The Student's Elements of Geology
Sir Charles Lyell

Part 14 out of 14

--, Tertiaries of the.

Parka decipiens, "Old Red."

Parkfield Colliery, ground-plan of.

Patagonia, strata of, rich in soda.

Patella rugosa, Great Oolite.

Paterson, Dr., on angiosperm of the Coal.

Peach, Mr. C, cited.
--, Pteraspis, found by.


Pebbles in mineral veins.
-- in chalk.

Pecopteris elliptica, Coal.

Pecten Beaveri, White Chalk.
-- cinctus, Neocomian.
-- islandicus, Scotch Drift.
-- jacobaeus, in tertiary of Sicily.
-- quinque-costatus.
-- Valoniensis, Rhaetic beds.


Penarth beds.

Pengelly, Mr., on Bovey Tracey lignite.
--, on flint-knives of Brixham Cave.

Pentacrinus Briareus, Lias.

Pentamerus Knightii, Aymestry.
-- oblongus, and P. lirata.

Pentland Hills, volcanic rocks of the.

Perigord cave, carving of mammoth in.

Permanence of continents and oceans.

Permian Flora.
-- of Germany.
-- strata, thickness of, in north of England.
--, Upper and Middle.
--, Lower.

Perna Mulleti, Neocomian.

Petherwyn, Devonian fossils of.

Petrifaction, process of.

Petrophiloides Richardsoni, Sheppey.

Pahcops caudatus, Silurian.
-- latifrons, Devonian.

Phascolotherium Bucklandi.

Phasianella Heddingtonensis, and cast.

Phillippi, on tertiary shells of Sicily.

Phillips, Professor, on fossils distorted by cleavage.
--, on ninety fathom dike.
--, on Wenlock limestone and shale.
--, on Yoredale series.

Phillips, Mr. J. Arthur, on origin of gold of California.

Phlebopteris contigua, Inferior Oolite.


Pholadomya fidicula, Inferior Oolite.


Phorus extensus, London Clay.

Phragmoceras ventricosum, Silurian.

Physa Bristovii, Middle Purbeck.
-- columnaris.
-- hypnorum.

Piedmont, absence of lakes in.

Pile dwellings of Switzerland.

Pilton, group of, Devon.

Pinnularia in Atlantic mud.

Pinus sylvestris in peat.

Pisolitic limestone of France.


Placodus gigas, Muschelkalk.

Placoids, rare in Old Red Sandstone.

Plagiaulax Becklesii, jaw and molar of.

Plagioclastic feldspars.

Plagiostoma giganteum, Lias.
-- Hoperi, Chalk.

Planorbis discus, Bembridge.
-- euomphalus.

Plants of Bovey Tracey, Miocene.
--, fossil fresh-water.
-- of the Coal.
-- of the Lias.
-- of the Swiss Upper Miocene.

Plas Newydd, rock altered by dike near.

Plastic Clay, Eocene.

Platanus aceroides, Miocene.

Platystoma Suessii, Hallstadt.

Playfair, on amount of subaerial denudation.
-- on faults.

Plectrodus mirabilis, Ludlow.

Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus, Lias.

Pleurotoma attenuata, Bracklesham.
-- exorta, Eocene.

Pleurotomaria anglica, and cast.
-- carinata (flammigera).
-- granulata, Inferior Oolite.
-- ornata, Inferior Oolite.

Plieninger, Professor, on Triassic mammifer.

Pliocene glacial formations.
-- Period.
-- plutonic rocks.
-- strata of Sicily.
--, term defined.
-- volcanic rocks.

Plombieres, alkaline waters of.

Plumbago of Massachusetts.

Plutonic and sedimentary formations, diagram of.
--, origin of the term.
-- rocks, Mesozoic.
--, Recent and Pliocene.
--, Miocene and Eocene.
--, uncertain tests of age of.
-- defined.

Podocarya Bucklandi, Oolite.

Polypterus of the Nile.

Polyzoa and Bryozoa, terms explained.

Pomel, M., on fossil mammalia of the Limagne.

Ponza Islands, globiform pitchstone of.

Porites pyriformis, Devonian.

Porphyritic granite.


Portland, Cycads in dirt-bed of.
-- oolite and sand.

"Portland screw," a cast of a shell.

Porto Santo, marine shells in volcanic tuff of.

