Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 1
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences

Part 2 out of 6


18. As a guide in purchasing equipment for a kitchen, a list of utensils
is here presented. This list is divided into utensils that are necessary
and those that are convenient and only at times necessary. In any case,
however, the number of utensils and the size must be determined by the
quantity of food that is to be prepared.


Baking dish with cover
Bread box
Bread knife
Bread pans
Can opener
Cake knife
Chopping bowl and knife or food chopper
Coffee mill
Coffee pot
Cookie cutter
Corer, Apple
Cutting board
Double boiler
Egg beater
Flour sifter
Frying pan, large
Frying pan, small
Garbage can
Kettle covers
Kettles, two or more
Knife sharpener
Lemon squeezer
Long-handled fork
Measuring cup
Meat board
Meat knife
Mixing bowls
Mixing spoons
Molding board
Muffin pan
Paring knife
Pepper shaker
Pie pans
Potato masher
Rinsing, or draining, pan
Roasting pan
Rolling pin
Salt box
Wire strainer
Wooden spoon


Bread mixer
Cake coolers
Cake mixer
Cake turner
Coffee percolator
Containers for spices and dry groceries
Cookie sheets
Cream whip Egg whip
Fireless cooker
Frying kettle and basket
Funnel Glass jars for canning
Ice-cream freezer
Ice pick
Jelly molds
Nest of bowls
Pan for baking fish
Potato knife
Potato ricer
Quart measure
Set of skewers
Waffle iron
Wheel cart

* * * * *



19. Before foods that require cooking are cooked or before foods that
are to be eaten raw are served, they must be properly prepared, for
their palatability and their value as food depend considerably on the
way in which they are made ready for cooking or for eating. Of course,
the way in which food should be prepared will depend on how it is to be
served, but in any event all foods, for the sake of cleanliness, must
first be washed with water or wiped with a clean, damp cloth.

20. The ways in which vegetables and fruits are made ready for cooking
vary. Sometimes such foods are cooked with the skins on, and sometimes
certain vegetables, such as new potatoes, young carrots and parsnips,
vegetable oysters, etc., are made ready in an economical way by scraping
off their skins with a knife. Vegetables are also peeled, and when this
is done a very sharp knife with a thin blade should be used and as
little of the food removed as possible. Still another way of removing
the skins of such foods as tomatoes, nuts, and some fruits is by
_blanching_. In this process, the skins are loosened so that they may be
removed easily, either by immersing the foods in boiling water or by
pouring boiling water over them and allowing them to stand in the water
for a few minutes, but not long enough to soften them. Blanching used in
this sense should not be confused with the same word when it means "to
take color out" and has reference to a process of bleaching. Only when
the word means "to remove the covering of" can it be applied to the
peeling of tomatoes, fruits, and nuts. Vegetables and fruits may be
cooked whole or they may be cut into chunks, or pieces, or into slices.

21. In order to get meats ready for cooking, it is necessary to wipe
them clean and usually to trim off all unnecessary bone, fat, and skin.
Meats may be cooked in large pieces or small pieces or they may be
ground, depending on the cooking process to be used. Before cooking
poultry and fish, they should be thoroughly cleaned and then trimmed and
cut to suit the cooking process chosen. If desired, the bones may be
removed from poultry or fish before cooking, and sometimes it is
advantageous to do so. Cream and raw eggs may be whipped or beaten light
before they are served or cooked, and after such foods as fruits,
vegetables, meats, and fish have been cooked, they may be sliced,
chopped, ground, mashed, or cut into dice, or small pieces.


22. PROCESSES INVOLVED IN MIXING.--In cookery, the mixing of ingredients
is done for several purposes--to produce a certain texture, to give a
smoothness or creaminess to a mixture, or to impart lightness. Various
processes are involved in the mixing of ingredients, and the results
that are accomplished depend entirely on the method that is selected.
The most important of these processes with brief explanations of what
they mean follow.

BEATING is a rapid motion that picks up material from the bottom and
mixes it with that nearer the surface. It is done with a spoon, a fork,
an egg whip, or, if the mixture is thin, with a rotary egg beater.
Sometimes beating is done for the purpose of incorporating air and thus
making the mixture light.

STIRRING is usually done with a spoon, and is accomplished by moving the
spoon in circles, around and around, through ingredients contained in a
pan or a bowl. This is the method that is generally applied to the
simple mixing of ingredients.

FOLDING is a careful process whereby beaten egg or whipped cream is
added to a mixture without destroying its lightness. It is accomplished
by placing the egg or cream on top of a mixture in a bowl or a pan, and
then passing a spoon down through both and bringing up a spoonful of the
mixture and placing it on top. This motion is repeated until the two are
well blended, but this result should be accomplished with as few strokes
as possible.

RUBBING is done by pressing materials against the side of a bowl with
the back of a spoon. This is the process that is applied when butter and
other fats are to be mixed with such dry ingredients as sugar and flour.

CREAMING consists in continuing the rubbing process until the texture
becomes soft and smooth and is of a creamy consistency.

CUTTING-IN is a method used to combine butter with flour when it is
desired to have the butter remain hard or in small pieces. It is done by
chopping the butter into the flour with a knife.

SIFTING is shaking or stirring material through a sifter having a fine
wire mesh. It is done to remove foreign or coarse material, to impart
lightness, or to mix dry ingredients together.

RICING is a process whereby certain cooked foods, such as fruits,
vegetables, meats, and fish, may be reduced to the form of a purée. This
result is accomplished by forcing the cooked material through a ricer.

23. APPLICATION OF MIXING PROCESSES.--In applying the various mixing
processes, it is well to bear in mind that good results depend
considerably on the order of mixing, as well as on the deftness and
thoroughness with which each process is performed. This fact is clearly
demonstrated in a cake in which the butter and sugar have not been
actually creamed, for such a cake will not have the same texture as one
in which the creaming has been done properly. It is also shown in angel
food or sunshine cake, for the success of such a cake depends largely on
the skill employed in folding in the whites of eggs or in beating the
yolks. On the other hand, the lightness of pastry and the tenderness of
cookies depend on how each is rolled out, and the kneading of bread is a
process that demonstrates that many things can be learned by actually
doing them.

As progress is made with these cookery lessons, therefore, the
application of the mixing processes should not be overlooked. Beginners
in cookery, owing possibly to the fact that at first they cannot handle
soft material skilfully, are liable to make the mistake of getting the
ingredients too stiff. Yet no beginner need feel the least bit
discouraged, for ability in this direction comes with experience;
indeed, just as skill in sewing, embroidering, and other processes comes
about by practice and persistent effort, so will come skill in cooking.


24. Uniform results in cookery depend on accurate measurement. Of
course, there are some cooks--and good ones, too--who claim that they do
not measure, but as a matter of fact they have, through long experience,
developed a judgment, or "sense," of measurement, which amounts to the
same thing as if they actually did measure. Still, even these cooks
cannot be absolutely sure of securing as satisfactory results time after
time as are likely to follow the employment of a more accurate method.
Therefore, to secure the best results, every kitchen should be supplied
with the proper measuring utensils, which are scales, a measuring cup,
and a set of measuring spoons, or a standard tablespoon and a
standard teaspoon.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

25. SCALES.--In Fig. 7 is shown the type of scales generally included in
the kitchen equipment. The material to be weighed is placed on the
platform at the top, and the weight of it is indicated on the dial by a
pointer, or hand. Sometimes these scales are provided with a scoop in
which loose materials may be placed in weighing. Such scales furnish a
correct means not only of measuring materials, but of verifying the
weights of foods from the market, the butcher shop, or the grocery. To
use them properly, the housewife should learn to balance them exactly,
and when she is weighing articles she should always allow for the weight
of the container or receptacle, even if it is only the paper that
holds the food.

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

26. MEASURING CUPS.--Weighing the articles called for in a recipe is
often a less convenient method than measuring; therefore, in the
preparation of foods, measuring is more often resorted to than weighing.
As accuracy in measurement is productive of the best results, it is
necessary that all measures be as accurate and definite as possible. For
measuring the ingredients called for in recipes, use is generally made
of a measuring cup like that shown in Fig. 8. Such a cup is designed to
hold 2 gills, or 1/2 pint, and it is marked to indicate thirds and
quarters, so that it may be used for recipes of all kinds. If a liquid
is to be measured with such a cup, it should be filled to the brim, but
if dry material is to be measured with it, the material should be heaped
up in the cup with a spoon and then scraped level with a knife, in the
manner shown in Fig. 9. In case fractions or parts of a cup are to be
measured, the cup should be placed level and stationary and then filled
evenly to the mark indicated on the cup itself.

27. Many times it will be found more convenient to measure dry materials
with a spoon. This can be done with accuracy if it is remembered that 16
tablespoonfuls make 1 cup, or 1/2 pint; 12 tablespoonfuls, 3/4 cup; 8
tablespoonfuls, 1/2 cup; and 4 tablespoonfuls, 1/4 cup. If no measuring
cup like the one just described is at hand, one that will hold 16 level
tablespoonfuls of dry material may be selected from the kitchen supply
of dishes. Such a cup, however, cannot be used successfully in measuring
a half, thirds, or fourths; for such measurements it will be better to
use a spoon.

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

As a rule, it will be found very convenient to have two measuring cups
of standard size, one for measuring dry ingredients and the other for
measuring moist or wet ones. If it is impossible to have more than one,
the dry materials should be measured first in working out a recipe, and
the fats and liquids afterwards. Whatever plan of measuring is followed,
however, it should always be remembered that recipes are written for the
definite quantities indicated and mean _standard_, not approximate,
cupfuls, tablespoonfuls, and teaspoonfuls.

