The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries
Richard Hakluyt

Part 2 out of 5

them: it was the maner for the plaintife to putte into writyng the whole
circumstance of his case, and the maner of the wrong doone vnto him, or how
muche he estemed himself to be endamaged thereby. And a time was giuen to
the defendant to write answere again to euery poinct, and either to deny
that he did it, or elles to alledge that he rightfully did it, or elles to
abate the estimate of the damage or wrong. Then had thei another daie
appointed, to saie finally for them selues. At the whiche daie when the
parties on bothe sides ware herd, and the iudges had conferred their
opinions, the Chauncellour of the Iudges gaue sentence by pointyng with the
tablet of Veritie, toward the parte that semed to be true. This was the
maner of their iudgementes.

And forasmuche as we are fallen into mencion of their iudgementes, it shall
not be vnfyttyng with myne enterprise, to write also the aunciente Lawes of
the Egiptians, that it maie be knowen how muche they passe, bothe in ordre
of thynges, and profite.

Fyrst to be periured was headyng: for they thought it a double offence. One
in regarde of conscience not kept toward God, and an other in gyuynge
occasion to destroy credite among men, whiche is the chiefest bonde of
their felowship. If any wayfarying man shuld espy a man sette vppon with
thieues, or otherwyse to be wronged, and dyd not to his power succour and
ayde hym, he was gyltie of death. If he ware not able to succour and to
reskewe hym, then was he bounde to vtter the thieues, and to prosecute the
matter to enditement. And he that so dyd not, was punyshed with a certayne
nombre of stripes, and was kept thre days without meate. He that shuld
accuse any man wrongfully, if he fortuned afterward to be broughte into
iudgement, he suffered the punishement ordeyned for false accusers. All the
Egyptians ware compelled to brynge euery man their names to the chiefe
Iustices, and the facultie or science wherby they liued. In the which
behalfe if any man lyed, or lyued with vnlaufull meanes, he felle into
penalitie of death. If any man willyngly had slaine any man free or bond,
the lawes condemned hym to die, not regardynge the state of the man, but
the malicious pourpose of the diede. Wherby they made men afrayd to doe
mischief, and death beynge executed for the death of a bondman, the free
myght goe in more sauftie. For the fathers that slewe their chyldren, there
was no punyshement of death appoynted, but an iniunction that they shoulde
stande thre daies and thre nyghtes togither at the graue of the deade,
accompanied with a common warde of the people to see the thyng done.
Neyther dyd it sieme them iuste, that he that gaue life to the childe,
should lose his life for the childes death, but rather be put to continual
sorowe, and to be pyned with the repentance of the diede, that other myght
ther by the withdrawen from the like wyckednes. But for the chyld that
kylled either father or mother, they deuised this kynd of synguler torment.
They thruste hym through with riedes sharpned for the nones, in euery ioynt
all ouer his body, and caused hym quicke to be throwen vpon a heape of
Thornes, and so to bee burned. Iudgyng that there could not be a greater
wickednes emong men, then to take awaie the life, from one that had giuen
life vnto hym. If any woman with child ware condempned to dye, thei abode
the tyme of her deliueraunce nowithstandyng: for that thei iudged it farre
from all equitie, that the gilteles should dye together with the giltie. Or
that ii. should be punished, where but one had offended. Who so had in
battaille or warre, withdrawen hymself from his bande, forsaken his place
in the arraie, or not obeied his capitaigne: was not condempned to dye, but
suffred for his punishemente a notable reproche, of all punishementes the
woorste, and more greuous then death. Who so had disclosed any secret to
the ennemie, the Lawe commaunded his tongue to be cutte out of his heade.
And who so clipped the coigne or countrefacted it, or chaunged the stampe
or diminisshed the weighte: or in lettres and writinges, shoulde adde any
thing, by entrelinyng, or otherwise: or should guelde out any thyng, or
bryng a forged euidence, Obligacion or Bille, bothe his handes ware cutte
of. That suche parte of the bodie as had offended, mighte for euer beare
the punishemente therof: and the residue takyng warnyng by his ensample,
might shonne the like.

There ware also sharpe punishementes constitute, in offences concernyng
women. For he that had defloured a free woman, had his membres cutte of,
because in one offence, he had committed thre no small wickednesses. That
is to saie, wrong, made the woman an whore, and broughte in a doubte the
laufulnes of her issue. But thei that ware taken in adulterie, bothe partes
byeng agreed, the man was whipped with a thousand stripes by tale: and the
woman had her nose cut of, wherwith beside the shame she had, the whole
beautie of her face was disgraced, and disfigured.

The Lawes that apperteigned to the trade and occupieng of men, one with
another: ware made (as thei saie) by one Bocchorides. It is commaunded in
them, that if money haue bene lent any manne without writyng, vppon credite
of his woorde: if the borrower deny it, he should be put to his othe, to
the whiche the creditour muste stande. For thei so muche estiemed an othe,
that thei thoughte no man so wicked, as wilfully to abuse it. And again,
because he that was noted to sweare very often, lost vtterly his credite,
and name: many menne affirme, that for the regard of their honesties, it
happened very seldome, that any man came to his othe. Their Lawe maker
also, iudging that vertue was the engendrer of credite, thought it good by
good ordres to accustome men to good liuyng and honestie, vpon feare to
sieme vnworthie of all reputacion. He thought it also to be against
conscience, that he that without an othe had borowed, should not nowe for
his own, be beleued with an othe. The forfect for non paiment of the lone,
mought not bee aboue the double of the somme that was borowed. And paiement
was made onely of the goodes of the borower, the body was not arrestable.
For the Lawemaker thought it conueniente, that onely the gooddes should bee
subdite to the debte, and the bodies (whose seruice was required bothe in
peace and in warre) subiecte to the citie. It was not thoughte to bee
Iustice, that the manne of warre, whiche hasardeth his bodie for the
sauftie of his countrie, should for an enterest of lone, bee throwen into
prisone. The whiche lawe, Solon siemeth to haue translated to the
Athenienses, vndre the name of the lawe Sisarea, decreyng that the body of
no citezein, should for any maner of enterest be emprisoned.

[Footnote: It may interest readers to see how much the knowledge of Africa
had extended in 150 years. Cluverius, in his "Introductio in Geographiam."
1659, says:--

_Summa Africa descriptio_.

Asia exiguo Isthmo annectitur maxima Orbis terrarum peninsula Africa, tria
millia et triginta circiter mill German. ambitu complectens. Isthmi
intercapedo est mill. xxv. Pleraque Africa inculta, et aut arenis
sterilibus obducta, aut ob sitim coeli terrarumque deserta sunt, aut
infestantur multo ac malefico genere animalium; in universum vasta est
magis quam frequens. Quadam tamen partes eximie fertiles. Gracis Libya
dicitur, a Libya Epaphi filii Iovis filia: Africam autem ab Afro Libys
Herculis filio dictam volunt. Maria eam cingunt, qua Sol oritur Rubrum, qua
medius dies Athiopicum, qua occidit Sol Atlanticum; ab Septemtrionibus
Internum, Africum seu Libycum dictum, qua eam alluit. Longitudo summa
computatur ab Herculis freto ad promontorium Bona Spei mill. DCC. Latitudo
inter duo promontoria, Hesperium, vulgo _C. Verde_, et Aromata, quod est
juxta fauces Arabici sinus, vulgo nunc _Coarda fui_, mill. DL. Terra ipsa,
nisi qua interno mari accedit, obscure veteribus nota. Vltra autem Nili
fontes ac montes Luna prorsus incognita.

Regiones atque gentes in quas divisa fuit quondam, sunt, Agyptus,
Cyrenaica, Africa Minor, seu proprie dicta, Troglodyta, Garamantes,
Numidia, Mauritania, Gaetulia, Libya interior, Arabia Troglodytica et



Prima Africa Asiaque proxima est Agyptus, quam veteres Geographi in Asia
regionibus computarunt. At posteriores, Arabico sinu, vt ante dictum, inter
Asiam Africamque termino constituto, Africa eam contribuerunt.

Nomen traxit ab Agypto Danai fratre; ante Aeria dicta. Terminatur a
Septemtrione suo mari, id est, Agyptio, ab Ortu Arabia Petraa et dicto
sinu; a Meridie Athiopia, ab Occasu Cyrenaica. Longa est a Pelusiaco Nili
ostio ad Catabathmum opidum milliar. CL. Lata a Nili ostiis, ad opidum
Metacompsum Nilo adpositum, nunc _Conzo_, mill. c.

Divisa fuit generatim in Superiorem, qua in Meridiem vergit, et Inferiorem,
qua mari interno alluitur. Superiorem rursus Nilus dividebat in Libycam,
qua Occidentem, et Arabicam, qua Orientem spectat. Hinc populi Arabagyptii,
illinc Libyagyptii, dicti. Inferioris pars est Marcotis, sive Marmarica,
vltima versus Occidentem Cyrenaica contermina. Speciatim vero universa
Agyptus in complures prafecturas descripta erat, quas Graco vocabulo Nomos

_De urbibus Agypti_.

Agyptus super ceteram antiquitatis gloriam, viginti millia urbium sibi
Amase regnante habitata quondam pratulit; postea quoque sub Romano imperio
multis, etiamsi ignobilibus, frequens.

Clarissima omnium fuit Alexandria, caput Agypti totiusque Africa, post
deletam Carthaginem prima; ab Alexandro Magno condita; postea in tantam
aucta multitudinem atque frequentiam, uti uni tantum Roma cederet. Secunda
ab hac Diospolis, sive Thebae cognomine Agyptia; quas centum portas
habuisse ferunt; sive, at alii ajunt, centum aulas, totidem olim Principum
domos; solitasque singulas, ubi negotium exegerat, ducenos armatos milites
effundere. Deinde Memphis, regia quondam: juxta quam pyramides, regum
sepulchra. Turres sunt fastigiata, ultra celsitudinem omnnem, qua fieri
manu possit; itaque mensuram umbrarum egressa, nullas habent umbras, regum
pecunia otiosa ac stulta ostentatio. Reliqua urbes sunt, Syene, Sais,
Bubastis, Elephantis, Tentyris, Arsinoe et Abydus, Memnonis olim regia;
postea Osiris fano inclyta: et Arabia contermina, claritatis magna
Heliopolis, id est, Solis urbs. In Marmarica vicus fuit Apis, nobilis
religione Agypti locus. Fuit et Labyrinthus nullo addito ligno
exadificatus, domos mille et regias duodecim perpetuo parietis ambitu
amplexus, marmore exstructus et tectus, unum in se descensum habens, intus
pene innumerabiles vias, multis ambagibus huc et illuc remeantibus.


_De incolis Agypti ac Nilo flumine; item de Libya exteriore_.

Ipsi Agyptii, hominum vetustissimos se pradicantes, cum Scythis de gentis
antiquitate olim contenderunt. Antiquissimos esse post Syros, vel ipsa
sacra Scriptura attestatur. Disciplinarum complurium inventores rerumque
divinarum ac siderum peritissimi dicti sunt, quare ad eos Dadalus,
Melampus, Pythagoras, Homerus et alii complures eruditionis causa profecti.

Sub regibus esse jam inde ab initio rerum consueverunt, modo suis, modo
Athiopibus; dein Persis ac Macedonibus; moxque iterum suis, donec Romani,
Augusto debellante, in provinciam redegerunt Agyptum. Post hoc Saraceni eam
occuparunt: quibus successit Sultanorum inclytum nomen, ex Circassis
Tartarorum gente ortum. Postremi Turca ann. M DXVI invaserunt, qui etiam
nunc tenent.


Sed de Nilo hoc loco pauca quadam retulisse haud abs re fuerit. Terra ipsa
Agyptus expers imbrium mire tamen fertilis, et hominum aliorumque
perfoecunda generatrix. Nilus id efficit, amnium in internum mare
permeantium maximus. Hic in Africa desertis, montibus Luna ortus, haud
statim Nilus est, et primum ingentem lacum Nilidem, qui nunc _Zaire_ et
_Zembre_ dicitur, CXX. milliar. German. permeans, cum diu simplex savusque
receptis dextera magnis aquis descendit, Astapus cognominatus, quod
Athiopum lingua significat aquam e tenebris profluentem, circa Meroen,
Insularum, quas innumeras lateque patentes spargit, clarissimam, lavo alveo
Astabores dictus est, hoc est, ramus aqua venientis e tenebris; dextero
veto Astusapes, quod latentis significationem adjicit, nec ante, quam ubi
rursum coit, Nilua dictus est. Inde partim asper, partimnavigia patiens;
mox pracipiti cursu progressus, inter occursantes scopulos non fluere
immenso fragore creditur, sed ruere. Postea lenis, et fractis aquis
domitaque violentia, et spatio fessus, tandem ad [Greek: Delta] opidum per
omnem Agyptum vagus et dispersus, septem ingentibus ostiis in mare Agytium
se evomit. Bis in anno, certis diebus auctu magno per totam spatiatus
Agyptum, foecundus innatat terris. Causas hujus incrementi varias
prodidere; sed maxime probabiles duas: Etefiarum eo tempore ex adverso
flantium repercussum, ultro in ora acto mari: aut imbres Athiopia astivos,
iisdem Etesiis nubila illo ferentibus ex reliquo orbe. Idem amnis unus
omnium nullas expirat auras.

_Libya exterior_.

Caterum a tergo Agypti versus Meridiem, juxta sinistram Nili ripam, Libya
est exterior ad Athiopiam extensa: nunc est _Elfocat_ desertum et _Gaoga_.


_Cyrenaica, Africa Minor, Libya deserta, Troglodyta et Garmantes_.

Agypto annexa est Cyrenaica regio, Ammonis oraculo maxime clara, nuunc
Barchana provincia dimidia pars Orientalis, eadem Pentapolitana dicta, a
quinque insignium urbium numero, qua Beranice, Arsinoe, Ptolemais,
Apollonia, et ipsa Cyrene, unde regioni nomen. Graci hanc condiderunt, ex
Thera insula. Agai maris profecti. Ipsi Cyrenenses privata sorte inter
Agyptios ac Poenos diu egerunt; dein cum Carthaginiensibus de agrorum
finibus magnum ac diuturnum bellum gesserunt. Mox Carthagine deleta, et
ipsi cum reliqua Africa Romano Imperio cesserunt. Posthinc solum eorum
Sultanis, tandem Turcis.

_Africa Minor_.

Sequitur Africa Minor sive proprie dicta. Terminatur a Septemtrione Africo
pelago, ab Ortu sinu magna Syrtis, a Meridie montium perpetuis jugis;
quibus a Libya desertis et Gatulis discernitur; ab Occasu Tusca amne.
Continet hodie Tunetanum regnum.

Fluvii in ea clari Cinyphus, Triton, Tritonidem paludem trahens: Catada, ad
Carthaginem se devolvens, et Bagradas omnium maximas ad Vticam, ac
Tuscaterminus Africa Minoris.

