The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries
Richard Hakluyt

Part 5 out of 5

well, and where the hunters may search the dennes and hauntes of such
beastes through the woods and snow.

Vpsaliensis affirmeth that he hath felt the Sommer nights in Gotland
scarcely tollerable for heate, whereas in Rome he hath felt them cold.

The Mountaynes of Norway and Swethland are fruitefull of mettalls in which
siluer and copper are concoct and molten in veines, which may scarcely bee
done with fornaces, by which reason also the vapors and hot exhalations
pearcing the earth and the waters and through both those natures breathing
forth into the ayre, tempereth the quantitie thereof making it tollerable,
as wyttnes the huge bignes of whales in those seas, with the strength of
body and long life of such beastes as liue on the land, which thing could
not bee except all thinges were there comodiously nourished, by the benefit
of the heauen and the ayre, for nothing that in time of increase is hindred
by any iniury or that is euill seed all the time it liueth can prosper

Also it is a thing vndoubtedly knowne by experience that vpon the coastes
of newfounde land, (as such as the yse remayneth vndissolued vpon those
shores,) the wind being esterly, comming from the seas, causeth very sharpe
colde, and yet the same is sufferable, but comming from the shore, yt
presently yeldeth heat aboundantly according to the true nature of the
scituation of the place, whereby it plainly appeareth that the very breth
of the yse is rather the cause of this cold, then the distempreture of the

Wherefore if in winter where is aboundance of yse and snowe the ayre is so
sufferable, as that traueling and hunting may be exercised how much rather
may wee iudge the seas to be Nauigable, and that in the deepest of winter,
where there is neither yse nor snow that may yeld any such damps or cold
breathings to the anoiance of such as shall take these interprises in hand.
And therefore the Summer in no sort to be feared, but some curious witt may
obiect that the naturall anoyance of cold is preuented by reason of the
trauell of the body with other artificiall prouisions to defend the fury
thereof, as also the whot vapors which the earth may yeld, whereof
experience vrgeth confession, but vpon the seas it cannot be sith it is a
cold body subiect to yeld great dampes and cold brethinges most offensiue
to nature. To the which I answere in the vniuersall knowledge of all
creatures that God the most glorious incomprehensible and euer being sole
creatour of all thinges visible, invisible, rationall, irrationall,
momentory and eternall in his diuine prouidence hath made nothing
vncommunicable, but hath giuen such order vnto all things, whereby euery
thing may be tollerable to the next, the extremities of ellements consent
with their next the ayre is grosse about the earth and water, but thinn and
hot about the fyer, by this prouidence in nature the sea is very salt, and
salt (sayth Plinie) yeldeth the fatnes of oyle, but oyle by a certayne
natiue heate is of propertie agreeable to fire, then being all of such
qualitie by reason of the saltnes thereof moueth and stirreth vp generatiue
heate, &c. Whereby the sea hath a working force in the dissolution of yse
for things of so great contrariety as heate and cold haue togeather no
affinitye in coniunction, but the one must of necessitye auoyde, the seas
not being able by the bandes of nature to step backe, doth therefore cause
the coldnesse of the ayre (by reason of his naturall heate) to giue place,
whereby extremities being auoyded, the ayre must of necessitie remayne
temperate, for in nature the ayre is hote and moyst, the colde then being
but accidentall is the soner auoided, and natures wrongs with ease

That vnder the Pole is the place of greatest dignitie.

