Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 1
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 3 out of 6

will remain such; that is, it will never again resume its original form.
This experiment proves, then, that grains that come in contact with
water at a high temperature, as in cooking, absorb the water and burst
their cellulose covering. This bursting frees the granulose, or the
contents of the tiny granules, which are deposited in a network of
cellulose, and as soon as this occurs it mixes with water and forms what
is called soluble starch. Starch in this state is ready for digestion,
but in the original, uncooked state only a very small part of it, if
any, is digestible.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

23. PREPARATION FOR COOKING CEREALS.--Before the cooking of cereals is
attempted, it is advisable for the sake of convenience to get out all
utensils as well as all ingredients that are to be used and arrange them
so that they will be within easy reach. The way in which this should be
done is illustrated in Fig. 1. The utensils and ingredients shown, which
are suitable for most methods of cooking cereals and particularly for
cooking them by the steaming process, consist of a double boiler _a_; a
measuring cup _b_, a knife _c_, and spoons _d_ and _e_, for measuring; a
large spoon _f_, for stirring; a salt container; and a package of
cereal. The housewife will be able to tell quickly from a recipe just
what ingredients and utensils she will need, and by following the plan
here suggested and illustrated she will find that her work can be done
systematically and with the least expenditure of time.

24. FIRST STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF COOKING.--While cereals may be cooked
in a variety of ways, the first steps in all the processes are
practically the same. In the first place, the required amount of water
should be brought to the boiling point, for if the water is boiling the
cereal will thicken more rapidly and there will be less danger of lumps
forming. Then salt should be added to the water in the proportion of 1
teaspoonful to each cupful of cereal. Next, the cereal should be stirred
into the boiling salted water slowly enough to prevent it from forming
lumps, and then, being constantly stirred, it should be allowed to cook
until it thickens. The process up to this point is called _setting_ a
cereal, or grain. After the cereal is _set_, it may be boiled, steamed,
or cooked in the fireless cooker, but the method of cookery selected
should be chosen with a view to economy, convenience, and thoroughness.
The terms _setting_ and _set_ should be thoroughly fixed in the mind, so
that directions and recipes in which they are used will be readily

25. COOKING CEREALS BY BOILING.--Very often the cereal, after it is set,
is allowed to cook slowly until it is ready to serve; that is, the
method of _boiling_ is practiced. This method, however, is not to be
recommended, because it is not economical. Cereals cooked in this way
require constant watching and stirring, and even then it is difficult to
keep them from sticking to the cooking utensil and scorching or becoming
pasty on account of the constant motion. Sometimes, to overcome this
condition, a large quantity of water is added, as in the boiling of
rice; still, as some of this water must be poured off after the cooking
is completed, a certain amount of starch and soluble material is lost.

satisfactory way in which to cook cereals, so far as thoroughness is
concerned, is in a double boiler, one style of which is shown at _a_,
Fig. 1. This method of cookery is known as _steaming_, or _dry
steaming_, and by it the food itself, after it is set, never comes
within 6 or 8 degrees of the boiling point. In this method, the cereal
is first set in the small, or upper, pan of the double boiler. This pan,
which is covered, is placed into the large, or lower, pan, which should
contain boiling water, and the cereal is allowed to cook until it is
ready to serve. The water in the large pan should be replenished from
time to time, for if it is completely evaporated by boiling, the pan
will be spoiled and the cereal in the upper pan will burn.

This method of cooking has several advantages that should not be
disregarded. Cereals to which it is applied may be partly cooked on one
day and the cooking completed the next morning before breakfast, or they
may be completely cooked on one day and merely heated before they are
served. Then, when cooked at a temperature slightly below the boiling
point, the grains remain whole, but become thoroughly softened, because
they gradually absorb the water that surrounds them. In addition, the
long cooking that is necessary to prepare them at a low temperature
develops a delicious flavor, which cannot be obtained by rapid cooking
at the boiling point.

equipped with a fireless cooker, it is advisable to use this utensil for
cereals, for cooking them by this method secures the greatest economy of
fuel and effort. As in the preceding methods, the cereal is first set in
the pan that fits into the cooker compartment. While the cereal is at
the boiling point, this pan is covered tightly and placed in the
fireless cooker, where it is allowed to remain until the cereal is ready
to be served. The heat that the cereal holds when it is placed in the
cooker is retained, and this is what cooks it. Therefore, while this
method of cooking requires considerable time, it needs neither
additional heat nor labor after the cereal is placed in the cooker. In
reality, it is an advantageous way in which to cook cereals, since, if
they can be set and placed in the cooker in the evening, they will be
ready to serve at breakfast time on the following day.

28. COOKING CEREALS BY DRY HEAT.--An old method of cooking cereals or
starchy foods is called _browning_, or _toasting_, and it involves
cooking them by dry heat. A thin layer of grain is spread in a shallow
pan and this is placed in a slow oven. After the grains have browned
slightly, they are stirred, and then they are permitted to brown until
an even color is obtained. By this method the flavor of the cereals is
developed and their digestibility increased. Since grains keep much
better after they have been subjected to the process of toasting, this
means is used extensively for preserving grains and cereal foods.

29. POINTS TO OBSERVE IN COOKING CEREALS.--In cooking cereals by any
method, except browning, or toasting, it is always necessary to use
liquid of some kind. The quantity to use, however, varies with the kind
of cereal that is to be cooked, whole cereals and those coarsely ground
requiring more liquid than those which are crushed or finely ground. If
the liquid is to be absorbed completely when the grain is cooked, it
should be in the correct proportion to the grain. To be right, cooked
cereals should be of the consistency of mush, but not thin enough to
pour. Much attention should be given to this matter, for mistakes are
difficult to remedy. Cereals that are too thick after they are cooked
cannot be readily thinned without becoming lumpy, and those which are
too thin cannot be brought to the proper consistency unless the excess
of liquid is evaporated by boiling.

_Gruels_ are, of course, much thinner than the usual form of cereal.
They are made by cooking cereals rapidly in a large quantity of water,
and this causes the starch grains to disintegrate, or break into pieces,
and mix with the water. The whole mixture is then poured through a
sieve, which removes the coarse particles and produces a smooth mass
that is thin enough to pour.

The length of time to cook cereals also varies with their kind and form,
the coarse ones requiring more time than the fine ones. Because of this
fact, it is difficult to say just how much time is required to cook the
numerous varieties thoroughly. However, little difficulty will be
experienced if it is remembered that cereals should always be allowed to
cook until they can be readily crushed between the fingers, but not
until they are mushy in consistency.

* * * * *



30. The word _corn_ has been applied to various grains and is now used
in a variety of ways in different countries. In ancient times, barley
was called corn, and at the present time, in some countries, the entire
year's food crop is referred to by this name. The English apply the name
corn to wheat, and the Scotch, to oats. In the United States, corn is
the name applied to the seed of the maize plant, which is a highly
developed grass plant that forms the largest single crop of the country.
The seeds of this plant grow on a woody cob, and are eaten as a
vegetable when they are soft and milky, but as a grain, or cereal, when
they are mature. Corn is native to America and was not known in Europe
until Columbus took it back with him. However, it did not meet with much
favor there, for it was not grown to any great extent until within the
last 50 years. Those who took it to Europe gave it the name _Indian
corn_, because they had found the Indians of America raising it.

31. Of the corn grown in the United States, there are three general
kinds: field corn, sweet corn, and pop corn. _Field corn_, as a rule, is
grown in large quantities and allowed to mature; then it is fed to
animals or ground and cooked for the use of man. This corn consists of
three varieties, which are distinguished by the color of the grain, one
being white, one yellow, and one red. All of them are made into a
variety of preparations, but the white and the yellow are used as food
for both man and animals, whereas red field corn is used exclusively for
animal food. White corn has a mild flavor, but yellow corn is sometimes
preferred to it, because foods made from the yellow variety have a more
decided flavor. The two principal varieties of field corn, when prepared
as cereal food for man, are _hominy_ and _corn meal_. _Sweet corn_ is
not grown in such large quantities as field corn. It is generally used
for food before it is mature and is considered as a vegetable. _Pop
corn_, when sufficiently dry, swells and bursts upon being heated. It is
used more as a confection than as a staple article of food. Therefore,
at this time, consideration need be given to only the principal
varieties of field-corn products, which, as has just been stated, are
hominy and corn meal.


32. HOMINY is whole corn from which the outside covering has been
removed, and for this reason it is high in food value. Corn in this form
may be procured as a commercial product, but it may be prepared in the
home at less expense. As a commercial product, it is sold dry by the
pound or cooked as a canned food. Dry hominy requires long cooking to
make it palatable, and this, of course, increases its cost; but even
with this additional cost it is cheaper than canned hominy.

Sometimes corn from which the covering has been removed is ground or
crushed to form what is called _samp_, or _grits_, and when it is ground
still more finely CORN MEAL is produced. Corn meal is made from both
white and yellow corn, and is ground more finely in some localities than
in others. It is sold loose by the pound, but it can also be bought in
bags or packages of various sizes from 1 pound up. Corn meal should be
included in the diet of every economical family, for it yields a large
quantity of food at a moderately low cost. If it is prepared well, it is
very palatable, and when eaten with milk or cream it is a food that is
particularly desirable for children, especially for the evening meal,
because of its food value and the fact that it is easily digested.

33. So that the importance of these corn products may be understood and
the products then used to the best advantage in the diet, recipes are
here given for preparing hominy in the home, for dishes in which hominy
forms the principal part, and for dishes in which corn meal is used. To
get the best results from these recipes and thereby become thoroughly
familiar with the cooking processes involved, it is recommended that
each one be worked out in detail. This thought applies as well to all
recipes given throughout the various Sections. Of course, to prepare
each recipe is not compulsory; nevertheless, to learn to cook right
means actually to do the work called for by the recipes, not merely
once, but from time to time as the food can be utilized to give variety
to the daily menus in the home.