Populorum varia nomina. Clarissimi Nasamones, extra Africam propriam etiam
Cyrenaica et Marmarica contermini; quos antea Mesammones Graci
adpellaverunt, ab argumento loci, medios inter arenas sitos, et ab his
sublati Psylli, quorum corpori ingenitum fuit virus exitiale serpentibus,
ut cujus odore vel fugarent vel sopirent eas: et supra Carthaginem
Libyphoenices, iidem et Poeni a Phoenice Tyro profecti, Duce Eliza sive
Didone, qua Carthaginem condidit.

Vrbium celeberrima Lepris magna, qua et Neapolis, Abrotonum, Taphra, Capsa,
Thysdrus, Thapsus, Leptis parva, Rhuspina, Adrumetum, Clupea, Turres,
Vthina et Carthago, Roma amula, terrarum cupida, opulentissima quondam
totius Africa, antequam Romani tribus bellis devictam deleverunt. Vtica
Catonis, qui inde Vticensis, morte nobilis.

_Libya deserta, Troglodyta et Garamantes_.

Ab Africa minoris tergo versus Austrum Libya deserta fuerunt; ultraque
Troglodyta, nunc _Berdoa_ desertum. Hos tegit ab Austro Ater mons, et trans
eum Garamantes populi clari, nunc _Borno_ regnum. Caput gentis fuit Garama,
quam hodieque eodem nomine exstare tradunt. Debris inclyta affuso fonte,
cujus aqua ex coelesti quidem vertigine mutant qualitatem, at controversa
siderum disciplina; quidpe qui friget calore, calet frigore; a medio
scilicet die ad noctem mediam aquis ferventibus, totidemque horis ad medium
diem rigentibus.

Caterum et Troglodytas et Garmantas olim Romanorum arma superaverunt.


_Numidia et Mauritania_.


A Tusca amne usque ad Ampsagam fluvium litori Africo praetenditur Numidia,
Masinissa Regis nomine maxime clara, nunc Tremisenum regnum eodem
porrigitur situ. Gens ipsa Numidae, ante Nomades a Gracis adpellati, a
permutandis pabulis, mapalia sua plaustris circumferentes, ut nunc
Tattarorum fert mos.

Fluviorum celeberrimus est Rubricatus. Vrbes quam plurima, nobilesque; sed
Cirtha eminens; Sittianorum, postquam Romani tenuere, colonia dicta:
quondam Iuba et Syphacis domus, cum foret opulentissima. Dein sequuntur
Cullu, Ruscicade, Bulla regia, Tacatua, Hippo regius, Sicca, Tabracha: Hanc
quoque regionem debellatam in provincia formam redegerunt Romani.


Vltima ad Occasum est Mauritania; in qua praecipua gens Maurorum, unde
nomen regioni. Hos Graeci Maurusios dixerunt. Terminantur a Meridie Atlante
minori, quo submoventur a Gaetulis: qui et ipsi postea oppressis et
exstinctis Maurusiis Mauritaniae majorem partem occuparunt: ab Occasu est
Oceanus Atlanticus, a Septemtrione fretum Herculis et mare internum; Ab
Ortu primo Mulucham habuit flumen, quod Mauros a Numidis discernebat; at
quum ea Numidiae pars, quae est inter Ampsagam et Mulucham, Mauritaniae
adjiceretur, finis huic constitutus est Ampsaga. Continet hodie tria regna:
Darense, Fezense et Maurocitanum. Dividebatur autem olim Malva flumine in
Caesariensem quae Numidiam contingit, et Tingitanam quae Oceano
perfunditur. Regna fuere ad C. Caesarem usque Imperatorem, qui in duas
divisit provincias.


Caesariensis provincia, quam nunc totam _Dara_ regnum obsidet, antea Bocchi
regnum adpellata fuit. Partem tamen inter Malvam et Mulucham Massaesylornm
gens tenuit. Caput provinciae Iulia Caesarea, aliquando ignobilis, cum Iol
esset; postea quia Iubae regia, illustris facta. Reliqua opida sunt
Cartenna, Saldae, Opidum novum, Rusazus, Ruscurium, Rusconia, Tipasa,
Tubusuptus et Tucca, impositum mari ac flumini Ampsagae.


Tingitana provincia, quam nunc duo regna _Fez_ et _Morocco_ occupant, ab
urbe Tingi, quae nunc vulgo _Tanger_, cognomen accepit, ante Bogudiana
dicta a Rege Bogud. Opida in ea, Tingi modo dictum, caput provinciae, ab
Anteeo conditum; Iulia Constantia, Zilis, Volubilia et Lixus, vel
fabulosissime ab antiquis narrata. Ibi quidpe regia Antaei, certamenque cum
Hercule, et Hesperidum horti.


_Gatuli, Atlas mons, Libya interior et Athiopia_.


A tergo Mauritaniarum Africaeque Minoris Gaetulorum gens, et ipsa quoque
Romanorum armis debellata, longe lateque incoluit, quidpe quae hodie
occupat quicquid terrarum a _Lempta_ opido ad Oceanum usque, spatio mill.
Germanicorum CCCL protenditur. Hoc spatio nunc est _Biledulgerit_
provinciae major pars, ubi _Targa_ regnum, et quatuor deserta, _Lempta,
Zuenziga, Zanhaga, Hair_.

_Atlas Mons_.

Gaetulos a Meridie claudit mons Atlas, totius Africae vel fabulosissimus. E
mediis hunc arenis in coelum usque attolli prodiderunt celebrati auctores,
asperum, squalentem, qua vergat ad litora Oceani, cui cognomen imposuit:
eundem opacum nemorosumque, et scatebris fontium riguum; qua spectat
Africam, fructibus omnium generum sponte ita subnascentibus, ut nunqnam
satietas voluptatibus desit. Incolarum neminem interdiu cerni: silere omnia
haud alio quam solitudinum horrore. Eundemque noctibus micare crebris
ignibus, Agipanum Satyrorumque lascivia impleri, tibiarum ac fistulae cantu
tympanorumque et cymbalorum sonitu strepere.

_Libya interior_.

Vltra Atlantem Libya est interior ad Nigrum usque flumen, vastarum
solitudinum, nunc desertum _Sarra_ dicta.

_Athiopia et Troglodytica_.

Iam vero quicquid ultra Nigrum flumen est et Agyptum, versus utrumque mare
Atlanticum Rubrumque, Athiopes tenuerunt, gens omnium Africae terrae
amplissima, extra Africam a vetustissimis Geographorum posita. Ab Athiope
Vulcani filio cognominati; vel, ut alii, ab nigro vultus corporisque
colore; [Greek: aithops] quidpe significat nigrum.

Divisa fuit Athiopia in varia Athiopum genera; quorum Ptolemaeus innumera
tradit nomina. At clarissimi omnium fuere Nigritae; a Nigro flumine dicti;
et Nubiorum gens magna, unde hodieque vastissima regio dicitur _Nubia_. Ea
autem Athiopiae pars quae Nilo utrimque adjacet, Athiopia dicitur sub
Agypto; atque in ea ad Nili paludes seu lacus Cinnamomifera regio. At totum
sinus Arabici laevum larus Arabes tenuere Troglodytae, unde regio ipsa


_De incolis universa Africa novaque ejus descriptione; ac primum de Agypto_

Qvinam mortales Agyptum antiquitus incoluerint, ante dictum set. Reliqua
Africae versus Occasum mari adjacentia tenuerunt populi commemorati.
Advenae autem primi fuere Phoenicum coloni aliique ex Asia atque Agypto
profecti. Postea paruit Romanis; mox Gracis Imperatoribus totum hoc
terrarum spatium. Deinde Vandalis, Saracenis, Arabibus. Nunc partem tenet
Turca, partem Serifus, quem vocant; partem reges alii, partem denique
Hispaniarum Rex.

At Athiopes a suo solo neque recesserunt, neque in id alios colonos
receperunt; id longinquitas effecit regionis immensaeque intercedentium
desertorum vastitates.

Sed enarrata Africae antiquitate, res postulat, uti novam etiam ejus
descriptionem subjiciamus.

Dividitur nunc universa in septem potissimum partes sive regiones, quarum
nomina sunt haec: Agyptus, _Barbaria, Biledulgerid, Sarra_ desertum,
Nigrita, Athiopia Interior, sive Superior, quod Abissinorum imperium, et
Athiopia Exterior sive Inferior.


Agypti (quam Turca obtinet) caput nunc est Cairum, vulgo _Alcair_,
Chaldaeis Alchabyr, urbs magnitudine stupenda, Emporium celeberrimum,
Circassiorum Agypti Sultanoram quondam regia. Prope est _Materea_ hortus
balsami fructibus consitus, quod uni terrae Iudaeae quondam concessum,
hodie nisi in hoc loco, nusquam colitur.

Vltra Nilum pyramides visuntur stupendae altitudinis, ut ante memoravimus.

Secunda claritate a Cairo est Alexandria, splendida quondam atque
opulentissima civitas, nunc crebris bellis destructa atque concisa,
celeberrimum Christianis mercatoribus praebet emporium. Nobile exinde est
cum arce opidum _Raschitt_, quod Europaei _Rosettam_ vocant. _Damiata_,
olim Pelusium, Ptolemaei Geographi incunabulis insigne est.



Agypto continuatur nobilissima totius Africae regio Barbaria; in sex partes
divisa, quarum una est provincia Barcana, quinque reliquae sunt regna,
Tunetanum, Tremisenum, Fessanum, Maurocanum et Darense.

_Barcana regio_.

Inter Agyptum et Tunetanum regnum litori praetenditor Barcana regio, a
Barce antiqua urbe cognominata, soli asperitate pariter ac siccitate

_Regnum Tunetanum_.

Tunetanum regnum veterem Africam minorem ferme totam occupat. Caput est
Tunetum, sive Tunisa, vulgo _Tunisi_; insignis, vetus ac satis ampla urbs,
quae ex Carthaginis ruinis crevit; emporium Venetis et Genuensibus aliisque
mercatoribus celebre. Secunda est Tripolis nova, quae Tripolis Barbariae
dicitur, ad differentiam Tripolis Syriae: emporium est Europais
mercatoribus celeberrimum. _Bona_ etiam, quae olim Hippo, D. Augustina
Episcopatu nota, nunc emporium haud postremum. Intus vero est Constantina
Romanarum antiquitatum reliquiis conspicua.

_Regnum Tremisenum_.

Caput regni est _Tremisen_, amplissima quondam, bellis gravissimis postea
tenuata. In litore est _Algier_, emporium satis nobile, at piratica infame,
Christianis mancipiis refertissimum; urbs ipsa moenibus, arcibus ac
tormentis bellicis adeo munita, ut inexpugnabilis credatur.

_Regnum Fessanum_.

Ad ipsum fretum Herculis Hispaniae objacet Fessanum regnum, cujus caput
_Fez_, urbs totius Barbariae princeps, ingens, opulenta, frequens,
splendida ac magnificis superbisque aedificiis miranda.

_Tanger, Sebta, Arxilla_, amplae ad fretum urbes, Hispanicae sunt ditionis.

_Regnum Maurocanum_.

Caput est Maurocum, vulgo _Maroc_, amplissima ac celeberrima olim, inter
maximas universi orbis memorata: at postea ab Arabibus divexata, nunc
maligne colitur. Secunda est _Taradante_.

_Darense Regnum_.

Intus Maurocano, Fessano ac Tremiseno regnis confine est regnum Darense
amplissimum, olim Caesariensis Mauritania dictum. Caput est _Dara_, unde
regioni nomen, tenuibus, ut totum regnum, atque egenis incolis habitata.
_Melilla_ ad mare internum conspicua urbs Hispano paret.


_Biledulgerit, Sarra desertum, Nigrita, Abissini_.

A Tergo dictarum regionum est _Biledulgerit_ regio, longissimo tractu ab
Agypti confinibus ad Oceanum Atlanticum porrecta. Nomen ei a dactyloram
proventu inditum. Deserta in ea sunt, _Lempta, Hair, Zuenziga, Zanhaga_ a
singulis opidis cognominibus, adpellata. Regna _Targa, Bardoa_ et _Gaoga_,
itidem ab opidis dicta.

_Sarra desertum_.

Continuatur huic regioni versus Meridiem _Sarra_, cujus longitudo a regno
_Gaoga_ ad regnum _Gualata_ extenditur.


Inde Nigritarum ampla est regio, ad utramque Nigri amnis ripam: longitudo
ejus porrigitur a Nilo et Meroe insula, usque ad Nigri ostia et Oceanum.
Regna in ea sunt haec, ab urbibus denominata: _Gualata, Hoden, Genocha,
Senega, Tombuti, Melli, Bitonin, Gurnea, Temian, Dauma, Cano, Cassena,
Benin, Zanfara, Guangara, Borno, Nubia, Biafra, Medra_.

_Athiopia Interior qua est Abissinorum_.

Interiori Athiopiae imperat Abissinorum Rex, qui Presbyter sive Pretiosus
Ioannes, vulgo _Prete Gianni_, vocatur; magno, recepto tamen errore; cum is
quondam in Asiae, ut relatum est, regno _Tenduc_ regnaverit. Abasenos
populos recenset Stephanus in Arabia; unde verisimile est, eos in Africam
trajecto sinu Arabico commigrasse. Aut sane in ipsa Africa fuerunt ad
sinistrum Arabici sinus latus, ubi Arabiam Troglodyticam supra memoravimus.
Haec quidpe nunc sub Abissinorum imperio est. Alii tamen ab Arabico
vocabulo _Elhabaschi_ (sic enim Mauri Principem Abissinorum adpellant)
vulgo factum opinantur Abassi, ac deinde Abasseni; quod denique
commutatione vocalium in Abissinorum nomen evasit.

Clauditur regnum ab Ortu Arabico sinu et regionibus _Ajana_ ac _Zangebara_;
a Meridie _Monomotapa_; ab Occasu _Congo_ et _Medar_ regnis; a Septemtrione
_Nubia_ et Agypto. Longum est ab Agypto ad _Monomotapa_ usque mill. DLXXX.
Latum inter fauces Arabici sinus et Nigrum fluvium mill. CCCCL.

Dividitur in compluria regna sive provincias: quarum nomina sunt, _Dasila,
Barnagasso, Dangali, Dobas, Trigemahon, Ambiancantiva, Vangue, Bagamidri,
Beleguanze, Angote, Balli, Fatigar, Olabi, Baru, Gemen, Fungi, Tirut,
Esabela, Malemba_. Vrbes in universo imperio paucae sunt: vicis plurimum
habitatur, domibus ex creta et stramine constructis. Rex ipse (qui albo
esse colore fertur) sub tentoriis degit, quorum sex millia eum sequuntur.
_Amara_ arx est munitissima, in monte _Amara_ condita; in qua regis filii
sub validissimo prasidio educantur, donec patre defuncto heres producatur.


_Athiopia Exterior sive Inferior; item Insula Africa adjacentes._

Reliquum Africa Athiopia perhibetur exterior sive inferior; ab Oriente,
Meridie et Occidente Oceano perfusa; a Septemtrione quasi duobus brachiis
Abissinorum imperium hinc inde complectitur.