28. MEASURING SPOONS.--In addition to a measuring cup or two, a set of
measuring spoons will be found extremely convenient in a kitchen.
However, if it is impossible to obtain such a set, a teaspoon and a
tablespoon of standard size will answer for measuring purposes. Three
level teaspoonfuls are equal to 1 tablespoonful. When a spoon is used,
it is heaped with the dry material and then leveled with a knife, in the
manner shown in Fig. 10 (_a_). If 1/2 spoonful is desired, it is leveled
first, as indicated in (_a_), and then marked through the center with a
knife and half of its contents pushed off, as shown in (_b_). Fourths
and eighths are measured in the same way, as is indicated in Fig. 11
(_a_), but thirds are measured across the bowl of the spoon, as
in (_b_).

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

29. Precautions to Observe in Measuring.--In measuring some of the
materials used in the preparation of foods, certain points concerning
them should receive attention. For instance, all powdered materials,
such as flour, must first be sifted, as the amount increases upon
sifting, it being definitely known that a cupful of unsifted flour will
measure about 1-1/4 cupfuls after it is sifted. Lumps, such as those
which form in salt and sugar, should be thoroughly crushed before
measuring; if this is not done, accurate measurements cannot be secured,
because lumps of such ingredients are more compact than the loose
material. Butter and other fats should be tightly packed into the
measure, and if the fat is to be melted in order to carry out a recipe,
it should be melted before it is measured. Anything measured in a cup
should be poured into the cup; that is, the cup should not be filled by
dipping it into the material nor by drawing it through the material.

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

30. TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.--As foods are sold by weight and by
measure, and as recipes always call for certain weights and measures, it
is absolutely necessary that every person engaged in the purchase and
preparation of foods should be familiar with the tables of weights and
measures in common use for such purposes in the United States and
practically all other English-speaking countries. In addition, it will
be well to have a knowledge of relative weights and measures, so as to
be in a position to use these tables to the best advantage.

31. The table used ordinarily for weighing foods is the table of
AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. Another table of weights, called the table of _Troy
weight_, is used by goldsmiths and jewelers for weighing precious
metals. It should not be confused with avoirdupois weight, however,
because its pound contains only 12 ounces, whereas the avoirdupois pound
contains 16 ounces. The table of avoirdupois weight, together with the
abbreviations of the terms used in it, is as follows:

437-1/2 grains (gr.)..... = 1 ounce............. oz.
16 ounces................ = 1 pound............. lb.
100 pounds............... = 1 hundredweight..... cwt.
20 hundredweight \
}....... = 1 ton............... T.
2,000 pounds /

Although 2,000 pounds make 1 ton, it is well to note that 2,240 pounds
make 1 _long ton_ (L.T.). The long ton is used by coal dealers in some
localities, but the ton, sometimes called the _short ton_, is in more
general use and is the one meant unless long ton is specified.

32. The table of LIQUID MEASURE is used for measuring all liquids, and
is extremely useful to the housewife. This table, together with the
abbreviations of its terms, is as follows:

4 gills (gi.)........... = 1 pint................. pt.
2 pints................. = 1 quart................ qt.
4 quarts................ = 1 gallon............... gal.
31-1/2 gallons.......... = 1 barrel............... bbl.
2 barrels \
}............ = 1 hogshead............. hhd.
63 gallons/

33. The table of DRY MEASURE is used for measuring dry foods, such as
potatoes, dried peas and beans, etc. The table of dry measure, with its
abbreviations, follows:

2 pints (pt.)........... = 1 quart................ qt.
8 quarts................ = 1 peck................. pk.
4 pecks................. = 1 bushel............... bu.

34. Tables of RELATIVE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES are of value to the
housewife in that they will assist her greatly in coming to an
understanding of the relation that some of the different weights and
measures bear to one another. For example, as dry foods are sold by the
pound in some localities, it will be well for her to know the
approximate equivalent in pounds of a definite quantity of another
measure, say a quart or a bushel of a certain food. Likewise, she ought
to know that when a recipe calls for a cupful it means 1/2 pint, as has
been explained. Every one is familiar with the old saying, "A pint's a
pound the world around," which, like many old sayings, is not strictly
true, for while 1 pint is equal to 1 pound of some things, it is not of
others. The following tables give approximately the relative weights and
measures of most of the common foods:


Beans, dried.................. 2 CUPFULS
Butter........................ 2
Coffee, whole................. 4
Corn meal..................... 3
Flour......................... 4
Milk.......................... 2
Molasses...................... 1-1/2
Meat, chopped, finely packed.. 2
Nuts, shelled................. 3
Oats, rolled.................. 4
Olive oil..................... 2-1/2
Peas, split................... 2
Raisins....................... 3
Rice.......................... 2
Sugar, brown.................. 2-2/3
Sugar, granulated............. 2
Sugar, powdered............... 2-3/4


Butter........................ 1/2 OUNCE
Corn starch................... 3/8
Flour......................... 1/4
Milk.......................... 1/2
Sugar......................... 1/2


Butter........................ 8 OUNCES
Corn meal..................... 5
Corn starch................... 6
Flour......................... 4
Milk.......................... 8
Molasses..................... 10
Nuts, shelled................. 4
Raisins....................... 5
Sugar......................... 8

In measuring, you will find the following relative proportions of
great assistance:

3 tsp. = 1 Tb.
16 Tb. = 1 c.

35. ABBREVIATIONS OF MEASURES.--In order to simplify directions and
recipes in books relating to cookery, it is customary to use the
abbreviations of some weights and measures. Those which occur most
frequently in cook books are the following:

tsp. for teaspoonful
pt. for pint
Tb. for tablespoonful
qt. for quart
c. for cupful
oz. for ounce
lb. for pound


36. For successful results in cookery, the work to be done should be
planned beforehand and then carried on with systematic care. By
following such a plan, a waste of time and material will be prevented
and good results will be secured, for there will be little chance for
mistakes to occur. The order of work here outlined will serve to make
clear the way in which cooking processes can be carried out

First, read the quantity and kind of ingredients listed in the recipe,
and study carefully the method by which they are to be prepared and
combined. In so doing, determine whether the dish is too expensive and
whether the amounts called for will make a dish sufficient in size for
the number of persons to be served. If they are too large, carefully
divide them to make the right quantity; if they are too small, multiply
them to make them enough.

The heat itself, which plays such an important part in cooking, should
receive attention at the proper time. If the fuel to be used is coal or
wood and baking is to be done, build the fire long enough before it is
needed, so that it will be burning evenly and steadily.

Then, while the recipe is being prepared, provided it is to be baked,
regulate the heat of the oven. If gas or kerosene is to be used, light
it after the recipe is read, and regulate it during the measuring and
mixing of the ingredients.

Before proceeding to prepare a dish, clear enough working space for the
utensils that are to be used, as well as for carrying on the various
operations without feeling crowded. Then, on the cleared space, place
the necessary measuring utensils, such as a measuring cup, a knife, a
teaspoon, and a tablespoon. Select a bowl or a pan for mixing, a spoon
for stirring, and, when needed, an egg whip or beater for eggs and
separate bowls in which to beat them. Choose the utensil in which the
mixture is to be cooked, and, if necessary, grease it. During the
process of preparing the dish, measure accurately all the ingredients to
be used, and check them up with the recipe, so as to be sure that none
are missing and that each one is in its proper amount.

If all these steps are accurately taken, the mixing, which is the next
step, can be accomplished quickly and without error. With all the
ingredients properly combined, the mixture is ready for the last step,
the cooking or the baking. This must be done with the utmost care, or an
otherwise properly prepared dish may be spoiled.


37. So that the beginner in cookery may form a definite idea of the
length of time required to cook certain foods, there is presented here
what is commonly known as a _cookery time table_. It should be
remembered that the time required to cook food is influenced by many
factors. For instance, the age of vegetables and fruits very largely
determines how long they should be cooked; tough meats and fowl require
longer cooking than tender ones; and the heat of the oven has much to do
with the length of time required for cooking, especially the process of
baking or roasting Therefore, while this time table will prove of great
help to beginners, it can serve only as a guide. To determine whether or
not foods have been cooked long enough, it is advisable to apply the
proper tests, which are given later in discussing the various foods
rather than to depend solely on the time table. In this table, the
length of time for cooking is given in minutes (abbreviated min.) and
hours (abbreviated hr.)



Bacon....................... 3 to 5 min.
Chicken.................... 20 to 25 min.
Fish....................... 15 to 20 min.
Fish, slices............... 10 to 15 min.
Fish, very small............ 5 to 10 min.
Lamb chops.................. 6 to 8 min.
Quail or squabs............. 8 to 10 min.
Steak, thick............... 10 to 15 min.
Steak, thin................. 5 to 7 min.
Veal chops.................. 6 to 10 min.

Beef, corned................ 3 to 4 hr.
Chicken, 3 lb............... 1 to 1-1/4 hr.
Fish, bluefish, cod, or
bass, 4 to 5 lb.......... 20 to 30 min.
Fish, slices, 2 to 3 lb.... 20 to 25 min.
Fish, small................ 10 to 15 min.
Fowl, 4 to 5 lb............. 2 to 3 hr.
Ham, 12 to 14 lb............ 4 to 5 hr.
Mutton, leg of.............. 2 to 3 hr.
Tongue...................... 3 to 4 hr.