34. HOMINY.--Although, as has been mentioned, prepared hominy may be
purchased, some housewives prefer to prepare it themselves. Hominy
serves as a foundation from which many satisfactory dishes can be made,
as it is high in food value and reasonable in cost. This cereal can be
used in so many ways that it is advisable to prepare enough at one time
to meet the demands of several meals. The following recipe for making
hominy should provide 3 quarts of this cereal; however, as is true of
other recipes--a point that should be remembered throughout the various
lessons--the quantities given may be increased or decreased to meet with
the requirements of the household.

(Sufficient for 3 Quarts)

2 qt. water
1 Tb. lye
1 qt. shelled corn
3 tsp. salt

Put the water into a large kettle or saucepan, and into the water put
the lye. Allow the water to come to the boiling point, and then add the
corn and let it boil until the skins will slip off the grains when they
are pressed between the thumb and the finger. Take from the stove, stir
sufficiently to loosen the skins, and then remove them by washing the
grains of corn in a coarse colander. Cover the grains with cold water
and return to the fire. When the water boils, pour it off. Repeat this
process at least three times, so as to make sure that there is no trace
of the lye, and then allow the grains to cook in more water until they
burst. Season them with the salt, and while the hominy thus prepared is
still hot put it into a jar or a crock and cover it tight until it is to
be used. The water in which the hominy is cooked should remain on it.

35. BUTTERED HOMINY.--Perhaps the simplest method of preparing cooked
hominy is to butter it. In this form it may be served with cream as a
breakfast or a luncheon dish, or it may be used in the place of a

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. cooked hominy
3 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt

Allow a few spoonfuls of water to remain on the cooked hominy. Add the
butter and the salt, and then heat all thoroughly, stirring the hominy
gently so as to incorporate, or mix in, the butter and the salt. Serve
while hot.

36. CREAMED HOMINY.--The addition of a cream sauce to cooked hominy not
only adds to the palatableness of this cereal, but increases its food
value. When hominy is served with a sauce, it may be used as a dinner
vegetable or as the main dish in a light meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt
1 Tb. flour
1 pt. cooked hominy

Heat the milk, and to it add the butter and the salt. Then thicken it
with the flour. To this sauce add the hominy and allow all to cook
slowly for 10 or 15 minutes. Serve the creamed hominy hot.

37. HOMINY GRITS.--The cereal sold under the name of _hominy grits_ is
prepared commercially by crushing dried hominy grains. It has
practically the same food value as hominy, and in appearance resembles
cream of wheat. The following recipe shows the simplest way in which to
prepare this food, it being usually served as a breakfast cereal in
this form:

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 tsp. salt
4 c. water
1 c. hominy grits

Add the salt to the water and bring it to the boiling point. Stir the
hominy grits into the water and continue to boil for 10 minutes. Then
place in a double boiler and cook for 3 to 4 hours. Serve hot with cream
or milk and sugar.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

38. LEFT-OVER HOMINY.--No waste need result from hominy that is not used
at the meal for which it is prepared, for it may be utilized in many
ways. For example, it may be served cold with fruit and cream, made into
croquettes with chopped meat or cheese and either sautéd or baked, or
used in soups to increase materially their food value. A dish prepared
by combining cooked or left-over hominy with other ingredients to form
hominy and cheese soufflé, which is illustrated in Fig. 2, will prove to
be very appetizing.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. cooked hominy
1/2 c. hot milk
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. paprika
1 c. grated cheese
2 eggs

Work the hominy smooth by mashing it with a fork, and then add the hot
milk, salt, paprika, and grated cheese. Separate the eggs, beat the
yolks thoroughly, and stir them well into the mixture. Next, fold in the
whites, which should be stiffly beaten, pour the mass into a buttered
baking dish, and bake until it is firm in the center. Serve hot.

39. CORN-MEAL MUSH.--Since corn meal is comparatively inexpensive and
high in food value, the housewife can make frequent use of it to
advantage. In the form of mush, corn meal is easily digested; besides,
such mush is a very good breakfast cereal when served hot with milk or
cream. Although the recipe here given makes a sufficient amount for six
persons, a good plan is to increase the quantities mentioned so that
there will be enough mush left to mold and use in other ways.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 tsp. salt
3-1/2 c. water
1 c. corn meal

Add the salt to the water and bring the salted water to the boiling
point. When it is boiling rapidly, sift the corn meal slowly through the
fingers into it, and at the same time stir it rapidly so as to prevent
the formation of lumps. Any mush that contains lumps has not been
properly made and should not be served in this condition, as it is
unpalatable. Keep stirring constantly until the corn meal thickens; then
place it in a double boiler and allow it to cook from 2 to 4 hours, when
it should be ready to serve. This method of cooking mush is the most
convenient, because not much stirring is required after the corn meal is

A heavy aluminum kettle or an iron pot is a good utensil in which to
cook mush, as it does not burn easily in either, although almost
constant stirring is required. When the mush becomes very thick, the
heated air, in forcing its way through the mush in the process of
boiling, makes the mush pop and very often splash on the hands and burn
them. To avoid such an accident, therefore, it is advisable to wrap the
hand used for stirring in a towel or a cloth.

40. SAUTÉD CORN-MEAL-MUSH.--Mush cooked in the manner just explained may
be poured into pans, such as bread pans, where it will harden and form a
mold that can be sliced as thick or as thin as desired and then sautéd.
Corn-meal mush prepared in this way pleases the taste of many persons,
and while some persons find it harder to digest than just plain mush, it
serves to give variety to meals. For sautéing mush, a heavy iron or
steel frying pan or griddle should be used, because utensils made of
thin material will allow the mush to burn before it browns properly. Put
enough fat, such as lard, cooking oil, or drippings, into the cooking
utensil so that when heated it will be about 1/4 inch deep all over the
surface. When the utensil is very hot, put in the slices of mush and
allow them to brown on one side. Then turn the slices over carefully, so
as not to break them, and brown them on the other side. As will be
observed, corn-meal mush does not brown quickly in sautéing. This
characteristic is due to the large amount of moisture it contains. Serve
the mush hot, and to add to its flavor serve with it sirup or honey.

41. CORN-MEAL CROQUETTES.--Croquettes of any kind add variety to a
meal, and because they are attractive they appeal to the appetite. To
make croquettes of corn meal, mold mush as for sautéing. Then cut this
into slices 1 inch thick, and cut each slice into strips 1 inch wide.
Roll these in slightly beaten egg and then in crumbs, and sauté them in
hot fat until they are crisp and brown. Serve these croquettes hot with
either butter or sirup or both.

42. LEFT-OVER CORN-MEAL MUSH.--Sautéd corn-meal mush and corn-meal
croquettes can, of course, be made from mush that is left over after it
has been cooked to serve as a cereal; however, if there is only a small
quantity left, it may be utilized in still another way, namely, as a
garnish for the platter on which meat is served. To prepare corn-meal
mush in this way, spread it about 1/3 inch thick in a pan and allow it
to cool. Then turn it out of the pan in a sheet on a board that has been
floured; that is, covered thinly with flour. Cut this sheet of corn meal
into small circles with the aid of a round cutter or into diamond shapes
with a knife, and then brown both sides of each of these in butter.

* * * * *



43. WHEAT, owing to the fact that it is grown in all parts of the world
and forms the basis for a large amount of the food of most people, is a
very important grain. It was probably a native grass of Asia Minor and
Egypt, for in these countries it first received cultivation. From the
land of its origin, the use of wheat spread over all the world, but it
was not introduced into America until after the discovery of this
country by Columbus. Now, however, the United States raises more wheat
than any other one country, and nearly one-fourth of all that is raised
in the world.

Wheat is universally used for bread, because it contains a large amount
of the kind of protein that lends a rubbery consistency to dough and
thus makes possible the incorporation of the gas or air required to make
bread light. The use of wheat, however, is by no means restricted to
bread, for, as is well known, many cereal foods are prepared from
this grain.

44. In its simplest food form, wheat is prepared by merely removing the
coarse bran from the outside of the wheat grain and leaving the grain
whole. This is called _hulled_, or _whole_, _wheat_, and requires
soaking or long, slow cooking in order that all its starch granules may
be reached and softened sufficiently to make it palatable. The other
preparations are made by crushing or grinding the grains from which some
of the bran and germ has been removed. Besides flour, which, as has been
implied, is not considered as a cereal in the sense used in this
Section, these preparations include _wheat grits_, such foods as _cream
of wheat_ and _farina_, and many _ready-to-eat cereals_. In the
preparation of wheat grits, much of the bran is allowed to remain, but
neither cream of wheat nor farina contains cellulose in any appreciable
quantity. As the addition of bran, however, serves to give these foods
bulk, a much more ideal breakfast cereal will result if, before cooking,
equal portions of the cereal and the bran are mixed. In preparing
ready-to-eat wheat cereals for the market, the manufacturers subject the
grains to such elaborate methods of cooking, rolling, and toasting that
these foods require but very little additional attention before serving.
The only wheat products that demand further attention at this time,
therefore, are those which must be cooked before they can be served
and eaten.


45. HULLED WHEAT.--Inasmuch as hulled, or whole, wheat requires very
little preparation for the market, it is a comparatively cheap food. It
is used almost exclusively as a breakfast cereal, but serves as a good
substitute for hominy or rice. Although, as has been mentioned, it
requires long cooking, its preparation for the table is so simple that
the cooking need not necessarily increase its cost materially. One of
the advantages of this food is that it never becomes so soft that it
does not require thorough mastication.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 c. hulled wheat
3 c. water
1 tsp. salt

Look the wheat over carefully and remove any foreign matter. Then add
the water and soak 8 to 10 hours, or overnight. Add the salt, cook
directly over the flame for 1/2 hour, and then finish cooking in a
double boiler for 3 to 4 hours. Serve with cream or milk and sugar.