Regiones, in quas dividitur, sunt _Congi, Monomotapa, Zangibar_, et _Ajan_.
Pleraque maritimorum a Portugalensibus tenentur firmissimis munimentis ac

_Congi Regnum._

_Congi_ regnum (quod alliis _Manicongo_) Oceano Athiopico perfusum, nomen
habet a capite suo urbe _Congi_. Incolae sunt Christiani. Terra ipsa
fluminum aquis maxime rigua. Dividitur in provincias sex; quas illi _Mani_,
id est, Praefecturas, vocant. Sunt autem _Bamba, Songo, Sundi, Pango,
Batta_ et _Pemba_. Regia est, civitas S. Salvatoris, quae ante _Banza_.

_Monomotapa Regnum._

_Monomotapa_ vocabulum significat Imperatorem; unde ipsi terrae, cui hic
imperat, nomen inditum. Solum est fertile atque amoenum; amnes aurum,
silvae elephantos magna copia producunt:

Clauditur regnum ab Ortu, Meridie et Occasu Oceano; a Septemtrione regno
_Congi_, Abissinorum imperio et regione _Zangibar_. Longitudo ejus est
inter duo maria Rubrum Athiopicumque juxta Lunae montes milliar. German,
CCCC. Latitudo inter Nili fontes et promontorium Bona Spei mill. CCC.

Caput regni ac sedes regum est _Monomotapa_, ad flumen S. Spiritus. Hinc
versus Septemtrionem mill. circiter L. distat nobile aedificium, amplum
atque antiquum, quadra forma ex ingentibus saxis constructum.

_Zangibar et Ajan_.

Monomotapae, qua Rubro mari perfunditur, continuatur _Zangibar_ regio;
cujus partes, _Cafares_ populi, Monomotapae proximi, et regna _Mozambike,
Kiloa, Mombaza_ ac _Melinde_, ab urbibus singulis denominata; quarum
_Mozambike_ in insula condita, celeberrimum est Europaeis mercatoribus
emporium. Sequitur versus Septemtrionem juxta litus maris Rubri _Ajan_
regio, cujus partes duo regna _Del_ et _Adea Magaduzzo_.

_Insula ad Africam_.

Insularum ad Africam terram maxima est in Rubro mari Menuthias Cerne Plinio
dicta; nunc vulgo insula Divi Laurentii, et incolis _Madagascar_ id est,
Lunae insula, felici aromatum proventu dives, longitudine mill. German,
CCL, lat. LXXX occupans.

At in Atlantico Oceano contra Hesperium promontorium, quod nunc est _Cabo
Verde_, Hesperides sunt insulae duae; ultraque Gorgades, Gorgonum quondam
domus: nunc in universam _Islas de C. Verde_ Hispanis dicuntur, hoc est
insulae promontorii Viridis. Contra Mauritanium sunt Fortunatae, VII
numero, quarum una Canaria vocitata, a multitudine canum ingentis
magnitudinis, ut auctor est Plinius. Vnde universae Fortunatae, nunc
Canariae dicuntur, Hispaniarum Regi subjectae. Vltra versus Septemtrionem
est Cerne, nunc _Madera_ dicta.

Atque haec est totius Africae brevis descriptio.]

Thegiptians also for thieues, had this lawe alone, and no people els. The
lawe commaunded that as many as would steale, should entre their names with
the chief Prieste: and what so euer was stollen, incontinente to cary the
same vnto hym. Likewise, he that was robbed was bounde to entre with the
saied Chiefe Priest, the daie, time and houre, when he was robbed. By this
meanes the thefte being easely founde out, he that was robbed, loste the
fourths parte and receiued the residue, the whiche fourthe was giuen to the
thiefe. For the Lawe maker (seeing it was impossible vtterly to be withoute
thieues) thought it moche bettre by this meanes that men bare the losse of
a piece then to be spoiled of the whole.

The ordre of Mariage emong the Egiptians is not vniforme, for the priest
might marry but one onely wife. All other haue as many as they wille,
acordyng to their substaunce. Ther is no child emong them, though it be
borne of a bought woman slaue, that is compted illegitimate. For they onely
compte the father to be the authour of his kynde, and the mother onely but
to geue place and nourishement to the childe. When their children be borne
they bring them vp with so lytle coste, as a man would skantly belieue.
They fiede them with the rootes of mererushes, and other rootes, rosted in
the embries, and with marshe Caubois, and colewortes which partly they
seathe, and partly they roste, and parte giue them rawe. They go for the
moste parte withoute hosen or shoes, all naked, the contry is so temperate.
All the coste that the Parentes bestowe on their children til they be of
age to shift for themselues, surmounteth not the somme of a noble.
[Footnote: Equal to six shillings and eight pence.]

The priestes bring vp the children, both in the doctrine of their holye
scriptures, and also in the other kindes of learning necessary for the
commune life, and chiefly in Geometry and Arithmetique. As for the roughe
exercises of wrasteling, ronning, daunsing, playeng at weapons, throwyng
the barre or suche like, they train not their youth in, supposyng that the
daily exercise of suche, shoulde be to roughe, and daungerous for them, and
that they should be an empeiryng of strength. Musique they doe not onely
compte vnprofitable, but also hurteful: as making mens courages altogether
womanlyke. When they are sicke, they heale themselues, eyther with fasting
or vomiting: and that either euery eche other daye, or euery third daye, or
fourthe. For they are of opinion that all diseases growe of superfluite of
meate, and that kinde of cure therfore to be beste, that riddeth the
grounde of the griefe. Men goyng to the warres, or traueillyng the
countrie, are healed of free cost. For the Phisicens and Chirurgiens, haue
a stipende allowed them of ordenary at the charge of the communes.

In curing, they are bounde to folowe the preceptes of the auncient and
allowed writers, regestred in their holy scripture. Yf a man folowing the
prescripte of the scriptures can not so heale the sicke, he is not blamed
for that: But yf he fortune to heale him by any other meanes then is in the
scripture appoincted, he dieth for it. For the lawe giuer thoughte that it
was harde to finde a bettre waye of curyng, then that the which of suche
antiquitie was by longe practise founde oute and allowed, and deliuered
vnto them by suche a continuaunce. The Egiptians do worship aboue measure
certeine beastes, not onely whilest they be onliue, [Footnote: I have never
met with this form of the word.] but also when they are dead. As the Catte,
the Icneumon the dogge, the hauke, the woulfe, the Cocodrille, and many
other like. They are not onely not ashamed to professe the worship of these
openly, but setting them selues out in the honouring of them to the
vttermoste: they compte it asmuch praise and glory to them selues, as yf
they bestowed the like on the Goddes. And they go about on procession with
the propre Images of them, from citie, to citie, and from place, to place;
holding them vp and shewing them a farre of vnto other, which fall on their
knees, and euery one worship them. When any one of them dieth, they couer
it with Sarcenet, and houling, and crieng, and beating of their breastes
they all to bestrawe the carckesse with salte. And after they haue embalmed
it with the licour of the Cedre and other fragraunt oyntmentes, and oyles,
to preserue it the longer: thei bewrye it in holy sepulture. If a man haue
slayne any of these beastes willingly: he is codempned to death. But yf he
haue slaine an catte or a snyte, [Footnote: A snipe, from the Saxon snyta.
"Greene-plover, snyte, / Partridge, larke, cocke, and phessant." _Heyw.
Engl. Trav_., Act i., Scene ii.] willingly or vnwillingly: the people
ronneth vpon him vppon heapes, and withoute all ordre of Iustice or lawe,
in moste miserable wise torment him to death. Vpon feare of the which
daungier who soeuer espieth one of those lyeng dead: standing a farre, he
howleth and crieth professing that he is not giltie of the death. These
beastes with great attendaunce and chardge are kept vp aboute the cloistres
of the Temple, by men of no meane reputation: whiche fiede them with floure
and otemeale, and diuers deinties, sopped and stieped in milke. And they
set euery daie before them goose, bothe sodden and rosted. And before those
that delight al in raw meate they sette birdes and rawe foules. Finally as
I said they kiepe them all with great diligence and coste. They lament
their death asmoche as the death of their owne children, and bury them more
sumptuously then their substance doth stretch. In so moche that Ptolomeus
Lagus reigning in Egipt, when there chaunced a cowe to die in Memphis for
very age: he that had taken charge of the kepyng of her, bestowed vpon the
buriall of her (beside a greate some of mony that was giuen him for the
keping) fiftie talentes of siluer, that he borowed of Ptolome. Peraduenture
these thynges will seme vnto some men to wondreful: but he wil wondre
asmoche yf he considre what communely is done emonge euery of the Egiptians
in the funeralle of their deade.

When any man is departed his lyfe, all his niere friendes and kindesfolke,
throwing dirte vpon their heades, go wieping and wailing rounde about the
citie vntle the Corps be buried. And in the meane season they neyther
bathe, ne drincke wine, or eate any meate, but that that is most base and
vile, ne weare any apparell that is gorgeous or faire. They haue thre
sortes of Sepulchres, Sumptuous, meane, and basse. In the firste sorte they
bestowe a talente of siluer. Aboute the seconde, twenty Markes, and aboute
the thirde litle or nothing. There be certaine Pheretrers, [Footnote:
Query, _ferretrers_, carriers.] whose facultie it is to sette forthe
burialles, whiche learne it of their fathers and teache it their children.
These when a funeral happeneth, make vnto him that is doer for the deade,
an estimate of the exequies in writing, whiche the doer may at his pleasure
enlarge or make lesse. When thei are ones fallen at appoyncte, the bodye is
deliuered to the Pheretrer to bee enterred accordyng to the rate that they
agreed vpon. Then the bodie beyng laied foorthe, commeth the Phereters
chiefe cutter, and he appoincteth his vndrecutter a place on the side
haulfe of the paunche, wher to make incision, and how large. Then he with a
sharpe stone (whiche of the country fro whence it commeth, they call
Ethiopicus) openeth the left side as farre as the lawe permitteth. And
streight with all spiede ronneth his way from the company standing by,
which curse him and reuile him and throwe many stones aftre him. For they
thincke there yet remaineth a certeine hatred due vnto him that woundeth
the body of their frinde. Those that are the seasoners and embalmers of the
body (whome they calle poulderers) they haue in greate honour and
estimacion, for that they haue familiarite with the priestes, and entre the
temples together with them. The bodye nowe commen to their handes, one
emong all (the reste standing by) vnlaceth the entrailes, and draweth them
out at the foresaid incision, all sauing the kidneis, and the harte. These
entrailes are taken by another at his hande, and wasshed in wine of the
country Phenicea, wherin are enfused many soote [Footnote: Sweet. "They
dauncen deftly, and singen soote, / In their merriment." _Spenser's
Hobbinol's Dittie_, _Sheph. Kal._, Apr. iii.] odours and drugges. Then
enoincte they the whole bodye ouer, firste with Cedre and then with other
oynctementes, xxx. daies and aboue. Then do thei ceare it ouer with Mirrhe
and Cinamome and suche other thinges as wil not onely preserue it to
continuaunce, but also make it soote smelling. The Corps thus being
trimmed, is deliuered to the kindesfolke of the deade, euery parte of it
kepte so whole (not an heare of his browes or eye liddes being hurte) that
it raither lieth like one being in sliepe then like a dead corpse. Before
the body be enterred, the kindesfolke of the deade signifie to the iudges,
and the friendes of this passed, the day of the burial. Whiche (according
to the maner then vsed) thei terme the deades passaige ouer the mere. The
maner wherof is this.

The iudges, aboue xl. in nomber, sittinge on the farther side of the mere,
on a compassed benche wheling haulfe rounds and the people standing about
them: The bodie is put into a litle boate made for the nones, and drawen
ouer to the iudges by a chorde. The body then standing before the iudges in
the sight of the people, before it be cofred, if ther be any manne that
haue aught to saye against the dead, he is permitted by the lawe. Yf any be
proued to haue liued euyll, the iudges geue sentence that the bodye shall
not be buried. And who so is founde vniustelye to haue accused, suffreth
greate punyshemente therfore. When no manne wyll accuse, or he that accused
is knowen to haue slaunderously done it, the kinsfolke endyng their
mournyng: tourne them selues now to the prayse of the dead, nothing aftre
the maner of the Grecians, for that the Egiptians thinke themselues all to
be gentlemen alike. But beginnyng at his childehode, in the whiche thei
reherse his bringing vp, nourtering and scholyng, thei passe to his mannes
age, their commending his godlines, his iustice, his temperaunce, and the
residewe of his vertues. And calling vpon the vndre earthe, goddes, they
beseche them to place him emonge the godlye and good. To the which wordes
all the whole multitude crieth Amen: showtyng oute, and magnifieng the
glorye of the deade, as thoughe they shoulde be with the vnder earth
goddes, among the blessed for euer. This done euery man burieth his dead,
some in Sepulchres made for the purpose, and other that haue no suche
preparacion, in their strongest wall at home in their house, setting vp the
cofre ther tabernacle wyse. But they that for some offence, or debte of
enterest, or suche like, are denied their bewriall, are sette vp at home
without any cofre, vntle their successours growyng to abilite canne
dischardge their debtes and offences, and honourably bewrie them.

There is a maner emong them, sometyme to borowe money vpon their parentes
corpses, deliueryng the bodies to the creditours in pledge. And who so
redemeth theim not, ronneth into vtter infamie, and is at his death, denied
his bewriall. A manne (not altogether causeles) mighte merueile, that thei
could not be contente to constitute lawes for the framyng of the maners of
those that are onliue, but also put ordre for the exequies, and Hearses of
the deade. But the cause why thei bent them selues so much hervnto, was for
that thei thought ther was no better waie possible, to driue men to
honestie of life. The Grekes, which haue set furthe so many thynges in
fained tales, and fables of Poetes (farre aboue credite) concernyng the
rewarde of the good, and punishment of the euill: could not with all their
deuices, drawe men to vertue, and withdrawe them from vices. But rather
contrariwise, haue with them that be leudely disposed: broughte all
together in contempte and derision. But emong the Egiptians, the
punishemente due vnto the wicked and lewed, and the praise of the godlie
and good, not heard by tales of a tubbe, [Footnote: Swift took the title of
his well-known book from this old expression. It appears in Bale's "Comedye
Concerning Three Laws," compiled in 1538: "Ye say they follow your law, /
And vary not a shaw, / Which is a tale of a tub."] but sene daiely at the
eye: putteth both partes in remembraunce what behoueth in this life, and
what fame and opinion thei shall leaue of them selues, to their posteritie.
And hervppon it riseth, that euery man gladly emong them, ensueth good
ordre of life. And to make an ende of Thegiptians, me siemeth those Lawes
are of very righte to be compted the beste, whiche regarde not so muche to
make the people riche, as to aduance them to honestie and wisedome, where
riches of necessitie must folowe.

The vj. Chapitre.

Of the Poeni, and thother peoples of Aphrique.