Post-pliocene period, climate of the.
-- mammalia, teeth of.
--, term defined.
-- lakes of Switzerland.
-- volcanic rocks.

Potamides cicntus.

Pothocites Grantonii, coal-measures.

Potsdam Sandstone.

Pot-stones in the Chalk.

Pottsville, coal seams of.

Powrie, Mr., on Cephalaspis beds.
--, on Parka decipiens.

Pratt, Mr., on Eocene Isle of Wight mammalia.

Predazzo, altered rocks at.

Pressure, solidifying rocks.

Prestwich, Mr., on age of Sables inferieurs.
--, on Chillesford beds.
--, on Coalbrook Dale insects.
--, on Eocene strata.
--, on faults in coal-measure of Coalbrook Dale.
--, on shells of London clay.
--, on thickness of Coralline Crag.

Prevost, M. Constant, on Paris basin.

Primary Limestone.
-- rocks.
--, term defined.

"Primordial Zone" of Bohemia.

Productus horridus, Permian.
-- semireticulatus (antiquatus).

Progressive development indicated by low grade of early mammals.

Proteaceae of Aix-la-Chapelle flora.
-- of Lower Molasse, Switzerland.
-- of Oeningen beds.


Protosaurus of Thuringia.

Protrusion of solid granite.

Provinces of animals and plants.

Psammodus porosus.

Pseudocrinites bifasciatus, Silurian.

Psilophyton princeps, Devonian.

Pteraspis in Lower Ludlow shale.

Pterichthys, Old Red Sandstone.

Pterodactyl of Kentish chalk.

Pterodactylus anglicus, Old Red.
-- crassirostris, Solenhofen.

Ptychodus decurrens, White Chalk.

Pudding-stone or conglomerate.
--, formation of.


Punfield beds, brackish and marine.

Pupa muscorum.
-- tridens, Loess.
-- vetusta, Coal.

Purbeck beds, Upper, Middle, and Lower.
--, fossil mammalia of the Middle.
-- marble.
--, subdivisions of the.

Purity of coal, cause of.

Purpura tetragona, Red Crag.

Purpuroidea nodulata, Great Oolite.

Puy de Come, cone and lava-current of.
-- de Tartaret, lava-current and cone of.
-- de Pariou, crater of the.

Puzzuoli, elevation of land at.

Pygopterus mandibularis, Permian.

Pyrenees, chalk altered by granite in the.
--, curved strata in.
--, lamination of clay-slate in.

Pyroxene group of minerals.

Pyrula reticulata, Crag.

Quader-sandstein, Cretaceous age of the.

Quadrumana of Gers.

Quadrupeds, extinct, in Paleolithic gravels.

Quartz, specific gravity of.

Quartzite or Quartz Rock.

Queenaig, unconformable Palaeozoic strata at.

Quenstedt on zones of Lias.

Radaboj Miocene, brown coal of.

Radiolites foliaceus, White Chalk.
-- Mortoni, White Chalk.
-- radiosa, White Chalk.

Radnorshire, stratified trap in.

Rain-prints with worm tracks in Coal.
--, carboniferous.

Ramsay, Professor, on break between Upper and Lower Cretaceous.
--, on breccias in Permian.
--, on escarpments.
--, on denudation.
--, on ice-erosion of lake-basins.
--, on Lingula Flags.
--, on position of Tremadoc beds.
--, on Silurian metamorphic rocks.
--, on submergence in glacial period.
--, on thickness of the Lower Trias.
--, on thickness of Llandeilo beds.
--, on thickness of the Bala beds.
--, on volcanic tuffs of Snowdon.
--, on zones of the Lias.

Rastrites peregrinus, Llandeilo Flags.

Rath, Von, on Tridymite.

Recent Period defined.
-- volcanic rocks.

Record, imperfection of, in the earth's crust.

Red Crag, older Pliocene.
-- Sandstone, Origin of.
-- Sea and Mediterranean, distinct species in.

Redruth, Cornwall, section of veins in mine.

Reindeer Period in South of France.

Relistran mine, pebbles in tin of.

Reptiles of the Coal.

Reptiles of the Lias.

Retepora flustracea, Permian.

Rhaetic beds between Lias and Trias.

Rhine, fresh-water strata of the.
--, loess of the.