46. WHEAT GRITS.--The cereal known as wheat grits is made commercially
by crushing the wheat grains and allowing a considerable proportion of
the wheat bran to remain. Grits may be used as a breakfast cereal, when
they should be served hot with cream or milk and sugar; they also make
an excellent luncheon dish if they are served with either butter or
gravy. The fact that this cereal contains bran makes it an excellent one
to use in cases where a food with bulk is desired. The accompanying
recipe is for a plain cereal; however, an excellent variation may be had
by adding 1/2 cupful of well-cleaned raisins 1/2 hour before serving.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1/2 tsp. salt
3 c. boiling water
3/4 c. wheat grits

Add the salt to the boiling water, sift the wheat grits through the
fingers into the rapidly boiling water, and stir rapidly to prevent the
formation of lumps. Cook for a few minutes until the grits thicken, and
then place in a double boiler and cook 2 to 4 hours.

47. CREAM OF WHEAT.--In the manufacture of cream of wheat, not only is
all the bran removed, as has been stated, but the wheat is made fine and
granular. This wheat preparation, therefore, does not require so much
cooking to make it palatable as do some of the other cereals; still,
cooking it a comparatively long time tends to improve its flavor. When
made according to the following recipe it is a very good breakfast dish:

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 tsp. salt
4-1/2 c. boiling water
3/4 c. cream of wheat

Add the salt to the boiling water, and when it bubbles sift in the cream
of wheat through the fingers, stirring rapidly to prevent the formation
of lumps. Cook over the flame for a few minutes until it thickens; then
place it in a double boiler and cook for 1 to 2 hours. Serve hot with
cream or milk and sugar.

48. CREAM OF WHEAT WITH DATES.--Dates added to cream of wheat supply to
a great extent the cellulose and mineral salts that are taken out when
the bran is removed in the manufacture of this cereal. They likewise
give to it a flavor that is very satisfactory, especially when added in
the manner here explained.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3/4 c. cream of wheat
1 tsp. salt
4-1/2 c. boiling water
3/4 c. dates

Cook the cream of wheat in the manner directed in Art. 47. Wash the
dates in hot water, cut them lengthwise with a sharp knife, and remove
the seeds. Cut each date into four pieces and add them to the cream of
wheat 10 minutes before serving, stirring them into the cereal just
enough to distribute them evenly. Serve hot with cream or milk
and sugar.

49. FARINA.--The wheat preparation called farina is very much the same
as cream of wheat, being manufactured in practically the same manner. It
is a good breakfast cereal when properly cooked, but it does not contain
sufficient cellulose to put it in the class of bulky foods. However, as
has been pointed out, this bulk may be supplied by mixing with it,
before cooking, an equal amount of bran. In such a case, of course, more
water will be needed and the cooking process will have to be prolonged.
Plain farina should be prepared according to the recipe here given, but,
as in preparing cream of wheat, dates may be added to impart flavor
if desired.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 tsp. salt
4 c. boiling water
3/4 c. farina

Add the salt to the boiling water, and as the water bubbles rapidly sift
the farina into it slowly through the fingers, stirring rapidly to
prevent the formation of lumps. Then place it in a double boiler and
allow it cook for 2 to 4 hours. Serve hot with cream or milk and sugar.

50. GRAHAM MUSH WITH DATES.--Graham flour is a wheat product that is
high in food value, because in its manufacture no part of the wheat
grain is removed. While the use of this flour as a breakfast cereal is
not generally known, it can be made into a very appetizing and
nutritious dish, especially if such fruit as dates is mixed with it.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/4 c. graham flour
3 c. water
1 tsp. salt
1 c. dates

Moisten the graham flour carefully with 1 cupful of the cold water. When
perfectly smooth, add it to the remainder of the water, to which the
salt has been added, and boil rapidly, allowing the mixture to cook
until it thickens. Then place it in a double boiler and cook 1 to 2
hours. Wash the dates, remove the stones, and cut each into four pieces.
Add these to the mush 10 minutes before serving. Serve hot with cream or
milk and sugar.

51. LEFT-OVER WHEAT CEREALS.--Numerous ways have been devised for
utilizing wheat cereals that are left over, so that no waste need result
from what is not eaten at the meal for which a cereal is cooked. For
instance, left-over hulled wheat can be used in soup in the same way as
barley and rice, and plain cream of wheat and farina can be molded,
sliced, and sautéd like corn-meal mush and served with sirup. The molded
cereal can also be cut into 2-inch cubes and served with any fruit juice
that is thickened slightly with corn starch. Besides utilizing left-over
wheat cereals in the ways mentioned, it is possible to make them into
custards and soufflés, as is shown in the two accompanying recipes, in
which cream of wheat may be used in the same manner as farina.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. cold farina
2 c. milk
2 eggs
1/2 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. nutmeg

Stir the farina and milk together until they are perfectly smooth; then
add the eggs, beaten slightly, the sugar, and the nutmeg. Bake in a
moderately hot oven until firm and serve hot or cold with any
sauce desired.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. cold farina
1-1/2 c. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. paprika
1 c. grated cheese
2 eggs

Stir the farina smooth with the milk, add the salt, paprika, grated
cheese, and egg yolks, which should first be beaten. Then beat the egg
whites stiff and fold them into the mixture. Pour all into a buttered
baking dish, place this in a large pan filled with enough hot water to
reach almost to the top of the baking dish, and bake in a moderately hot
oven until the mixture in the dish is firm in the center. Serve at once
upon taking from the oven.



52. RICE, next to wheat, is used more extensively as a food than any
other cereal. It is a plant much like wheat in appearance, but it grows
only in warm climates and requires very moist soil. In fact, the best
land for rice is that which may be flooded with about 6 inches of water.
This cereal is of two kinds, namely, Carolina rice and Japanese rice.
_Carolina rice_, which is raised chiefly in the southeastern part of the
United States, has a long, narrow grain, whereas _Japanese rice_, which
originated in Japan and is raised extensively in that country and China
and India, has a short, flat, oval grain. Efforts made to raise the
Japanese variety in the United States show a peculiarity of this cereal,
for when it is planted in the same locality as Carolina rice, it soon
loses its identity and takes on the shape of the other. Although vast
crops of rice are raised in the United States, a large quantity of it
must be imported, because these crops are not sufficient to supply the
demands of this country.

53. Before rice grains are prepared for use as food, they have two
coverings. One is a coarse husk that is thrashed off and leaves the
grain in the form of unpolished rice and the other, a thin, brown
coating resembling bran. This thin coating, which is very difficult to
remove, is called, after its removal, _rice polishings_. At one time, so
much was said about the harmful effect of polished rice that a demand
for unpolished rice was begun. This feeling of harm, however, was
unnecessary, for while polished rice lacks mineral matter to a great
extent, it is hot harmful to a person and need cause no uneasiness,
unless the other articles of the diet do not supply a sufficient amount
of this food substance. After the inner coating has been removed, some
of the rice is treated with paraffin or glucose and talc to give it a
glazed appearance. This is called _polish_, and is sometimes confounded
with the term rice polishings. However, no confusion regarding these
terms will result if it is remembered that rice polishings are the thin
inner coating that is removed and polish is what is added to the rice.
In composition, rice differs from the other cereals in that it is
practically all starch and contains almost no fat nor protein.

54. To be perfect, rice should be unbroken and uniform in size, and in
order that it may be put on the market in this form the broken grains
are sifted out. These broken grains are sold at a lower price than the
whole grains, but the only difference between them is their appearance,
the broken grains being quite as nutritious as the whole grains. In
either form, rice is a comparatively cheap food, because it is
plentiful, easily transported, and keeps perfectly for an indefinite
period of time with very little care in storage. Before rice is used, it
should be carefully examined and freed from the husks that are apt to
remain in it; then it should be washed in hot water. The water in which
rice is washed will have a milky appearance, which is due to the coating
that is put on in polishing rice.


55. Rice may be cooked by three methods, each of which requires a
different proportion of water. These methods are _boiling_, which
requires twelve times as much water as rice; the _Japanese method_,
which requires five times as much; and _steaming_, which requires two
and one-half times as much. Whichever of these methods is employed,
however, it should be remembered that the rice grains, when properly
cooked, must be whole and distinct. To give them this form and prevent
the rice from having a pasty appearance, this cereal should not be
stirred too much in cooking nor should it be cooked too long.

56. BOILED RICE.--Boiling is about the simplest way in which to prepare
rice for the table. Properly boiled rice not only forms a valuable dish
itself, but is an excellent foundation for other dishes that may be
served at any meal. The water in which rice is boiled should not be
wasted, as it contains much nutritive material. This water may be
utilized in the preparation of soups or sauces, or it may even be used
to supply the liquid required in the making of yeast bread. The
following recipe sets forth clearly how rice should be boiled:

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. rice
3 tsp. salt
3 qt. boiling water

Wash the rice carefully and add it to the boiling salted water. Boil
rapidly until the water begins to appear milky because of the starch
coming out of the rice into the water or until a grain can be easily
crushed between the fingers. Drain the cooked rice through a colander,
and then pour cold water over the rice in the colander, so as to wash
out the loose starch and leave each grain distinct. Reheat the rice by
shaking it over the fire, and serve hot with butter, gravy, or cream or
milk and sugar.