Reason teacheth vs and experience confirmeth the same, that the Sun is the
onely sufficient cause of heat through the whole world and therefore in
such places where the Sunne hath longest continuance, the ayre there
receueth the greatest impression of heat, as also in his absence it is in
like sort afflicted with colde. And as the heate in all clymates is
indurable, by the eternall ordinance of the creator, so likewise the cold
is sufferable by his euerlasting decree, for otherwise nature should bee
monstrous and his creation wast, as it hath beene ydly affirmed by the most
Cosmographicall writers, distinguishing the sphere into fiue Zones haue
concluded three of them to be wast, as vaynely created, the burning zone
betweene the two tropikes, and the two frozen Zones, but experience hauing
reprooued the grosenes of that errour it shall be needlesse to say further
therein. For although in the burning Zone the sun beames are at such right
angles as that by the actuall reuerberation thereof the lower region of the
ayre is greatly by that reflexion warmed, yet his equall absence breadeth
such mitigation as that there we find the ayre tollerable, and the
countries pleasant and fruitfull, being populos and well inhabited: so
likewise vnder the pole being the center of the supposed frozen Zone,
during the time that the Sunne is in the South signes, which is from the
thirteenth of September vnto the 10 of March, it is there more cold then in
any place of the world, because the Sunne in all that time doth neuer
appeare aboue the Horyzon, but during the time that the Sunne is in the
North signes which is from the tenth of March vnto the thirteenth of
September he is in continuall view to all such as posses that place, by
which his continuall presence, he worketh that notable effect, as that
therby all the force of frysing is wholy redressed and vtterly taken away,
working then and there more actuall then in any other part of the world. In
which place there continuall day from the Sunne rising to the sunne setting
is equall with twenty sixe weekes and fiue dayes, after our rate: and their
night is equall with twenty fiue weekes and three dayes such as we haue, so
that our whole yeere is with them but one night and one day, a wonderfull
difference from al the rest of the world, and therefore no doubt but those
people haue a wonderfull excellencie and an exceeding prorogatiue aboue all
nations of the earth and this which is more to be noted. In all other
places of the world the absence and presence of the Sun is in equall
proportion of time, hauing as much night as day, but vnder the Pole their
artificiall day (that is the continuall presence of the Sunne before he
sett) is nine of our naturall dayes or two hundreth 16 houres longer then
is their night, whereby it appeareth that they haue the life, light and
comfort of nature in a higher measure then all the nations of the earth.
How blessed then may we thinke this nation to be: for they are in
perpetuall light, and neuer know what darknesse meaneth, by the benefit of
twylight and full moones, as the learned in Astronomie doe very well knowe,
which people if they haue the notice of their eternitie by the comfortable
light of the Gospel, then are they blessed and of all nations most blessed.
Why then doe we neglect the search of this excellent discouery, agaynst
which there can be nothing sayd to hinder the same. Why doe we refuse to
see the dignity of Gods Creation, sith it hath pleased his diuine Maiestie
to place vs the nerest neighbor therevnto. I know there is no true
Englishman that can in conscience refuse to be a contributer to procure
this so great a happines to his country, whereby not onely the Prince and
mightie men of the land shall be highly renowned, but also the Merchant,
tradesman and artificer mightily inriched.

And now as touching the last obiection that the want of skill in Nauigation
with curious instrumentes, should be the hinderance or ouerthrow of this
action. I holde that to bee so friuolous as not worth the answering, for it
is wel knowne that we haue globes in the most excellent perfection of arte,
and haue the vse of them in as exquisite sort, as master Robert Hues in his
book of the globes vse, lately published hath at large made knowne, and for
Horizontall paradox and great circle sayling I am myself a witnesse in the
behalfe of many, that we are not ignorant of them, as lately I haue made
knowne in a briefe treatis of Nauigation naming it the Seamans Secreats.
And therfore this as the rest breadeth no hinderance to this most
commodious discouery.

What benefits would growe vnto Englande by this passage being discouered,

The benefits which may growe by this discouery, are copious and of two
sorts, a benifit spirituall and a benifit corporall. Both which sith by the
awes of God and nature we are bound to regard, yet principally we are
admonished first to seeke the Kingdome of God and the righteousnes thereof
and all thinges shall be giuen vnto vs. And therfore in seeking the
Kingdome of God we are not onely tied to the depe search of Gods sacred
word and to liue within the perfect lymits of Christianity, but also by al
meanes we are bound to multiply, and increase the flocke of the faithfull.
Which by this discouery wil be most aboundantly perfourmed to the
preseruation of many thousands which now most miserably are couered vnder
the lothsome vayle of ignorance, neither can we in any sort doubt of their
recouery by this passage discouered, Gods prouidence therein being
considered who most mercifully sayth by the mouth of his prophet Esaias 66
I will come to gather all people and tongues, then shall they come and see
my glory, of them that shall be saued. I will send some to the Gentils in
the sea and the yls far of that haue not heard speak of me, and haue not
sene my glory, shall preach my peace among the Gentiles.

And in this 65 Chapter he farther sayth, They seeke me that hitherto haue
not asked for me, they find me that hitherto haue not sought me.