Beef, rib or loin, 5 lb.,
rare....................... 1 hr. 5 min.
Beef, rib or loin, 5 lb.,
well done.................. 1 hr. 20 min.
Beef, rib or loin, 10 lb.,
rare....................... 1 hr. 30 min.
Beef, rib or loin, 10 lb.,
well done.................. 2 hr.
Beef, rump, 10 lb., rare... 1 hr. 30 min.
Beef, rump, 10 lb., well done.. 2 hr.
Chicken, 4 or 5 lb........ 1-1/2 to 2 hr.
Duck, 5 to 6 lb........... 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr.
Fish, 3 to 5 lb........... 45 to 60 min.
Fish, small............... 20 to 30 min.
Goose, 10 lb.............. 2 to 2-1/2 hr.
Lamb, leg of.............. 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 hr.
Mutton, saddle............ 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr.
Pork, rib, 5 lb........... 2 to 2-1/2 hr.
Turkey, 10 lb............. 2-1/2 to 3 hr.


Asparagus.............. 20 to 30 min.
Beans, lima or shell.... 40 to 60 min.
Beans, string.......... 30 to 45 min.
Beets, old............... 4 to 6 hr.
Beets, young........... 45 to 60 min.
Brussels sprouts....... 15 to 25 min.
Cabbage................ 35 to 60 min.
Carrots............... 3/4 to 2 hr.
Cauliflower............. 20 to 30 min.
Green corn............... 8 to 12 min.
Macaroni................ 30 to 40 min.
Onions.................. 45 to 60 min.
Peas.................... 25 to 60 min.
Potatoes................ 30 to 45 min.
Rice.................... 20 to 30 min.
Spinach................. 20 to 30 min.
Turnips................ 1/2 to 1-1/2 hr.
Vegetable oysters...... 3/4 to 1-1/2 hr.

Beans..................... 6 to 8 hr.
Biscuits, baking powder ... 15 to 25 min.
Biscuits, yeast........... 10 to 25 min.
Bread, ginger............. 20 to 30 min.
Bread, loaf............... 40 to 60 min.
Cake, corn................ 20 to 30 min.
Cake, fruit............ 1-1/4 to 2 hr.
Cake, layer............... 15 to 20 min.
Cake, loaf................ 40 to 60 min.
Cake, pound............ 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr.
Cake, sponge.............. 45 to 60 min.
Cookies.................... 6 to 10 min.
Custard................... 20 to 45 min.
Muffins, baking powder.... 15 to 25 min.
Pastry.................... 30 to 45 min.
Potatoes.................. 45 to 60 min.
Pudding, Indian............ 2 to 3 hr.
Pudding, rice (poor man's). 2 to 3 hr.

* * * * *



38. Although, as has been explained, the selection and preparation of
foods require much consideration from the housewife who desires to get
good results in cookery, there is still one thing to which she must give
attention if she would keep down the cost of living, and that is the
care of food. Unless food is properly taken care of before it is cooked,
as well as after it is cooked--that is, the left-overs--considerable
loss is liable to result through its spoiling or decaying. Both uncooked
and cooked food may be kept wholesome in several ways, but before these
are discussed it may be well to look into the causes of spoiling. With
these causes understood, the methods of caring for foods will be better
appreciated, and the results in buying, storing, and handling foods will
be more satisfactory.

39. To come to a knowledge of why foods spoil, it will be well to note
that nature abounds in _micro-organisms_, or living things so minute as
to be invisible to the naked eye. These micro-organisms are known to
science as _microbes_ and _germs_, and they are comprised of _bacteria,
yeasts_, and _molds_, a knowledge of which is of the utmost importance
to the physician and the farmer, as well as the housewife. Just in what
ways these are beneficial to the farmer and the physician is beyond the
scope of the subject of cookery, but in the household their influence is
felt in three ways: They are the cause of the decay and spoiling of
foods; they are of value in the preparation of certain foods; and they
are the cause of contagious diseases. It will thus be seen that while
some microbes are undesirable, others exert a beneficial action.

40. It is only within comparatively recent years that the action of
micro-organisms has been understood. It is now definitely known that
these minute living things seize every possible chance to attack
articles of food and produce the changes known as fermentation,
putrefaction, souring, and decay. Micro-organisms that cause
fermentation are necessary in bread making and vinegar making, but they
are destructive to other foods, as, for example, those which are canned
or preserved. Organisms that cause putrefaction are needed in the making
of sauer kraut, salt rising bread, and cheese. Molds also help to make
cheese, but neither these nor putrefactive organisms are desirable for
foods other than those mentioned. It should be remembered, however, that
even those foods which require micro-organisms in their making are
constantly in danger of the attacks of these small living things, for
unless something is done to retard their growth they will cause food to
sour or decay and thus become unfit for consumption.

Some foods, of course, withstand the attacks of micro-organisms for
longer periods of time than others. For example, most fruits that are
protected by an unbroken skin will, under the right conditions, keep for
long periods of time, but berries, on account of having less protective
covering, spoil much more quickly. Likewise, vegetables without skins
decay faster than those with skins, because they have no protective
covering and contain more water, in which, as is definitely known, most
micro-organisms thrive.

41. If food is to be kept from decaying, the housewife must endeavor to
prevent the growth of micro-organisms, and she can best accomplish this
if she is familiar with the ways in which they work. It is for this
reason that, whether she possesses a scientific knowledge of bacteria or
not, an understanding of some practical facts concerning why food spoils
and how to keep it from decaying is imperative. In this part of cookery,
as in every other phase, it is the reason why things should be done that
makes all that relates to the cooking of food so interesting. In all
parts of the work there are scientific facts underlying the processes,
and the more the housewife learns about these, the more she can exercise
the art of cookery, which, like all other arts, depends on scientific

* * * * *



42. As has been pointed out, it is not the mere presence of
micro-organisms that causes the spoiling of food, but their constant
growth. Therefore, to keep milk from souring, meat from spoiling, bread
from molding, canned fruit from fermenting, and so on, it is necessary
to know what will prevent the growth of these minute organisms.
Different foods require different treatment. Some foods must be kept
very cold, some must be heated or cooked, others must be dried, and to
others must be added preservatives. An unwarrantable prejudice has been
raised in the minds of many persons against the use of preservatives,
but this is due to the fact that the term is not properly understood. In
this use, it means anything that helps to preserve or keep safe the food
to which it is added. Sugar, salt, spices, and vinegar are all
preservatives, and are added to food as much for the purpose of
preserving it as for seasoning it.


43. Among the common methods of caring for foods that are to be used at
a future time are canning and drying. CANNING, which is discussed fully
in another Section, consists in preserving sterile foods in sealed cans
or jars. The aim in canning is to prevent the growth of micro-organisms,
and to do this the process known as _sterilizing_--that is, the
destroying of bacteria and other micro-organisms by means of heat--is
resorted to. Canning theories are different now from what they were in
former times. For example, housewives formerly made heavy, rich
preserves of available fruits because it was thought that sugar must be
used in large quantities in order to keep or prevent them from spoiling.
While it is true that the sugar assisted, science has since proved that
sterilizing is what must be done, so that now only the sugar desired for
sweetening need be used.

44. The other method of keeping food, namely, DRYING, depends for its
success on the fact that such micro-organisms as bacteria cannot grow
unless they have a considerable quantity of moisture or water. Molds
grow on cheese, bread, damp cloth or paper, or articles that contain
only a small amount of moisture, but bacteria need from 20 to 30 per
cent. of water in food in order to grow and multiply. This explains why
in high altitudes and dry climates foods keep for a long time without
artificial means of preservation. It also explains why the old-fashioned
housekeeper dried fruits and why the preservation of certain meats is
accomplished by the combined methods of smoking and drying, the creosote
of the smoke given off from the wood used in this process acting as a
preservative. All the grains, which are very dry, keep for long periods
of time, even centuries, if they are protected from the moisture of the
air. Peas, beans, and lentils, as well as dried biscuits and crackers,
are all examples of how well food will keep when little or no moisture
is present.


45. Although, as has just been pointed out, moisture is required for the
growth of some micro-organisms, both moisture and warmth are necessary
for the growth of most of the organisms that cause molding,
putrefaction, and fermentation. It is definitely known, also, that in
winter or in cold climates food can be kept for long periods of time
without any apparent change; in fact, the lower the temperature the less
likely are foods to spoil, although freezing renders many of them unfit
for use. These facts are what led up to the scientific truth that
keeping foods dry and at a low temperature is an effective and
convenient method of preventing them from spoiling and to the invention
of the refrigerator and other devices and methods for the cold
storage of foods.

46. THE REFRIGERATOR.--For home use, the refrigerator offers the most
convenient means of keeping foods in good condition. As is well known,
it is a device that, by means of air cooled by the melting of ice or in
some other manner, keeps food at a temperature near the freezing point.
All refrigerators are constructed in a similar manner, having two or
more layers of wood between which is placed an insulating material, such
as cork, asbestos, or mineral wool. The food compartments are lined with
tile, zinc, or other rust-proof material, and the ice compartment is
usually lined with rust-proof metal, so as to be water-tight and
unbreakable. Any refrigerator may be made to serve the purpose of
preserving food effectively if it is well constructed, the ice chamber
kept as full of ice as possible, and the housewife knows how to arrange
the foods in the food chambers to the best advantage.

The construction and use of refrigerators are based on the well-known
scientific fact that air expands and rises when it becomes warm. This
can be proved by testing the air near the ceiling of a room, for no
matter how warm it is near the floor it will always be warmer above. The
same thing occurs in a refrigerator. As air comes in contact with the
ice, it is cooled and falls, and the warm air is forced up. Thus the air
is kept in constant motion, or circulation.

[Illustration: Fig 12.]