Rhinoceros in drift of Abbeville.
-- leptorhinus (megarhinus), molar of.
-- tichorhinus, molar of.

Rhode Island, metamorphic rocks of.

Rhynchonella navicula, Ludlow.
-- octoplicata, White Chalk.
-- spinosa, Inferior Oolite.
-- Wilsoni, Aymestry.

Richmond, Virginia, Triassic coal-field of.

Rigi and Speer, Lower Miocene of the.

Rimula clathrata, Great Oolite.

Rink, Mr., on Greenland land-ice.

Ripple-marked sandstone, how formed.

Rise and fall of land.

Rissoa Chastelii, Hempstead beds.

Rivers, denuding powers of.

Roches moutonnees described.

Rock, term defined.

Rocks altered by volcanic dikes.
-- altered by subterranean gases.
--, analysis of minerals in.
--, aqueous or stratified.
--, classification of.
--, great thickness of palaeozoic.
--, glacial scorings on.
--, metamorphic, age of.
--, plutonic age of.
--, volcanic, age of.
--, trappean.
--, metamorphic, defined.
--, four classes of contemporaneous.
--, plutonic, defined.
--, tests of age of.
--, four contemporaneous classes of.
--, underlying, not always the oldest.
--, volcanic, defined.

Rock-salt of Trias.
--, origin of.

Rogers, Mr. H.D., on blending of coal-seams.
--, on Virginian fault.

Rose, Gustavus, on isomorphism.
--, on Fifeshire dike.
--, on quartz in granite.

Rosso antico, red porphyry of Egypt.

Rostellaria (Hippocrenes) ampla, London Clay.

Roth, M., on Miocene of Greece.

Runn of Cutch, salt of.

Rupelian beds of Dumont.

Russia, glaciation of.
--, Devonian of.
--, Silurian strata of.

Saarbruck, reptiles in coal-field of.

Sabal major, Lower Miocene.

Sables de Bracheux.
-- moyens, Paris basin.


St. Abb's Head, curved strata of.
--, unconformable stratification at.

St. Andrews, carboniferous trap-rocks of.

St. Cassian, fossil mollusca of.
-- and Hallstadt beds.

St. David's, Menevian beds of.

St. Mary's, shells of.

Salt, rock, origin of.

Salter, Mr., on fossils of Arenig group.
--, on Menevian beds.
--, on Tremadoc fossils.

Sandberger, Dr. F., on Mayence basin.

Sandstone, New Red.
--, Old Red.
-- slab with cracks.
--, slab of ripple-marked.
-- slab with footprints.

Sao hirsuta.

Saurians of the Lias.
--, sudden destruction of.

Saurichthys apicalis, Rhaetic Beds.

Saussure, on vertical conglomerates.

Saxicava rugosa, Scotch drift.

Saxony, beds of minerals in.

Scandinavia, glaciation of.

Scaphites aequalis, Chloritic marl.


Scheerer on action of water in metamorphism.

Schist, mica.
--, argillaceous.
--, hornblende.

Schizodus Schlotheimi, Permian.
-- truncatus, Permian.

Schmerling, Dr., on Liege caverns.

Schorl-rock, and schorly granite.

Schwab, M., on Celtic coins in lake-dwellings.

Scoliostoma, St. Cassian.

Scoresby, on Arctic icebergs.

Scoriaceous lava.


Scotland, "Fundamental gneiss" of.
--, Old Red Sandstone of.
--, glaciation of.

Screws, fossil, internal casts of shells.

Scrope, Mr., on Isle of Ponza, globiform pitchstone.
--, on minerals in lava.
--, on water in lava.

Scudder, Mr., on Devonian insects of Canada.

Sea, apparent fall of, caused by rise of land.
--, denuding power of the.
--, deep soundings in.
--, mean depth of the.
-- cliffs, inland.

Secondary and Tertiary, gap between the.
--, term defined.

Section of Auvergne alluvium.
-- of carboniferous rocks, Lancashire.
-- of chalk and greensand.
-- of crags near Woodbridge, Suffolk.
-- of cross-stratification.
-- of curved strata of the Jura.
-- of dirt-bed in Isle of Portland.
-- of Forfarshire, showing curved strata.
-- of fossil tree, showing texture.
-- of folded and denuded carboniferous beds, Nova Scotia.
-- of the Oolitic strata.
-- of Recent and Post-pliocene alluvial deposits.
-- showing creeps in coal-mines.
-- of slaty cleavage.
-- showing valleys of denudation.
-- showing the Weald formation.
-- of strata thinning out.
-- of superimposed groups at Dundry Hill.
-- of unconformable strata near Mons.