And againe chapter 49 I wil make waies vpon al my mountains and my
footpathes shall be exalted, and behold these shall come from farre, some
from the North and West, some from the land of Symis which is in the South.
Then sith it is so appointed that there shal be one shepheard and one
flocke, what hindreth vs of England, (being by Gods mercy for the same
purpose at this present most aptly prepared,) not to attempt that which God
himselfe hath appointed to be performed, there is no doubt but that wee of
England are this saued people by the eternal and infallible presence of the
Lord predestinated to be sent vnto these Gentiles in the sea, to those ylls
and femous Kingdoms ther to preach the peace of the Lorde, for are not we
onely set vpon Mount Sion to giue light to all the rest of the world, haue
not we the true handmayd of the Lord to rule vs, vnto whom the eternall
maiestie of God hath reueled his truth and supreme power of excellencye, by
whom then shall the truth be preached, but by them vnto whom the truth
shall be reueled, it is onely we therefore that must be these shining
messengers of the Lord and none but we for as the prophet sayth, O how
beautifull are the feet of the messenger that bringeth the message from the
mountain, that proclameth peace, that bringeth the good tidings and
preacheth health and sayth to Sion thy God is King, so that hereby the
spirituall benefit arising by this discouery is most apparant, for which if
there were no other cause wee are all bound to labour with purse and minde
for the discouery of this notable passage. And nowe as touching the
corporall and worldly benefits which will thereby arise, our owne late
experience leadeth vs to the full knowledge thereof, as by the communitie
of trade groweth the mightines of riches, so by the kinde and guide of such
tradinges may grow the multiplication of such benifits, with assurance how
the same may in the best sort be continued. In the consideration whereof it
is first to bee regarded with what commodities our owne country aboundeth
either naturall or artificiall, what quantity may be spared, and wher the
same may with the easiest rate be gained, and how in his best nature vnto
vs returned, all which by this passage shall be vnto vs most plentifully
effected, and not onely that, but this also which is most to be regarded
that in our thus trading wee shall by no meanes inrich the next adioyning
states vnto vs, for riches bread dread, and pouertie increaseth feare, but
here I cease fering to offend, yet it is a question whether it were better
by an easy rate to vent our commodities far of or by a more plentifull
gayne to passe them to our neerer neighbours, and those therby more
inriched then ourselues, the premises considered wee finde our country to
abound with woll, and wollen cloth, with lead, tin, copper and yron,
matters of great moment, wee also knowe our soyle to be fertill, and would
if trad did so permit haue equal imploiment with any of our neighbours, in
linnen cloth, fustians, seys, grograms or any other forraine artificiall
commodities, besides the excellent labours of the artsman, either in
metallyne mechanicall faculties, or other artificiall ornaments, whereof
India is well knowne to receiue all that Europe can afford, rating our
commodities in the highest esteeme of valewe, which by this passage is
speedily perfourmed, and then none of these should lie dead vpon our handes
as now they doe, neither should we bee then ignorant as now we are in many
excellent practices into which by trade wee shoulde bee drawne. And by the
same passage in this ample vent, we should also at the first hand receiue
all Indian commodities both naturall and artificial in a far greter measure
by an easier rate and in better condition, then nowe they are by many
exchaunges brought vnto vs, then would all nations of Europe repayre vnto
England not only for these forraine merchandizes by reason of their plenty,
perfection and easy rates, but also to passe away that which God in nature
hath bestowed vpon them and their countrie, wherby her maiestie and her
highnes successors for euer, should be monarks of the earth and commaunders
of the Seas, through the aboundance of trade her coustomes would be
mightily augmented, her state highly inriched, and her force of shipping
greatly aduanced, as that thereby shee should be to all nations moste
dredful, and we her subiects through imploiment should imbrace aboundance
and be clothed with plenty. The glory whereof would be a deadly horrer to
her aduersaries, increase friendly loue with al and procure her maiestie
stately and perpetuall peace, for it is no small aduantage that ariseth to
a state by the mightines of trade: being by necessity linked to no other
nation, the same also beeing in commodities of the highest esteeme, as
gold, siluer, stones of price, iuels, pearls, spice, drugs, silkes raw and
wrought, veluetts, cloth of gold, besides many other commodities with vs of
rare and high esteeme, whereof as yet our countrie is by nature depriued,
al which India doth yeld at reasonable rates in great aboundance receiuing
ours in the highest esteeme, so that hereby plenty retourning by trade
abroade, and no smale quantity prouided by industry at home, all want then
banished in the aboundance of her maiesties royalty, so through dred in
glory, peace and loue, her maiesty should be the commaunding light of the
world, and we her subiects the stars of wonder to al nations of the earth.
Al which the premises considered it is impossible that any true English
hart should be staied from willing contribution to the performance of this
so excellent a discouery, the Lords and subiectes spirituall for the sole
publication of Gods glorious gospell. And the Lords and subiectes temporal
for the renowne of their prince and glory of their nation should be
thervnto most vehemently effected. Which when it shall so please God in the
mightines of his mercy, I beseech him to effect. Amen.



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