Of the Penois there are many and sondrie nacions. Adrimachida lieng toward
Egipte, are like of maners to Thegiptians, but their apparell is like to
the other Penois. Their wiues haue vpon eche legge, a houpe of Latton
[Transcriber's note: "Lat houpe ofton" in original]. Thei delight in long
heare, and looke what lyce it fortuneth any of them to take aboute them:
thei bite theim, and throwe them awaie, the whiche propretie, thei onely of
all the Poeni haue. As also to present their maidens that are vpon mariage,
to the kyng, whiche choosyng emong them the maiden that liketh hym beste,
sieketh in her lappe, that aftre can neuer bee founde. The Nasamones (a
greate and a terrible nacion, spoilers of suche Shippes as fortune to be
throwen vpon the Sandes in the streightes) towarde Sommer, leauyng their
cattle vpon the Sea coaste, goe doune into the plaine countrie to gather
Dates, whiche are there very faire, and in greate plentie. Thei gather the
boughes with the fruicte, not yet perfectely ripe, and laie them a Sonnyng
to ripe. Afterward thei stiepe theim in Milke, and make soupinges and
potages of theim. It is the maner emong theim, for euery man to haue many
wiues: and the felowship of their wiues, that other vse in secrete: thei
vse in open sights, in maner aftre the facion that the Massagetes vse. It
is also the maner of the Nasamones, when any man marieth his first wife, to
sende her about to euery one of the ghestes, to offer hym her body. And
asmany as receiue her into armes, and shewe her the curtesie she comes for,
must giue her some gifte, whiche she hath borne with her, home to her
house. Their maner of takyng an othe, and foreshewyng of thinges to come,
is thus.

Thei sweare by the menne that ware (by reporte) the best and moste iuste
men emong them, layeng their handes on their Graues, or Tumbes. But for the
fore knowledge of thynges, thei come to the Graues of their kyndreade, and
there when thei haue praied their stinte, laye them doune vpon them to
slepe: and loke what thei dreame, that, doe thei folowe. Where in
confirmyng of our promise, we vse to strike handes (as we calle it) thei
vse to drincke one to another: or elles if thei lacke liquour, to take
duste fro the earth, and one to licke part of that to another. The
Garamantes shonne the felowship and the sighte of all other peoples, and
neither vse any kinde of weapon, or armour, ne yet dare defende them selues
against other that vsed them. They dwell somwhat aboue the Nasamones, more
vp londe. Aboute the sea coaste towarde the weste, ther bordereth vpon them
the Maces: whiche shaue their heades in the crowne, and clyppe them rounde
by the sides. The Gnidanes (nexte neighbours to the Maces) when they giue
battaylle to the ostruthes, their brieding vnder the grounde, are armed
with rawe felles of beastes. Their women ware prety wealtes of leather,
euery one a greate manye whiche (as it is sayde) they begge of suche menne
as haue lien with them. So that the moe she hath, the more she is estemed,
as a deinty derling beloued of many. The Machlies dwelling aboute the
mershe of Tritonides, vse to shaue their fore parte of their heade, and the
Anses their hindre parte. The maydens of the Anses, at the yerely feastes
of Minerua, in the honoure of the goddesse their country woman: deuiding
them selues into two companies, vse to giue battaile, one parte to another
with staues, and with stones: sayeng that thei obserue the maner of their
country in the honour of her that we calle Minerua. And the maiden that
departeth the battayle without wounde, thei holde her for no maide. But
before ther battayle be fought, they determine that what mayden so euer
beareth her selfe mooste valeaunte in the fielde, all the other maydens
with commune consente shall garnishe her, and arme her, both with the
armour of Grecia, and the helmet of Corinthe. And shal sette her in a
chariot, and carye her rounde about the mershe. The same menne vsen their
women as indifferently commune, as kyen to the bulle. The children remaine
with the women vntil they be of some strengthe. Ones in a quartre the men
do assemble wholy together, and then looke with whome the childe fantasieth
mooste to abide, him do they compte for his father.

There is a people named Atlantes, of the mounte Athlas, by the whiche they
dwell. These giue no names one to another as other peoples do, but echeman
is namelesse. When the sonne passeth ouer their heades, they curse him, and
reuyle him with all woordes of mischiefe: for that he is so broiling hote,
that he destroieth bothe them and ther countrye.

They eate of no kinde of beaste, neither dreame in their sliepe. The Aphres
(whice are all brieders of catteile) liue with flesshe and milke, and yet
absteine they fro cowes milke, and all cowe fleshe, according to the maner
of the Egiptians, and therefore kepe they none vp. The women of Cyrene
thincke it not lawfull to strike a cowe, for Isis sake that is honoured in
Egipt, to whome also they appoincte fasting, and feastefull daies, and
obserue them solempnly. But the women of Barcea absteine bothe from cowe
fleshe and sowe flesh. When their children are iiii. yeare olde they vse to
cauterise them on the coron [Footnote: Query, frontal.] vaine (and some on
the temple also) with a medecine for that purpose, made of woolle as it is
plucked fro the shiepe: because thie should not at any time be troubled
with rheumes or poses, [Footnote: A local name for a cold in the head. (See
N. Bailey's Dict., vol. i.)] and by that meanes they say they liue in very
good health. Thei sacrifie after this maner. When in the name of their
firste frutes they haue cutte of the eare of the beaste, they throwe it
ouer the house. That done, they wring the necke on the one side. Of all the
goddes they offre sacrifice to no more but Sonne and Mone. All the Aphres
burye their deade as the Grecians doe, sauing the Nasamones, which bury
them as thoughe they ware sitting: wayting well when any man lieth in
drawing on, to set him on his taile, leaste he should giue vp the ghoste
lieng vpright. Their houses are made of wickers, and withes, wrought aboute
trees, moch like vnto those that we calle frankencence trees, and in suche
sorte that they may tourne them rounde euery waye. The Maries, shaue the
lefte side of their heade, and lette the heare growe on the right. They die
their bodie in redde, and vaunte that they come of the Troianes. The women
of the Zabiques (which are the next neighbours to the Maries) driue the
cartes in the warres, in the which the men fight. Ther are a people called
Zigantes, wher beside the great plentye of hony that they gather fro the
Bies, they haue also certeine men that are makers of honye. They all die
them selues with red, and eate apes fleshe, wherof thei that dwel in the
mounteines haue great plentye. These al being of the part called Libye,
liue for the moste parte a wilde lyfe abrode in the fieldes like beastes,
making no household prouision of meate, ne wearing any maner of appareil
but gotes felles. The gentlemen, and men of honour emong them, haue neither
cities nor townes, but Turrettes builte vpon the waters side, in the which
they laye vp the ouerplus of that that they occupy. They sweare their
people euery yere to obeye their Prince, and that they that obey in diede,
shoulde loue together as felowes and companions: but that the disobediente
shoulde be pursued like felons and traitours. Their armour and weapon, are
bothe acording to the nature of the country and contrimen: for wher thei of
themselues are very quicke, and deliure [Footnote: Nimble. "All of them
being tall, quicke, and deliver persons." _Hollinshed_, vol. ii., ccc. 5.]
of bodye, and the country champaigne, and playne, they neither vse swearde,
dagger, ne harneis, but onely cary thre Iauelines in their hande, and a
nombre of piked and chosen stones, in a case of stiffe leather hanging
aboute them. With these they vse bothe to fight and to skirmishe. In his
coming towarde the ennemy, he throweth his stone, fetching his ronne, and
maketh lightlye a narowe mysse, thoughe it be a good waye of: suche
continuall practise they haue of it. They kiepe neither lawe ne faithe.

The Troglodites (whiche are also named of the Grecians pastours, for their
fieding and brieding of catteille) a people of Ethiope, do lyue in
companies, and haue their heade ouer them, whome they call Tiraunte. But
not meaninge in him so much tirany in diede, as some time some of our
gouernours vnder a fayrer name do execute. None of them hathe any seuerall
wife, and therfore no seueral children, but bothe those in commune, the
tiraunte excepted: Who hathe but one wyfe onely. To the which yf any manne
do but approach or drawe nighe: he is condempned in a certeine nombre of
cattaile to be paied to the Tiraunte. From the beginning of Iuly vntle
about middle August (at the which time thei haue great plenty of raine)
thei nourishe them selues with milke, and bloude, sodden a litle together.
The pasture vplond being, dried away with the heate of the Sonne: They
sieke downe to the marshe, and lowe groundes, for the whiche onely they be
often at debate. When their catteil waxeth olde or sicke, they kyll them,
and eate them, and altogether liue vpon such. They do not giue the childe
the name of the father, but name him aftre a bull, a rambe or an eawe. And
those call thei father (the beastes I meane of the masle kinde) and thother
of the femel kynde, they call mother, because their daily fode is giuen by
them. The people called Idiote, vse for their drincke the iuyce of a whinne
named Paliurus. But the men of worshyp and gentlemen vse the iuce of a
certeine floure they haue emonge them, whiche maketh drincke moche like the
worste of the Renishe muste. And because thei cary great droues of catteile
with them, they chaunge their soile often. Their bodies are all naked,
sauing their priuities, whiche they hide with felles of beastes. All the
Troglodites are circumcised aftre the maner of the Egiptians, sauing only
the Claudians: whiche they so terme of claudicacion or limping. They onely,
dwellinge from their childe hode within the country of the Hesternes, are
not touched with rasour or knife. The Troglodites that are called
Magaueres, carye for theyr armour and weapon, a rounde buckler of a rawe
oxe hide, and a clubbe shodde with yron. Other haue bowes, and Iauelines.
As for graues or places of buriall, they passe not. For they binde the
heade, and the fiete of the dead together with witthes of Paliurus, and
then setting it vp vpon some hilly place, haue a good sporte to all to
bethwacke it with stones, vntle they lie heaped ouer the corps. Then laye
they a goates horne on the toppe and departe, biddinge sorrowe go plaie
him. They warre one with another, not as the Griekes vpon rancour and
Ambicion, but onely for foode sake. In their skirmishes, firste they go to
it with stones, as afore ye haue hearde, vntle it fortune some nombre to be
hurte. Then occupieng the bowe (wherin they are very sure handed) thei
kille one another vpon hepes. Those battayles are attoned by the women of
mooste auncient age. For when they be ones comen into the middle emong them
(as they maye do withoute harme, for that is compted abhominacion in any
wise to hurte one of them) the battaille sodenly ceaseth. They that are
nowe so fiebled with age, that they can no longer followe the heard:
winding the tayle of an oxe aboute their throte choke vp and die. But he
that differreth to rydde him selfe in this sorte: It is laweful for another
(aftre a warninge) to doe it. And it is there compted a friendly
benefaicte. Men also diseased of feures, oranye other incurable malady,
they doe in lyke maner dispatche: iudginge it of all griefes the woorste,
for that manne to liue, that canne nowe nothinge doe, why he shoulde desyre
to lyue. Herodote writeth, that the Troglodites myne them selues caues in
the grounde, wherin to dwell. Men not troubled with anye desire of riches,
but raither giuing them selues to wilfull pouertie. They glory in nothing
but in one litle stone, wherin appere thre skore sondry colours: which we
therfore calle Exaconthalitus. They eate sondry kindes of venemous vermyne.
And speake any distincte worde they cannot, but sieme rather to busse or
thurre betwene thetiethe, then to speake.

There is another people dwelling in that Ethiope that lyeth aboue Egipte,
called Ryzophagi, whiche bestowe muche time in digging vp of the rootes of
Riedes growing niere aboute them, and in wasshing and clensing of the same,
whiche afterward they bruse betwixt stones till thei become clammie, and so
makes wiete cakes of them, muche facioned like a brick a hande broade.
Those bake thei by the Sonne, and so eate them. And this kinde of meate
onely, serueth them all they life tyme plentifully and enough, and neuer
waxeth fulsome vnto theim. Thei neuer haue warre one with another, but with
Lions, whiche comyng out of the deserte there, partly for shadowe, and
partly for to praie vpon smaller beastes, doe oftymes wourie diuers of the
Athiopes, comyng out of the Fennes. In so muche that that nation had long
sences bene vttrely destroyed by the Lions, excepte nature of purpose, had
shewed them her aide. For toward the dogge daies, there come into that
coaste, infinite swarmes of Gnattes, without any drifte of winde to enforce
them. The men then flieng to the fennes, are not harmed by them. But thei
driue the Lions with their stingyng and terrible buszyng, cleane out of
that quartre. Next vpon these, bordre the Ilophagi and Spermatophagi, the
one liuynge by suche fruicte as falleth from the trees, in Sommer, and the
residew of the yere by suche herbes as thei picke vp in the shadowed
groundes. The other, the Ilophagi, siekynge to the plaines with their wiues
and their children, climbe trees, and gather, eate, and cary home: the
tendre croppes and buddes of the boughes. And thei haue by continualle
practise, suche a nimblenes in climbyng, that (a wondrefull thynge to be
spoken) thei wille leape from boughe to boughe, and tree to tree like
Cattes or Squirelles, and by reason of their slendrenes and lightenes,
wille mounte vp on braunches and twigges, without daunger or hurte. For
thoughe their fiete slippe, yet hange thei feste by the handes: and if thei
bothe faile theim, yet falle thei so light, that thei be harmelesse.

These folkes go naked, and hold their wiues and children in commune. Emong
them selues they fighte for their places without weapon: but against
foreiners with staues. And wheare thei ouercome, there chalenge thei
Lordeshippe. Thei communely dye for hongre, when their sight faileth them:
whiche was their onely instrumente to finde their foode. The residewe of
the countrie there aboute, do those Athiopians holde, which are named
Cynecy, not very many in nombre, but muche differing in life from the rest.
For their Countrie beyng wooddie, and wilde, fulle of thicquettes, and
skante of watre, thei are forced by night, for feare of wilde beastes, to
slepe in trees: and toward the mornyng, all weaponed together, to drawe
doune to the waters, wher thei shroude them selues into couert, and so
abide close till the heate of the daie. At the whiche tyme the Bugles,
Pardales, and other greate beastes, what for the heate, and what for
thriste, flocke toguether to the watres. Assone as thei haue druncken, and
haue well laden their beallies with watre, the Ethiopes startynge out vpon
them with stakes, sharpened and hardened in the fire, and with stones, and
with arrowes, and suche like weapon, at this aduauntage, slea them vpon
heapes, and deuide the carkesses by compaignies to be eaten. And sometyme
it happeneth that thei theim selues are slaine by some beast of force,
howbeit very seldome. For thei euer by their pollicies and traines, doe
more damage to the beastes, then the beastes can doe vnto them. If at any
time thei lacke the bodies of the beastes, then take thei the rawe hides of
suche as thei lateliest before had slaine, and clensyng them cleane fro the
heare, thei sokynglie laie them to a softe fire; and when thei be throughly
hette, deuide them emong the compaignie, whiche very griedely fille
themselues of them.

They exercise their children whilest thei be boies, to throw the darte at a
sette marke, and he that hitteth not the marke receiueth no meate. By the
whiche maner of trainyng, hongre so worketh in the boies that thei become
excellente darters.