57. JAPANESE METHOD OF COOKING RICE.--Rice prepared by the Japanese
method may be used in the same ways as boiled rice. However, unless some
use is to be made of the liquid from boiled rice, the Japanese method
has the advantage of being a more economical way of cooking this cereal.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. rice
1-1/2 tsp. salt
5 c. boiling water

Wash the rice, add it to the boiling salted water, and boil slowly for
15 minutes. Then cover the utensil in which the rice is cooking and
place it in the oven for 15 minutes more, in order to evaporate the
water more completely and make the grains soft without being mushy.
Serve in the same way as boiled rice.

58. STEAMED RICE.--To steam rice requires more time than either of the
preceding cooking methods, but it causes no loss of food material. Then,
too, unless the rice is stirred too much while it is steaming, it will
have a better appearance than rice cooked by the other methods. As in
the case of boiled rice, steamed rice may be used as the foundation for
a variety of dishes and may be served in any meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. rice
1-1/2 tsp. salt
2-1/2 c. water

Wash the rice carefully and add it to the boiling salted water. Cook it
for 5 minutes and then place it in a double boiler and allow it to cook
until it is soft. Keep the cooking utensil covered and do not stir the
rice. About 1 hour will be required to cook rice in this way. Serve in
the same way as boiled rice.

59. CREAMED RICE.--To increase the nutritive value of rice, it is
sometimes cooked with milk and cream to form what is known as creamed
rice. These dairy products added to rice supply protein and fat, food
substances in which this cereal is lacking, and also add to its

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. milk
1 c. rice
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 c. cream

Heat the milk in the small pan of a double boiler and add to it the rice
and salt. Place this pan into the larger one and cook for about 1 hour,
or until the rice is soft. Then pour the cream over the rice and cook a
few minutes longer. Serve hot.

60. ORIENTAL RICE.--As rice is a bland food, practically lacking in
flavor, any flavoring material that may be added in its preparation or
serving aids in making it more appetizing. Oriental rice, which is
prepared according to the following recipe, therefore makes a very tasty
dish and one that may be used in place of a vegetable for lunch
or dinner.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. rice
2-1/2 c. stock, or meat broth
2 Tb. butter
1 slice onion
1/2 c. canned tomatoes

Steam the rice in the stock until it is soft by the method given for
steaming rice. Then brown the butter and onion in a frying pan, add the
tomatoes, and heat thoroughly. Pour this mixture into the rice, mix
well, and serve.

61. BROWNED RICE.--Another way in which to add variety in serving rice
is to brown it. Sufficient browned rice for six persons may be prepared
by putting 1 cupful of clean rice in an iron frying pan that contains no
fat, placing the pan directly over the flame, and stirring the rice
until the grains become an even, light brown. Rice that has been treated
in this way has additional flavor added to it and can be used in the
same way as boiled or steamed rice.

62. SAVORY RICE.--Rice browned in the manner just explained is used in
the preparation of savory rice, a dish that serves as a very good
substitute for a vegetable. Savory rice may be prepared according to the
following recipe:

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. browned rice
2-1/2 c. water
1 tsp. salt
1/2 c. chopped celery
2 Tb. butter
1 small onion, chopped
1/2 c. canned tomatoes
1/4 c. chopped pimiento

Steam the browned rice in the salted water as in steaming rice, and
cook the celery, which should be chopped fine, with the rice for the
last half hour of the steaming. Brown the butter and add to it the onion
finely chopped, the tomatoes, and the pimiento. A few minutes before
serving time, add this to the rice, mix well, and serve hot.

63. LEFT-OVER RICE.--There are a variety of ways in which left-over rice
may be used. For instance, rice that has been cooked and is not used may
be utilized in soups, combined with pancake, muffin, or omelet mixtures,
or made into puddings by mixing it with a custard and then baking. It
may be served with fruit, made into patties, or combined with tomatoes,
cheese, or meat to form an appetizing dish.

[Illustration: Fig. 3] 64. As has been shown, rice is one of the cereals
that contain very little cellulose. Fruit added to it in the preparation
of any dish makes up for this lack of cellulose and at the same time
produces a delicious combination. Rice combined with pineapple to form a
dish like that shown in Fig. 3 not only is very attractive but meets
with the favor of many; besides, it provides a good way in which to
utilize left-over rice.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. steamed or creamed rice
1/4 c. sugar
6 rings pineapple
3/4 c. whipped cream

Stir the sugar into the rice and if necessary moisten with a little
cream. Shape the rice into six balls of equal size, making them so that
they will be about the same in diameter as the rings of the pineapple,
and place one in the center of each pineapple ring. Whip the cream with
an egg whip or beater until it stands up well, and garnish each dish
with the whipped cream before serving.

65. Another satisfactory dish may be made by combining eggs with
left-over rice to form RICE PATTIES. Owing to the protein supplied by
the eggs, such a combination as this may be made to take the place of a
light meat dish for luncheon or supper, and, to impart additional
flavor, it may be served with any sauce desired.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. stale crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. celery salt
2 eggs
2 c. steamed rice

Add 1/2 cupful of the crumbs, the salt, the celery salt, and the eggs,
slightly beaten, to the cold steamed rice. If more moisture seems to be
necessary, add a very little milk. Shape the rice with the other
ingredients into round patties, and then roll these in the remainder of
the crumbs and sauté them in hot butter. Serve the patties hot and with
sauce, if desired.

66. Besides left-over rice, small quantities of one or more kinds of
left-over meat and stock or gravy can be used to make a very appetizing
dish known as SPANISH RICE, which may be used as the main, or heavy,
dish in a luncheon.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 small onion
2 Tb. butter
1-1/2 c. steamed or boiled rice
1 c. chopped meat
1/2 c. meat stock or gravy
1/2 c. canned tomatoes
2 Tb. grated cheese
1/4 c. stale crumbs

Chop the onion and brown it in butter. Mix well the browned onion, rice,
chopped meat, stock or gravy, and tomatoes, and pour all into a buttered
baking dish. Then sprinkle the cheese and crumbs on top of the mixture
and bake for 1 hour in a slow oven. Serve hot.

* * * * *



67. As an article of food, OATS are used very extensively. In Scotland,
this cereal formed the principal article of diet for many years, and as
the hardiness of the Scotch people is usually attributed to their diet
the value of oats as a food cannot be overestimated. This grain, or
cereal, grows very much like wheat and yields an abundant crop in fairly
good soil; but it is unlike wheat in composition, for it contains very
little protein and considerable fat. In fact, it contains more fat than
any other cereal. Because of its lack of protein, it will not make
raised bread, and when it must serve the purpose of bread it is made
into flat cakes and baked. Although it is used to some extent in this
way, its greatest use for food, particularly in the United States, is in
the form of _oatmeal_ and _rolled oats_. In the preparation of oatmeal
for the market, the oat grains are crushed or cut into very small
pieces, while in the preparation of rolled oats they are crushed flat
between large rollers.


68. The same methods of cooking can be applied to both oatmeal and
rolled oats. Therefore, while the recipes here given are for rolled
oats, it will be well to note that they can be used for oatmeal by
merely substituting this cereal wherever rolled oats are mentioned.

69. ROLLED OATS.--Because of the high food value of rolled oats, this
cereal is excellent for cold weather, especially when it is served with
hot cream or milk and sugar. It can be prepared very easily, as the
accompanying recipe shows.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. rolled oats
3 c. boiling water
1 tsp. salt

Stir the oats into the boiling water to which the salt has been added.
Boil 2 minutes, stirring them occasionally to keep them from sticking.
Then cook them in a double boiler for 2 to 4 hours. During this time,
stir the oats as little as possible, so as to prevent them from becoming
mushy. Serve hot.

70. ROLLED OATS WITH APPLES.--The combination of rolled oats and apples
is rather unusual, still it makes a dish that lends variety to a
breakfast or a luncheon. Such a dish is easily digested, because the
apples supply to it a considerable quantity of cellulose and
mineral salts.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2/3 c. rolled oats
2 c. boiling water
1/2 tsp. salt
6 medium-sized apples
1 c. water
1/2 c. sugar

Stir the rolled oats into the boiling salted water and cook them until
they set; then place them in a double boiler and cook for 2 to 4 hours.
Pare and core the apples, and then cook them whole in a sirup made of 1
cupful of water and 1/2 cupful of sugar until they are soft, but not
soft enough to fall apart. To serve the food, place it in six cereal
dishes. Put a large spoonful of the cooked oats in each dish, arrange an
apple on top of the oats, and then fill the hole left by the core with
rolled oats. Over each portion, pour some of the sirup left from cooking
the apples, and serve hot with cream.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

71. ROLLED-OATS JELLY WITH PRUNES.--If an appetizing dish for warm
weather is desired, rolled oats may be cooked to form a jelly and then
have stewed prunes added to it. Such a dish is illustrated in Fig. 4.
When served with cream, this combination of rolled oats and prunes is
high in food value and consequently may be made the important dish in
the meal for which it is used.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. rolled oats
3 c. water
1 tsp. salt
12 stewed prunes

Cook the rolled oats according to the directions already given, and then
force them through a fine sieve. Remove the seeds from the prunes that
have been stewed by cooking them very slowly until they are soft in a
sufficient quantity of water to cover them well, drain off all the
juice, and place two prunes in the bottom of each of six cups, or molds,
that have been moistened with cold water. Fill each with the rolled-oats
jelly and set them aside to chill. When ready to serve, turn the food
out of each mold into a cereal dish and serve with cream and sugar.