Sections illustrating faults.

Sedgwick, Professor, on the Cambrian Group.
--, on classification of Arenig group.
--, on Devonian series.
--, on position of the May-Hill beds.
--, on protrusion of solid granite.
--, on slaty cleavage.
--, on garnet in altered rock.
--, on concretionary structure.

Sediment, accumulation of, causing a shifting of the subterranean isothermals.

Sedimentary beds of the Carboniferous.

Selsea Bill, erratics at.

Senarmont on action of water in metamorphism.

Sequoia Langsdorfii.

"Seraphim," head of Pterygotus anglicus.

Serapis, marine littoral deposits of.


Serpulae attached to Gryphaea.
-- attached to Spatangus.
-- attached to Apiocrinus.

Shale defined.
-- of the Lower Ludlow.

Sharpe, Mr. D., on American Silurian fossils.
--, on fossils distorted by cleavage.

Shell-mounds of Denmark.

Shells, Arctic, in Scotch drift.
--, derivative, in the Crag.
--, marine, found at great heights above the sea.
--, proportion of living, in the Crags.
--, value of, in classification.
--, fossil, of Virginia.
-- of the London clay.
-- of the mountain limestone.
-- of the Barton clay.
-- of the Oolite.
--, marine, of Moel Tryfaen.

Sheppey, fauna and flora of.
--, Eocene fish of.

Sherringham, erratic block at.

Shetland, granite of.
--, hornblende-schist of.

Sicily, fauna and flora of, older than the country itself.
--, newer Pliocene strata of.
--, subterranean igneous action in.
--, undulating gypseous marls of.
--, volcanic dikes of.

Sidlaw Hills, trap of.

Sigillaria in coal-measures.

Sigillaria laevigata, coal-measures.

Siliceous limestone defined.

Silurian, derivation of the name.
--, granite of Norway.
--, metamorphic, of North Highlands.
-- rocks, classification of.
-- strata of the continent of Europe.
-- strata of United States.
-- volcanic rocks.

Siphonotreta unguiculata, obolus grits.

Siwalik Hills, fresh-water deposits of.

Skaptar Jokul, flow of lava from.

Skye, hypersthene rocks of.
--, Isle of, Miocene syenite of the.
--, trap dike in.

Slaty cleavage.

Slicken-sides, in opposite walls of veins.
--, term defined.

Smilax sagittifera, Oeningen.

Smith, Mr. W., on White Lias bed.

Snowdon, volcanic tuffs of.

Soissonnais sands.

Solenastraea cellulosa, Brockenhurst.

Solenhofen stone, fossils in the.

Solfatara, decomposition of rocks in the.

Somma, cone and dikes of.

Sopwith, Mr. T., models of outcrop of strata.

Sorby, Mr., on action of water in metamorphism.
--, on glass cavities in quartz.
--, on mechanical theory of cleavage.
--, on ripple-marks in mica schist.

South Joggins, section of cliffs at.

Spalacotherium, Purbeck.

Spatangus radiatus, Chalk.
-- with serpula attached.

Species, gradual change of.
-- older than the land they inhabit.
--, similarity of conditions causing reappearance of.

Specific gravity of basalt and trachyte.

Speer and Rigi, Lower Miocene of the.

Speeton Clay.

Sphaerexochus mirus, Silurian.

Sphaerulites agariciformis, White Chalk.
-- of volcanic minerals.

Sphenophyllum erosum, Coal.

Sphenopteris gracilis, Hastings sands.

Spheroidal concretions in limestone.

Spicula of sponge, Atlantic mud.

Spirifera disjuncta, Devonian.
-- alata, Permian.
-- mucronata.
-- trigonalis, and S. glabra.

Spiriferina Walcotti, Lias.

Spirolina stenostoma, Eocene.

Spirorbis carbonarius, coal-measures.

Spondylus spinosus, White Chalk.

Sponge in flint from White Chalk.

Sponges, vitreous, in the chalk.

Springs, mineral of Auvergne.

Staffa, age of columnar basalt of.