The Acridophagie (a people borderyng vpon the deaserte) are somewhat lower
of stature then the residewe, leane, and exceding blacke. In the Spring
time, the Weste, and Southwest winde, bringeth vnto them out of the
Deaserte, an houge nombre of Locustes, whiche are of verie greate bodie,
and of wynge very filthily coloured. The Ethiopians well accustomed with
their maner of flighte and trade, gather together into a long slade
betwixte two hilles, a great deale of rubbeshe and mullocke, from places
nighe hande, apte for fingry, and the grasse and all wiedes there aboute.
And laieng it ready in heapes aforehande, a long the slade, when thei see
the Locustes come with the winde like cloudes in the aire, thei set al on
fire, and so swelte theim in the passing ouer, that thei bee skante full
out of the slade, but thei fall to the grounde in suche plentie, that thei
be to all the Acridophagi, a sufficient victuallyng. For thei poudre them
with salte (wherof the countrie hath plentie) and so continually from yere
to yere, liue by none other foode. For thei neither haue any kinde of
catteille, ne fisshe can haue, beyng so farre fro the sea. And this maner
of meate siemeth to theim, verie pleasaunte and fine.

Of bodie thei are very lighte, swifte of foote, and shorte liued as not
passyng xl. yeres, he that liueth longest. Their ende is not more
incredible, then it is miserable. For when their drawe into age, their
briedeth a kinde of winghed lice in their bodies, of diuers colours, and
very horrible, and filthie to beholde: whiche firste eate out their
bealies, and then their brest, and so the whole body in a litle space. He
that hath this disease, first as thoughe he had on hym some tickelyng
ytche, all to beskratcheth his bodie with suche pleasure, as is also
mingled with some smart, And within a litle while aftre, when the lyce
beginne to craule, and the bodie beginneth to mattre, enraged with the
bittrenes and grief of the disease, he teareth and mangleth his whole bodie
with his nailes, putting furth in the mean while many a greuous grone. Then
gussheth there out of hym, suche aboundaunce of lice, that a manne would
thinke they had bene barelled in his body: and that the barel now broken,
the swarme plomped out. And by this meanes, whether throughe the enfectious
aire, or the corrupcion of their fieding, thei make a miserable ende.

Vpon the Southe border of Affrike, dwell there menne called of the Grekes
Cynnamie, and of their neighbours Sauluages: Bearded, and that with
aboundaunce of heare. Thei kiepe for the saufegarde of their liues, greate
compaignies of wilde Mastiues: for that from midde Iune, till midde Winter,
there entreth into their countrie, an innumerable sorte of Kine of Inde.
Whether thei flie thether to saue them selues from other beastes, or come
to sieke pasture, or by some instincte of nature vnknowen to manne, it is
vncertaine. Against these, when the menne of their owne force, are not able
to resist: thei defende themselues by the helpe of their dogges, and take
many of them. Whereof thei eate parte whilest thei are freshe, and parte
reserue thei in pouldre, for their aftre niede. Thei eate also many other
kindes of beastes, whiche thei hunt with their dogges.

The laste of all the Affriens Southewarde, are the Ichthiophagi. A people
borderyng vpon the Troglodities, in the Goulfe called Sinus Arabicus:
whiche vnder the shape of man, liue the life of beastes. Thei goe naked all
their life time, and make compte of their wiues and their children in
commune. Thei knowe none other kindes of pleasure or displeasure, but like
vnto beastes, suche as thei fiele: neither haue thei any respecte to
vertue, or vice, or any discernyng betwixte goode or badde. Thei haue litle
Cabanes not farre from the Sea, vpon the clieues sides: where nature hath
made greate carfes, diepe into the grounde, and hollowe Guttres, and
Criekes into the maigne lande, bowting and compayng in and out, to and fro,
many sondrie waies. Whose entringes thenhabitauntes vse to stoppe vp with
great heapes of calion and stones, whereby the criekes serue them now in
the steade of nettes. For when the sea floweth (which happeneth there twise
in the daye, aboute the houres of thre, and of nyne) the water swelleth so
highe, that it ouerfloweth into the maigne shore, and filleth those
crieques with the sea. And the fisshe folowing the tide, and dispersinge
them selues abrode in the maigne londe to seeke their foode: at the ebbe
when the water withdraweth, retiring together with it alway to the dieper
places, and at laste remaining in these gutters and crieques, they are
stopped in with the stone heapes, and at the lowe water lye drie. Then come
the enhabitauntes with wyfe and children, take them, and laye them oute
vpon the rocques against the midday sonne, wher, with the broiling heate of
the same, they be within a while skorched and parched. Then do they remoue
them, and with a litle beating separate the fysshe fro the bones. Then put
they the fisshe into the hollowes of the rocques, and beat it to pomois,
minglinge therewith the side of the whynne Paliurus. And so facion it into
lumpes muche like a bricke, but somewhat longer. And when they haue taken
them againe a litle by the sonne, they sitte them downe together, and eate
by the bealy.

Of this haue thei alway in store, accordinge to the plenty that Neptune
gyueth them. But when by the reason of tempest the sea ouerfloweth these
places aboue his naturall course, and tarieth longer then his wonte, so
that they can not haue this benefight of fisshing, and their store is all
spent: they gather a kynde of great shelle fysshe, whose shelles they grate
open with stones, and eate the fisshe rawe, in taste muche like to an
oyster. If it fortune this ouerflowing by the reason of the winde, to
continue longe, and their shellefysshe to fayle them: then haue they
recours to the fysshebones (which they do of purpose reserue together in
heapes) and when thei haue gnabeled of the softest and gristely partes with
their tiethe, of those that are newest and beste, they beate the harder
with stones into pieces, and eate them. Thei eate as I haue said in the
wilde field together abrode, reioicing with a semblaunte of merinesse, and
a maner of singyng full vntuned. That done they falle vppon their women,
euen as they come to hande withoute any choyse: vtterly voide of care, by
reason they are alwaye sure of meate in good plentye.

Thus foure daies euer continual, busied with this bealy bownsing chiere,
the v. daie thei flocke together to go drincke, al on a droue, not vnlike
to a heard of kiene to the waters, shouting as they go with an Yrishe
whobub. And when they haue dronke till their bealies stonde a strutte, so
that they are skant able to retourne: euerye bodie layes him downe
dronckardelike to reste his water bolne bealy, and that daye eateth
nothing. The next daye agayne they fall to their fyshing: And so passe they
their lyfe continually.

Thei seldome falle into any diseases, for that they are alway of so
vniforme diete. Neuerthelesse they are shorter lyued then we are. Theyr
nature not corrupted by any perswasion taken of other, compteth the
satisfieng of hongre, the greatest pleasure in the world. As for other
extraordenary pleasures, they seke them not. This is the maner of liuing
propre vnto them that lye within the bosome of the sayde Arabique sea. But
the maner of them that dwell without the bosome, is moche more merueilous.
For thei neuer drinke ne neuer are moued with any passion of the mynde.
These beynge as it ware by fortune throwen oute into the desertes, farre
from the partes miete to be enhabited, giue them selues altogether to
fyshing, which they eate haulfe rawe. Not for to auoyde thirste (for they
desire no moyste thynges) but rather of a nature sauluage and wilde,
contented with such victualle as commeth to hande. They compte it a
principall blessednes to be withoute those thinges what so euer they be,
that bringe sorowe or griefe to their hauers. Thei are reported to be of
such patience, that though a manne strike them with a naked sweard, thei
will not shonne him, or flye from him. Beate them, or do theim wronge, and
they onely wil looke vppon you, neither shewinge token of wrathe, nor
countenaunce of pitie. Thei haue no maner of speache emong them: But onely
shewe by signes of the hande, and nodding with the heade, what they lacke,
and what they would haue. These people with a whole consent, are
mayntayners of peace towarde all men, straunger and other. The whiche maner
althoughe it be wondrefull, they haue kept time oute of mynde. Whether
throughe longe continuance of custome, or driuen by necessitie, or elles of
nature: I cannot saye. They dwell not as the other Icthiophagi doe, all in
one maner of cabanes, but sondry in diuers. Some haue their dennes, and
their cabanes in them opening to the North: to the ende they might by that
meanes be the bettre shadowed fro the sonne, and haue the colder ayre. For
those that are open toward the Southe, by the reason of the greate heate of
the sonne, caste forthe such a breathe, fornais like, that a manne can not
come niere them. They that open towarde the Northe, builde them preaty
Cabanes of the ribbes of whales (whiche in those seas they plentuously
find) compassing them aboute by the sides, accordynge to their naturall
bendinge, and fasteninge them together at bothe endes with some maner of
tyenge. Those do they couer with the woose and the wiedes of the sea
tempered together. And in these they shroude them selues fro the sonne:
nature by necessitie diuising a way how to helpe and defende her selfe.

Thus haue ye hearde the lyfe of the Icthiophagi, and now remaineth there
for Aphrique onely the Amazones to be spoken of, which menne saye in the
olde tyme dwelte in Libye. A kinde of warlike women, of greate force, and
hardinesse, nothing lyke in lyfe vnto our women. The maner amonge them was
to appointe to their maidens a certein space of yeres to be trayned, and
exercysed in the feictes of warre. Those beynge expired, they ware ioyned
to menne for yssues sake. The women bare all the rule of the commune
wealthe. The women ware princes, lordes, and officiers, capiteines, and
chiefteines of the warres. The menne had noughte to doe, but the drudgery
at home, and as the women woulde appoincte them. The children assone as
thei ware borne, were deliuered to the men to nouryshe vp with milke, and
suche other thinges as their tendrenes required. If it ware a boye, they
eyther brake the right arme assone as it was borne, that it mighte neuer be
fytte for the warres, or slue it, or sente it oute of the country. If a
wenche, they streighte ceared the pappes, that thei might not growe to
hindre them in the warres. Therefore the Grecians called theim Amazones, as
ye woulde saie, pappelesse. The opinion is, that thei dwelt in the Ilonde
named Hespera, which lieth in the marsshe, named (of a riuer that runneth
into it) Tritonis, ioyning vpon Ethiope, and the mounte Atlas, the greatest
of all that lande. This Ilonde is very large and greate, hauyng plentie of
diuers sortes of fruictes, whereby the enhabitauntes liue. Thei haue many
flockes of shiepe, and goates, and other small catteile, whose milke and
flesshe they eate. They haue no maner of graine, ne knowe what to doe



The first Chapitre.

Of Asie and the peoples moste famous therin.

Asie, the seconde part of the thre wherin to we haue said that the whole
erth is diuided: tooke name as some hold opinion, of the doughter of
Oceanus, and Tethis, named Asia, the wife of Iaphetus, and the mother of
Prometheus. Or as other affirme, of Asius, the sonne of Maneye the Lidian.
And it stretcheth it self from the South, bowtyng [Footnote: Bending] by
the Easte into the Northe: hauyng on the West parte the two flouddes, Nilus
and Tanais, and the whole Sea Euxinum, and parte of the middle earth sea.
Vpon the other thre quarters, it is lysted in with the Occean, whiche where
he cometh by Easte Asie, is called Eous (as ye would saie toward the
dawnyng) by the South, Indicus (of the countrie named India) and aftre the
name of the stoure Scithiane, vpon the northe Scythicus. The greate
mounteine Taurus ronnyng East and West, and in a maner equally partyng the
lande in twaine: leaueth one parte on the Northe side, called by the Grekes
the outer Asie: and another on the South, named the inner Asie. This
mounteine in many places is founde thre hundred lxxv. miles broade: and of
length equalle with the whole countrie. About a fiue hundred thre skore and
thre miles. From the coast of the Rhodes, vnto the farthest part of Inde,
and Scythia Eastwarde. And it is deuided into many sondrie partes, in
sondrie wise named, whereof some are larger, some lesse. This Asie is of
suche a sise, as aucthorus holde opinion, that Affrike and Europe ioyned
together: are scante able to matche it in greatnes. It is of a temperate
heate and a fertile soile, and therefore full of all kindes of beaste,
foule, and worme, and it hath in it many countries and Seignouries.

On the other side of the redde Sea, ouer against Egipte in Affrike: lieth
the tripartite region, named Arabia, whose partes are, Petrea: boundyng
West and Northe vpon Siria: and right at fronte before hym Eastwarde,
Deserta: and Arabia Felix by Southe. Certein writers also adioyne to
Arabia: Pancheia, and Sabea. It is iudged to haue the name of Arabus, the
sonne of Apollo and Babilone.

The Arabiens beyng a greate people, and dwellyng very wide and brode: are
in their liuyng very diuers, and as sondrie in religion. Thei vse to go
with long heare vnrounded and forked cappes, somewhat mitre like, all aftre
one sorte, and their beardes partie shauen. Thei vse not as we doe, to
learne faculties and sciences one of another by apprenticehode, but looke
what trade the father occupied, the same doeth the sonne generally applie
himself to, and continue in. The mooste aunciente and eldest father that
can be founde in the whole Countrie, is made their Lorde and Kyng. Looke
what possessions any one kindrede hath, the same be commune to all those of
that bloude: Yea one wife serueth theim all. Wherefore he that cometh
firste into the house, laieth doune his falchion before the dore, as a
token that the place is occupied. The seniour of the stocke enioieth her
alnight Thus be thei all brethren and sistren one to another, throughout
the whole people. Thei absteine fro the embrasinges neither of sister ne
mother, but all degrees are in that poinct as indifferent to than, as to
beastes of the fieldes. Yet is adulterie death emong them. And this is
adulterie there: to abandon the bodie to one of another kindred. And who so
is by suche an ouerthwarte begotten: is iudged a bastard, and otherwise
not. Thei bancquet not lightly together, vndre the nombre of thirtie
persones. Alwaie foresene that, two of the same nombre at the leaste, be
Musicens. Waiters haue thei none, but one kinsman to minister to another,
and one to helpe another. Their tounes and cities are wallesse, for thei
liue quietly and in peace one with another. Thei haue no kinde of oyle, but
that whiche is made of Sesama, but for all other thynges, thei are most
blessed with plentie. They haue Shiepe greater than Kien, and verie white
of woulle. Horses haue thei none, ne none desire, for that their Chamelles
in al niedes serue them as well. Thei haue siluer and golde plentie, and
diuerse kindes of spices, whiche other countries haue not. Laton, Brasse,
Iron, Purple, Safron, the precious rote costus, and all coruen woorkes, are
brought into theim by other. Thei bewrie their kyng in a donghille, for
other thei wille skante take so muche laboure. There is no people that
better kiepeth their promise and couenaunt, then thei doe, and thus thei
behight it.

When thei wille make any solempne promise, couenaunte, or league, the two
parties commyng together, bryng with them a thirde, who standyng in the
middes betwixte theim bothe, draweth bloude of eche of them, in the palme
of the hande, along vndre the rote of the fingres, with a sharpe stone: and
then pluckyng from eche of their garmentes a little iaggue, [A small
piece.] he ennoyncteth with that bloude seuen other stones, lyeng ready
betwixte theim, for that purpose. And whilest he so doeth, he calleth vpon
the name of Dionisius and Vrania, whom thei accompte emong the nombre of
goddes, reuengers of faithelesse faithes. This done, he that was the
sequestrer of the couenaunte become thsuretie for the parties. And this
maner of contracte, he that standeth moste at libertie, thinketh miete to
be kepte.