47. Many refrigerators are built with the ice compartment on one side,
as in the refrigerator illustrated in Fig. 12. In such refrigerators,
there is usually a small food compartment directly under the ice
chamber, and this is the coldest place in the refrigerator. Here should
be stored the foods that need special care or that absorb odors and
flavors readily, such as milk, butter, cream, meat, etc., because at
this place the air, which circulates in the manner indicated by the
arrow, is the purest. The foods that give off odors strong enough to
taint others should be kept on the upper shelves of the refrigerator,
through which the current of air passes last before being freed from
odors by passing over the ice.

48. In Fig. 13 is shown a type of refrigerator in which the ice chamber,
or compartment, extends across the entire top. This type is so built as
to produce on each side a current of air that passes down from the ice
at the center and back up to the ice near the outside walls, as shown by
the arrows. A different arrangement is required for the food in this
kind of refrigerator, those which give off odors and flavors being
placed in the bottom compartment, or farthest from the ice, and those
which take up odors and flavors, on the top shelf, or nearest the ice. A
careful study of both Figs. 12 and 13 is advised, for they show the best
arrangement of food in each type of refrigerator.

[Illustration: Fig. 13]

49. CARE OF FOOD IN REFRIGERATOR.--The proper placing of foods in a
refrigerator is extremely important, but certain precautions should be
taken with regard to the food itself. Cooked foods should never be
placed in the refrigerator without first allowing them to cool, for the
steam given off when a dish of hot food comes in contact with the cold
air makes the refrigerator damp and causes an undue waste of ice by
warming the air. All dishes containing food should be wiped dry and
carefully covered before they are placed in the refrigerator, so as to
keep unnecessary moisture out of it. As butter and milk are likely to
become contaminated with odors given off by other foods, they should be
properly protected if there is not a separate compartment in which to
keep them. The milk bottles should always be closed and the butter
carefully wrapped or put in a covered receptacle. Onions, cabbage, and
other foods with strong odors, when placed in the refrigerator, should
be kept in tightly closed jars or dishes, so that the odors will not
escape. Before fresh fruits and perishable vegetables--that is,
vegetables that decay easily--are put into the refrigerator, they should
be carefully looked over and all decayed portions removed from them. No
food should be placed in the ice chamber, because this will cause the
ice to melt unnecessarily.

50. CARE OF THE REFRIGERATOR.--It is essential that all parts of the
refrigerator be kept scrupulously clean and as dry as possible. To
accomplish this, nothing should be allowed to spoil in it, and anything
spilled in the refrigerator should be cleaned out immediately. The foods
that are left over should be carefully inspected every day, and anything
not likely to be used within a day or so should be disposed of. At least
once a week the food should be removed from all compartments, the racks
taken out, the drain pipe disconnected, and each part thoroughly washed,
rinsed with boiling water, and dried. The inside of the refrigerator
should likewise be washed, rinsed, and wiped dry, after which the drain
pipe should be connected, the shelves put back in place, and the
food replaced.

The ice chamber of the refrigerator should also be cleaned frequently,
the best time to do this being when the ice has melted enough to be
lifted out conveniently. To prevent the ice from melting rapidly when it
is out of the refrigerator, it may be wrapped in paper or a piece of old
blanket, but this covering must be removed when the ice is replaced in
the chamber, in order to allow the ice to melt in the refrigerator.
Otherwise, it would be impossible to chill the refrigerator properly,
the temperature remaining the same as that outside, for it is as the ice
gradually melts that the air in the refrigerator becomes cool. Of
course, every effort should be made to keep the ice from wasting.
Therefore, while the refrigerator should be kept in a convenient place,
it should not be exposed to too great heat; also, the doors should be
kept tightly closed, and, as has already been explained, hot foods
should not be put in until they are sufficiently cooled. Attention must
be given to the care of the refrigerator, for only when it is clean and
dry can the growth of bacteria that attack foods be prevented.


51. While a refrigerator simplifies the preserving of cooked foods and
those subject to quick decay, there are many communities in which it is
not possible to procure ice conveniently, thus making it necessary to
adopt some other means of keeping food. Then, too, there are generally
quantities of foods, such as winter vegetables, apples, etc., that
cannot be stored in a refrigerator, but must be taken care of properly.
In such cases, the method of storing depends to a certain extent on
conditions. On many farms there are spring houses in which foods may be
stored in order to keep them cool during very warm weather; but in the
majority of homes, the cellar, on account of its being cool, is utilized
for the storage of large quantities of food and even for keeping the
more perishable foods when ice cannot be obtained.

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

52. STORING FOODS IN CELLARS.--In order that a cellar may furnish a safe
place for keeping food, it must be well built and properly cared for. If
it is dug in wet ground and is not well drained, it will become musty
and damp, and fruits and vegetables stored in it will be attacked by
mold. A small part of the cellar should be without a floor, as many
winter vegetables seem to keep better when placed on dry ground, but the
remainder should have a flooring of either well-matched boards or cement
that can be kept clean and dry. Ventilation must also be supplied;
otherwise, odors will be retained that will taint the food kept in the
cellar. To allow the passage of air and light from the outside and thus
secure proper ventilation, the cellar should be provided with windows.
These will also assist very much in the cleaning and airing of the
cellar, processes that should never be overlooked if good results are
desired. In addition to the cleaning of the cellar, constant attention
should be given to the foods kept there. Foods that have spoiled or are
beginning to spoil should be disposed of quickly, for decayed food that
is not removed from the cellar will affect the conditions for keeping
other foods and may be injurious to the health of the family.

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

53. All foods likely to be contaminated by dust and flies in the cellar
must be carefully covered. A screened frame fastened to the wall with
brackets, like the one shown in Fig. 14, is excellent for this purpose,
because it prevents the attack of vermin and permits of ventilation. If
canned goods are to be stored, a cellar cupboard like that shown in Fig.
15 is a very good place in which to keep them. Separate bins should, if
possible, be provided for fruits, potatoes, and other winter vegetables,
and, as shown in Fig. 16, such bins should be so built as to allow air
to pass through them.

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

54. WINDOW BOXES.--The woman who lives in an apartment where there is no
cellar and who does not wish to keep ice in the refrigerator through
the winter will find a window box a very good device in which to keep
food. Such a box is also a convenience for the woman who has a cellar,
but wishes to save steps. A box of this kind is built to fit a kitchen
or a pantry window, and is placed outside of the window, so that the
opening comes toward the room. Such an arrangement, which is illustrated
in Fig. 17, will make the contents of the box easily accessible when the
window is raised. A box for this purpose may be made of wood or
galvanized iron, and it is usually supported by suitable brackets. Its
capacity may be increased by building a shelf in it half way to the top,
and provided it is made of wood, it can be more easily cleaned if it is
lined with table oilcloth.

[Illustration: Fig. 17]


55. It may seem unnecessary to give much attention to the storing of
foods that do not spoil easily, but there are good reasons why such
foods require careful storage. They should be properly cared for to
prevent the loss of flavor by exposure to the air, to prevent the
absorption of moisture, which produces a favorable opportunity for the
growth of molds, and to prevent the attacks of insects and vermin. The
best way in which to care for such foods is to store them in tightly
closed vessels. Earthenware and glass jars, lard pails, coffee and
cocoa cans, all carefully cleaned and having lids to fit, prove to be
very satisfactory receptacles for such purposes.

56. Unless coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and prepared cereals are bought
in cans or moisture-proof containers, they should be emptied from the
original packages and placed in jars that can be tightly closed, so that
they will not deteriorate by being exposed to the air or moisture. For
convenience and economy, these jars or cans should be labeled. Sugar and
salt absorb moisture and form lumps when exposed to the air, and they,
too, should be properly kept. A tin receptacle is the best kind for
sugar, but for salt an earthenware or glass vessel should be used. It is
not advisable to put these foods or any others into cupboards in paper
bags, because foods kept in this way make disorderly looking shelves and
are easily accessible to vermin, which are always attracted to food
whenever it is not well protected.

Canned goods bought in tin cans do not need very careful storage. It is
sufficient to keep them in a place dry enough to prevent the cans from
rusting. Foods canned in glass, however, should be kept where they are
not exposed to the light, as they will become more or less discolored
unless they are stored in dark places.

Flour, meals, and cereals stored in quantities develop mold unless they
are kept very dry. For the storing of these foods, therefore, wooden
bins or metal-lined boxes kept in a dry place are the most satisfactory.


57. Practically all vegetables and fruits with skins may be regarded as
semiperishable foods, and while they do not spoil so easily as some
foods, they require a certain amount of care. Potatoes are easily kept
from spoiling if they are placed in a cool, dry, dark place, such as a
cellar, a bin like that shown in Fig. 16 furnishing a very good means
for such storage. It is, of course, economical to buy potatoes in large
quantities, but if they must be kept under conditions that will permit
them to sprout, shrivel, rot, or freeze, it is better to buy only a
small quantity at a time. Sweet potatoes may be bought in considerable
quantity and kept for some time if they are wrapped separately in pieces
of paper and packed so that they do not touch one another.

Carrots, turnips, beets, and parsnips can be kept through the winter in
very much the same manner as potatoes. They deteriorate less, however,
if they are covered with earth or sand. Sometimes, especially in country
districts, such winter vegetables are buried in the ground out of doors,
being placed at a depth that renders them safe from the attacks of
frost. Cabbage will keep very well if placed in barrels or boxes, but
for long keeping, the roots should not be removed. Pumpkin and squash
thoroughly matured do not spoil readily if they are stored in a
dry place.

Apples and pears may be stored in boxes or barrels, but very fine
varieties of these fruits should be wrapped separately in paper. All
fruit should be looked over occasionally, and those which show signs of
spoiling should be removed.