72. LEFT-OVER ROLLED OATS.--Every housewife should refrain from throwing
away any left-over rolled oats, because all of this cereal remaining
from a previous meal can be used to good advantage. For example, it can
be made especially tasty if, before it is cold, it is added to fruit,
poured into molds and allowed to stand in them until it is cold, and
then served with sugar and cream. Fruits of any kind, such as cooked
peaches, prunes, and apricots or fresh bananas, may be used for this
purpose by cutting them into small pieces. Another way of utilizing this
cereal when it is warm is to pour it into a pan or a dish, press it down
until it is about 1 inch thick, and then, after it is cold, cut it into
pieces of any desirable size or shape, brown these pieces in butter, and
then serve them with sirup. If the left-over cereal is cold, a good plan
would be to serve it with baked apple; that is, for each person to be
served, place a spoonful of the cereal in a dish with a baked apple,
sprinkle a little cinnamon or nutmeg over it, and then serve it with
cream. Still another very good way in which to utilize left-over rolled
oats is to make it into croquettes according to the following recipe:

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1/2 c. grated cheese
3/4 c. crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. paprika
1 c. cooked rolled oats
1 egg

Work the cheese with 1/2 cupful of the crumbs, the salt, and the paprika
into the cold rolled oats; then add the egg, which should be slightly
beaten. If more moisture seems to be necessary, add a little milk. Form
the ingredients into small croquettes, and then roll them in the
remaining 1/4 cupful of crumbs and sauté then in butter. Garnish with
parsley and serve.

* * * * *



73. BARLEY is a grain, or cereal, that grows very much like wheat.
However, it is hardier than wheat or any other cereals and may be grown
through a greater range of climates. Barley has been cultivated from the
most ancient times; in fact, its cultivation can be traced as far back
as man's occupations have been recorded. The grain of this cereal has
also played an important part in the advancement of man, for, according
to history, some of the present weights and measures originated from it.
Thus, the Troy weight grain is said to have been first fixed by finding
the average weight of a barley grain, and the inch of linear measure, by
placing three grains of barley end to end.

74. Although several varieties of barley have been cultivated as food
from the earliest times, the grain is now used principally in the
manufacture of malt. In this form, it is used for the malting of foods
and in the making of alcoholic liquors. To produce malt, the barley
grains are moistened and allowed to sprout, and during this process of
sprouting the starch of the barley is changed to sugar. The grains are
then dried, and the sprouts, which are called _malt sprouts_, are broken
off and sold as cattle food. The grain that remains, which is really
_malt_, is then crushed and combined with other grains for use as malted
cereal food. When barley is used to make malt, or fermented, liquors, it
is soaked in water, which absorbs the sugar in it; then yeast is added,
and this produces alcohol by causing the fermentation of the sugar.

75. In the United States, _pearl barley_ is the name applied to the most
common form of barley used as food. In this form, the layer of bran is
removed from the outside of the barley grain, but no change is made in
the grain itself. Pearl barley is used for soups and as a breakfast
cereal, but for whatever purpose it is employed it requires very long
cooking to make it palatable. Very often the water in which a small
amount of pearl barley has been cooked for a long time is used to dilute
the milk given to a child who has indigestion or who is not able to take
whole milk.


76. PEARL BARLEY.--As a breakfast cereal, possibly the only satisfactory
way in which to prepare pearl barley is to cook it in a double boiler,
although after it is cooked in this way it may, of course, be used to
prepare other breakfast dishes. Barley is not liked by everybody;
nevertheless, it is an excellent food and its nature is such that even
after long cooking it remains so firm as to require thorough
mastication, which is the first great step in the digestion of
starchy foods.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. pearl barley
1 tsp. salt
4-1/2 c. boiling water

Look the barley over carefully and remove any foreign particles it may
contain. Add it to the boiling salted water, and cook it directly over
the flame for 10 minutes. Then place it in a double boiler and cook for
3 to 4 hours. For the barley to be cooked properly, the water should be
completely absorbed. Serve hot with cream or milk and sugar.

77. PEARL BARLEY WITH FRUIT.--Cooked barley does not contain very much
flavor. Therefore, if a more tasty dish is desired, it is usually
necessary to add something, such as fruit, that will improve the flavor.
Various fruits may be used with barley, as is shown in the
accompanying recipe.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. pearl barley
1 tsp. salt
5 c. boiling water
1 c. dates, figs, or prunes

Examine the barley to see that it contains no foreign matter, and then
put it to cook in the boiling water to which the salt has been added.
After cooking directly over the flame for 10 minutes, place it in a
double boiler and cook it for 3 to 4 hours. If dates are to be used,
wash them in warm water, remove the seeds, and cut each into four
pieces. In the case of figs, soak them in hot water for 1/2 hour and
then cut them into small pieces. If prunes are desired, stew them as
explained in Art. 71, and when the seeds are removed cut them into small
pieces. Add the fruit to the barley 10 or 15 minutes before removing it
from the stove. Serve hot with cream or milk and sugar.

78. LEFT-OVER BARLEY.--Cooked barley that is left over from a meal
should not be wasted. That which has been cooked without fruit may be
added to meat stock or used with vegetables for soup. Also, cooked
barley that has had time to set and become stiff may be sautéd in butter
until it is slightly brown. When served with meat gravy, barley prepared
in this manner makes a very appetizing and satisfying luncheon dish.


79. RYE is a grain that grows very much like wheat, but it can be
cultivated in poorer soil and colder climates than this cereal. It is
not used alone to any great extent for anything except the making of
bread, but it is particularly well adapted for this purpose, since it
contains a large amount of gluten, the food substance necessary for
successful bread making, and, like wheat, will make yeast bread when
used alone. Bread made of rye flour has a dark color and a peculiar
flavor, and while these characteristics make it unpopular with some
persons it is used extensively by certain classes, especially persons
from foreign countries. Besides its use for bread, rye is frequently
combined with other cereals in the manufacture of ready-to-eat
cereal foods.

80. BUCKWHEAT is used less extensively than any of the other cereals
already mentioned, but it has an advantage over them in that it thrives
in soil that is too poor for any other crop. The buckwheat plant grows
to a height of about 2 feet and blossoms with a white flower. Its seeds,
which are three-cornered in shape, bear a close resemblance to
beechnuts, and because of this peculiar similarity, this cereal was
originally called _beech wheat_. Practically the only use to which
buckwheat is put is to grind it into very fine flour for griddle cakes,
recipes for which are given in another Section.

81. MILLET as a cereal food finds practically no use in the United
States; in fact, in this country it is grown almost exclusively for
cattle food, the stalk of the plant being large and juicy and containing
a considerable amount of food. The seed of this plant furnishes the
smallest grain known for use as food, and because of its size it is very
hard to gather. Millet, however, is used extensively by some of the
people of Southern Asia and India, who depend on it very largely, since,
in some localities, it forms their only cereal food. In these countries,
it is ground into flour and used for making bread.


82. All the cereals that have been discussed up to this point require
cooking; but there are many varieties of cereal food on the market that
are ready to eat and therefore need no further preparation. Chief among
these are the cereal foods known as _flakes_. These are first made by
cooking the grain, then rolling it between rollers, and finally toasting
it. The grains that are treated in this way for the preparation of flake
foods are wheat, corn, rye, and rice. It is well to remember this fact,
because the trade name does not always indicate the kind of grain that
has been used to make the food. In another form in which cereals,
principally wheat, appear on the market, they are cooked, shredded,
pressed into biscuits, and then toasted. Again, cereals are made into
loaves with the use of yeast, like bread, and after being thoroughly
baked, are ground into small pieces. Wheat generally forms the basis of
these preparations, and to it are added such other grains as rye
and barley.

83. The toasting of cereals improves their flavor very materially and at
the same time increases their digestibility. In fact, cereals that have
been subjected to this process are said to be predigested, because the
starch granules that have been browned in the toasting are changed into
_dextrine_, and this is one of the stages through which they must pass
in their process of digestion in the body. However, the housewife should
not allow herself to be influenced unduly by what is said about all
prepared cereals, because the manufacturer, who has depended largely on
advertising for the sale of his product, sometimes becomes slightly
overzealous and makes statements that will bear questioning. For
instance, some of these foods are claimed to be muscle builders, but
every one should remember that, with the exception of rye and wheat,
which build up the tissues to a certain extent, the cereals strengthen
the muscles in only a slight degree. Others of these foods are said to
be nerve and brain foods, but it should be borne in mind that no food
acts directly on the nerves or the brain. In reality, only those foods
which keep the body mentally and physically in good condition have an
effect on the nerves and the brain, and this at best is an
indirect effect.


84. Although, as is shown by the recipes that have been given, cereals
may have a place in practically all meals that the housewife is called
on to prepare, they are used more frequently for breakfast than for any
other meal. When a cereal forms a part of this meal, it should, as a
rule, be served immediately after the fruit, provided the breakfast is
served in courses. Many persons, of course, like fresh fruit served with
cooked or dry cereal, and, in such an event, the fruit and cereal
courses should be combined. A banana sliced over flakes or a few
spoonfuls of berries or sliced peaches placed on top afford a pleasing
change from the usual method of serving cereals. Another way in which to
lend variety to the cereal and at the same time add nourishment to the
diet is to serve a poached egg on top of the shredded-wheat biscuit or
in a nest of corn flakes, especially if they have been previously
heated. In fact, any of the dry cereals become more appetizing if they
are heated thoroughly in a slow oven and then allowed to cool, as this
process freshens them by driving off the moisture that they absorb and
that makes them tough.

To add to both dry and cooked cereals protein and fat, or the food
elements in which they are not so high, milk or cream is usually served
with them. Of these dairy products, which may be served hot or cold,
milk adds more protein than cream, and cream more fat than milk. Some
persons, however, who do not care for milk and cream or cannot take
them, substitute a little butter for them or find fruit juice a very
good accompaniment, especially to a dry cereal. Sugar is generally
served with both kinds of cereals, as the majority of persons prefer
them slightly sweet; but there is no logical reason for its use except
to add flavor.