Stalactite, origin of, explained.

Starfish in Silurian strata.

Stations of species affecting distribution of fossils.

Stauria astraeiformis.

Stereognathus of Stonesfield.

Sternberg, Count, on insects in coal.

Stigmaria attached to trunk of Sigillaria.
-- in coal-measures.
-- ficoides and surface showing tubercles, Coal.


Stiper-Stones or Arenig Group.

Stockwerk, assemblage of veins.

Stonesfield slate, mammalia of the.

Strata, term defined, alternations of fresh-water, and shallow and deep-sea.
--, alternations of marine and fresh-water.
--, curved, inclined, and vertical.
--, apparent horizontality of inclined.
--, contorted in drift.
--, contortion of, in Cyclopean Isles.
--, general table of fossiliferous.
--, horizontality of.
--, origin of metamorphic.
--, outcrop of.
--, overlapping.
-- repeated by being doubled back.
--, slow growth of, attested by fossils.
-- of organic origin.
--, tests of age of.
--, unconformability of.
--, vast thickness of, not forming high mountains.

Stratification, diagonal or cross.
--, different forms described.
-- of metamorphic rocks considered.

Stratified rocks, composition of.

Striae, production of.

Strickland, Mr., on thickness of the Trias.

Stricklandinia lirata.

Strike, term explained.

Stringocephalus Burtini.

Stromboli, lava of.

Strophomena depressa, Wenlock.
-- grandis.

Studer, Mr., on gneiss of the Jungfrau.

Subaerial denudation, average annual amount of.

Subapennine beds, proportion of recent species in.
-- strata, older Pliocene.

Submarine denudation.

Subsidence of land must preponderate over upheaval.

Succinea amphibia.
-- elongata.

Suess, M., on fossils of St. Cassian beds.
--, on Vienna basin.

Suffolk, Crag of.

"Sunk country," New Madrid.

Superga, Lower Miocene of the.

Superior, Lake, marl in.

Superposition of deposits, a test of age.
-- a test of age of volcanic rocks.

Sutherlandshire, unconformable Palaeozoic strata in.

Swanage, fossil mammalia found at.

Sweden, Cambrian of.
--, slow rise of land in.
--, small thickness of Silurian strata in.

Switzerland, lake-dwellings of.
--, Lower Molasse of.
--, Middle or Marine Molasse of.
--, Upper Miocene of, at Oeningen.

Sydney coal-field, rain-prints in.

Syenite, composition of.
--, how far connected with trap-rocks.

Syenitic granite.

Symonds, Reverend W.S., on Moel Tryfaen shells.

Synclinal and anticlinal curves.

Table of Botanical Nomenclature.
-- of St. Cassian fossil mollusca.
-- of Cretaceous formations.
-- of Devonian series in Devon.
-- of divisions of Hastings Sand.
-- of English and French Eocene strata.
-- of ages of fossil vertebrata.
-- of Neocomian strata.
-- of mammalia older than Paris gypsum.
-- of marine testacea in the Crag.
-- of Oolitic strata.
-- of volcanic minerals.
-- of Silurian strata of United States.
-- of Silurian rocks.
-- of Triassic strata.
-- of Cambrian strata.
-- of Permian of north of England.
-- of Welsh coal-measures.
-- of thicknesses of Carboniferous limestone.
--, general, of fossiliferous strata.

Table Mountain, granite veins in clay-slate of.

Tails of homocercal and heterocercal fish.

Talcose granite.
-- gneiss.

Tarannon shales.

Tartaret cone, and lava of.

Tate, Mr., on St Cassian fossils.

Tealby series, Middle Neocomian.

Teeth of extinct mammalia.

Tellina balthica (T. solidula).
-- calcarea (T. proxima).
-- obliqua, Crag.

Temnechinus excavatus.

Temnopleurus excavatus.

Tentaculites annulatus, Silurian.

Terebellum fusiforme, Barton.
-- sopita, Barton.

Terebratula affinis, Aymestry.
-- biplicata, White Chalk.
-- carnea, White Chalk.
-- digona, Bradford clay.
-- fimbria, Inferior Oolite.
-- hastata, Mountain Limestone.
-- sella, Neocomian.
-- Wilsoni, Aymestry.

Terebratulina striata, White Chalk.

Terebrirostra lyra, Chloritic Sand.