Thei haue no firynge but broken endes and chippes of Myrrhe, whose smoke is
so vnwholsome, that excepte thei withstode the malice therof with the
perfume of Styrax, it would briede in them vncurable diseases. The Cinamome
whiche groweth emong theim, none gather but the priestes. And not thei
neither, before thei haue sacrificed vnto the goddes. And yet further thei
obserue, that the gatheryng neither beginne before the Sonne risyng, ne
continue aftre the goyng doune. He that is lorde and gouernour emong them,
when the whole gather is brought together, deuideth out vnto euery man his
heape with a Iauelines ende, whiche thei haue ordinarily consecrate for
that purpose. And emongest other, the Sonne also hath a heape deuided out
for hym, whiche (if the deuision be iuste) he kindeleth immediatly with his
owne beames, and brenneth into asshes. Some of the Arabiens that are
pinched with penurie, without all regard of body, life, or helth, doe eate
Snakes, and Addres, and suche like vermine, and therefore are called of the
Grekes Ophyophagi.

The Arabiens named Nomades, occupie much Chamelles, bothe in warre and
burden, and all maner cariage, farre and nighe. The floude that ronneth
alonge their bordes, hathe in it as it ware limall of golde in great
plentie. Whiche they neuertheles for lacke of knowledge do neuer fine into

Another people of Arabia named Deboe, are for the great parte shepemasters,
and brieders. Parte of them notwithstanding, occupie husbandrie, and
tilthe. These haue suche plentie of gold, that oftetimes emong the cloddes
in the fieldes thei finde litle peables of golde as bigge as akecornes,
whiche thei vse to set finely with stones, and weare for owches aboute
their necke and armes, with a very good grace. They sell their golde vnto
their borderers for the thirde parte of Laton, or for the halfe parte of
siluer. Partly for that they nothing estieme it, and specially for the
desire of the thinges that foreiners haue. Nexte vnto them lie the Sabeis,
whose riches chiefely consisteth in encence, Myrrhe and Cinamome, howbeit
some holde opinion also that Baulme groweth in some places of their
borders. Thei haue also many date trees very redolente of smelle, and the
roote called Calamus.

There is in that contry a kinde of serpentes lurking in the rootes of
trees, of haulfe a foote lengthe, whose bitinge is for the moste parte
death. The plenty of swiete odours, and sauours in those quarters, doeth
verely stuffe the smelling. And to avoyde that incommoditie, they
oftentimes vse the fume of astincking gomme, and gotes heare chopped
together. Ther is no man that hath to do to giue sentence vpon any case but
the king. The mooste parte of the Sabeis apply husbandrie. The residewe
gatheringe of spices and drugges. They sayle into Ethiope for trade of
marchaundise, in barkes couered with leather. The refuse of their cinamome
and Cassian they occupy for firing. Their chiefe citie is called Saba, and
stondeth vpon a hyll. Their kynges succed by discente of bloude, not any
one of the kindred certeine, but suche as the people haue in moste honour,
be he good or be he badde. The king neuer dare be sene oute of his Palace,
for that there goeth an olde prophecie emong them of a king that shoulde be
stoned to deathe of the people. And euery one feareth it shoulde lighte on
him selfe. They that are about the king of the Sabeis: haue plate bothe of
siluer and golde of all sortest curiously wrought and entallied. Tables,
fourmes, trestles of siluer, and all furniture of household sumptuous aboue
measure. They haue also Galeries buylte vppon great pillours, whose
coronettes are of golde and of siluer. Cielinges voultinges, dores and
gates couered with siluer and golde, and set with precious stones:
garnisshinges of yuorye, and other rare thinges whiche emong men are of
price. And in this bounteous magnificence haue thei continued many yeres.
For why the gredy compasse how to atteyne honoure with the vniuste rapine
of other mennes goodes, that hath tombled downe headeling so many commune
wealthes, neuer had place emong them. In richesse equal vnto them, are the
Garrei, whose implementes of household are all of golde and siluer, and of
those and yuorie together, are their portalles, their cielinges, and
rophes, made. The Nabatheens of all other Arabiens are the beste husbandes,
and thriftiest sparers. Their caste is wittye in winning of substaunce, but
greater in kepinge it. He that appaireth the substaunce that was lefte him,
is by a commune lawe punished: and contrariwise that encreaseth it, muche
praysed and honoured.

The Arabiens vse in their warres swerde, bowe, launce, slinge, and battle
ax. The rable of helhoundes (whom we calle Sarasines) that pestilent
murreine of mankinde, came of this people. And as it is to be thoughte, at
this daye the great parte of Arabia is degenerate into that name. But thei
that dwell towarde Egipte, kepe yet their olde name, and lyue by butin,
[Footnote: Booty, from the French "Butin."] like prickers of the bordre,
wherin, the swiftenes of their camelles doeth them good seruice.

The seconde Chapitre.

Of Panchaia, and the maners of the Panqueis.

Panchaia (a countrie of Arabia) is iudged of Diodore the Sicilian to be an
islonde of xxv. miles brode. It hath in it thre noble cities Dalida,
Hyracida, and Oceanida. The whole contrie (excepte a litle vaine of sandie
grauelle) is fertile and plenteous: chiefely of wine and encence. Whiche
groweth ther in suche aboundaunces that it sufficeth the whole worlde for
the francke fume offeringe. There groweth also good store of Myrrhe, and
diuers other redolente thinges, whiche the Panqueis gather, and selle to
the merchauntes of Arabia. At whose hande other buienge them againe,
transports them into Egipte, and Sirie. And fro thence they are spred
abrode to all other peoples. The Panqueis in their warres vse wagons aftre
the maner of menne in olde time.

Their commune wealth is deuided into thre sundry degrees. The firste place
haue the priestes, to whome are ioyned the artificers. The seconde the
houseband men. And the thirde the menne of warre: with whom the catteile
maisters or brieders be coupled. The priestes are the heades, and chiefe of
all the residewe, and haue aucthoritie aswell in sentence of lawe, as to
put ordre in al ciuile affaires: the sentence of deaths onely excepted.

The housebandemen, tille the grounde, and attende vpon the fruictes, and
bring all into the commune store. And thei that shalbe founde moste
diligente in that laboure and occupation: are chosen by the priestes (but
not aboue the nombre of ten at one time) to be iudges ouer the distribution
of the fruictes. Vpon consideracion that other by their aduancement might
be stirred to like diligence. The catteile maisters, yf ther be any thing
either apperteining to the sacrifices, or commune affaires, touching
nombre, or weight, do it with all diligence,

No man amonge the Panchais hath any thinge that he can call proprely his
owne: his house, and his gardein excepted. For bothe the customes, and
reuenewes, and all other profectes, are deliuered in to the priestes
handes. Who acordinge as they finde necessarie and expediente, iustely
distribute them. But they themselues are graunted double share. Their
garmentes by the reason of the finesse of the wolle of their shiepe,
especially aboue other, are verye softe and gentle clothe. Bothe menne and
women vse ther, to sette oute them selues with Iuelles of golde, as
cheines, braselettes, eareringes, tablettes, owches, ringes, Annuletes,
buttons, broches, and shoes embraudered, and spangled with golde, of diuers
colours. The menne of warre serue onely for the defence of their countrey.

The priestes aboue all other, giue them selues vnto pleasaunte life, fine,
nette and sumptuous. Their garmentes are rochettes of fine linnen, and
sometime of the deintiest wollen. Vpon their heades thei weare mitres
embraudred, and garnisshed with golde. They vse a kinde of voided shoes
(whiche aftrewarde the Grieques toke vp, and called sandalium) very finely
made, and of sondry colours. And as the women weare, so do they, all maner
of Iuelles sauing earinges. Their chiefe occupation is to attende vpon
goddes seruice, settinge forthe the worthie diedes of the goddes, with
himpnes, [Footnote: Hymns.] and many kindes of commendacion. Yf thei be
founde withoute the halowed grounde, it is lawfull for any manne to slea
them. They saye that they came of the bloude of Iupiter Manasses, at suche
time as he came firste into Panchaia, hauinge the whole worlde vndre his
dominion. This countrie is full of golde, siluer, latton, tinne, and yron,
of the whiche it is not laweful to cary any one out of the realme. The
giftes both of siluer and golde, whiche in greate nombre of longe time,
have bene offred to their goddes, are kepte in the temple: whose dores are
by excellent workemanship garnished with golde, siluer and yuorie. The
couche of their God is vi. cubites longe, and foure cubites brode, all of
golde, gorgeous of worcke, and goodly to beholde. And by that, is there
sette a table of like sorte in euery poincte: for sise, stuffe, and
gorgeousnes. They haue but one temple, all of white stone, builte vpon
pilours, grauen, and embossed, thre hundred and xxxviii. taylours yardes
square, that is to saye, euen of lengthe and bredthe, euery waye so muche.
And somewhat acordinge to the syse of the temple, it is sette full of highe
ymages very precious: coruen and grauen. Rounde about the temple haue the
priestes their habitacion. And all the grounde aboute them xxv. myle
compasse: is halowed to their goddes. The yerely rente of that grounde is
bestowed vpon sacrifice.

The iii. Chapitre.

Of Assiria and Babilonia, and the maners of those peoples.

As saieth sainct Augustine, the countrie called Assiria, was so named of
Assur, the sonne of Sem. And at this daie, to the ende that time might be
founde an appairer, of al thinges, with the losse of a sillabe is becomen
Siria: Hauyng for his bounde, on the East, the countrie called Inde, and
part of Media. On the West the floude Tygris, on the Southe Susiana, and on
the Northe the maigne mounteigne Caucasus. It is a deintie to haue in
Assiria a showre of raine: and therefore are thei constreined for the due
moistyng of their lande, to tolle in the riuers by pollicie of trenching
and damming: wherwith thei so plentifie their grounde, that thei communely
receiue two hundred busshelles for a busshell, and in some speciall veine,
three hundred for one. Their blades of their Wheate and Barlie are fowre
fingers brode. Their Sesamum, and Milium (Somer cornes) are in groweth like
vnto trees. All the whiche thinges Herodotus the historien, thoughe he
knoweth them (as he writeth) to be vndoubtedly true, yet would he that men
toke aduisemente in the reportyng of theim: for that thei mighte sieme vnto
suche as neuer sawe the like, incredible. Thei haue a tree called Palma,
that beareth a kinde of small Dates. This fruicte thei fiede muche vppon,
and out of the bodie of the tree, thei draw at one time of the yere a
liquor or sappe, wherof thei make bothe wine and hony. In their fresh
waters thei vse boates facioned round like a buckler, which the Armenians
that dwelle aboue them, do make of salowe wikers wrought one within an
other, and couered with rawe leather. The appareile of the Assyrians is a
shirte downe to the foote, and ouer that a short garment of wollen, and
last of al a faire white pleicted cassaque doun to the foote agayne. Their
shoes are not fastened on with lachettes, but lyke a poumpe close about the
foote. Which also the Thebans dydde vse, and but they twayne, no moe. They
suffre theyr heares to growe and couer them with prety forked cappes
somwhat mytrelyke. And when they goe abroade, they besprinkle them selues
with fragraunt oyles, to be swete at the smelle. They haue euery man a
rynge with a signet, and also a sceptre finely wrought: vppon whose toppe
thei vse to sticke either an apple, or a rose, or a lillye, or some lyke
thynge. For it is a dishonour to beare it bare.

Emongest all the lawes of that people I note this chiefly as worthie
memorie. When their maidens came to be mariageable, thei ware from yere to
yere, brought foorthe into the Marquette, for suche as would buye them to
be their wiues. And because there ware some so hard fauoured, that menne
would not onely be loth to giue money for them, but some menne also for a
litle money to take theim: the fairest ware first solde, and with the
prices of theim brought into the commune Treasourie, ware the fowler
bestowed. Herodote writeth that he heard by reaporte, that the Heneti (a
people on the bordre of Italie towarde Illiria) ware wonte to vse this
maner. Whervpon Sabellicus takyng an occasion, writeth in this maner.
Whether there ware suche a maner vsed emong that people (saieth he) or not,
I haue litle more certaintie to laie for my self then Herodote had. But
thus muche am I able to saie: that in Venice (a citie of famous worthines,
and whose power is well knowen at this date, to be greate, bothe by Sea and
by lande) suche maner as I shall saie, was sometyme vsed. There was in the
Citie of Venice, a place dedicate, as ye would saie to our Ladie of Pietie.
Before whose doores it happened a child or twaine, begotten by a skape
(whiche either for shame or necessitie could finde no mother, or for the
nombre of parteners, no one propre father) to bee laide. And when by the
good Citezeins suche tendrenes had been shewed to two or thre, as the
mothers loked for, and manhode (to saie the truthe) doth require: the dore
of pitie became so fruictfull a mother, that she had not now one or twoo in
a yere, but three or fower in a quarter. Whiche thyng when the gouernours
of the citie perceiued, thei toke ordre by commune consente, that from
thens foorthe suche women children onely, as should fortune so to bee
offred to Pietie, should bee nourisshed at the commune charge of the citie,
and none other. And for those accordyngly, thei ordained a place wher thei
ware brought vp, hardly kepte in, and diuersely enstructed accordyng to
their giftes of witte and capacitie, vntill thei ware mariage able. At the
whiche tyme, she that had beautie and good qualities bothe, found those a
sufficient dowrie to purchase her choyse of husbandes. And she that hadde
but beautie alone, thoughe her qualities ware not so excellente, yet for
her honestie that beside forth was singuler in theim all, founde that
beautie and honestie could not be vnmaried. These therefore ware not
permitted to euery mannes choise, but graunted to suche as ware thoughte
menne worthie of suche women. If there ware any that lacked the grace of
beautie, yet if she ware wittie, and endewed with qualities (together with
her honestie) a small dowrie purchased her a husband in good time. But if
there ware any in whom there happened neither commendacion of beautie nor
wit, but onely bare honestie: for her bestowyng was there a meane found, by
waie of deuocion, as we terme it when we signifie a respecte of holines in
the diede.

Menne vnmarried beyng in daungier vpon Sea or on Lande, or beyng sore
distressed with sickenes, makyng a vowe for the recouerie of healthe, where
vnto thei holde them selues bounden in conscience (if it fortuned theim at
that tyme to be deliuered) for satisfaction of their vowe in that case not
vprightly perfourmed, vsed to take for their wiues, suche of the simplest
as other had left. So that in processe they alwaie founde husbandes, and
the commune wealthe a diminishyng of charge.

Another Lawe of the Babilonians there was, more worthie of memorie a greate
deale, for that it imported more weight. And that was this. Thei had from
their beginnyng no Phisicens emong theim, but it was enacted by the
consente of the Realme, that who so was diseased of any malady, should
comon with other that had bene healed of the like afore. And acordyng to
their counsaile, practise vpon himself. But he that vsed or attempted any
other waie, to be punished for it. Other write that the sicke ware brought
out into the Marquet place, where suche as had bene deliuered of the like
grief afore: ware bounde by the lawe, to go fro persone to persone, and
shewe theim by what meanes thei had bene remedied.