* * * * *



85. In addition to the cereals that have already been discussed,
macaroni and foods of a similar nature are entitled to a place in this
Section, because they are made from wheat flour and are therefore truly
cereal products. These foods, which are commonly referred to as ITALIAN
PASTES, originated in Italy. In that country they were made from a
flour called _semolina_, which is derived from a native wheat that is
very hard and contains more protein than is required for the making of
ordinary dough mixtures. Later, when the manufacture of these foods was
taken up in the United States, the flour for them had to be imported
from Italy; but it has since been discovered that flour made from the
variety of wheat called _durum_, which is grown in the spring-wheat
territory of this country, can be used for producing these pastes. In
fact, this kind of flour has proved to be so successful that it now
takes the place of what was formerly imported.

86. To produce the Italian pastes, the wheat, from which the bran has
been removed, is ground into flour. This flour is made into a stiff
dough, which is rolled into sheets and forced over rods, usually of
metal, or made into a mass and forced over rods, and allowed to dry in
the air. When sufficiently dry, the rods are removed, leaving slender
tubes, or sticks, that have holes through the center. Because of the
manufacturing processes involved in the production of these foods for
market, they are higher in price than some cereals, but their value lies
in the fact that they are practically imperishable and are easily
prepared and digested.

87. Italian pastes are of several varieties, chief among which are
_macaroni_, _spaghetti_, and _vermicelli_. Macaroni is the largest in
circumference; spaghetti, a trifle smaller; and vermicelli, very small
and without a hole through the center. These pastes and variations of
them are made from the same dough; therefore, the tests for determining
the quality of one applies to all of them. These tests pertain to their
color, the way in which they break, and the manner in which they cook.
To be right, they should be of an even, creamy color; if they look gray
or are white or streaked with white, they are of inferior quality. When
they are broken into pieces, they should break off perfectly straight;
if they split up lengthwise, they contain weak places due to streaks.
All the varieties should, upon boiling, hold their shape and double in
size; in case they break into pieces and flatten, they are of
poor quality.

88. Since the Italian pastes are made from wheat, their food substances
are similar to those of wheat. As in other wheat products, protein is
found in them in the form of gluten, but, owing to the variety of wheat
used for them, it occurs in greater proportion in these foods than in
most wheat products. In fact, the Italian pastes are so high in protein,
or tissue-building material, that they very readily take the place of
meat. Unlike meat, however, they contain carbohydrates in the form of
wheat starch. They do not contain much fat or mineral salts, though,
being lower in these food substances than many of the other foods made
from wheat.


89. In nearly all recipes for macaroni, spaghetti, and vermicelli, as
well as the numerous varieties of these foods, the first steps in their
preparation for the table are practically the same, for all of these
foods must be cooked to a certain point and in a certain way before they
can be used in the numerous ways possible to prepare them. Therefore, in
order that success may be met in the preparation of the dishes that are
made from these foods, these underlying principles should be thoroughly

In the first place, it should be borne in mind that while the time
required to cook the Italian pastes depends on their composition and
dryness, the average length of time is about 30 minutes. Another
important thing to remember is that they should always be put to cook in
boiling water that contains 2 teaspoonfuls of salt to each cupful of
macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli, and that they should be kept boiling
until the cooking is done, for if the pieces are not in constant motion
they will settle and burn. Tests may be applied to determine whether
these foods have been cooked sufficiently. Thus, if a fork passes
through them easily or they crush readily on being pressed between the
fingers and the thumb, they are done, but as long as they feel hard and
elastic they have not cooked enough.

In the majority of recipes here given, macaroni is specified, but
spaghetti, vermicelli, or any of the fancy Italian pastes may be
substituted for the macaroni if one of them is preferred. It should also
be remembered that any of these, when cut into small pieces, may be used
in soups or served with sauce or gravy.

90. MACARONI WITH CREAM SAUCE.--Possibly the simplest way in which to
prepare macaroni is with cream sauce, as is explained in the
accompanying recipe. Such a sauce not only increases the food value of
any Italian paste, but improves its flavor. Macaroni prepared in this
way may be used as the principal dish of a light meal, as it serves to
take the place of meat.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. macaroni
3 qt. boiling water
3 tsp. salt
1/4 c. crumbs


2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 1/2 c. milk

Break the macaroni into inch lengths, add it to the salted boiling
water, and cook it until it is tender. To prepare the sauce, melt the
butter in a saucepan, add the flour, salt, and pepper, stir until
smooth, and gradually add the milk, which must be hot, stirring rapidly
so that no lumps form. Cook the cream sauce until it thickens and then
add it to the macaroni. Pour all into a baking dish, sprinkle the bread
or cracker crumbs over the top, dot with butter, and bake until the
crumbs are brown. Serve hot.

91. MACARONI WITH EGGS.--Since macaroni is high in protein, it takes the
place of meat in whatever form it is served, but when it is prepared
with eggs it becomes an unusually good meat substitute. Therefore, when
eggs are added as in the following recipe, no meat should be served in
the same meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. macaroni
2 qt. boiling water
2 tsp. salt
1-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
4 hard-boiled eggs
1/4 c. crumbs

Break the macaroni into inch lengths, add it to the boiling salted
water, and cook it until tender. Make a cream, or white, sauce of the
milk, butter, flour, salt, and pepper as explained in the recipe given
in Art. 90. When the macaroni is tender, drain it and arrange a layer on
the bottom of a baking dish, with a layer of sliced, hard-boiled eggs on
top. Fill the dish with alternate layers of macaroni and eggs, pour the
sauce over all, and sprinkle the crumbs over the top. Then place the
dish in the oven and bake the food until the crumbs are brown.
Serve hot.

92. Macaroni With Tomato and Bacon.--Macaroni alone is somewhat
tasteless, so that, as has been pointed out, something is usually added
to give this food a more appetizing flavor. In the recipe here given,
tomatoes and bacon are used for this purpose. Besides improving the
flavor, the bacon supplies the macaroni with fat, a food substance in
which it is low.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. macaroni
2 qt. boiling water
2 tsp. salt
2 c. canned tomatoes
8 thin slices bacon

Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it in the boiling salted
water until it is tender. Place a layer of the cooked macaroni on the
bottom of a baking dish; over this layer put 1 cupful of the tomatoes,
and on top of them spread four slices of bacon. Then add another layer
of the macaroni, the other cupful of tomatoes, and a third layer of
macaroni. On top of this layer, place the remaining four slices of
bacon, and then bake the food for one half hour in a slow oven.
Serve hot.

93. Macaroni With Cheese.--Cheese is combined with macaroni probably
more often than any other food. It supplies considerable flavor to the
macaroni and at the same time provides fat and additional protein. The
cooking operation is practically the same as that just given for
macaroni with tomatoes and bacon.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. macaroni
3 qt. boiling water
3 tsp. salt
1-1/2 Tb. butter
1-1/2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/8 tsp. paprika
1-1/2 c. milk
1 c. grated or finely cut cheese
1/4 c. crumbs

Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it until it is tender in
the 3 quarts of boiling water to which 3 teaspoonfuls of salt has been
added. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, the 1 teaspoonful
of salt, the pepper, and the paprika, stir until smooth, and then
gradually add the milk, which should be hot. Allow to cook until it
thickens. Arrange the cooked macaroni in layers, pouring the sauce and
sprinkling salt and cheese over each layer. Then cover the top layer
with the crumbs and bake the food in a moderate oven for one half hour.
Serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

94. Macaroni With Cheese and Tomato.--Although the food combinations
given are very satisfactory, a dish that is extremely appetizing to many
persons may be made by combining both cheese and tomato with macaroni.
Such a nutritious combination, which is illustrated in Fig. 5, can be
used as the principal dish of a heavy meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. macaroni
1 c. grated cheese
2 qt. boiling water
2 Tb. butter
2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 1/2 c. canned tomatoes
1 tsp. salt

Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it until it is tender in
the boiling water to which 2 teaspoonfuls of salt has been added. Put a
layer of the cooked macaroni on the bottom of a baking dish, pour
one-half of the tomatoes and one-third of the cheese over it, dot with
butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Then add another layer of
macaroni, the remainder of the tomatoes, one-third more of the cheese,
butter, salt, and pepper. Finally, arrange another layer of macaroni,
put the remaining cheese and some butter on top of it, and bake the food
for 1/2 hour in a moderate oven. Serve hot.

95. Macaroni Italian Style.--If small quantities of fried or boiled ham
remain after a meal, they can be used with macaroni to make a very tasty
dish known as macaroni Italian style. As ham is a highly seasoned meat,
it improves the flavor of the macaroni and at the same time adds
nutrition to the dish.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. macaroni
2 qt. boiling water
2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1-1/2 c. scalded milk
2/3 c. grated cheese
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. paprika
1/2 c. finely chopped, cold boiled ham
1/4 c. crumbs

Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it in the boiling water to
which has been added 2 teaspoonfuls of salt. Drain, and then reheat it
in a white sauce made of the butter, flour, and milk. Add the cheese and
season with salt and paprika. Arrange in layers in a baking dish,
placing the cold ham between each two layers of macaroni and having the
top layer of macaroni, sprinkle the crumbs on top of the upper layer,
and bake the food until the crumbs are brown. Garnish with parsley
and serve.

96. MACARONI AND KIDNEY BEANS.--The combination of canned kidney beans
and macaroni is a rather unusual one, but it makes a very appetizing
dish, especially when canned tomatoes are added, as in the recipe
here given.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. macaroni
2 qt. water
2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
3/4 c. hot milk
1/2 c. canned tomatoes
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 c. canned kidney beans

Cook the macaroni in the salted water until it is tender and then drain
it. Prepare the sauce by melting the butter in a saucepan, rubbing the
flour into it until a smooth paste is formed, and then adding slowly the
hot milk. Cook this sauce for 5 minutes. Force the tomato through a
sieve, turn it into the hot sauce, and season all with salt and pepper.
Pour the sauce over the macaroni and the kidney beans, and then heat all
together. When the food is thoroughly heated, turn it into a dish
and serve.