Teredo navalis, boring wood.

Tertiary formations, classification of.
-- strata, subdivisions of.
--, term defined.

Testacea. See Shells.


Thamnastraea, Coral Rag.

Thanet sands.

Theca operculata, Tremadoc beds.

Thecodontosaurus, tooth of.

Thecodus parvidens, Ludlow.

Thecosmilia annularis, Coral Rag.

Thirria, M., on Nerinaean limestone.

Thompson, Dr., on Nummulites of Thibet.

Thomson, Wyville, on Atlantic mud.
--, on sponges in chalk mud.

Thuringia, monitor of.

Thurmann, M., on Bernese Jura Oolite.
--, on structure of the Jura.

Thylacotherium Prevostii, Stonesfield.

Tile-stones of the Upper Ludlow.

Tilgate forest, fossil Iguanodon in.

Till described.
--, mammoth in Scotch.
-- of North America.

Tin veins, age of, in Cornwall.


Torell, Dr., on ice-action in Greenland.
--, on Swedish Cambrian fossils.

Touraine, faluns of.


Trachytic rocks.
-- tuff.
-- porphyry.
-- lava, age of.

Trap, term defined.
-- dike, intercepting strata.
-- dikes.
--, intrusion of, between strata.
-- rocks, ages of.
-- rocks passing into granite.
-- tuff described.

Trappean rocks, nomenclature of.
-- rocks, their relation to active volcanoes.

Trass of Lower Eifel.

Travertin, how deposited.
--, inferieur of Paris basin.

Tree ferns, living.

Trees erect in coal, Nova Scotia.

Tremadoc slates and their fossils.


Trenton limestone, fossils of the.

Trezza, volcanic rocks of.

Trias, beds of passage between Lias and.
-- of England.
-- of Germany.
--, Saurians of the.
-- of the United States.

Triassic mammifer, North Carolina.

Triclinic feldspars.

Tridymite, crystallised silica.

Trigonellites latus, Kimmeridge clay.

Trigonia caudata, Neocomian.
-- gibbosa, Portland stone.

Trigonocarpum ovatum, and T. olivaeforme, Coal.

Trigonotreta undulata, Permian.

Trilobites of Bala and Caradoc beds.
--, metamorphosis of.
-- of primordial zone.

Triloculina inflata, Eocene.

Trimmer, Mr., on contorted strata.
--, on shells of Moel Tryfaen.

Trinucleus concentricus, T. Caractaci.

Trionyx, carapace of, Bembridge.

Tripoli composed of diatomaceae.

Trochoceras giganteus, Ludlow.

Trophon antiquum (Fusus contrarius).
-- clathratum, Scotch drift.

Tuff defined.
--, shelly, of the Grand Canary.
--, trappean, of Llandeilo rocks.
--, shelly, of Gergovia.

Tupaia Tana, recent.

Turner, Dr., on chemical decomposition.

Turrilites costatus, Chalk.

Turritella multisulcata, Bracklesham.

Tuscany, mineral springs of.

Tylor, Mr., on amount of subaerial denudation.

Tyndall, Dr., on slaty cleavage.

Tynedale fault.

Tynemouth cliff, brecciated limestone of.

Typhis pungens, Barton clay.

Uncites Gryphus, Devonian.

Unconformability of strata.

Underlying, term applied to plutonic rocks.

Unger on American forms in Swiss Miocene flora.
-- on Miocene plants of Croatia.

Ungulite, or Obolus grit of Russia.

Unio littoralis.
-- Valdensis, Hastings Sands.

United States, Cambrian of the.
--, Cretaceous rocks of.
--, Devonian of.
--, Eocene strata in the.
--, footprints in Carboniferous of.
--, Lower Miocene of.
--, older Pliocene and Miocene formations of.
--, Silurian strata of.
--, Trias of the.

Upheaval of land more than counteracted by subsidence.
--, power of denudation to counteract.

Upper Greensand, or Chloritic series.

Upsala, erratics on modern marine drift near.

Ural Mountains, auriferous alluvium of.


Ursus spelaeus, tooth of.

Urville, Captain de, on size of icebergs.

Val d'Arno, Newer Pliocene of.

Valleys, origin of.

Valorsine, granite veins in talcose gneiss in.

Valvata piscinalis.

Vanessa Pluto, Lower Miocene, Croatia.