Thei bewrie their dead in Honie, and obserue the same maner of mournyng
that the Egiptians do. If any man haue medled with his wife in the nighte,
neither of theim bothe toucheth any thyng the next mornyng, before thei be

There was in Babilon a Temple dedicate to Venus, and it hath bene the maner
in tyme paste, that when their came any straunger to visite this Temple,
all the women of Babilon should come vnto him or them, with greate
solempnitie and fresshely appareiled, euery one hauing a garlande on her
heade, with some seueralle knowledge of distinction one from another, and
offre their seruice to the straungier. And looke whom he liked, he must
laie doune in her lappe, suche somme of money as pleased him. That done
thei bothe withdrew themselues fro the temple a greate distaunce, and laie
together. That money was consecrate to Venus.

There were certein kindredes emong theim, that liued with none other thyng
but fisshe dried against the Sonne, and brused in a Mortare, and so laied
vp till niede ware. And then did thei mingle it, and kneade it with water
into a maner of paaste, and so baked it, and eate it. There ware thre
sortes of menne that bare rule and office emong them. The king, the nobles
with the Seniours, and those that had serued in the warres and ware now
exempte. Thei had also menne skilfull in the secretes of nature, whiche
thei calle Magi, and Chaldei, suche as ware the priestes of Egipte,
institute to attende vpon the seruice of their Goddes. These men all their
life daies, liued in the loue of wisedome, and were connyng in the cours of
the Sterres. And sometyme by foretokenyng of birdes flight and somtyme by
power of holy verses and nombres tourned awaie the euilles fro menne, and
benefited them with thinges that ware good. Thei could expounde Dreames,
and declare the significacions of vncouth wondres. So that men ware certein
of suche successe, as thei had foreshewed. Thei wente not into straunge
scholes to learne their knowledge, as the Grecians doe, but learned the
science of these thynges at their fathers handes, as heirtage from one
generation to another, euen from their childhode at home in their houses.
Whereby it came to passe that beyng sokingly learned, it was bothe the more
groundedly learned, and also without tediousnes. Thei had one vniforme and
constaunt waie of teaching, and one constantnes of doctrine, not waueryng
and almoste contrary to it self, as the doctrine of the Greekes: where eche
Philosopher almoste had his waie, and iudgemente, of the principles and
causes of thynges. But these menne agre al in one, that the worlde is
eternall and euerlastyng, with out begynnyng and without ende. And that the
ordre of the whole, was disposed by the prouidence of the highest. The
bodies aboue to haue their course, not at all aduentures and without rule,
but by an inuiolable lawe of God, acordyng to his ordenaunce and will moste
certein. Thei haue learned by long markyng and notyng of thynges tyme out
of mynde, one aftre another: how by the course of the Starres, to
prognostique, that is to foreshewe vnto men, many thynges to come. Thei
holde that of all other Sterres, the planetes are strongest of Influence,
namely Saturnus. To the sonne thei attribute brightnes and vertue of life.
Mars, Iupiter, Mercurie, and Venus, thei obserue moste,(for that thei haue
a course propre by themselues) as interpretours of the mindes of the goddes
to foresignifie thinges vnto men. Which opinion is so grounded in them,
that they haue called all those foure planetes, by the one name of
Mercurius, as ye woulde saye commune currours or messengers. Thei also do
warne menne of many thinges, bothe hurtefull and availeable: by the
marking, and knowledge of winde and weather, of raine and droughte, of
blasing sterres, of the eclipses of the Sonne and Mone, of earthquakes, and
manye suche like.

Furthermore thei ymagine in the firmament other sterres, subiecte in
influence vnto these former, wherof some are in the haulfe heauen
continually in our sighte, and some in the other haulfe continually oute of
our sight And as the Egiptiens haue feigned them selues xii. goddes, so
likewyse haue thei. To euerie of the whiche they referre one moneth, and
one signe of the Zodiaque. Thei haue prophecied vnto kinges, many
aduentures. As vnto Alexandre victory, when he made his exploicte towarde
Darius. Likewise to Hirchanour and Seleucus, and other the successours of
Alexandre, prophecied thei many thinges: As also to the Romaines, which had
most sure successe. Thei make compte also of xxiiij. other starres:
without, and beside the waie of the zodiaque, xii. towarde the Northe, and
the residewe towarde the Southe. Of the whiche, so many as appiere in
sight, they iudge to apperteigne to the quicke, and the other to the dead.
These troublesome mases haue thei broughte into the worlde more then
enoughe, beside the accompte that thei make of their obseruacions and
deuinacions from their beginninge to Alexandras time: nombringe them thre
thousande and fourty yeres (a shamefull lie) excepte thei will entreprete
their yeres by the Mone, as the Egiptians doe, comptinge euery monethe for
a yere.

The iiii. Chapiter.

Of Iewry, and of the life, maners, and Lawes of the Iewes.

Palestina, whiche also is named Iudea, beinge a seueralle prouince of
Siria; lieth betwixte Arabia Petrea, and the countrie Coelosiria. So
bordering vpon the Egiptian sea on the West, and vpon the floude Iordon on
the Easte, that the one with his waues wassheth his clieues, and the other
sometime with his streame ouerfloweth his banckes.

The Bible, and Iosephus by ensample therof called this londe Cananea: a
countrie renowned for manifolde substaunce. Fertile of soyle, well watered
with riuers, and springes, and rich with precious balme. Lienge in the
nauelle of the world, that it neither might be broyled with heate, ne
frosen with colde. By the reason of the which mildenes of aier, it was
iudged by the Israelites or Hebrues, (and rightlye so iudged) to be the
country that God promised vnto Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, flowinge in
aboundaunce of milke and honie. Vpon the hope of enioyinge of this londe,
folowed they Moses oute of Egipte fortye yeres wandering in Campe. And
before thei ware broughte into Cananea by Iosua, his substitute, ouercame
with strong hande, one and thirty kinges.

This is the people that onely of all other may chalenge the honour of
auncientie. This is the people alone the mighte haue glorified in the
wisedome, and vnmedled puritie of Language, as beinge of all other the
firste. This is the people that was mother of lettres, and sciences. Amonge
these remained the knowledge of the onely and euerliuinge God, and the
certeintie of the religion that was pleasaunte in his eies. Among these was
the knowledge, and foreknowledge of al, sauinge that Helas, they knewe not
the visitour of their wealthe and the ende of their wo, Iesus the sauioure
of all that woulde knowe him, and sieke life in his deathe. But him whome
thei knew not, when by reason thei should: him shal thei yet ones knowe in
time when the father woulde.

The Israelites, the Hebrues or the Iewes (for all in effecte soundeth one
people) liue aftre the rule of the lawes, whiche Moses their worthy duke,
and deuine chiefteine, declared vnto theim. Withoute the whiche also or
anye other written, thei liued holily, hundred of yeares before: atteininge
to the truthes hidden from other, by a singuler gifte aboue other. That
Philosophre of Philosophers, and deuine of deuines, Moses the marueilous,
waienge in his insight, that no multitude assembled, coulde be gouerned to
continuaunce without ordres of equitie and lawes: when with rewardes to the
good, and reuenge vpon the euill, he had sufficiently exhorted, and trained
his people to the desire of vertue, and the hate of the contrarie: at the
last beside the two tables receiued in the mounte Sinah, added ordres of
discipline, and ciuile gouernaunce, full of all goodlines and equitie.
Whiche Iosephus, the Iewe, (a manne of greate knowledge, and eloquence,
aswel in the Hebrewe, his natural tongue, as in the Grieke, amonge whome he
liued in notable fame not a fewe yeres) hath gathered, and framed into one
seuerall treatise. Out of the which, because I rather fansie, if I maye
with like commoditie, to folowe the founteines of the first Authours, then
the brokes [Footnote: _Broke_, literally, broken meat. It here means
"disconnected passages."] of abredgers, which often bring with them much
puddle: I haue here translated, and annexed to the ende of this booke,
those ordres of the Iewes commune welthe, sendyng the for the reste to the
Bible. And yet notwithstanding, loke what I founde in this Abredger,
neither mencioned in the bible, nor in that treatise, the same thus ordrely

The heathen writers, and the Christianes, do muche diffre concerninge the
Iewes, and Moyses their chiefteine. For Cornelius the stylle [Footnote:
Cornelius Tacitus. The reference, however, is wrong. The passage quoted
does not appear in the Annals: it is from Book v., S 5. of the History.] in
his firste booke of his yerely exploictes, called in Latine Annales, dothe
not ascribe their departure oute of Egipte to the power and commaundement
of God: but vnto necessitie, and constrainte, with these wordes:

A great skuruines, and an yche saieth he, beinge risen throughe oute
Egipte, Bocchoris, the king sekynge remedye in the Temple of Iupiter
Hammon, was willed by responcion to clense his kingdome: And to sende awaye
that kinde of people whom the goddes hated (he meaneth the Iewes) into some
other contrey. The whiche when he had done, and they (as the poompe of al
skuruines, not knowing wher to become) laye cowring vndre hedges, and
busshes, in places desert, and many of them dropped away, for sorowe and
disease: Moyses (whiche also was one of the outecastes, saieth be)
counselled them not to sitte ther, awayting aftre the helpe of God or of
man, whiche thei ware not like to haue: but to folowe him as their
capteine, and lodesman, and committe them selues vnto his gouernaunce. And
that hervnto thei all agreinge, at wilde aduentures, withoute knowing what
thei did, tooke their iorney. In the which thei ware sore troubled, and
harde bestadde, [Footnote: Beset. "What then behoveth so bestad to done."
Gascoigne's Works, 1587.] for lacke of water. In this distresse, when thei
ware now ready to lye them downe, and die for thirst, Moyses espienge a
great heard of wilde Chamelles comming fro their fiedinge, and going into
woddie place ther beside, folowed them. And iudginge the place not to be
without watre, for that he sawe it fresshe and grene, digged and founde
plenty of watre. Wherwith when thei had releued themselues, thei passed on.
vi. daies iourney: and so exployted that the seuenth daye thei where thei
builte their Citie, and their temple. Moyses had beaten out all the
enhabitauntes of the contry, then to the entent he might satle the peoples
hartes towarde him for euer: deuised them newe ordres, and ceremonies
cleane contrary to all other nacions. For (saieth Cornelius) Looke what so
euer is holy amonge vs, the same is amonge them the contrary. And what so
euer to vs is vnlawfulle, that same is compted lawefull amonge theim. The
ymage of the beaste that shewed them the waye to the waters, and the ende
of their wanderinge: did they set vp in their chambres, and offre vnto it a
rambe, in the despight of Iupiter Hammon, whom we worship in the fourme of
a Rambe. And because the Egiptians worshippe their goddesse Apis in the
fourme of a cowe, therforethei vse to slea also in sacrifice a cowe. Swines
flesshe thei eate none, for that thei holde opinion that this kynde of
beaste, of it selfe beinge disposed to be skoruie, mighte be occasion
againe to enfecte them of newe. The seuenth daye thei make holy day. That,
is to say spende awaie in ydlenes and rest: for that on the seuenth daye,
they founde reste of theyr wandering, and misery. And when they had caughte
a sauour in this holye daye loytering: it came to passein processe of tyme,
that thei made a longe holydaye also of the whole seuenth yere: But other
holde opinion that thei do obserue suche maner of holyedaies, in the honour
of Saturne the god of fasting and famine: with whose whippe thei are lothe
againe to be punisshed. Their breade is vnleauened. These ceremonies and
deuises, by what meanes so euer thei ware brought in amonge them, thei do
stiffely defende. As thei are naturally giuen, to be stiffe in beliefe, and
depe in loue with their owne althoughe towarde alother thei be most
hatefull enemies. So that theineither will eate ne drincke with them: no
nor lye in the chambre that a straunger of a nother nacion lyeth in. A
people altogether giuen vnto leachery, and yet absteining from the
enbrasinges of the straunger. Emong them selues thei iudge nothinge
vnlawfull. Thei deuised to rounde of the foreskinne of their yarde (whiche
we call circumcision) because thei would haue a notable knowledge betwene
them, and other nacions. And the firste lesson thei teache vnto their
children, is to despise the goddes. The soules of those that die in
tormentes, or in warre, thei iudge to be immortall. A continuall feare haue
thei, and a regard of heauen and helle. And where the Egiptians honour many
similitudes and Images of beastes, and other creatures, whiche thei make
themselues: the Iewes onely doe honour with their spirite and minde, and
conceiue in their vndrestandyng, but one onely Godheade. Iudging all other
that worshippe the Images of creatures, or of manne: to bee vngodlie and
wicked. These and many other thinges doth Cornelius write, and Trogus also
in his xxxvi. booke.

There ware amonge the Iewes thre seueralle sectes, differyng in life from
the reast of the people. The Phariseis, the Sadduceis, and the Esseis. The
Phariseis vsed a certeine rough solempnesse of appareille, and a very
skante fare: determinyng the Tradicions of Moyses, by certein ordenaunces
and decrees, whiche they themselues sette vp. Thei caried vpon their
foreheades, and on their lefte armes pretie billettes of Paper, facioned
for the place, wherein ware written the tenne preceptes of the two Tables.
And this did thei for that the Lorde saieth: And these shall thou haue
(meanyng the commaundements) as a remembraunce hanging before thine eyes,
and alwaie ready at thine hande. These were called their Philacteries, of
these two woordes Phylexi and Thorat, wherof the former signifieth to
Kiepe, and the other, the Lawe. These menne also hauyng vppon their skirtes
muche broder gardes then other, stacke them full of Thornes, whiche beatyng
and prickyng them on the hieles as thei wente, might putte them in
remembraunce of the commaundementes of God. Thei attributed all thynges
vnto God, and destenie, which they call Emarmeni. Neuertheles thei
graunted, that it laie muche in the free choise of manne: either to doe, or
not to doe the thinges that are iust and godlie, but yet destenie to helpe
in al cases. Whiche destenie thei thought to depende of the influence of
the bodies aboue. Looke what their superiors and Elders had saied, or
answered to any demaunde, thei neuer would contrarie it. Thei belieued that
GOD should come to Iudge the worlde, and that all soules ware euerlastyng.
And as for the soules of the good, thei helde opinion, that thei passed
from one bodie to another, vntill the daie of the generall resurrection.
But the soules of the wicked, to be plonged into euerlasting prison and
dongeon. The name of Pharisei was giuen vnto them for that thei ware
disguised fro the commune maner of other, as ye would saie, Sequestred.

The Sadduceis denied that there was any destenie, but that God was the
beholder of all, and that it laie in the choise of manne, to do well or
euill. And as for ioye or sorowe that the soule should suffre aftre this
life, thei denied. Neither belieued thei any resurrection: because thei
thoughte the soule died with the bodie. Thei would not belieue that there
ware any spirites, good or bad. Neither would thei receiue more of the
Bible, then the fiue bookes of Moses. Thei ware sterne men, and
vncompaignable: not so muche as ones kepyng felowshippe one with another.
For the whiche sternesse, thei named theim selues Sadduceis, that is to
saie iuste menne.