97. SPAGHETTI WITH CHEESE AND TOMATO SAUCE.--The accompanying recipe for
spaghetti with cheese and tomato sauce will serve to illustrate that
this form of Italian paste may be prepared in the same manner as
macaroni; that is, to show how simple it is to substitute one kind of
Italian paste for another. Any of these pastes, as has been mentioned,
is especially appetizing when prepared with cheese and tomato.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. spaghetti
2 Tb. butter
2 qt. boiling water
2 Tb. flour
2 tsp. salt
1/2 c. grated cheese
1 can tomatoes
1 tsp. salt
1 small onion, chopped
1/4 tsp. pepper
1/2 c. water

Boil the spaghetti in the 2 quarts of boiling water to which has been
added 2 teaspoonfuls of salt, and after it is tender drain off the
water. Then proceed to make the sauce. Boil the tomatoes and the chopped
onion in the 1/2 cupful of water for 10 minutes. Strain this mixture and
to it add the butter and the flour, which should first be mixed with a
little cold water. Cook this until it thickens and then add the cheese,
1 teaspoonful of salt, and the pepper. Pour the entire mixture over the
cooked spaghetti, reheat, and serve.

98. Left-Over Italian Pastes.--No cooked Italian paste of any kind
should ever be wasted. Any left-over macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli
can be reheated and served as it was originally or it can be used in
soups. If a sufficient amount is left after a meal, a good plan is to
utilize it in croquettes. To make such croquettes, chop the left-over
food fine and hold it together with a thick white sauce or with raw
eggs. Then form it into croquettes of the desired shape, roll these in
bread or cracker crumbs, and brown them in butter.


99. A well-planned breakfast menu is here given, with the intention that
it be prepared and used. This menu, as will be observed, calls for at
least one of the dishes that have been described, as well as some that
have not. Directions for the latter, however, are given, so that no
difficulty will be experienced in preparing the menu. After the recipes
have been followed out carefully, it will be necessary to report on the
success that is had with each dish and to send this report in with the
answers to the Examination Questions at the end of this Section. The
recipes are intended to serve six persons, but they may be changed if
the family consists of fewer or more persons by merely regulating the
amounts to suit the required number, as is explained elsewhere.


Berries and Cream or Oranges
Cream of Wheat or Rolled Oats and Cream
Scrambled Eggs
Buttered Toast
Cocoa or Coffee


5 eggs
1/2 c. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
1/8 tsp. pepper

Beat the eggs slightly and add the salt, pepper, and milk. Heat a pan,
put in the butter, and, when it is melted, turn in the mixture. Cook
this mixture until it thickens as much as desired, being careful to stir
it and to scrape it from the bottom of the pan, so that it will not
burn. Remove from the pan and serve hot.


Bread for toasting should as a rule be 48 hours or more old. Cut the
desired number of slices, making each about 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick. Place
the slices on a toaster over a bed of clear coals or on a broiler under
a slow gas flame. Turn the bread frequently until it assumes an even
light brown on both sides. Remove from the heat, spread each slice with
butter, and serve while hot and crisp.


2 c. scalded milk
3 Tb. cocoa
3 Tb. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
2-1/2 c. boiling water

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Mix the cocoa, sugar, and salt. Stir
the boiling water into this mixture gradually, and let it boil for
several minutes over the fire. Then turn the mixture into the hot milk
in the double boiler, and beat all with an egg beater for several
minutes. A drop of vanilla added to the cocoa just before serving adds
to its flavor.


Scald a clean coffee pot, and into it put 12 level tablespoonfuls of
ground coffee. Add several crushed egg shells or the white of one egg,
pour in 1 cupful of cold water, and shake until the whole is well mixed.
Add 5 cupfuls of freshly boiling water and put over the fire to boil.
After the coffee has boiled for 5 minutes, pour 1/4 cupful of cold water
down the spout. Allow it to stand for a few minutes where it will keep
hot and then serve.

* * * * *



(1) (_a_) Mention the eight cereals that are used for food. (_b_) How
may the universal consumption of cereals be accounted for?

(2) (_a_) Explain why cereals and cereal products are economical foods.
(_b_) What factors should be considered in the selection of cereals?

(3) (_a_) Why are cereals not easily contaminated? (_b_) What care in
storage should be given to both prepared and unprepared cereals?

(4) (_a_) Explain briefly the composition of cereals. (_b_) Describe the
structure of cereal grains.

(5) What food substance is found in the greatest proportion in cereals?

(6) What characteristics of cereals make them valuable in the diet?

(7) What material, besides the food substances, is always present in
cereals, and what are its purposes?

(8) What is the purpose of cooking cereals?

(9) (_a_) What occurs when starch is cooked in a liquid? (_b_) Describe
the process of setting a cereal.

(10) (_a_) Mention the various methods of cooking cereals, (_b_) What
are the advantages of the double-boiler method?

(11) (_a_) What influences the proportion of water required and the
length of time necessary to cook cereals? (_b_) Is it an advantage to
cook cereals for a long time? Tell why.

(12) Mention the cereals that you would use in winter and tell why you
would use them.

(13) (_a_) Of what advantage is it to add dates to cream of wheat? (_b_)
Mention some of the ways in which left-over wheat cereals may
be utilized.

(14) (_a_) Explain the three methods of cooking rice, giving the
proportion of water to rice in each one. (_b_) How should rice grains
look when they are properly cooked?

(15) Mention several ways in which to utilize left-over rolled oats.

(16) (_a_) What advantages have ready-to-eat cereals over unprepared
ones? (_b_) Tell why cereals that have been toasted are said to be

(17) (_a_) What is the advantage of serving milk or cream with cereals?
(_b_) How may variety be secured in the serving of cereals?

(18) (_a_) How are Italian pastes made? (_b_) Mention and describe the
three principal varieties of Italian paste, (_c_) What tests can be
applied to judge the quality of these foods?

(19) (_a_) Explain the first steps in cooking macaroni, (_b_) How much
does macaroni increase upon being boiled?

(20) (_a_) Why may macaroni be substituted for meat in the diet? (_b_)
What foods used in the preparation of macaroni make it a better meat

* * * * *


After trying out the breakfast menu given in the text, send with your
answers to the Examination Questions a report of your success. In making
out your report, simply write the name of the food and describe its
condition by means of the terms specified in the following list?

Cream of Wheat: thin? thick? lumpy? smooth? salty? well flavored?

Rolled Oats: thin? thick? lumpy? smooth? salty? well flavored?

Scrambled Eggs: dry? moist? watery? salty? well flavored?

Buttered Toast: thin? thick? crisp? soggy? browned? not sufficiently
toasted? unevenly browned?

Cocoa: smooth? strong? weak? thick? scum formed on top?

Coffee: strong? weak? muddy? clear?

* * * * *


* * * * *



1. BREAD is sometimes defined as any form of baked flour, but as the
word is commonly understood it means only those forms of baked flour
which contain some leavening substance that produces fermentation. The
making of bread has come down through the ages from the simplest methods
practiced by the most primitive peoples to the more elaborate processes
of the present day. In truth, to study the history of bread making would
amount to studying the accounts of the progress that has been made by
the human race. Still, in order that the production of bread from
suitable ingredients may be fully understood, it will be well to note
the advancement that has been made.

2. In the earliest times, what was used as bread was made in much the
same way as it is today by many uncivilized and semicivilized people.
The grain was ground between stones, usually by hand, and then mixed
with water to form a dough; then this dough was formed into flat,
compact cakes and baked in hot ashes, the result being a food very
difficult to digest. Later on, some one discovered that by allowing the
dough to stand until fermentation took place and then mixing it with new
dough, the whole mass would rise, and also that by subjecting this mass
to the action of heat, that is, baking it, the mass would be held in
place and become a loaf of raised bread that was lighter and, of course,
more digestible. It was this discovery that led up to the modern
bread-making processes, in which substances known as _leavening agents_,
or _ferments_, are used to make bread light, or porous. Chief among the
substances is yeast, a microscopic plant that produces fermentation
under favorable conditions.

Indeed, so important is this ferment that, in the United States,
whenever the term _bread_ is used alone it means _yeast_, or _leavened_,
_bread_, whereas, when other leavening agents are used, the bread is
referred to as _hot bread_, or _quick bread_, as is fully explained in
another Section. It will be well to note this fact, for in all cases
throughout these cookery lessons yeast, or leavened, bread is always
meant when the term bread is used alone.

3. References in the history of the ancient Hebrews show that bread made
light by means of fermentation was known thousands of years ago, but it
was not until after the accidental discovery of the action of yeast that
the making of wholesome and digestible bread became possible. Through
this important advance in the making of bread came a demand for better
grains and more improved methods of making flour. Indeed, so much
attention has been given to these matters that at present the three
important processes relating to bread-making--the raising of wheat, the
milling of flour, and the manufacture of yeast--are carefully and
scientifically performed. These industries, together with the commercial
manufacture of bread, occupy an important place in the business of
practically all civilized nations.

4. Among people who are not highly civilized, bread forms the chief
article of food and often almost the entire diet, even at the present
time; but as man progresses in civilization he seems to require a
greater variety of food, and he accordingly devises means of getting it.
Since bread is only one of the many foods he finds at his disposal, it
does not assume a place of so much importance in present-day meals as it
formerly did. However, it still makes up a sufficient proportion of the
food of every family to warrant such careful and extensive study, as
well as such mastery of the processes involved, that the housewife may
present to her family only the best quality of this food.