58. As practically every woman knows, a MENU, or _bill of fare_,
consists of a certain number of dishes given in the order in which they
are to be served; likewise, she knows that the dishes called for in a
menu must be prepared according to a RECIPE, or _receipt_, which is the
list of ingredients of a mixture giving the exact proportions to be
used, together with proper directions for compounding. In all good
recipes the items are tabulated in the order in which they are needed,
so as to save time and produce good results. Items tabulated in this
manner also serve to minimize the danger of omitting some of the
ingredients of a recipe, for they can be easily checked up when they are
given in the proper order.

59. In preparing recipes, the beginner in cookery usually has difficulty
in judging the size of a recipe. The experienced housewife will not
follow a recipe exactly when she thinks it will produce more food than
she needs to meet the requirements of her family; instead, she will
reduce the quantities to suit her wants. Likewise, if a recipe will not
provide enough, she will increase the quantities accordingly. Just how
to judge whether or not a recipe will make what is wanted comes only
with experience, but the beginner may be guided by the fact that it is
never wise to prepare more than enough of one kind of dish, unless, of
course, it can be used to good advantage as a left-over. On the other
hand, if a recipe is for food that can be kept and used for another meal
later, it often pays to make up more, so as to save time, fuel, and
labor. In any event, it is always advisable to follow explicitly the
directions that are given, for if the recipe is of the right kind they
will be given so that success will result from carrying them out
in detail.

60. In order that the beginner in cookery may form a definite idea of
the manner in which the dishes of a menu, or bill of fare, may be
prepared so that they will be ready to serve in their proper order at
meal time, there is here given a simple dinner menu, together with the
recipes for preparing the dishes called for and the order in which they
should be prepared. While these recipes are not intended to teach
methods of cookery, which are taken up later, the student is advised to
prepare the menu for her own satisfaction and so that she will be able
to report on the success she has had with each dish.


Pan-Broiled Chops
Mashed Potatoes
Creamed Peas
Cabbage Salad
Orange Fluff with Sauce

* * * * *



Buy the necessary number of pork, veal, or lamb chops, and proceed to
cook them according to the directions previously given for pan broiling.
Season with salt and pepper just before removing the chops from the pan.


Peel the desired number of potatoes, put to cook in a sufficient amount
of boiling salted water to cover well, and cook until the potatoes are
tender enough to be easily pierced with a fork. Remove from the fire and
drain off the water. Mash the potatoes with a wooden or a wire potato
masher, being careful to reduce all the particles to a pulpy mass in
order to prevent lumps, or put them through a ricer. When sufficiently
mashed, season with additional salt, a dash of pepper, and a small piece
of butter, and add hot milk until they are thinned to a mushy
consistency, but not too soft to stand up well when dropped from a
spoon. Then beat the potatoes vigorously with a large spoon until they
are light and fluffy.


Boil until they are soft, two cupfuls of fresh peas in 1 quart of water
to which have been added 1 tablespoonful of salt and 2 of sugar, and
then drain; or, use 1 can of peas, heat them to the boiling point in
their liquid, and then drain. A part of the water in which the fresh
peas were cooked or the liquid on the canned peas may be used with an
equal amount of milk to make a sauce for the peas, or all milk may
be used.


1 c. of milk, or 1/2 c. liquid from peas and 1/2 c. milk
1 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1 Tb. flour

Melt the butter in a saucepan or a double boiler, work in the flour and
salt until a smooth paste is formed, and add the liquid that has been
heated. Stir until thick and smooth. Add to the peas, reheat, and serve.


1/2 medium-sized head of cabbage
1/2 tsp. salt
1 small red or green sweet pepper
Dash of pepper
1 small onion
Salad dressing

Shred the cabbage finely by cutting across the leaves with a sharp knife
or a cabbage shredder. Chop the pepper and onion into very small pieces
and add to the cabbage. Mix well and add the salt and pepper.


3/4 c. vinegar
1/2 tsp. mustard, if desired
1/4 c. water
1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
3 Tb. sugar
1 Tb. flour

Heat the water and the vinegar; melt the butter in a saucepan, add to it
the flour, mustard, salt, and sugar, stir until well blended, and then
pour in the hot liquid. Cook for a few minutes, stirring constantly to
prevent the formation of lumps. Pour over the cabbage while hot; allow
it to cool and then serve on plates garnished with lettuce.


1/2 c. sugar
1/4 c. orange juice
5 Tb. corn starch
1 Tb. lemon juice
Pinch of salt
2 egg whites
1 pt. boiling water

Mix the corn starch and sugar and salt, stir into the boiling water, and
cook directly over the fire until the mixture thickens. Continue to
cook, stirring constantly for 10 minutes, or place in a double boiler
and cook 1/2 hour. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff.

When the corn starch is cooked, remove from the fire and mix thoroughly
with the fruit juices. Pour over the beaten egg whites and stir slightly
until the eggs and corn starch are mixed. Pour into sherbet glasses or
molds wet with cold water and set aside until ready to serve.


1 Tb. corn starch
3/4 c. boiling water
2 Tb. butter
3/4 c. sugar
2 egg yolks
1/4 c. orange juice
1 Tb. lemon juice

Moisten the corn starch with a little cold water and stir in 1/2 cupful
of the boiling water. Cook for 10 or 15 minutes. Cream the butter, add
the sugar and egg yolks, beat the mixture with a fork, and add the
remaining 1/4 cupful of boiling water. Stir this into the corn starch
and cook until the eggs thicken slightly. Remove from the fire and add
the orange and lemon juices. Serve cold over the orange fluff.

61. In the preparation of a meal, it is impossible to follow the order
of service given in a menu, because of the different lengths of time
required to prepare the different dishes. The order in which the menu
here given should be prepared will therefore serve to show the way in
which other meals may be planned or other menus carried out. Each recipe
for this menu is planned to serve six persons, but it can be easily
changed in case a different number are to be served. For instance, if
there are only four in the family, two-thirds of each ingredient should
be used; and if only three, just one-half of each. If eight are to be
served, one-third will have to be added to each of the amounts. As has
been pointed out, just a little thought will show how other numbers may
be provided for.

62. In preparing the foods called for in this menu, the dessert, which
is the last thing given, should be prepared first, because time must be
allowed for it to cool before serving. In fact, it may be prepared a
half day before it is to be served. So as to allow sufficient time to
mash the potatoes after they have boiled, they should be made ready to
put on the stove about 3/4 hour before the meal is to be served. After
the potatoes have been put on to boil, the peas, provided fresh ones are
to be used, should be put on to cook, and then the sauce for them should
be made. If canned peas are to be used, the sauce should be made after
the potatoes have been put on the stove and the peas should be heated
and combined with the sauce just before broiling the chops. The cabbage
salad may then be prepared, and put in a cool place until it is to be
served. The chops should be broiled last, because it is necessary that
they be served immediately upon being taken from the fire.


63. It is important that every person who is engaged in the preparation
of food be thoroughly familiar with the various terms that are used in
cookery. Many of these are not understood by the average person, because
they are foreign terms or words that are seldom employed in other
occupations. However, as they occur frequently in recipes, cook books,
menus, etc., familiarity with them will enable one to follow recipes and
to make up menus in a more intelligent manner.

In view of these facts, a table of terms that are made use of in cookery
is here given, together with definitions of the words and, wherever it
has been deemed necessary, with as accurate pronunciations as can be
obtained. The terms are given in bold-faced type, and for easy reference
are arranged alphabetically. It is recommended that constant use be made
of this table, for much of the success achieved in cookery depends on a
clear understanding of the words and expressions that are peculiar to
this science.

À la; au; aux (ah lah; o; o).--With; dressed in a certain style; as,
smelts à la tartare, which means smelts with tartare sauce.

Au gratin (o gra-tang).--Literally, dressed with brown crumbs. In actual
practice, also flavored with grated cheese.

Au naturel (o nat-ü-rayl).--A term applied to uncooked vegetables, to
indicate that they are served in their natural state without sauce or
dressing applied. Potatoes au naturel are served cooked; but unpeeled.

Béchamel (bay-sham-ayl).--A sauce made with white stock and cream or
milk-named from a celebrated cook.

Biscuit Glacé (bis-kü-ee glah-say).--Ice cream served in glacéd shells,
sometimes in paper cases.

Bisque.--A thick soup usually made from shellfish or game; also, an ice
cream to which finely chopped macaroons have been added.

Bouchées (boosh-ay).--Small patties; literally, a mouthful.

Boudin (boo-dang).--A delicate side dish prepared with forcemeat.

Bouquet of Herbs.--A bouquet consisting of a sprig of parsley, thyme,
and sweet marjoram, a bay leaf, and perhaps a stalk of celery, tied
firmly together and used as flavoring in a soup or stew. Arranged in
this way, the herbs are more easily removed when cooked.

Café au Lait (ka-fay o lay).--Coffee with milk.

Café Noir (ka-fay nooar).--Black coffee.

Canapés (kan-ap-ay).--Small slices of bread toasted or sautéd in butter
and spread with a savory paste of meats, fish, or vegetables. They are
served either hot or cold as an appetizer or as a first course for lunch
or dinner.

Canard (kan-ar).--Duck.

Capers.--Small pickled buds of a European shrub, used in sauces and in

Capon.--A male fowl castrated for the purpose of improving the quality
of the flesh.

Caramel.--A sirup of browned sugar.

Casserole.--A covered earthenware dish in which foods are cooked.

Champignons (shang-pe-nyong).--The French name for mushrooms.

Chartreuse (shar-truhz).--A preparation of game, meat, fish, etc.,
molded in jelly and surrounded by vegetables. The name was given to the
dish by the monks of the monastery of Chartreuse.

Chiffonade (shif-fong-ad).--Salad herbs finely shredded and then sautéd
or used in salads.

Chillies.--Small red peppers used in seasoning.

Chives.--An herb allied to the onion family.