Vegetation of the Coal.
-- of the Devonian of America.
--. See Plants.

Veins, chemical deposits in.
--, granite rocks altered by.
--, different kinds of minerals.
--. See Mineral veins.


Venericardia planicosta.

Venetz, M., on Alpine glaciers.

Ventriculites radiatus, Chalk.

Verneuil, M. de, on Russian Silurian.
--, on Permian flora.

Vertebrata, progress of discovery of fossil.

Vertical strata.

Vesuvius, Recent and Post-pliocene volcanic rocks of.
--, basaltic lavas of.
--, tufaceous strata of.
--, dikes of.

Vicarya Lujani, Punfield.

Vicentin, columnar basalt of the.

Vienna Basin, Upper Miocene beds of.

Vine in Upper Miocene beds at Oeningen.

Virginia, eighty miles of fault in.
--, coal-field of.

Virlet, M, on corrosion of rocks near Corinth.
--, on Cretaceous traps of Greece.
--, on fossils in veins.
--, on volcanic rocks of the Morea.

Volcanic ash or tuff.
-- breccia.
-- dikes.
-- force and denudation opposing powers.
-- mountains, structure and origin of.

Volcanic rocks defined.
--, mineral composition of.
--, Recent and Post-pliocene.
--, Pliocene.
--, Miocene.
--, Eocene.
--, Cretaceous and Liassic.
--, New Red, Permian and Carboniferous.
--, Old Red Sandstone.
--, Silurian, Cambrian and Laurentian.
-- of Auvergne.
--, columnar and globular, structure of.
-- of Grand Canary.
-- of Silurian age.
--, special forms of structure of.
--, tests of age of.

Volcanoes, extinct.
-- of Auvergne.

Voltzia heterophylla, Bunter.

Voluta ambigua, Barton clay.
-- athleta, Barton.
-- Lamberti, coralline and Red Crag.
-- Lamberti, faluns.
-- nodosa, London clay.
-- Selseiensis, Bracklesham.

Von Buch, Leopold, on "elevation craters."
--, on Silurian plutonic rocks.

Wacke described.

Wagner, M., on Miocene of Greece.

Walchia piniformis, Permian.

Wales and England, glaciation of.

Wallich, Dr., on Atlantic mud.

Water, denuding power of running.
--, action of, in metamorphism.

Watt, Gregory, on fusion of rock.

Weald clay and its fossils.

Wealden area, thickness of the.
-- formation.
-- flora.

Webster, Mr. T., on Tertiary strata.

Wellington Valley caves.

Wenlock formation, fossils of the.
-- limestone.
-- shale.

Werner on mineral veins in Saxony.
-- on isomorphism.

Westwood, Mr., on Lias beetles.

Wexford, veins of copper at.

Whitaker, Mr., on subaerial origin of escarpments.

White or coralline crag.
-- sand of Alum Bay.

Whymper, Mr., on Arctic Miocene plants.

Williams, Mr., on Cornish lodes.

Williamson, Professor, on Conifers of the Coal.
--, on structure of calamite.

Wind, denuding action of the.

Wood, Mr. Searles, on Bridlington shells.
--, on Chillesford and Aldeby beds.
--, on shells of the Crags.
--, on shells of Crag and faluns compared.
--, on fish of Headon series.
--, table of marine testacea of the Crag.
--, on thickness of coralline crag.

Woodward, Dr., on St. Cassian fossils.

Woodward, Mr. H., on Pterygotus.

Woolhope beds.

Woolwich and Reading series.

Wright, Dr., on Barton shells.
--, on zones of the Lias.

Wunsch, Mr. E.A., on trees in volcanic ash.

Wyville Thomson. See Thomson.

Xiphodon gracile, Paris basin.

Xylobius Sigillariae, Nova Scotia coal.

Yoredale beds, thickness of the.

Yorkshire, Oolite of.

Young, Mr., on seeds washed out of mammoth tusks.

Zechstein of Germany.

Zeolites, secondary volcanic minerals.

Zeuglodon cetoides, Eocene, United States.


Zoantharia rugosa and Z. aporosa.

Zones of the Lias.

Zonites priscus, Coal.

Zoological provinces, great extent of.

Zoophytes, fossil.
--. See Corals, Bryozoa, etc.

Zurich, lake-dwellings in Lake of.


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