Although it does not have such extensive use as it had in the past,
bread of some description, whether in the form of loaves, biscuits, or
rolls, forms a part of each meal in every household. This fact proves
that, with the exception of milk, it is more frequently eaten than any
other food. A food so constantly used contributes very largely to the
family's health if it is properly made. However, there is possibly
nothing in the whole range of domestic life that so disturbs the welfare
of the entire family as an inferior quality of this food, which,
besides proving detrimental to the digestion, adds materially to the
household expense.

5. Of course, in many bakeries, bread of an excellent quality is made in
a perfectly hygienic manner, and to be able to procure such bread is a
wonderful help to the busy housewife or to the woman who finds it
inconvenient to make her own bread. Still, practically every person
enjoys "home-made" bread so much more than what is made commercially
that the housewife will do well to make a careful study of this branch
of cookery. If it is properly understood, it will not be found
difficult; but the woman who takes it up must manifest her interest to
master a few essential principles and to follow them explicitly. After
she has obtained the knowledge that she must possess, experience and
practice will give her the skill necessary to prevent poor results and a
consequent waste of material.

* * * * *



6. Possibly the first essential to a correct knowledge of bread making
is familiarity with the ingredients required. These are few in number,
being merely flour, liquid, which may be either milk or water, sugar,
salt, and yeast; but the nature of these, particularly the flour and the
yeast, is such as to demand careful consideration. It will be admitted
that the more the housewife knows about bread-making materials and
processes the greater will be her success in this work. Likewise, it is
extremely important that this food be made just as wholesome as
possible, for next to milk and eggs, bread ranks as a perfect food,
containing all the elements necessary for the growth of the body. This
does not mean, though, that any of these foods used as the sole article
of diet would be ideal, but that each one of them is of such composition
that it alone would sustain life for a long period of time.


7. Grains Used for Flour.--As has been pointed out elsewhere, numerous
grains are raised by man, but only two of them, namely, wheat and rye,
are used alone for the making of yeast, or leavened, bread. The other
grains, such as corn, rice, and oats, produce a flat, unleavened cake,
so they are seldom used for bread making unless they are mixed with
white flour. Wheat and rye have been used for bread making for a very
long time, and their universal use today is due to the fact that they
contain considerable protein in the form of _gluten_. This is the
substance that produces elasticity in the dough mixture, a condition
that is absolutely essential in the making of raised bread. In fact, the
toughness and elasticity of bread dough are what make it possible for
the dough to catch and hold air and gas and thus produce a light,
porous loaf.

8. Of these two grains, rye is used less extensively in the United
States for the making of bread than wheat, although in some countries,
particularly the inland countries of Continental Europe, considerable
use is made of it. Its limited use here is undoubtedly due to the fact
that when rye is used alone it makes a moist, sticky bread, which is
considered undesirable by most persons. The reason for this is that,
although rye contains a sufficient quantity of gluten, this substance is
not of the proper quality to make the elastic dough that produces a
light, spongy loaf. Therefore, when rye is used, wheat flour is
generally mixed with it. The result is a bread having a good texture,
but the dark color and the typical flavor that rye produces.

9. Wheat, the other grain used for bread making, is an annual grass of
unknown origin. It is used more extensively for food than any other
grain. In fact, it has been estimated that the average quantity consumed
by each person is about 6 bushels a year, and of this amount by far the
greater part is used in the making of bread. Since so much of this grain
is used as food, considerable time and effort have been spent in
developing those qualities which are most desirable for the purpose to
which wheat is put and in perfecting the processes whereby wheat flour
of a good quality may be obtained.

This grain is particularly well adapted for bread making because of the
nature of the proteins it contains and the relative proportions of
these. These proteins, which occur in the wheat grain in the form of
gluten, are known as _gliadin_ and _glutenin_. The gliadin imparts
elasticity and tenacity, or toughness, to the gluten, and the glutenin
gives it strength. It is not, however, so much the quantity of gluten in
the wheat grain that actually determines the quality of flour as the
fact that the two varieties must be present in the proper proportions
in order for the gluten to have the properties desired for bread making.

Wheat consists of numerous varieties, but only two of these are grown
and used in the United States, namely, _spring_, or _hard, wheat_ and
_winter_, or _soft, wheat_.

10. SPRING, OR HARD WHEAT is so named because it is sown in the spring
of the year and is very tough or firm. Before this variety was known,
the wheat used for bread making was not ideal, and the efforts that were
made to produce a grain that would be suitable for this purpose resulted
in this variety. To obtain its particular composition, spring wheat must
be grown under suitable climatic and soil conditions. In North America,
it grows in the north central part of the United States and along the
southern border of Canada. This variety, which is harvested in the late
summer, is characterized by a large proportion of gluten and a
correspondingly small amount of starch. It is the presence of the gluten
that accounts for the hardness of the spring-wheat grain and the tough,
elastic quality of the dough made from the spring-wheat flour. Bread
dough, to be right, must have this quality, so that the flour made from
spring wheat is used almost exclusively for bread; whereas, for cake and
pastry, which should have a tender, unelastic texture, flour made from
soft wheat is more satisfactory.

11. WINTER, OR SOFT WHEAT derives its name from the fact that it is
planted in the autumn and is soft in texture. It is of less importance
in the making of bread than spring, or hard, wheat, but it is the kind
that has been grown for centuries and from which the varieties of spring
wheat have been cultivated. It is a softer grain than spring wheat,
because it contains less gluten and more starch. The flour made from it
does not produce so elastic a dough mixture as does that made from the
other variety of wheat; consequently, the finished product, such as
bread, rolls, etc., is likely to be more tender and more friable, or
crumbly. It is for this reason that winter, or soft, wheat is not used
extensively for bread, but is employed for pastry flour or mixed with
spring wheat to make what is called a _blend flour_, which may be used
for all purposes.

12. STRUCTURE OF WHEAT GRAIN.--In its natural state, wheat contains all
the food substances required for the nourishment of the human body in
nearly the proper proportions, and in addition it has in its
composition sufficient cellulose to give it considerable bulk. It has
been estimated that the average composition of this grain is as follows:

Protein...................................... 11.9
Fat.......................................... 2.1
Carbohydrates................................ 71.9
Mineral salts................................. 1.8
Water........................................ 10.5
Cellulose..................................... 1.8
Total....................................... 100.0

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

So that the composition of wheat and the making of wheat flour may be
more clearly understood, it will be well to observe the structure of a
grain, or kernel, of wheat, which is shown greatly enlarged in Fig. 1.
At _a_ is shown the germ of the young plant, which remains undeveloped
until the grain is planted. This part contains practically all the fat
found in the grain, some starch, and a small quantity of protein. At _b_
is shown the inside of the kernel, or the _endosperm_, as it is called,
which is composed of starch granules interlaced with protein and mineral
salts. Surrounding these, as at _c_, is a layer of coarse cells that
contain mineral matter and protein, and between these cells and the
outer husk, as at _d, e, f_, and _g_, are layers of bran, which are
composed of cellulose and contain mineral salts and small quantities of
starch and protein. Enveloping the entire kernel is a husk, or bran
covering, _h_. This forms a protection to the rest of the grain, but it
cannot be used as food, because it is composed almost entirely of
cellulose, which is practically indigestible. The center of the grain,
or the heart, is the softest part and consists of cells filled with
starch. From this soft center the contents of the grain gradually grow
harder toward the outside, the harder part and that containing the most
gluten occurring next to the bran covering.

13. MILLING OF WHEAT FLOUR.--Great advances have been made in the
production of flour from wheat, and these are very good evidence of
man's progress in the way of invention. The earliest method consisted
in crushing the grain by hand between two stones, and from this crude
device came the mortar and pestle. A little later millstones in the form
of thick, heavy disks were brought into use for grinding grain. Two of
these stones were placed so that their surfaces came together, the lower
one being stationary and the upper one made to revolve. Early grinding
apparatus of this kind was turned by human power, but this kind of power
was first displaced by domestic animals and later by wind and water. Out
of this arrangement, which is still used to some extent in small mills,
has grown the present-day complicated machinery of the roller process,
by which any part of the grain may be included or rejected.

14. In the roller process, the grain is crushed between metal rolls
instead of being ground between stones. It is first screened in order to
separate all foreign matter from it, and then stored in bins. When it is
taken from these receptacles, it is put through another cleaning
process, called _scouring_, or it is thoroughly washed and dried in
order to loosen the dirt that clings to it and to free it entirely from
dust, lint, etc. As soon as it is completely cleansed, it is softened by
heat and moisture and then passed through a set of corrugated rollers,
which are adjustable as are the rubber rollers of a clothes wringer and
which flatten and break the grains. After this first crushing, some of
the bran is sifted out, while the main portion of the grain is put
through another set of rollers and crushed more finely. During the
milling, these processes of crushing the grain and removing the bran are
repeated from six to nine times, each pair of rollers being set somewhat
closer than the pair before, until the grain is pulverized. After the
grain has been thus reduced to a powder, it is passed through bolting
cloth, which acts as a very fine sieve and separates from it any foreign
material that may remain. The result is a very fine, white flour.

15. GRAHAM FLOUR.--Sometimes the entire grain, including the bran, germ,
etc., is ground fine enough merely for baking purposes and is used as
flour in this form. Such flour is called graham flour. It contains all
the nutriment, mineral matter, and cellulose of the original grain, and
is therefore considered valuable as food. However, the objection to this
kind of flour is that its keeping quality is not so good as that of the
kinds from which the germ has been removed, because the fat contained in
the germ is liable to become rancid.

16. WHOLE-WHEAT FLOUR.--The best grades of fine white flour make bread


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