Chutney.--An East Indian sweet pickle.

Citron.--The rind of a fruit of the lemon species preserved in sugar.

Collops.--Meat cut in small pieces.

Compote.--Fruit stewed in sirup.

Coquilles (ko-ke-yuh).--Scallop shells in which fish or oysters are
sometimes served.

Créole, à la (kray-ol, ah lah).--With tomatoes.

Croustade (kroos-tad).--A thick piece of bread that has been hollowed
out and then toasted or fried crisp. The depression is filled with food.

Croutons (kroo-tong).--Bread diced and fried or toasted to serve with
or in soup.

Curry.--An East Indian preparation made of hot seeds, spices, and dried

Demi-Tasse (duh-mee tass).--Literally, a half cup. As commonly used, it
refers to a small cup in which after-dinner coffee is served.

Deviled.--Highly seasoned.

Dill.--A plant used for flavoring pickles.

En coquille (ang ko-ke-yuh).--Served in shells.

Entrées (ang-tray).--Small made dishes served with lunch or dinner. They
are sometimes served as a course between the main courses of a meal.

Escarole (ays-kar-ol).--A broad-leaved kind of endive.

Farce or Forcemeat.--A mixture of meat, bread, etc., used as stuffing.

Fillets (fe-lay).--Long, thin pieces of meat or fish generally rolled
and tied.

Fillet Mignons (fe-lay me-nyong).--Small slices from fillet of beef,
served with steak.

Fondant.--Sugar boiled with water and stirred to a heavy paste. It is
used for the icing of cake or the making of French candies.

Fondue.--A dish made usually with melted or grated cheese. There are
several varieties of this preparation.

Frappé (frap-pay).--Semifrozen.

Fromage (fro-magh).--Cheese.

Glacé (glah-say).-Covered with icing; literally, a shining surface.

Glaze.--The juices of meat cooked down to a concentration and used as a
foundation for soups and gravies.

Goulash (gool-ash).--A Hungarian beef stew, highly seasoned.

Gumbo.--A dish of food made of young capsules of okra, seasoned with
salt and pepper, stewed and then served with melted butter.

Haricot (har-e-ko).--A small bean; a bit; also, a stew in which the meat
and vegetables are finely divided.

Homard (ho-mar).--Lobster.

Hors d'oeuvres (or-d'uhvr').--Relishes.

Italiene, à la (e-tal-yang, ah lah).--In Italian style.

Jardinière (zhar-de-nyayr).--A mixed preparation of vegetables stewed in
their own sauce; also, a garnish of various vegetables.

Julienne (zhü-lyayn).--A clear soup with shredded vegetables.

Junket.--Milk jellied by means of rennet.

Kippered.--Dried or smoked.

Larding.--The insertion of strips of fat pork into lean meat. The fat is
inserted before cooking.

Lardon.--A piece of salt pork or bacon used in larding.

Legumes.--The vegetables belonging to the bean family; namely, beans,
peas, and lentils.

Lentils.--A variety of the class of vegetables called legumes.

Macédoine (mah-say-dooan).--A mixture of green vegetables.

Marinade (mar-e-nad).--A pickle used for seasoning meat or fish before

Marinate.--To pickle in vinegar or French dressing, as meat or fish is

Marrons (ma-rong).--Chestnuts.

Menu.--A bill of fare.

Meringue (muh-rang).--A kind of icing made of white of egg and sugar
well beaten.

Mousse (moos).--Ice cream made with whipped cream and beaten egg and
frozen without turning.

Nougat (noo-gah).--A mixture of almonds and sugar.

Paprika.--Hungarian sweet pepper ground fine and used as a seasoning. It
is less stinging than red or Cayenne pepper.

Pâté (pa-tay).--A little pie; a pastry or patty.

Pimiento.--Sweet red peppers used as a vegetable, a salad, or a relish.

Pistachio (pis-ta-shioh).--A pale greenish nut resembling an almond.

Potage (pot-azh).--Soup.

Purée (pü-ray).-A thick soup containing cooked vegetables that have
been rubbed through a sieve.

Ragoût (ra-goo).--A stew made of meat or meat and vegetables and served
with a sauce.

Ramekin.--A preparation of cheese and puff paste or toast, which is
baked or browned. This word is sometimes used to designate the dish in
which such a mixture is cooked.

Réchauffé (ray-sho-fay).--A warmed-over dish.

Rissoles.--Small shapes of puff paste filled with some mixture and fried
or baked. It also refers to balls of minced meat, egged, crumbed, and
fried until crisp.

Roux (roo).--Thickening made with butter and flour.

Salmi (sal-mee).--A stew or hash of game.

Salpicon (sal-pee-kong).--Minced poultry, ham, or other meats mixed with
a thick sauce.

Sauce Piquante (sos-pe-kangt).--An acid sauce.

Shallot.--A variety of onion.

Sorbet (sor-bay).--A sherbet, frozen punch, or water ice; the same as

Soufflé (soo-flay).--Literally, puffed up. As generally understood, it
is a spongy mixture made light with eggs and baked, the foundation of
which may be meat, fish, cheese, vegetables, or fruit.

Soy.--A Japanese sauce prepared from the seed of the soy bean. It has an
agreeable flavor and a clear brown color and is used to color soups
and sauces.

Stock.--The foundation for soup made by cooking meat, bones, and

Sultanas.--White or yellow seedless grapes, grown in Corinth.

Tarragon (tar-ra-gonk).--An herb used in seasoning certain dressing and
sauces; it is also employed in flavoring tarragon vinegar.

Tartare Sauce (tar-tar sos).--A mayonnaise dressing to which have been
added chopped pickle, capers, and parsley in order to make a tart
sauce for fish.

Timbale.--A pie raised in a mold; also, a shell filled with forcemeat or

Truffles.--A species of fungi growing in clusters some inches below the
soil, and having an agreeable perfume, which is easily scented by pigs,
who are fond of them, and by dogs trained to find them. They are found
abundantly in France, but are not subject to cultivation. They are used
chiefly for seasoning and garnishing.

Vanilla.--The bean of the tropical orchid or the extract obtained from
this fruit. Used in flavoring desserts, etc.

Vinaigrette Sauce (ve-nay-grayt sos).--A sauce made with oil and
vinegar, to which are added finely minced chives, peppers, or other
highly flavored green vegetables and spices.

Vol au Vent (vol o vang).--A crust of light puff paste. Also, a large
pâté or form of pastry filled with a savory preparation of oysters,
fish, or meat and a cream sauce.

Zwieback (tsouee-bak).--Bread toasted twice.

* * * * *



(1) What points must be kept in mind in the selection of cooking

(2) Mention three materials used for cooking utensils and explain their

(3) (_a_) What is a labor-saving device? (_b_) Describe one of the
labor-saving devices mentioned in the text and tell why it saves labor.

(4) What kind of utensil should be used for: (_a_) the rapid boiling of
spaghetti; (_b_) the slow cooking of cereals?

(5) Tell how the following are prepared for cooking: (_a_) vegetables;
(_b_) meats; (_c_) fish.

(6) Describe: (_a_) sifting; (_b_) stirring; (_c_) beating; (_d_)
creaming; (_e_) folding.

(7) Why is it necessary to measure foods accurately in cooking?

(8) Describe the measuring of: (_a_) cupful of flour; (_b_) one-half
teaspoonful of butter; (_c_) 1 teaspoonful of baking powder.

(9) (_a_) Why should a systematic plan be outlined before beginning to
carry out a recipe? (_b_) Give briefly the order of work that should
be followed.

(10) What factors influence the length of time required to cook foods?

(11) Tell why foods spoil.

(12) (_a_) Mention the usual methods by which food is kept from spoiling.
(_b_) What is meant by the term preservative?

(13) (_a_) What is the aim in canning foods? (_b_) On what principle does
success in drying foods depend?

(14) Explain the construction of a refrigerator and the principle on
which it is based.

(15) Describe the placing of the following articles in the refrigerator
and tell which should be covered and why: (_a_) milk; (_b_) butter; (_c_)
cooked fish; (_d_) cooked tomatoes; (_e_) melons; (f) cheese.

(16) Explain how a refrigerator should be cared for.

(17) Name the ways in which foods may be kept from spoiling without

(18) How should a cellar in which foods is to be stored be built and
cared for?

(19) (_a_) Why is it necessary to store non-perishable foods? (_b_) Tell
the best ways in which to preserve such foods.

(20) (_a_) What is a menu? (_b_) Explain the meaning of the term recipe. (_c_) In what order should the recipes of a menu be prepared?

* * * * *


After trying out the menu in the manner explained in the text, send with
your answers to the Examination Questions a report of your success. In
making out your report, simply write the name of the food and describe
its condition by means of the terms specified in the following list.
Thus, if the chops were tender and well done, write, "Pan-broiled chops,
tender, well done"; if the potatoes were sufficiently cooked and creamy,
write "Mashed potatoes, sufficiently cooked, creamy"; and so on.

Pan-Broiled Chops: tough? tender? underdone? overdone?

Mashed Potatoes: sufficiently cooked? creamy? lumpy? too soft?

Creamed Peas: tender? tough? properly seasoned? improperly seasoned?

Sauce for Peas: smooth? lumpy? thin? of correct thickness? too thick?

Cabbage Salad: properly seasoned? improperly seasoned? crisp?

Orange Fluff: stiff enough? too soft? flavor agreeable? flavor

Sauce for Orange Fluff: smooth? lumpy?