The Esseis ware in all pointes verie like vnto our cloisterers, abhorryng
mariage and the companie of women. Not for that thei condempned Mariage, or
the procreation of issue, but for that thei iudged a manne ought to be ware
of the intemperauncie of women. And that no woman kept herself true to her
husbande. Oh shameful opinion, and muche better to be reported by the dead,
then to be credited of the quicke, bee it neuer so true. Thei possessed all
thinges in commune. As for checkes or reuilings, was to them muske and
honie, and slouenly vndaftinesse, a great comelinesse. So that thei ware
alwaie in a white surcote, all was well. Thei had no certein abiding in any
one citie: but Celles ouer all, where so euer thei became. Before the
risyng of the Sonne, they spake nothyng that touched any worldly affair:
but praied the Sonne to rise. After whose vprijste thei laboured vntill
eleuen of the clocke. And then, washyng firste their whole bodie in water:
thei satte doune together to meate, in solempne silence euery manne.
Swearing they compted forswearyng. Thei admitted no manne to their secte,
vndre a yere of probation. And aftre what time thei had receiued him: yet
had thei two yeres more to proue his maners and condicions. Suche as thei
tooke with a faulte, thei draue fro their compaignie. Enioyned by the waie
of penaunce, to go a grasing like a beast, vntill his dieng daie. When
tenne ware sette in a companie together, no one of them spake without the
consente of the other nyne. Thei woulde not spitte within the precincte of
the compaignie emong theim, ne yeat on their righte side. They kept the
Sabboth with suche a precisenesse, that thei would not that daie, ease
nature of the belie burden. And when vpon other daies, nature forced theim
to that easemente, thei caried with theim a litle spade of woode, wherewith
in place most secreate, thei vsed to digge a litle pit, to laie their
bealie in. And in the time of doyng, thei also vsed a very greate
circumspection, that their clothes laie close to the grounde rounde aboute
theim, for offending (saied thei) of the Maiestie of God. Vpon whiche
respecte, thei also couered and bewried it, assone as thei had done that
nature required. Thei ware of verie long life, by the reason of the
vnifourme diete that thei vsed, alwaie aftre one rate of fare: whiche was
onely the fruicte of their countrie Balme. Thei occupied no money. If any
manne suffered for wel doyng, or as wrongfully condempned, that thoughte
thei the beste kinde of death. Thei helde opinion that all soules ware made
in the beginnyng, and put in to bodies from tyme to tyme, as bodies did
niede them. And for the good soules beyng ridde of their bodies againe,
thei saied there was a place appointed beyond the Weast Occean, where thei
take repose. But for the euill, thei appoincted places toward the East, as,
more stormie colde and vnpleasante. Ther ware amonge them that prophecied
thinges. Some of them gaue themselues to wedlocke: least if they shoulde be
of the oppinion that men oughte to absteine vttrely from women, mankinde
shoulde fade, and in processe be extincte, yeat vsed thei the compaignie of
their wiues nothing at riote.

The lande of Siria (whereof we haue named Iewrie a parte) is at this daie
enhabited of the Grekes, called Griphones, of the Iacobites, Nestorians,
Sarracenes, and of two Christian nations, the Sirians and Marouines. The
Sirians vse the saie Masse, aftre the maner of the Grekes: and for a space
ware subiecte to the churche of Rome.

The Marouines agree in opinion with the Iacobites. Their lettres and tongue
are al one with the Arabique. These Christianes dwelle at the Mounte
Libanus. The Sarracenes, whiche dwelle aboute Ierusalem (a people valeaunt
in warre) delight muche in housbondrie and tilthe. But contrary wise, thei
that enhabite Siria, in that poincte are nothing worth. The Marouines are
fewe in nombre, but of all other thei are the hardieste.

The v. Chapitre.

Of Media, and the maners of the Medes.

Media (a countrie of Asia) as Solinus writeth, toke the name of one Medus,
the sonne of Medea and Egeus, kyng of Athenes. Of whom the people ware also
called Medes. But Iosephus affirmeth that it was so named of Medius the
sonne of Iapheth. This countrie, as it is sene in Ptolomie, hath on the
Northe, the sea named Hircanum, on the West Armenia, and Assiria, on the
Southe Persie, and on theast Hircania and Parthia. Sauing that betwixte
Parthia and it, there ronneth a mounteigne, that separateth their
frontiers. The feactes that thei mooste exercise, are shooting and ridyng.
Wherein thei be righte experte, and almoste (for those quartres) without
matche or felowe. It hathe bene there a longe continued and aunciente
custome, to honour their kynges like goddes. The rounde cappe, whiche thei
cal Tiara: and their long slieued garmentes, passed from them to the
Persians, together with the Empire. It was a peculier maner vsed of the
Kynges of the Medes, to haue many wiues. Which thyng was aftrewarde also
taken by of the communes: so that at lengthe it was thought vnmiete to haue
feawer wiues then seuen. It was also a goodlie thyng for a woman to haue
many husbandes: and to be without fiue at ones, was compted a miserable
state. The Medes entre leagues and couenauntes, both aftre the maner of the
Grekes, and also with drawing bloud vpon some parte of the arme aboute the
shouldre, one of another, whiche thei vse to licke eche of others body. All
that parte of the countrey that lieth towarde the Northe, is barrein and
vnfruictefulle. Wherefore thei vse to make store of their fruicte, and to
drie them, and so to worke them into a masse, or lumpe for their foode. Of
rosted Almondes thei make their breade: and their wine of the rootes of
certein herbes. Thei eate great plentie of the fleshe of wilde beastes.

The. vi. Chapitre.

Of Parthia, and the maner of the Parthians.

A Certeine nombre of Outlawes and Banisshed menne, called Parthie, gaue
name to this Countrie: Aftre suche time as by train, and stealth thei had
gotten it. On the Southe it hath Carmania, on the North Hircanum, on the
Weast The Meades, and on the Easte the country of Arabia. The countrie is
hilly, and full of woddes, and of a barreine soyle. And a people which in
the time of the Assiriens, and Medes, were scante known and litle estiemed.
In so moche that when that highe gouernaunce of the whole (whiche the
Grekes call the Monarchie) was yelde into the handes of the Persians: thei
ware made a butin, as a nombre of raskalles without name. Laste of all thei
ware slaues to the Macedonies. But afterward in processe of time, suche was
the valeauntenes of this people and suche successe had thei: that thei
became lordes, not ouer their neighbours onely rounde about theim, but also
helde the Romaines (the conquerours of the worlde) suche tacke, that in
sondrie warres they gaue them great ouerthrowes, and notablye endamaged
their power. Pliny reherseth xiiii. kingdomes of the Parthians. Trogus
calleth them Emperors of the East part of the worlde, Asthoughe they, and
the Romaines holding the Weste, had deuided the whole betwixte them.

Aftre the decay of the Monarchie of the Macedonians, this people was ruled
by kinges. Whome generally by the name of the first king, thei termed
Arsaces. Nexte vnto the kinges maiestie, the communaltie bare the swaye.
Oute of whome they chase bothe their Capteignes for the warres, and their
gouernours for the peace time. Their language is a speache mixte of the
Scithians and Medes. Their appareil at the firste, was aftre their facion
vnlike to all other. But when thei grewe vnto power, louse and large, and
so thinne: that a man mighte see thoroughe it, aftre the facion of the
Medes. Their maner of weapon, and armour, was the same that the Scithians
vsed. But their armies ware altogether almoste of slaues and bondemen,
contrary to the maner of other peoples. And for that no manne hath
aucthoritie amonge them to giue fredome vnto anye of this bonde ofspring:
The nombre of them by continuance, came vnto a greate multitude. These do
thei bringe vp, and make of as deerly, as thei do of their owne children:
teachinge them to ride, to shote, to throwe the darte, and suche like
feates, with great diligence and handsomenes. Eche communer ther, acording
to his substaunce, findeth a greate nombre of these to serve the kinge on
horsebacke, in all warres. So that at what time Anthonie the Romaine made
warre vpon the Parthians, wher thei mette him with fyftie thousande
horsemen: there ware of the whole nombre but eyghte hundred fre borne. They
are not skylfull to fighte it oute at hande stripes, ne yeat in the maner
of besieging or assaulting: but all together aftre the maner of skirmisshe
as they spie their aduantage. Thei vse no trompet for their warninges or
onsettes but a dromme: neither are thei able to endure long in their
fighte. For yf they ware so good in continuaunce, as thei be violente at a
brunte: ther ware no multitude able to susteine their force. For the moste
parte thei breake of, when the skirmishe is euen at the whottest. And
within a while aftre thei feigne a flight, wher with thei beginne againe a
newe onsette. So when thou thinckest thy selfe mooste sure of the honour of
the fielde, then arte thou at the poinct of the hardest hazarde. Their
horsmen vse armour of mayle entrelaced with fethers: bothe for their owne
defence, and the defence also of their horses. In times passed thei
occupied no golde ne siluer, but only in their armour. Vpon regarde of
chaunge in their luste, thei mary echeone many wiues, and yet punishe thei
none offence so greuously as adultery. For the auoyding whereof thei doe
not onely forbidde their women by generall restrainte from all feastes, and
banckettinges of men: but also from the sighte of them. Some neuerthelesse
do wrighte, amonge the whiche Strabo is one, that thei vse to giue their
wiues sometime to their friendes, as in the waye of mariage, that thei maye
so haue issue. Thei eate none other fleshe but suche as thei kylle at the
chace. Thei be euer on horsebacke, whether thei go to the fielde or the
banket, to bye, to selle, to commune of aughte with their friende, or to do
any thing that is to be done. Yea thei dispatche al commune and priuate
affaires, sittinge on horsebacke. And this is to be vnderstonden of the fre
borne: for the slaues are alwaies on foote. Their buriall for all menne
(sauinge the kinge) is the dogges bealy, and the kytes. But when thei or
suche like haue eaten of, the fleshe, then couer thei the bare bones with
earth. Thei haue great regarde vnto their goddes, and the worship due vnto
them. Thei are men of a proude nature, busie medlers, and sedicious,
craftie, deceiptfull, malaparte, and vnshamefaced: for thei holde opinion
that it becometh the man as well to be Sterne, as the woman to be milde.
Thei be euer in some stirre, either with their neighbours, or elles amonge
themselues. Men of fewe wordes, and readier to doe, then to saye. And
therefore whether it go with them or against them, thei lappe it vp in
scilence. Thei obey not their superiours for any reuerence, but for feare.
Altogether giuen to lechery, and yet skante in fiedinge. No farther trewe
of worde or promesse, then semeth them expediente for their owne behoue.

The. vii. Chapiter.

Of Persia, and the maners and ordinaunces of the Persians.

Persia (a countrie of the Easte) was so called of Persius the Sonne of
Iupiter and Dana. Of whome the chiefe citie of the kingdome also, was named
Persepolis, whiche in Englishe soundeth Perseboroughe (or as we corruptly
terme it) Perseburie, and the whole nation Persiens. This countrie as
Ptolemie writeth in his fiueth booke, hath on the Northe, Media: on the
West, Susiana: on the Easte, the two Carmanias: and on the Southe, an
inshot of the Sea, called the Bosome of Parthia. The famous cities thereof,
were Axiama Persepolis and Diospolis. By the name of Iupiter thei
vnderstode the whole heauen. Thei chiefely honour the Sonne, whom the calle
Mitra. Thei worship also the Mone, the planet Venus, the fyre, the earthe,
the water, and the windes. Thei neither haue aultare nor temple, nor ymage,
but celebrate their deuine seruice vndre the open heauen vpon some highe
place for that purpose appoincted. In doinge sacrifice thei haue no farther
respecte, but to take awaye the life from the beaste. As hauing opinion,
that forasmuche as the goddes be spirites, thei delighte in nothinge but
the spiritual parte, the soule. Before thei slea it, thei set it aparte by
them, with a corone upon the heade, and heape vppon it many bittre
banninges and curses. Some of the nacion notwithstandinge, when thei haue
slaine the beaste: vse to lay parte of the offalle in the fire.

When thei sacrifie vnto the fire, they timbre vp drie stickes together,
cleane without pille or barcke. And after what time they haue powred on
neates tallowe, and oyle, thei kindle it. Not blowing with blaste of
blowesse or mouthe: but makinge winde as it ware with a ventile, or
trenchour, or suche like thinge. For yf any manne either blow into it, or
caste in any deade thing, or any durte, or puddle, it is deathe to the
doer. The Persians beare suche reuerence to their floudes, that thei
neither wasshe, pysse, nor throwe deade carcase into them. No not so moche
as spitte into them: But very reuerentlye honour their water after this
maner. Comminge to lake, mere, floude, ponde, or springe: thei trenche out
a litle diche, and ther cot thei the throte of the sacryfice. Being well
ware, that no droppe of blode sprinckle into the water by. As thoughe all
water ware polluted and vnhalowed ouer all: yf that should happen. That
done their Magi (that is to say men skylful in the secretes of nature)
layeng the flesh vppon a heape of Myrtus, or Laurelle, and tymbryng smalle
wandes about, sette fyre thereon and brenne yt. And pronouncyng certein
curses, they myngle oyle, mylke, and hony together, and sprinkle into the
fyre. But these cursinges make they not against the fyre ne water. But
against the earthe, a greate whyle toguether: holding in their hande a
boundle of smalle myrte wandes. Their kinges reigne by succession of one
kindred or stocke. To whom who so obeyeth not, hath his heade and armes
striken of: and so wythout buriall is throwen out for karreine. Policritus
sheweth that euery king of the Persians, buyldeth his howse vpon a greate
hille: and ther hourdeth vp all the threasure, tribute, and taxe that he
receyueth of the people: to be a recorde aftre his deathe how good a
husbonde he hath bene for the commune wealthe. Suche of the subiectes as
dwelle vpon the sea coast, are taxed to paie money. But those that inhabite
toward the mydde londe: suche commodities as the quarter beareth or hath
wher they dwelle. As apothecary druggues, woolle, coulours, and suche like
and cateille accordingly. He is not permitted any one cause, to putte any
man to death. Neither is it lawfull for any other of the Persians to
execute any thyng against any of his house or stock, that maie sieme in any
wyse cruelle. Euery one of them marie many wiues: and holde many concubines
also beside, for the encrease of issue.

The king Proclaimeth rewarde vnto him, that within one yere begetteth most
children. Fiue yere aftre thei are begotten, thei come not in the fathers
sight, by a certein ordenaunce vsed emong theim: but are broughte vp
continually emong the women: To the ende that if the childe fortune to dye
in the time of his infancie, their fathers grief maie be the lesse. Thei
vse not to marie but in one tyme of the yere: toward midde Marche. The
bridegrome eateth to his supper, an apple of that countrey, or a litle of
the maribone of a Chamel: and so without any farther banquetting goeth to


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