, only something appears to be
under his periwigg on the crown of his head.

4th. I find the Duke of Albemarle at dinner with sorry company,
some of his officers of the Army: dirty dishes and a nasty wife
at table, and had meat, of which I made but an ill dinner.
Pretty to hear how she talked against Captain Du Tel, the
Frenchman, that the Prince and her husband put out the last year;
and how, says she, the Duke of York hath made him for his good
services his capbearer, yet he fired more shot into the Prince's
ship, and others of the King's ships, than of the enemy. And the
Duke of Albemarle did confirm it, and that somebody in the fight
did cry out that a little Dutchman by his ship did plague him
more than any other; upon which they were going to order him to
be sunk, when they looked and found it was Du Tell, who, as the
Duke of Albemarle says, had killed several men in several of our
ships. He said, but for his interest, which he knew he had at
Court, he had hanged him at the yard's-arm without staying for a
Court-martiall. One Colonell Howard, at the table, magnified the
Duke of Albemarle's fight in June last, as being a greater action
than ever was done by Caesar. The Duke of Albemarle did say it
had been no great action, had all his number fought, as they
should have done, to have beat; the Dutch: but of his 55 ships,
not above 25 fought. He did give an account that it was a fight
he was forced to: the Dutch being come in his way, and he being
ordered to the buoy of the Nore, he could not pass by them
without fighting, nor avoid them without great disadvantage and
dishonour, (and this Sir G. Carteret, I afterwards giving him an
account of what he said, says that it is true that he was ordered
up to the Nore.) But I remember he said, had all his captains
fought, he would no more have doubted to have beat the Dutch with
all their number, than to eat the apple that lay on his trencher.
My Lady Duchesse, among other things, discoursed of the wisdom of
dividing the fleet; which the Generall said nothing to, though he
knew well that it come from themselves in the fleet, and was
brought up hither by Sir Edward Spragge. Colonell Howard, asking
how the Prince did, the Duke of Albemarle answering "Pretty
well," the other replied, "But not so well as to go to sea
again."--" How!" says the Duchesse, "what should he go for, if he
were well, for there are no ships for him to command? And so you
have brought your hogs to a fair market," said she. It was
pretty to hear the Duke of Albemarle himself to wish that they
would come on our ground (meaning the French), for that he!
would pay them so as to make them glad to go back to France
again; which was like a general, but not like an admiral. One at
the table told an odd passage in this late plague: that at
Petersfield (I think he said) one side of the street had every
house almost infected through the town, and the other, not one
shut up. I made Sir G. Carteret merry with telling him how many
land-admirals we are to have this year: Allen at Plymouth,
Holmes at Portsmouth, Spragge for Medway, Teddiman at Dover,
Smith to the Northward, and Harman to the Southward. With Sir
Stephen Fox talking of the sad condition of the King's purse, and
affairs thereby; and how sad the King's life must be, to pass by
his officers every hour, that are four years behind hand unpaid.
Sir W. Coventry tells me plainly, that to all future complaints


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