* * * * *


* * * * *



1. ORIGIN OF CEREALS.--_Cereals,_ which is the term applied to the
edible seeds of certain grains, originated with the civilization of man.
When man lived in a savage state, he wandered about from place to place
and depended for his food on hunting and fishing; but as he ceased his
roaming and began to settle in regions that he found attractive, it was
not long before he became aware of the possibilities of the ground about
him and realized the advantage of tilling the soil as a means of
procuring food. Indeed, the cultivation of the soil for the production
of food may be considered as one of the first steps in his civilization.
Among the foods he cultivated were grains, and from the earliest times
to the present day they have been the main crop and have formed the
chief food of people wherever it is possible to produce them.

The grains belong to the family of grasses, and through cultivation
their seeds, which store the nourishment for the growth of new plants,
have been made to store a sufficient amount of nourishment to permit man
to collect and use it as food. The name cereals was derived from the
goddess Ceres, whom the Romans believed to be the protector of their
crops and harvests. Numerous grains are produced, but only eight of
these cereals are used extensively as food, namely, wheat, corn, oats,
rice, barley, rye, buckwheat, and millet.

2. ABUNDANCE OF PRODUCTION.--With the exception of the desert lands and
the Arctic regions, cereals of some kind are grown over the entire
world. Some varieties thrive in the hot countries, others flourish in
the temperate regions, and still others mature and ripen in the short
warm season of the colder northern climates. In fact, there is
practically no kind of soil that will not produce a crop of some variety
of grain. Since grains are so easily grown and are so plentiful, cereals
and foods made from them furnish a large part of the world's food
supply. Indeed, about one-fourth of all the food eaten by the
inhabitants of the world, when it is considered as a whole, is made up
of cereals.

3. ECONOMIC VALUE OF CEREALS.--The abundance of the world's grain supply
makes the cost so moderate that many of the poorer classes of people in
various countries, especially those in the Far East, live almost
entirely on cereals. Still there is another factor that controls the low
cost of cereals and grains and keeps them within the means of all
classes of people, and that is their excellent keeping quality. They
require very little care and will keep for an indefinite period of time.
Because of their unperishable nature, they may be stored in large
quantities and distributed to consumers as they are needed and at a
price that is fairly uniform.

Since the cost of cereals is moderate, they should form a large
proportion of the diet of the entire family, especially if the family's
income will allow only a limited sum to be spent for food. Some cereals,
of course, are much cheaper than others, and in purchasing this kind of
food the housewife should be governed accordingly. Those which require
an elaborate manufacturing process in their preparation for the market
are the most expensive, but they have an advantage in that they require
practically no preparation before serving. For the varieties that must
be cooked, the cost of preparing the dish, especially if the price of
fuel is high, must be taken into consideration, for unless some thought
is given to the economical use of the fuel, as well as to the method of
cooking employed, the cost of the prepared dish may be greatly
increased. However, in the preparation of cereals, very little skill or
energy is required and a general knowledge of the best methods for one
of them can, as a rule, be applied to all.

4. CEREAL PRODUCTS.--Besides the cereals already mentioned, a number of
products of cereals are extensively used in cookery, chief among them
being flour, corn starch, and other starches. Although every housewife
should possess knowledge of the uses of each of these, instruction in
them is not given until later. This Section includes particularly the
study of grains--whole, cracked, flaked, and those made into grits or
meal--and the use and the serving of them, as well as ready-to-eat
cereals, which are commonly referred to as _breakfast foods._ The only
additional foods to which attention is given at this time are macaroni,
spaghetti, and foods of a similar nature, for as these are made from
wheat they are truly cereal products. In their preparation for the
table, the rules that govern the other cereal foods apply also in a
large measure to them.


5. The composition of all cereals is similar, yet each one has its
distinguishing feature. While all the five food substances--water,
mineral matter, protein, fat, and carbohydrate--are to be found in
cereals, they occur in different quantities in the various kinds. Some
contain large quantities of protein and others practically none, and
while certain ones have considerable fat others possess comparatively
small quantities. A characteristic of all cereals, however, is that they
contain a large amount of carbohydrate and a small amount of water. It
is well to remember, though, that while the food substances of cereals
are found in sufficient quantities to sustain life, they will not permit
a person to live for long periods of time exclusively on this form of
food. Likewise, it will be well to observe that the foods made from a
certain grain will be quite similar in composition to the grain itself;
that is, any change in the composition of the foods must be brought
about by the addition of other substances.

6. All grains are similar in general structure, too. The largest
proportion of carbohydrate lies in the center, this substance growing
less toward the outside of the grain. The protein lies near the outside,
and grows less toward the center. Fat is found in small amounts
scattered through the entire grain, but most of it is found in the
_germ,_ which is a tiny portion of the grain from which the new plant
sprouts. The mineral matter of cereals is found chiefly just inside the
bran, or outer covering, so that when this covering is removed, as in
the process of preparation for food, a certain amount of mineral matter
is generally lost.

7. PROTEIN IN CEREALS.--The cereals are essentially a carbohydrate food,
but some also yield a large proportion of protein. In this respect they
differ from the animal foods that produce the principal supply of
protein for the diet, for these, with the exception of milk, do not
yield carbohydrates. The grain that contains the most protein is wheat,
and in the form in which protein occurs in this cereal it is called
_gluten,_ a substance that is responsible for the hardness of wheat. The
gluten, when the wheat is mixed with water or some other liquid, becomes
gummy and elastic, a fact that accounts for the rubbery consistency of
bread dough. Cereals that contain no gluten do not make bread
successfully. Next to wheat, rye contains protein in the greatest
amount, and rice contains the least. Although protein is the most
expensive of the food substances, the kind of protein found in cereals
is one of the cheaper varieties.

8. FAT IN CEREALS.--The fat of cereals helps to contribute to their
heat-and energy-producing qualities, and, besides, it is one of the
cheaper sources of this food substance. Of the eight grains, or cereals,
used as food, oats and corn contain the most fat, or heat-producing
material. The oil of corn, because of its lack of flavor, is frequently
used in the manufacture of salad oil, cooking oil, and pastry fat. The
fat that occurs in cereals becomes rancid if they are not carefully
stored. In the making of white flour, the germ of the wheat is removed,
and since most of the fat is taken out with the germ, white flour keeps
much better than graham flour, from which the germ is not abstracted in
the milling process.

9. CARBOHYDRATE IN CEREALS.--The food substance found in the greatest
proportion in cereals is carbohydrate in the form of starch. Cereals
contain many times more starch than any of the other food substances,
rice, which is fully three-fourths starch, containing the most, and
oats, which are less than one-half starch, the least. Starch is
distributed throughout the grain in tiny granules visible only under the
microscope, each being surrounded by a covering of material that is
almost indigestible. In the various grains, these tiny granules differ
from one another in appearance, but not to any great extent in general
structure, nutritive value, or digestibility, provided they are cooked
thoroughly. The large amount of carbohydrate, or starch, in cereals
explains why they are not hard to digest, for, as is well known, starch
is more easily digested than either protein or fat. This and the fact
that some grains contain also a large amount of fat account for the high
energy-producing quality of cereals. While it is safe to say that
cereals are chiefly valuable for their starch, the tissue-building
material in some grains, although in small proportion, is in sufficient
quantity to place them with the protein foods.

10. MINERAL MATTER IN CEREALS.--Cereals contain seven or eight of the
minerals required in the diet. Such a variety of minerals is sure to be
valuable to the human body, as it is about one-half of the whole number
required by the body for its maintenance. Since, as has already been
explained, much of the mineral matter lies directly under the coarse
outside covering, some of it is lost when this covering is removed. For
this reason, the grains that remain whole and the cereal products that
contain the entire grain are much more valuable from the standpoint of
minerals than those in which the bran covering is not retained. If a
sufficient percentage of minerals is secured in the diet from
vegetables, fruits, and milk, it is perhaps unnecessary to include whole
cereals; but if the diet is at all limited, it is advisable to select
those cereals which retain the original composition of the grain.

11. WATER IN CEREALS.--Cereals contain very little water in their
composition. This absence of water is a distinct advantage, for it makes
their nutritive value proportionately high and improves their keeping
quality. Just as the strength of a beverage is lowered by the addition
of water, so the nutritive value of foods decreases when they contain a
large amount of water. On the other hand, the keeping quality of cereals
could scarcely be improved, since the germs that cause foods to spoil
grow only in the presence of water. This low proportion of water also
permits them to be stored compactly, whereas if water occurred in large
amounts it would add materially to their bulk.

12. CELLULOSE IN CEREALS.--In addition to the five food substances that
are found in all cereals, there is always present another material known
as cellulose, which, as is pointed out elsewhere, is an indigestible
material that occurs on the outside of all grains, as the bran covering,
and covers the starch granules throughout the inside of the grain. In
fact, it forms a sort of skeleton upon which the grains are built. As
long as the cellulose remains unbroken, it prevents the grain from being
digested to any extent. However, it forms a valuable protective covering
for the grain and it has a certain value, as bulk, in the diet, a fact
that is ignored by some persons and overrated by others. It is well to
include at least some cellulose in cereal foods when they are taken in
the diet, because its presence tends to make food less concentrated.

13. TABLE SHOWING COMPOSITION OF CEREALS.--Not all grains, or cereals,
contain the same amount of food substances and cellulose; that is, while
one may be high in protein it may be lacking in some other food
substance. The relation that the various grains bear to one another with
regard to the food substances and cellulose is clearly set forth in
Table I. In this table, under the various food substances and cellulose,
the grains, with the exception of millet, are mentioned in the order of
their value, ranging from the highest down to the lowest in each of the
food substances and cellulose. Thus, as will be seen, wheat is highest
in protein and rice is lowest, oats are highest in fat and rye is
lowest, and so on. Also, as will be observed, while wheat is highest in
protein, it is, as compared with the other cereals, sixth in fat, fourth
in carbohydrate, fourth in cellulose, and fifth in mineral matter. In
this way may be compared all the other cereals to see in just what way
they are of value as a food.



Protein Fat Carbohydrate Cellulose Mineral Matter
or Ash

Wheat Oats Rice Oats Oats

Rye Corn Rye Buckwheat Barley

Oats Barley Corn Barley Buckwheat

Barley Buckwheat Wheat Wheat Rye

Corn Rice Barley Rye Wheat

Buckwheat Wheat Buckwheat Corn Corn

Rice Rye Oats Rice Rice

* * * * *



14. Cereals and cereal products play a very important part in the food
problem, for the prosperity of a country depends on its grain crops and
the people of all classes are dependent on them for food. This is
evident when it is known that they form a greater proportion of the food
consumed than any other single food material. In their widespread
consumption, they have many and varied uses. In truth, a meal is seldom
served without some cereal food, for if no other is used, bread of some
description is almost always included. Besides bread, a cooked or a dry
cereal is usually served for breakfast, and for some persons this
constitutes the main breakfast dish, providing a nourishing and easily
digested food when served with milk or cream. This food is especially
desirable for children, and for this reason is always among the first
solid foods fed to them.

15. While to most persons the word cereal suggests the idea of a
breakfast food, because cereals are used most often for that purpose,
they find their place in other meals than breakfast. Although they are
used less often on the dinner table than elsewhere, they frequently have
an important place there, for a number of them are commonly used as
dinner dishes and others might be used more frequently, and to
advantage, too. In this connection, they are used in soups, and in
certain forms, usually the whole or slightly crushed grain, they take
the place of a vegetable. Some of them, particularly rice, are often
used with meat or cheese in making an entree or in combination with
eggs, milk, fruit, or various flavorings as a dessert to be served with
a heavy or a light meal. Cold cooked cereal is often sliced and sautéd
and then served with meat or some other heavy protein dish. Cereals are
also used for lunch or supper, perhaps more often than for dinner, and
because of their easy digestion they are to be recommended for the
evening meal for all members of the family, but especially for children.
When used in this way, they may be served with cream, as for breakfast,
or prepared in any other suitable way. Whenever cereals are served,
whether alone or in combination with other foods, the result is an
economical dish and usually an easily digested one, unless, of course,
the food with which they are combined is expensive or indigestible. But,
to whatever use cereals are put, unless they are thoroughly cooked they
are not easily digested and they lose much of their value. In fact, the
ready-to-eat cereals, which have been thoroughly cooked, are preferable
to those which are poorly cooked in the home.


16. Preparation of Grains for the Market.--So that the housewife may go
about the selection of cereals in an intelligent manner, it may be well
for her to know how they are prepared for market. After the grains are
harvested, the first step in their preparation consists in thrashing,
which removes the husks from the outside. In some countries, thrashing
is done entirely by hand, but usually it is accomplished by machinery of
a simple or a more elaborate kind. Occasionally no further treatment is
applied, the whole grains being used as food, but generally they receive
further preparation. Sometimes they are crushed coarsely with or without
the bran covering, and in this form they are known as _grits._ At other
times they are ground finer and called _meal,_ and still finer and
called _flour,_ being used mostly in these two forms for the making of
various kinds of breads. Then, again, grains are rolled and crushed, as,
for example, _cracked wheat_ and _rolled oats._

Various elaborate means have been devised by which cereals are prepared
in unusual ways for the purpose of varying the diet. Sometimes they are
used alone, but often certain other materials are used in their
preparation for the market. For example, the popular flake cereals, such
as corn flakes, are cooked with salt and sometimes with sugar and then
rolled thin. Some of the cereals are thoroughly cooked, while others are
malted and toasted, but the treatment to which they are subjected is
generally given to them to improve their flavor and to aid in the work
of digestion.

17. FACTORS THAT GOVERN CEREAL SELECTION.--Besides knowing about the
ways in which cereals are prepared for market, the housewife should be
familiar with the factors that govern their selection for use as food.
In the first place, cereals should be chosen to suit the needs and
tastes of the members of the family, and then attention should be given
to the forms in which they can be purchased. Some cereals are sold in
sealed packages, while others can be bought in bulk. Each, however, has
its advantages. Those sold loose are often lower in price than those
sold in package form, but there is a question as to whether, with the
chances for incorrect weight, the bulk foods are really much cheaper.
Cleanliness is, of course, of greater importance with cereals that do
not require cooking than with those which are subjected to high
temperatures in order to prepare them for the table. Therefore, from the
standpoint of cleanliness, there is no advantage in purchasing rice and
similar raw cereals in packages.

18. The next thing to consider in the purchase of cereals is their cost.
They vary considerably in price, but it has been determined that in
food value there is little difference, pound for pound, between the
cheap and the expensive cereals, the variation in price being due to
their abundance or scarcity and the method used in preparing them for
market. The entirely uncooked ones are the cheapest, the partly cooked
ones are medium in price, and the thoroughly cooked ones are the most
expensive. This difference, however, is practically made up by the
expense of the fuel required to prepare them for the table, the cheapest
cereal requiring the most fuel and the most expensive, the least.

Besides varying in price, the different kinds of cereals offer the
housewife an opportunity to select the one that is most convenient for
her. Those which are ready to serve are the best for the meal to which
the least possible amount of time can be given for preparation. The
other kinds require cooking, of course, but this need not be a
hindrance, for they can be prepared on one day and reheated for
breakfast the following day, or they can be cooked overnight by the
fireless-cooker method. In the case of such cereals, long cooking is
usually necessary for good flavor and easy digestion; consequently, the
cooking method that will accomplish the desired result with the least
expenditure of fuel is the most economical one and the one to select.

19. TABLE OF GRAIN PRODUCTS.--As a further aid in coming to an
understanding of cereals, or grains, and their value, there are given in
Table II the various uses to which grains are put and the forms in which
they occur as food. In this table, as will be observed, the form of the
grain product is mentioned first and then the grain from which it is
made. A careful study of this table will be profitable to the housewife.

20. CARE OF CEREALS.--As carriers of disease, cereals are a less
dangerous food than any other. This characteristic of cereals is due to
the fact that the cooking all of them require in some part of their
preparation destroys any disease germs that might be present. They are
not likely to be adulterated with harmful material, either; and, in
addition, the sealed packages in which many of the cereals are put up
keep them clean and free from contamination. However, care must be given
to both the uncooked and the factory-prepared varieties of this food.
The packages containing ready-to-eat cereals should not be allowed to
remain open for any length of time if it is desired to keep them fresh
and crisp, for they absorb moisture from the air very quickly. If they
do become moist, however, drying in the oven will in most cases restore
their freshness. If it is necessary to open a single package of prepared
cereal and all of the contents cannot be utilized at once, as, for
instance, when only one or two persons are to be served with that
particular cereal, the best plan is to empty the remainder into cans or
jars that are provided with covers. Uncooked cereals, which are used
less quickly than the prepared kinds, are often attacked by mice and
other vermin, but such an occurrence can be prevented if the cereal is
poured into jars or cans that can be kept tightly closed. Considerable
care must be given to flour and cereal products purchased in large
quantities, for if they are allowed to collect enough moisture, they
will become moldy and lose their flavor, and thus be unfit for use. To
preserve them well, they should be kept in metal-lined bins or in bins
made of carefully matched boards and in a cool, but not damp, place.



/ Pearl barley
| Hulled wheat
/ Whole Grains {Hominy: Corn
| | Corn
| \ Rice
| / Farina: Wheat or corn
| | Cream of Wheat: Wheat
| Crushed Grains {Cracked Wheat: Wheat
| | Hominy Grits: Corn
| | Wheat Grits: Wheat
| \ Samp: Corn
Cereals {
| / Corn
| Meal {Barley
| | Rice
| \ Oats
| / Flaked: Rye, wheat, rice, corn
\ Prepared Cereals {Shredded Grain: Wheat
| Malted Grain: Rye, barley, wheat, and corn
\ Puffed Grain: Corn, rice, wheat

/ Corn
Starch {Rice
\ Wheat

/ Macaroni
Wheat {Vermicelli
\ Spaghetti

Glucose} Usually corn
Sirup /

/ Wheat
Cereal Coffee {Rye
\ Barley

/ Wheat
| Rye
Flour {Corn
| Buckwheat
\ Rice

Liquors \
Malted Drinks} All grains
Beer |
Whisky /

Alcohol: All grains

Feed for animals: All grains

* * * * *



21. PURPOSE OF COOKING.--As the so-called ready-to-eat cereals require
practically no further preparation, attention is here given to only
those cereals which need additional treatment to prepare them properly
for the table. Raw grains cannot be taken into the body, for they are
neither appetizing nor digestible. The treatment to which they must be
subjected is cooking, for the structure of grains is such that cooking
is the only means by which the coverings of the starch granules can be
softened and broken to make them digestible. But this is not the only
effect produced by cooking; besides making raw cereals digestible,
cooking renders them palatable, destroys any bacteria or parasites that
might be present, and, by means of its various methods, provides a
variety of dishes that would otherwise be very much limited.

22. CHANGES THAT CEREALS UNDERGO IN COOKING.--In the process of cooking,
cereals undergo a marked change, which can readily be determined by
performing a simple experiment. Place an equal amount of flour or corn
starch--both cereal products--in two different glasses; mix that in one
glass with cold water and that in the other with boiling water. The
mixture in which cold water is used will settle in a short time, but if
the substance that goes to the bottom is collected and dried it will be
found to be exactly the same as it was originally. The mixture in which
boiling water is used, however, will not only become a sticky mass, but


Back to Full Books